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Moment – Curvature

Bonded Tendons Moment-Curvature Analysis

Analysis that follows behavior of a bonded prestressed concrete beam thru the total load range Initial Loading Failure

Curvature is the slope of the strain distribution line Φ = c / x Assumptions

1. Tendons are bonded to concrete: changes in strain in the steel & concrete after bonding are assumed to be the same

2. Initial strain due to effective prestress in the tendons (No moment from applied loads):

In concrete at level of steel ce In the tendon se (strain in steel after prestess losses)  b d P

A P c
Φ
se
ce c
x
Φ
se
ce
s

(a) Strain Distribution at Zero Moment

(a) Strain Distribution After Moment is Applied Assumptions (Cont’d)

3. Stress strain curves of concrete and steel are known

4. Linear strains though the depth of the beam

5. Tension and compression forces in the section are in equilibrium

6. Ultimate moment corresponds to strain in concrete that causes crushing or steel strain that causes fracture of the tendon

7. Failure in flexure (Adequate shear and bond strength) Stress-Strain Properties of Materials  2
◊ 
2 ◊
= f
c
ck
  
c
2
c
2
 
2%
for
f
<
50
MPa
2 =
c
ck
=
2
+
( f
0.53 for
0.085
50
)
f
50
c
2
ck
ck
◊ x 
C
=
b
◊ f
◊ x
2 ◊ 
1
c
ck
3 ◊
2
 
c
c 2
 8
3
◊ x 
c
2
x =
x
◊  
12
4
◊ x
c
 
2

MPa  f se
se

T = A

P

f

se Analysis Procedure

Two Stages

1 st Stage: Beam is elastic and uncracked 2 nd Stage: Beam is cracked inelastic analysis based on material response

Point to point check for a series of assumed values for top fiber strain 2 nd Stage Procedure

Assume top fiber strain Assume depth of neutral axis: x Compute internal forces: C, T Check if C = T

If not revise x and iterate until C = T

Once final x is calculated compute Φ and M Assume another top fiber strain and repeat the whole procedure Example 1

Normal weight concrete fck = 48MPa, 915 x 458 mm A P = 1777 mm 2 , fp0,1k = 1580 MPa, Initial prestressing stress = 1296 MPa, Ep = 190 GPa, Prestressing losses 15% Find M, Φ for the following steps:

 (a) Initial stage – zero applied moment (b) Zero strain in concrete at level of steel (c) Cracking moment (d) Cracked section with top fiber strain 0.001, 0.002 and 0.0035 458
800
A
P (a)
Initial stage – zero applied moment
Use gross section properties
3
0.458 0.915
2
4
A
0.458 0.915
=
0.42m
c =
I
=
= 0.0292
m
c
12
0.915
y
= 0.8
= 0.343
m
p
2
P
= 0.85◊(0.001777◊1296000) = 1957.5
kN
e
1957.5
1957.5 0.343 0.458
=
=
15.2 MPa
bot
0.42
0.0292
1957.5
1957.5 0.343 0.458
=
+
=
5.9 MPa
top
0.42
0.0292
0.3 =
 48
(
)
E
= 22
35.2
GPa
c
10
5.9
15.2 =
=
= 0.000168
=
0.000432
top
bot
35200
35200
(
)
(
0.000432
0.000168
)
1
bot
top
4
=
=
=
6.557 10
0
h
0.915
m
0.000168 0.915
x =
=
0.256
0.000168
( 0.000432 )
1957.5
1957.5 0.343 0.343
=
+
= 12.5 MPa
ce
0.42
0.0292
12.5
=
= 0.000355
ce
35200
0.85 1296 =
=
0.00564
se
195000 (b)
Zero strain in concrete at level of steel
f
(
+
)
E
=
(
0.00564
+
0.000354 195000
)
=
1168.8 MPa
1 =
s
se
ce
p
P = 0.001777 ◊1168800 = 2077kN
I
0.0292 12500
c
ce
M
=
=
=
1067.3 kN m
1
d
y
0.8
0.458
p
t
2077
2077 0.343 0.458
1067.3 0.458
=
+
= 0.62 MPa
bot
1
0.42
0.0292
0.0292
2077
2077 0.343 0.458
1067.3 0.458
=
+
=
10.5
MPa
top
1
0.42
0.0292
0.0292
10.5
0.62
=
=
0.000298
=
0.0000176
1 =
top 1
bot
35200
35200
(
)
(
0.0000176
( 0.000298)
)
1
bot
1
top
1
4
=
=
=
3.121 10
1
h
0.915
m
0.000298 ◊ 0.915
x
=
= 0.864
1
0.000298
(0.0000176 )
Cracking moment
(c)
Approximate method
2
2
f
=
0.3
f
3
=
0.3
(
48
)
3
=
4
MPa
ctm
ck
h
=
max
 
1.6
◊ f
;
f
=
max
 1.6
915 ◊  4;4
=
4
MPa
f ctm fl
,
ctm
ctm
1000
1000
  (
f
)
I
(4000
620) 0.0292
ctm fl
,
cb
1
c
y
b 0.458
E
195
(
)
M
d
y
n
215.5 0.343 5.54 =
p
t
f
=
=
14 MPa
p
I
0.0292
c
f
= f
+
f
=
1168.8
+
14
=
1182.8
MPa
s
2
s
1
p
P = 0.001777 ◊1182800 = 2101.8kN
2101.8
2101.8 0.343 0.458
1282.8 0.458
=
+
= 3.8 MPa
bot
2
0.42
0.0292
0.0292
2101.8
2101.8 0.343 0.458
1282.8 0.458
=
+
=
13.8 MPa
top
2
0.42
0.0292
0.0292

M =

=

=

215.5 kN m

M 2

= M + M = 1067.3 + 215.5 = 1282.8kN m

1

n =

P

=

= 5.54

E

c

35.2

13.8

3.8

=

0.000108

 = = 0.000392 top 2 35200 ( ) ( 0.000108 bot 2 = 35200 ( 0.000392 ) ) = bot 1 top 1 = = 2 h 0.915 = 0.000392 ◊ 0.915 = 0.717 x 2 0.000392 (0.000108)

4 1

m

5.464 10  (c)
Cracked Section
Resultant internal compression force for a rectangular section:
3
c
c
C
=
b
◊ f
◊ x
◊ 
1
x 
c
2
c
x
=
◊  8
c
ck
3 ◊
12
4
c 2
c
2
c
2
c
(x
x)
M
=
C
+
d
c
c
P
Resultant internal tensile force:
f
=
◊E
For P ≤ f P0,1k / E P (1580/190000 = 0.00832)
P
P
P
f
P
0.1
k
P
E
(
)
P
f
=
f
+
f
f
P
P
0,1
k
Pk
P
0,1
k
For P > f P0,1k / E P :
f
P
0.1
k
uk
E
P
T = A
◊f
=
(
+
)
+
(
c
c
d
x
)
=
P
P
P
se
ce
P
x
x
(c)
Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.001
Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.287 m
0.001
0.001
C
=
0.458 48000
0.287
◊ 
1
 = 2629
kN
c
0.002
3 0.002
0.001
=
(
0.000355 + 0.00564
)
+
(
0.8 0.287
)
=
0.00779
P
0.287
f
= 0.00779◊190000 = 1479.5
MPa
P
T
= 0.001777 ◊1470500 = 2629kN
 8 0.002
3 0.001 
x
=
0.287
◊ 
 =
0.187m
12 0.002
4 0.001
0.001
1
M
= 2629 ◊ 0.187
(
+ 0.8 0.287 = 1840.3
)
kN m
=
=
0.00348
c
0.287
m (c)
Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.002
Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.2 m
0.002
0.002
C
=
0.458 48000
0.2
◊ 
1
 = 2933
kN
c
0.002
3 0.002
0.002
=
(
0.000355 +
0.00564 +
)
(
0.8
0.2 ◊
)
=
0.012
P
0.2
(
0.012
0.00832
)
f
=
1580
+
(
1830
1580
)
= 1646.3
MPa
P
(
0.0222
0.00832
)
T
= 0.001777 ◊1646300 = 2926kN
Close enough
 8 0.002
3 0.002 
x
=
0.2
◊ 
 =
0.125m
12 0.002
4 0.002
M
= 2933◊ 0.125 + 0.8 0.2 = 2126
(
)
kN m
c
0.002
1
=
=
0.01
0.2
m
(c)
Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.0035
Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.192 m
0.0035
0.0035 
C
=
0.458 48000
0.192
◊ 
1
 = 3078
kN
c
0.002
3 0.002
0.0035
=
(
0.000355 + 0.00564 + 0.8 0.192 ◊
)
(
)
= 0.0171
P
0.192
(
0.0171
0.00832
)
f
=
1580
+
(
1830
1580
)
= 1738.1
MPa
P
(
0.0222
0.00832
)
T = 0.001777◊1738100 = 3088kN
Close enough x
= 0.192
◊ 
12 0.002
4 0.0035
 =
0.173m
M
= 3078 ◊ 0.173 + 0.8 0.192 = 2404
(
)
kN m
c
0.0035
1
=
=
0.0182 ◊
0.192
m
Plot all points calculated to construct the moment curvature diagram
Moment
Curvature
0
-0.000656
1067.3
0.000312
1282.8
0.000546
1840.3
0.00348
2126
0.01
2404
0.0182 8 0.002 3 0.0035  2800
2100
1400
700
0
-0.003
0
0.003
0.006
0.009
0.012
0.015
0.018
0.021
Moment (kN-m)

Curvature (1/m)