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Chris Engelbrecht, Fabio Bologna, Michael Warren

Eskom Tech Transfer



J uly 14-17, 2014
Transmission Line Grounding
Power Frequency


2 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Grounding on
Transmission Lines
The grounding system consists of:
Overhead groundwire
Shieldwire
Staticwire
Grounding leads
Connections
Grounding electrode
Vertical rod
Horizontal trench (counterpoise)
Foundations
3 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Double OHGW
Overhead Ground Wires
Shield phase conductors from direct lightning
Carry fault current
Single OHGW Double OHGW
4 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Basic types of Ground electrode
To establish low impedance path to Earth (terra firma)
Butt wrap Rod Foundation
Counterpoise Horizontal Radial Ring Electrode
5 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ground leads and connections
Bond together different parts of the grounding system

Bolted with lugs Bolted with clamp Bolted with clamp

Crimped Exothermal weld Soldered

6 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reasons for Grounding
Conduction of fault current

Limit voltage gradients

Limit electromagnetic
interference to other
infrastructure

Lightning protection
7 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conduction of Fault Current (1)
No overhead groundwires
No parallel paths
High fault impedance
Lower fault current
May be difficult to detect
No current sharing
Higher GPR
One tower affected

8 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conduction of Fault Current (2)
Overhead groundwires
Towers in parallel
Low fault impedance
Higher fault current
Easy to detect
Current sharing
Lower GPR
More towers affected

9 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of Fault Current
L is approx 1H/m at 50 Hz = 0,1 ohm
(Mutual coupling reduces this value)
R range between 1-500 ohm
Substation
Transmission Line
10 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Current Division in Structure
Overhead ground wire
I
PH_L
I
PH_R
I
fault
I
GW_L
I
GW_R
I
TW_F
I
TW_U
I
TW_F
Overhead ground wire
I
PH_L
I
PH_R
I
fault
I
GW_L
I
GW_R
I
TW_F
I
TW_U
I
TW_F
11 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Series Current in Ground Wire
Phase to ground fault

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
0 2 4 6 8
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
2
2
4
2
6
2
8
3
0
3
2
3
4
3
6
3
8
4
0
Span number
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

i
n

t
h
e

o
v
e
r
h
e
a
d

g
r
o
u
n
d

w
i
r
e

(
k
V
)
Faulted tower
12 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tower Voltage and Shunt current in Towers
Phase to ground fault

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Transmission line structure number
T
o
w
e
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t


(
k
A
)

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Transmission line structure number
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

w
i
t
h

R
e
s
p
e
c
t

t
o

F
a
r

E
a
r
t
h

(
k
V
)
Current Voltage
R
tower
13 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Test Case
275 kV Line
Single Wolf Phase conductor
3/8 HS Ground wire
100 spans
30 ohm footing resistance (all Structures)
300 m span length

14 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
TLW Gen 2
15 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Consider a single fault at Structure #40
16 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Structure #40: Voltages
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
17 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Structure #40: Current in Conductors
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
18 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
0 20 40 60 80 100
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e


V
o
l
t
a
g
e


[
V
]
Span #
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Fault at Structure #40: Structure Current and
Voltages
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Current in
substation
earthmat
19 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maximum Values for a fault at any Structure
20 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fault current along the line
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
048
1
2
1
6
2
0
2
4
2
8
3
2
3
6
4
0
4
4
4
8
5
2
5
6
6
0
6
4
6
8
7
2
7
6
8
0
8
4
8
8
9
2
9
6
1
0
0
F
a
u
l
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Maximum
Maximum
21 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Any Structure: Maximum Voltages
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
22 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Any Structure: Max Current in Cond.
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
23 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 20 40 60 80 100
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e


V
o
l
t
a
g
e


[
V
]
Span #
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Fault at Any Structure:
Max Structure Currents and Voltages
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Current in
substation
earthmat
24 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vary structure Resistance
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

F
o
o
t
i
n
g

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

[
o
h
m
]
Structure number
0 5 10 15 20 25
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Number of structures
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

F
o
o
t
i
n
g

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

[
o
h
m
]
25 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Consider a single fault at Structure #40
26 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Structure #40: Voltages
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
27 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Structure #40: Current in Conductors
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
28 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
0 20 40 60 80 100
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e


V
o
l
t
a
g
e


[
V
]
Span #
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Fault at Structure #40: Structure Current and
Voltages
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Current in
substation
earthmat
29 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maximum Values for a fault at any Structure
30 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
048
1
2
1
6
2
0
2
4
2
8
3
2
3
6
4
0
4
4
4
8
5
2
5
6
6
0
6
4
6
8
7
2
7
6
8
0
8
4
8
8
9
2
9
6
1
0
0
F
a
u
l
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Maximum
Maximum
Fault current along the line
31 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Any Structure: Maximum Voltages
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
32 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
Span #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Shieldwire #1
Shieldwire #2
Fault at Any Structure: Max Current in Cond.
Faulted phase
Ground wires
Other phases
33 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 20 40 60 80 100
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e


V
o
l
t
a
g
e


[
V
]
Span #
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Fault at Any Structure:
Max Structure Currents and Voltages
Structure Voltage
Structure Current
Current in
substation
earthmat
34 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Potential Profiles Around
Transmission Line Structures
Ground potential rise (tower voltage)
Parallel connection of all towers
Low resistance High current
High resistance Low current
Not affected as much by tower footing resistance


35 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction
EPRI Lightning & Grounding
Reference Book:



EPRI Grounding Guide Software
(EGGS)
11 Applets Tutorial and Design
Calculations
36 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Grounding guide applets
GG -1 Maps of ground flash density and earth resistivity
GG -2 Estimate of soil parameters
GG -3 Ground electrode dimensions to from a target resistance
GG -4 Calculation of ground electrode resistance
GG -5 Voltage on ancillary circuits during ground faults
GG -6 Potential and step potential near a ground electrode
GG -7 Influence of ground electrode on lightning performance
GG -8 Propagation model for structure and ground plane
GG -9 Ionization model for rod electrodes
GG -10 Ionization and propagation model for counterpoise
GG -11 Estimate of footing resistance with a three-terminal setup
37 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Voltage Gradients
Ground Potential Rise (GPR)
Total voltage rise of the
ground electrode

Step Voltage (A)
Voltage between feet

Touch Voltage (B)
Voltage between
hand and feet

Rod electrode
Surface potential
with rod electrode
Touch voltage (V
T
)
Step voltage (V
s
)
B A
Ground potential rise V
E

I
F
38 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Potential Profiles Around
Transmission Line Structures
Surface potential
with mesh electrode
With rod electrode With mesh electrode
Surface potential
with rod electrode
V
T
V
T
V
T
V
T
V
s
D B C E A
Ground Potential Rise V
E
Surface potential
with mesh electrode
With rod electrode With mesh electrode
Surface potential
with rod electrode
V
T
V
T
V
T
V
T
V
s
D B C E A
Ground Potential Rise V
E
Limits determined by company policy and/or standards
39 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Applet GG-6
Load Demo
Select potential
Automatic contour line
Voltage at 1 m distance 90% of GPR
Touch voltage 10% of GPR
GPR =24 kV
Touch voltage 2.4 kV
40 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fault Current Mitigation
Lower fault impedance
More current paths
Continuous counterpoise
Additional overhead ground wires
Lower average tower footing resistance


Grade potential around tower bases
Ring electrodes

41 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Normal Day to Day Operation (1)
Capacitive coupling
C
GW-ph
Overhead ground wire
Phase conductors
at high voltage
C
S-ph
I
C
C
GW-ph
Overhead ground wire
Phase conductors
at high voltage
C
S-ph
I
C
Range = Micro- to Milli-ampere
42 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Normal Day to Day Operation (2)
Inductive Coupling
Overhead ground wire
Phase conductors
carry current
Induced current circulate
In the grounding system
Unequal current in loops
result in net structure current
I
M
Overhead ground wire
Phase conductors
carry current
Induced current circulate
In the grounding system
Unequal current in loops
result in net structure current
Overhead ground wire
Phase conductors
carry current
Induced current circulate
In the grounding system
Unequal current in loops
result in net structure current
I
M
Range = mA to Ampere
43 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Insulation or Segmentation of Ground Wires
Segmented
Reduction of line losses




Insulated
Avoid stray current
Bonded Insulated End of segment Insulators Bonded Insulated End of segment Insulators
Insulated
End of insulated section
Insulated
End of insulated section
44 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Electromagnetic Interference
Coupling of voltage and current
into nearby conducting structures

Inductive coupling
Current in Line
Capacitive coupling
Voltage of phase conductors
Conduction current
Stray currents in soil
45 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
TogetherShaping the Future of Electricity