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COOLING TOWER INSTITUTE

CTI CODE TOWER


Standard Specifications
Cooling Tower Filament Wound
Fiberglass Piping Systems
April 2008 STD-154 (08)
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Foreword
This Cooling Technology Institute (CTI) publication is published as an aid to cooling tower purchasers and designers. It
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Nothing contained herein is to be construed as granting any right for the manufacture, sale or use in connection with any
method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent, nor as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters
patent.
This guideline document summarizes the best current state of knowledge regarding the specific subject. This document
represents a consensus of those individual members who have reviewed this document, its scope and provisions. It is
intended to aid all users or potential users of cooling towers.
Approved by the CTI Executive Board.
This document has been reviewed and approved
as part of CTIs Five Year Review Cycle. This
document is again subject to review in 2013.
Copyright 2008
Approved by the by Cooling Technology Institute
CTI Executive Board Printed in U.S.A. STD-154 (08)
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
Section 1 Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Section 2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.1 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ............................................................................. 3
2.2 National Bureau of Standards (NBS .............................................................................................. 3
2.3 American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) .................................................................... 3
Section 3 Material Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 3
3.0 Material Requirements .................................................................................................................. 3
3.1 Resin and Related Materials .......................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Reinforcements .............................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 Gaskets .......................................................................................................................................... 4
Section 4 FRP Piping Requirements ........................................................................................................................ 4
4.0 Fabricated Piping Requirements .................................................................................................... 4
4.1 Filament Wound Piping ................................................................................................................. 4
4.2 Piping Property Requirements ....................................................................................................... 5
4.3 Fittings ........................................................................................................................................... 5
4.4 Shop and Field J oints ..................................................................................................................... 5
Section 5 Testing Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 6
5.0 Testing Requirements .................................................................................................................... 6
5.1 Shop Testing .................................................................................................................................. 6
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Cooling Tower Filament Wound Fiberglass Piping Systems
Design, Manufacturing and Testing Specification
Section 1. Disclaimer
1.0 Disclaimer:
The information within this standard is for the design,
manufacturing, installation and testing of FRP piping to
be used in Cooling Tower applications. However, the
system must have an engineering review for the
supporting system, pressure and any other outside
requirements (i.e. Seismic, etc.). This review must be
between the tower manufacturer and the piping
manufacturer.
Section 2. References
2.0 Referenced Standards:
Reference to the standards of any technical society,
organization, or association or to the laws, ordinances
or codes of governmental authorities shall mean the
latest code, or specification adopted, published and
effective at the date of taking bids unless specifically
stated otherwise in the specification. In the case of a
conflict with the referenced specification, codes, or
standards and these specifications, the latter shall
govern to the extent of such difference.
2.1 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
B31.1 Power Piping
B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Hangers and Flanged Fittings
B16.5 Steel pipe flanges, Flanged Valves & Fittings
2.2 National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
NBS PS-15-69, Custom Contact Molded Reinforced
Polyester Chemical Resistant Process Equipment
2.3 American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
C581 Standard Method of Testing for Chemical
Resistance of Thermosetting Resins Used in Glass
Fiber Reinforced Structures
D2290 Test Method for Apparent Tensile Strength of
Ring or Tubular Plastics and Reinforced Plastics by
Split Disk Method
D2292 Standard Practice for Obtaining Hydrostatic or
Pressure Design Basis for Fiberglass (GFRTR)
Pipe and Fittings
D2996 Standard Specification for Filament Wound
Fiberglass (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Thermosetting- Resin) Pipe
D3517 Standard Specification for Fiberglass
(GFRTR) Pressure pipe
D1599 Short-Time Hydraulic Failure Pressure of
Plastic Pipe
D2105 Longitudinal Tensile Properties of RTRP and
Tube
D2563 Classifying Visual Defects in Glass-
Reinforced Plastic Laminate Parts
D2583 Indention Hardness of Plastics, Barcol
Impresser
D2584 Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins
D2992 Standard Practice for Obtaining Hydrostatic or
Pressure Design Basis for Fiberglass (GFRTR)
Pipe and Fittings
D3262 Standard Specification for Fiberglass
(GFRTR) Sewer Pipe
D2412 Standard Test Method for Determination of
External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by
Parallel Plate Loading
D4161 Standard Specification for Fiberglass
(GFRTR) Pipe J oints Using Flexible Elastomeric
Seals
F477 Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets)
for Joining Plastic Pipe
Section 3. Material Requirements
3.0 Material Requirements:
3.1 Resin and Related Materials
3.1.1 Resins Piping and fittings shall be
manufactured with a resin systemsuitable for handling
the contained and surrounding environment.
For non-fire retardant systems, the pipe corrosion
barrier shall be a vinyl ester resin such as Ashland
Chemical Hetron 922, or Dow Chemical Derakane 411
or an isophthalic polyester resin system such as
Ashland Chemical Aropol 7341 or equal. The structural
wall of the pipe shall be manufactured with any of the
above resins. The exterior of the structural wall shall
contain an ultra violet screen.
For fire retardant systems, the pipe liner shall be a vinyl
ester resin such as Ashland Chemical Hetron 922, or
Dow Chemical Derakane 411 or an Isophthalic
polyester resin system such as Ashland Chemical
Aropol 7341. The structure wall of the pipe shall be
manufactured with Ashland Chemical Hetron FR992 or
isophthalic polyester resin system such as Ashland
Chemical Aropol 99P or equal. The exterior of the
structure wall shall contain an ultra violet screen.
The manufacturer must have at least 5 years of product
history manufacturing filament wound pipe using the
resins listed above.
3.1.2Adhesive Polyester resin based materials
containing short milled glass fibers and other
reinforcements may be used to bond components, form
a transition material in fiberglass butt joint welds and
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to mate surfaces prior to placement of an overlay.
Such materials shall be compatible with the intended
service, used sparingly in keeping with specific design
requirements, and properly catalyzed. Asbestos may
not be used.
3.1.3Catalysts The type and amount of resin
catalysts, promoter and/or retardant shall be per the
resin manufacturer procedures to develop the proper
cure of the resin.
3.1.4Fillers The pipe shall not contain fillers, except
for viscosity control and to aid in pigmentation with a
weight percent limitation of 2 % by weight. The pipe
shall not contain filler bulking agents such as micro
spheres, sand, alumina, etc.
3.2. Reinforcements -
3.2.1 Surfacing Veil A layer of C glass, or
equivalent glass substitute, shall be used to reinforce
the inner most ply of all pipe and fittings. The veil shall
have a finish and binder compatible with the resin
systemto be used.
3.2.2 Synthetic Surfacing Veil An organic polyester
veil such as Nexus style 100-10 (12 16 mils) may be
used as a substitute for C glass veil at the option of
the pipe manufacture.
3.2.3 Chopped glass weighing 1.5 ounces per square
foot and having a fiber length of 2 inches shall be used
where required. Chopper gun applied material is only
permitted where a mechanical mechanism controls the
liner progression of the application rate, and the
manufacturing procedure manual has a provision to
validate by testing that this equivalent amount of
chopped glass is applied. The glass shall be a E or
ECR type material with a finish, which is compatible
with the resin systemto be used.
3.2.4 Filament Winding Glass E type continuous
strand roving of 247 yards per pound minimum yield,
with a finish compatible with the resin system to be
used in the filament winding.
3.2.5 Directional Glass Reinforcement A woven
directional fabric such as E glass with a finish
compatible with the resin system to be used, shall be
used in the contact molded (hand lay up) fabrication as
approximate alternate layers with chopped glass. The
reinforcement shall be a maximum of 24 ounces per
square yard.
3.3 Gaskets The gaskets shall conform to ASTM
specification F477 with a vulcanized splice, a minimum
Shore A durometer hardness of 50(plus/minus 5) and
shall be made from a EPDM neoprene, or other
compound suitable for the contained media, and service
conditions.
Gaskets for flanges above 24-inch diameter and 50 psi
shall be an O Ring type; lesser sizes and pressure
may be flat face gasket 1/8-inch minimumthickness.
Gaskets and the design and testing of the joint for pipe
Bell and Spigot gasket joints shall conformto the
requirements of ASTM D4161. The gasket may be an
O Ring or profile gasket configuration, which has
historical experience and test confirmation for piping
system.
Section 4. FRP Piping Requirements
4.0 Fabricated Piping Requirements: Fabricator shall
manufacture the fiberglass piping system having at least
5 years of experience providing filament wound
fiberglass piping systems in diameters of 14 inch and
larger. The fabricator shall provide a company certified
report demonstrating ASTM D 2992 strain verified
testing results with the bid or have on file with the
cooling tower company. The fabricator shall state
compliance per ASTM D2310, Classification RTRP-
12EU. Failure to provide this documentation will be
grounds for rejection of the bid as technically non-
compliant.
4.1 Filament Wound Piping- The fiberglass piping shall be
of a filament wound construction. Filament wound
piping shall be designed and manufactured to comply
with AWWA C950 standard and its Appendix being
Type 1, Grade 2, Liner C, 25 PSI pressure class
minimum, ASTM D 2310, Classification RTRP-12EU.
Failure to provide this documentation will be grounds
for rejection of the bid as technically non-compliant.
The piping systemshall be suitable for hydrostatic field
testing to the hydrostatic test pressure, 1.5 times the
design pressure. The piping shall be produced in a
single length without intermediate joints and with an
integral bell. The pipe minimumone piece produced
lengths unless otherwise stated, shall be:
2 through 4 , 20 foot lengths,
6 , 30 foot length,
8 to 18 40 foot lengths,
Larger sizes in 60 foot lengths,
Or as otherwise defined by the purchaser who can
permit a factory joint instead of one piece lengths.
4.1.1 Corrosion Barrier For Piping- All piping shall
have an internal reinforced corrosion barrier. The
internal corrosion barrier shall be .050 inches nominal
thickness. This inner most surface shall be reinforced
with surfacing veil having a maximum of 90 % resin
content and the thickness of .010 inches. The balance
thickness of the internal corrosion barrier shall be made
using chopped glass (1.5 ounces per square foot
minimum) and shall have a glass content of 24 to 31
percent by weight when tested per ASTM D2584. The
corrosion barrier, when cured, shall have Barcol
hardness at least 90 % of the resin manufactures listed
hardness when tested per ASTM D2584.
4.1.2 Filament Wound Structure Wall- J ust prior to the
start of the filament winding, a chopped glass layer
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shall be applied over the cured corrosion barrier. The
structural pipe wall shall be filament wound with a
helix angle of 60 degrees plus/minus 5 degrees
(measured relative to the axis of the pipe). The filament
wound structure wall shall have a minimum glass
content of 63% by weight. The last five feet, the
maximum helix angle is permitted to be 65 degrees.
The maximum laminate layer thickness shall be .060
inches. All fiberglass strands shall be completely wet
out and must lay flat and parallel without open gaps
between strands. Piping shall be designed for the
existing spans where possible having a maximum
deflection not to exceed .500 inches. Filament wound
pipe found to have open resin starved bridging between
strands, or at the corrosion barrier interface, exceeding
2 inches in length and .062 inch height and greater than
2 per square foot, will be rejected.
4.1.3 Exterior Surface Coating The external surface
finish shall be resin rich and a thickness of .006 inch
minimum. This finish must contain a tac free wax
additive and ultraviolet screener
4.2 Piping Property Requirements Piping shall be
designed such that the imposed service loads will not
result in a pipe wall strain exceeding the following:
Design Criteria MaximumStrain
Internal Pressure 0.0015 inch / inch
Internal pressure + 0.0030 inch / inch
Hoop bending
Internal Pressure + 0.0024 inch / inch
Axial Loads
For Burial loading, the combined pressure plus
Hoop Bending may be increased to the allowable of
AWWA C950 using the long term HDB testing results.
Design Conditions
Fluid Water
Design Temperature 32degF/150deg F
Design Pressure 25 PSI
Design Vacuum 0 PSIG
Field Hydrostatic Test Pressure N/A
AWWA C950 25 PSI
Required Pressure Class
(Design, manufacture, test conformance to this
standard, its Appendix, and this Specification is
required.)
Safety Factors
Design safety factors using documented and certified
test data for physical properties shall not be less than:
6.7: 1 for filament wound pipe
3: 1 for contact molded fittings
3: 1 for contact molded flanges
4.3 Fittings All fittings shall be constructed such that
their strength is at least equal to the adjacent pipe.
Fittings shall have the same inside diameter as the
adjacent pipe. Fittings shall be manufactured by either
the filament winding process or by contact molded per
NBS PS 15-69, no compression-molded fittings are
permitted between sections of fiberglass piping.
4.3.2 Elbow Fittings Elbows shall be of the filament
wound or contact molded construction and of a 1.5
radius sweep construction through 48-inch diameter
unless otherwise specified on the drawings. Mitered
fittings are only permitted where shown on the
drawings with a maximum deflection angle of 22.5
degrees. Elbows over 48 inch diameter will be of
mitered construction.
4.3.3 Tee and Lateral Fittings Where main run
header piping sections connect as a lateral or tee fitting,
the junction shall be reinforced to compensate for the
removed material area. The connection shall have at
least the same strength as the pipe. As a minimum, the
shear length of the branch joint shall be at least sixteen
(16) times the thickness of the placed overlay.
Reinforcement shall also be placed internal for all joints
18-inch diameter and larger.
4.4 Shop and Field Joints The fabricator shall be
responsible for the detailed design of shop and field
joints to meet the requirements of the project. Field
joints may be flanged, butt and strap welds or gasket as
defined on the drawings and per the engineers
preferred design.
4.4.2 Butt and Strap Fiberglass Overlay J oints (used
for length adjustment at fittings and rigid connections).
Joints shall be at least as strong as the piping with a
thickness at least equal to or greater than, the adjacent
thickest section and with a bond adhesion shear length
of at least thirteen (13) times the material thickness.
Materials required for these connections shall be
provided as a kit, (precut glass in layers as to be
applied) and resin in suitable sized containers. The
fabricator shall have a qualified fiberglass Laminator
instructor or supervisor to instruct witness and approve
the fiberglass field joint.
4.4.3 Flanged Connections Flanges shall not be less
than 25 psi rated, 150#drilling, Contact molded flanges
are permitted. Compression molded or filament wound
flanges are not permitted. Flanges shall be designed for
all imposed combined thermal plus pressure plus
bending loads. Note: FRP flanges shall seal against flat
faced flanges unless drawings define a special type
flange face, such as wafer or raised face, where a
special FRP flange shall be designed for the additional
bending load.
4.4.4 Single Gasketed Joints The straight lengths
of pipe shall be field connected using Single gasketed
joints for installation, unless otherwise indicated on
the drawings. The gasketed joint shall conform to the
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requirements of ASTM D4161 (Standard
Specification for Fiberglass pipe joints using flexible
elastomeric seals) and the additional requirements of
this specification.
Section 5. Testing Requirements
5.0 Testing Requirements:
5.1 Shop Testing Optional: Most piping has open ends so
manufacturer Hydro testing not included in this
requirement. As minimum the fiberglass pipe and
fittings shall be subjected to the following test:
Glass Content - One test of corrosion barrier and
structural wall, each pipe size.
Barcol Hardness - Corrosion Barrier shall be at least
90% of resin manufacturers minimumpublished value.
Testing shall be conducted on each pipe or fitting as
manufactured.
HDB ASTM D 2992 - Provide proof of design results
fromprior testing.
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COOLING TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
PO Box 73383 - Houston, Texas 77273 - 281.583.4087 - Fax 281.537.1721
Website: http://www.cti.org - email: vmanser@cti.org