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Eff t f li t Effects of climate

and
li t i ti climate variations
on
t th strength
Martin Hglund
2008-09-23
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
1
Outline
W d d M i t Wood and Moisture
Moisture induced stress (MiS)
C id ti f i t ti Consideration of moisture as an action
an external load to be combined with other loads
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Varying climate
100
Stockholm Outdoor and Indoor RH, starting 1 J an

80
90
60
70
RH [%]
40
50
20
30
MA filtered over 14 days
Indoor, 20
o
C
O td
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
10

(assumed 3g/m
2
indoor moisture production)
Outdoor
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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RH
days
Varying climate
Moisture content variation in Glulam (90*100*600 m
3
) in unheated
room southern Sweden.
Humid during
winter
Dry during
winter
(Alpo Ranta-Maunus)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Varying climate
Climate variation
Noisy behavior
Regularoscillations are on a daily and annual basis Regular oscillations are on a daily and annual basis
Frequency analysis:
Seasonal
variation
T=1 year
Daily variation
T=1 day T=1 day
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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[day
-1
]
Varying climate
Physical relation between vapour content and temperature
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Temperature [degree Celcius]
Varying climate
Heated room (Espoo)
Sheltered environment
(Kirkkonummi) ( )
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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(Alpo Ranta-Maunus)
Varying climate
Moisture penetration in timber p
Wood is basically a low-pass filter
Swift variations are damped
Seasonal variations penetrate, although somewhat phase-shifted (cf. surface p , g p (
and middle)
illustrative cross-section
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Varying climate
Another illustrative example of moisture penetration in wood
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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(Alpo Ranta-Maunus)
Properties of wood
Principal properties
Hygroscopic Hygroscopic
Tries to be in balance with the surrounding climate.
Anisotropic
M t i l t f ti f di ti i t t t t t t Material parameters functions of direction, moisture content, temperature etc.
Low strength perpendicular to grain
Picture: Courtesy of Johan Jnsson, Lund University, 2005
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Properties of wood
Normalized rank: Comparison between compression, tension and bending
strength at three different moisture contents.
(Alpo Ranta-Maunus)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Properties of wood
Dry wood stronger than wet wood
Rule of thumb maximumstrength when MC around 10% Rule of thumb, maximum strength when MC around 10%
High temperatures are negative
Above 60
o
C, degrading of wood starts, permanent effect , g g , p
N dj t t f b di d t i d t MC (EN384) No adjustment for bending and tension due to MC (EN384)
Compression is adjusted 3% per every percentage point difference in MC
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Transport of moisture
Transient transport of moisture
Drying / wetting - until equilibrium is reached
Resistance to transport
Surface (boundary) / Body (the domain) Surface (boundary) / Body (the domain)
Continuity equation Co u y equa o
Fickian law
Boundary =

grad D q
Domain

x
D
x t
w
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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x x t
Moisture in wood
Different situations
Outdoor
Sheltered / unsheltered
Temperature, relative humidity, sun exposure
I d Indoor
Relative humidity (mainly)
Location normalor humid/dry conditions (e.g. public baths) Location normal or humid/dry conditions (e.g. public baths)
Moisture gradients and changes important Moisture gradients and changes important
Restraint of hygroexpansion
Absolute values not as important (beside the risk for rot and decay) p ( y)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Effect of hysteresis, isoterms
Influence of scanning curves (variation of RH cause little effect on
MC) MC)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Stress models
Assumption that different types of stress are additive
u ms c e total
+ + + =
& & & & &
Hygro expansive
elastic
Viscoelastic creep Mechano-sorptive
Hygro-expansive
Viscoelastic creep known to be negligible to MS creep:
u ) u u m (
E
total
& & &
&
&
+ + +

=
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Classic illustrative figure showing effect of mechano-
sorption (note: small clear wood specimens)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Stress development
MC
Moisture
variation in air
60
80
100
R
H

[
%
]
Uneven moisture
distribution
MC
0 200 400 600 800 1000
20
40
days
x [m]
U t i t h
Stress
Uneven hygro-
expansion
Restraint causes
compression/tension
Unrestraint hygro-exp.
compression/tension
x [m]
Due to uneven MC but
also to variation of radial
and tangential wood
directions
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Stress development
Moistening Equilibrium
t
Drying
pressure
no stress
pressure
tension
(rough schematic distribution of stress over a glulam
cross-section)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Induced stresses at the surface and in the middle during 1000 days for Sturup
together with indoor variation in relative humidity (starting J anuary 1st).
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
23 years calculation: Stress range and CDFs (max tension)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Combination of moisture induced stress and mechanical loading
Detailing (fasteners), curved beams, tapered beams, notched beams
h
90

M
h
M
M 3
r
rbh 2
M 3
90
=
r
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Experiments show effect of moisture on tensile capacity
(J nsson J . 2005)
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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External External
Moisture induced stress
External
stress
External
stress
Moisture
induced
stress
Moisture
induced
stress
(From
Jnsson)
+++
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
=
Very non-uniform
stress distribution +
=
2,5
Stress ( MPa)
stress distribution
Stress (MPa)
uniform stress
distribution
1,5
2,0
,5
Mean stress
Combined stress
2,0
2,5
Mean stress
External stress
Combined stress
Drying phase
0,5
1,0
Internal stress
External stress
1,0
1,5
Drying phase RH 8040%
Moistening phase
1 0
-0,5
0,0
Sli
0,0
0,5
Internal stress
Moistening phase RH 4080%
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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-1,0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Slice
-0,5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Slice
Moisture induced stress
(From Jnsson) (From Jnsson)
Curved beam
when exposing the beam to when exposing the beam to
moisture induced stresses moisture induced stresses
+
-
The beam used
in the test in the test,
cross-section 90x280
where the lamelleas
are 20 mmthick
860
SFS-screw
F F
are 20 mm thick
SFS-screw
280
R=1215
20.7
o
110
110
280
2
3
9
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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160
2060
Moisture induced stress
Rh 40 Rh 40--80% and 80 80% and 80--40%, (no screws) 40%, (no screws)
Can clearly see an effect
on the strength when
i t i d d i th
(From Jnsson)
moistening and drying the
beam.
In the moistening
Failed in shear, meaning that the
tensile strength perpendicular to
grain is not the limiting factor
More reasonable shape of
the curve, if the shear failure
was prevented
1.40
1.60
1.80
Bending test, drying phase
Bending test, mean value,
seasoned in RH 40%
In the moistening
phase the tensile
stresses are added
in the inner part
0.80
1.00
1.20
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Bending test, mean value,
seasoned in RH 80%
in the inner part,
leading to a very
uniform stress
distribution
7 . 1
79 . 0
37 . 1
=
020
0.40
0.60
S
t
r
e
Bending test, moistening phase
distribution.
Leading to lower
strength
Failure mode: Tensionperpendicular to grain
0.00
0.20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Day of test
Failure mode: Tension perpendicular to grain
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Moisture induced stress
Superposition of stress distribution
Wetting and drying effect differs
Drying leads to more uniform combination of stresses BETTER!
Wetting leads to the opposite

2,0
2,5
Stress (MPa)
20
2,5
Stress (MPa)
External stressstress
1,0
1,5
Mean stress
External stress
Combined stress
1,5
2,0
Meanstress
Combined stress
0,0
0,5
Internal stress
0,5
1,0
Drying phase
-1,0
-0,5
Slice
-0,5
0,0
Slice
Internal stressstress
Moistening phase
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Slice
Consideration of moisture as an action
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Consideration of moisture as an action
Consideration of moisture in building codes
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Consideration of moisture as an action
Consideration of moisture in building codes
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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DOL effects due to moisture and loading time
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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(P Hoffmeyer, Timber Engineering, Wiley 2003)
Consideration of moisture as an action
Moisture induce stress in timber structures
Results in non-uniform stress field
Strength perpendicular to grain is weak
( ) ( )
k k
f

General design criteria
( ) ( )
M
mod
1 i
Qi i Qi
1 i
Gi Gi
f
k

+

= =
Two general design options
Should the action be considered on the resistance side, or on the action
side ? side ?
Today it is on the resistance side in form of strength reduction factor
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Consideration of moisture as an action
M i t ff t i t d Moisture effects in current codes
Considered by service classes based on expected
ilib i i t l l equilibrium moisture levels
Time dependent variation of moisture exposure is not
considered considered
A more precise characterisation is desired to impro e A more precise characterisation is desired to improve
the way moisture is considered
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
34
Consideration of moisture as an action
How should effects of actions be combined?
Factors
i
to consider effect of concurrent actions and their combined
effect
Summation of individual annual design values not correct
Variation in time different for t ex snow windand MiS Variation in time different for t ex snow, wind and MiS.
Two (or more) loading process(es) are not prone to reach their
maximum loads within a given reference period (e.g. 1 year suitable
in order to have (fairly) stationary processes at the same instance of
time.
( ) ( )
d
k
Qi i Qi
k
Gi Gi
f
k +

( ) ( )
M
mod
1 i
Qi i Qi
1 i
Gi Gi
k

+

= =
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Consideration of moisture as an action
Different typs of loads have
their typical variation in time
C i idi l d ti Coinciding loads or time
separated loads
Moisture induced stress
predominant during summer predominant during summer
season
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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(From Nowak & Collins, 2000)
Summary
Strength of wood depends of MC
Compression strength is most effected
Load bearing capacity is reduced due to moisture
variation
D t b th h i t th d i d d i t di t ( hi h Due to both change in strength and induced moisture gradients (which
cause eigen-stress due to restraint of hygro-expansion)
Eurocode uses k
mod
as a strength reduction factor to
consider moisture impact
Should it instead be considered as an external load?
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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Thank you for your attention Thank you for your attention
Acknowledgement
J ohan J nsson (div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University) for
sharing of experimental data and results.
Alpo Ranta-Maunus: Timber Engineering, 2003, Wiley, Chapter 9
Martin Hglund, Div. of Structural Engineering, Lund University
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