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Longitudinal Shear Force Page 1 of 4

COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA SEPTEMBER 2002


COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN BS 5950-90
Technical Note
Transverse Reinforcement
Transverse reinforcement refers to the reinforcement in the concrete flange
running transverse to the span of the beam. Sufficient transverse reinforce-
ment should be used to enable the concrete flange to resist the longitudinal
shear transmitted by the shear connectors, both immediately adjacent to the
shear connectors and elsewhere within the effective width (BS 5.6.1). This
Technical Note describes how the program checks longitudinal shear stress
and provides transverse reinforcement for longitudinal shear stress.
Longitudinal Shear Force
The total longitudinal shear force per unit length, v, to be resisted at any
point in the span of the beam is determined from the spacing of the shear
connectors using the following expression (BS 5.6.2).
v =
s
NQ
p
0.45 f
cu
A
c
0 (BS 5.6.2)
where,
N = Number of shear connectors in a group,
Q
p
= Shear resistance of a single shear connector for positive
moment,
s = Longitudinal spacing center-to-center of groups of shear
connectors,
f
cu
= Concrete strength,
A
c
= Cross-sectional area of concrete bounded between longitudi-
nal failure surfaces, or between the failure surface and the
free surface.
Composite Beam Design BS 5950-90 Transverse Reinforcement
Resistance of the Concrete Flange Page 2 of 4
Resistance of the Concrete Flange
For any surface of potential failure in the concrete flange, the longitudinal
shear resistance per unit length is taken as,
v
rc
= 0.03 A
cv
f
cu
(BS 5.6.3)
where,
f
cu
= characteristic cube strength of the concrete,
= strength reductor factor for light-weight concrete,
1.0, for normal weight concrete
=
0.8, for light-weight concrete, and
(BS 5.6.3)
A
cv
= mean cross-sectional area, per unit length of the beam, of the
concrete shear surface under consideration.
Maximum Resistance to Longitudinal Shear
For any surface of potential failure in the concrete flange, the maximum lon-
gitudinal shear resistance per unit length is taken as,
v
r,max
= 0.8 A
cv

cu
f (BS 5.6.3)
All of the terms used in the preceding equation have been explained in the
previous section of this Technical Note.
If the average longitudinal shear stress per unit length, v, to be resisted be-
tween any two points in the span of the beam exceeds the corresponding,
v
r,max
, the slab thickness is rendered as inadequate, and the program gives an
error message.
Required Transverse Reinforcement
If the longitudinal shear resistance, v
rc
, alone is not adequate, the program
calculates the required transverse reinforcement, A
sv
. If the longitudinal shear
stress is more than v
r,max
, the program declares the slab to be inadequate.
Composite Beam Design BS 5950-90 Transverse Reinforcement
Trail Failure Surfaces and Check Locations Page 3 of 4
The effect of the stress ratio limit, R
srl
, is used in determining the transverse
reinforcement.
If v/R
srl
v
rc
,
s
A
sv
= 0, (BS 5.6.3)
else if v
rc
< v/R
srl
< v
r,max
,
( )
yr
rc srl sv
f
v R v

s
A
7 . 0
/
= , (BS 5.6.3)
else v/R
srl
v
r,max
,
an error condition is declared.
All of the terms used in the preceding expression have been defined earlier in
this Technical Note.
The program reports the maximum of all of the values of A
sv
/s for all longitu-
dinal segments and load combinations considered.
Trail Failure Surfaces and Check Locations
The only failure surfaces that are assumed in the program are the vertical
longitudinal failure surfaces. For a solid slab, those surfaces are near the
sides of the farthest studs. Similarly, for ribbed slabs with ribs running per-
pendicular to the beam, the surfaces are near the sides of the farthest studs.
For ribbed slabs with ribs running parallel to the beams, the surfaces are near
the edge of the ribs.
Also, it is assumed in the program that all transverse reinforcements are
straight and extend at least the development lengths of the reinforcing bars
beyond the failure surface to anchor the reinforcing bars adequately.
The segments of the beam on which the average longitudinal shear stress is
considered are based on a point of zero moment and any check station. The
average longitudinal shear stress is computed for every segment under con-
sideration; then the stress is compared with the corresponding shear resis-
tance. If for any segment, the concrete alone is not adequate to resist longi-
Composite Beam Design BS 5950-90 Transverse Reinforcement
Trail Failure Surfaces and Check Locations Page 4 of 4
tudinal shear stress, the transverse reinforcement per unit spacing is com-
puted. The maximum of such required transverse reinforcement values is re-
ported by the program.
The program conservatively neglects the contribution of the profiled steel
sheeting to the longitudinal shear resistance (BS 5.6.3). It also conservatively
ignores the effect of longitudinal deck splitting (if any; BS 5.6.5) and the ef-
fect of the rib angle, other than considering the ribs to be either parallel or
perpendicular (BS 5.6.4).

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