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CONTENT

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgement
3. Teacher Student's Support Material (TSSM) 1
i) Introduction
Activity 1 1
ii) Classifcation of Fibres
iii) Sources of Fibres
a) Plant Fibres
Cotton 3
Worksheet 1 5
Linen 6
Worksheet 2 8
Jute 9
Worksheet 3 11
b) Animal Fibres 12
Wool
Activity 2 16
Worksheet 4 17
Worksheet 5 19
Silk 20
Activity 3 22
2. Post Content Worksheets 25
3. Glossary 27
4. References
PREFACE
The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is a
progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive
to global needs. It signifes the emergence of a fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum
which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the learning process in harmony
with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.
The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of
the learners worldwide. It has about 11500 schools affliated to it and over 158 schools situated in
more than 23 countries. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the learners
and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements of the learning process to the
physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged. The CBSE-i
has been visualized and developed with these requirements in view.
The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective
of the curriculum is to nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that every learner is
unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on knowledge, values, beliefs
and traditional wisdom. Teachers need to facilitate the leaner to make the necessary modifcations,
improvisations and additions wherever and whenever necessary.
The recent scientifc and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge
at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many
challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for knowledge processing by
their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to incorporate those skills which
will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The ability to stay current, to upgrade
skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and
the relevant life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i
curriculum has taken cognizance of these requirements.
The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while
promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and
collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt fexibility in the
curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas to cater to
the different pace of learners.
The CBSE introduced the CBSE-i curriculum in schools affliated to CBSE at the international
level in 2010 at primary and secondary level in classes I and IX and subsequently in the session
2011-12 initiated the
curriculum at Class II, VI and class X. The current session will take the curriculum forward to
classes III, VII and XI.
An important feature of the Senior Secondary Curriculum is its emphasis on the specialisation
in different felds of study and preparing a student for higher professional life and career at the
work place. The CBSE-i, keeping in mind, the demands of the present Global opportunities and
challenges, is offering the new curriculum in the subject of English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
Geography, Accountancy, Business Studies, Information and Communication Technology, and
Mathematics at two levels, Mathematics-I for the students of pure sciences and Mathematics-II for
the students of Commerce and other subjects.
There are some non-evaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon
by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold
the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would
involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives,
SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the
constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are the most signifcant aspects of a learner's holistic
growth and learning curve.
The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National
Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the
last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom are now
global citizens.
The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the
international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global
education at the school level. The Curriculum envisages pedagogy which would involve building
on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing
the issues of empowerment and capacity building of teachers believes that all school must budget
for and ensure teachers involved with CBSE-i are continuously updated.
I appreciate the sincere effort put in by Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training) CBSE, Dr.
Srijata Das, Education Offcer, CBSE and the team of Offcers involved in the development and
implementation of this material.
The CBSE-i website enables all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion
forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions are welcome.
Vineet Joshi
Chairman, CBSE
Acknowledgements
Advisory
Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director
(Training), CBSE
Conceptual Framework
Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE
Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE
Ideators VI-VIII
Ms Aditi Mishra Ms Preeti Hans Ms. Charu Maini Ms. Malini Sridhar
Ms Guneet Ohri Ms Neelima Sharma Dr. Usha Sharma Ms. Leela Raghavan
Ms. Sudha Ravi Ms. Gayatri Khanna Prof. Chand Kiran Saluja Dr. Rashmi Sethi
Ms. Himani Asija Ms. Urmila Guliani Dr. Meena Dhani Ms. Seema Rawat
Ms. Neerada Suresh
Dr. Rajesh Hassija
Ms. Anuradha Joshi
Mrs. Sonali Sinha
Ms. Vijay Laxmi Raman
Mrs. Avanita Bir
Ms. Suman Nath Bhalla
Prof Om Vikas
Dr. Rajesh Hassija Mrs. Sonali Sinha Mrs. Avanita Bir Prof Om Vikas
Material Developers Groups: Classes VI-VIII
English :
Ms Neha Sharma
Ms Dipinder Kaur
Ms Sarita Ahuja
Ms Gayatri Khanna
Ms Preeti Hans
Ms Rachna Pandit
Ms Renu Anand
Ms Sheena Chhabra
Ms Veena Bhasin
Ms Trishya Mukherjee
Ms Neerada Suresh
Ms Sudha Ravi
Ms Ratna Lal
Ms Ritu Badia Vashisth
MsVijay Laxmi Raman
Core- Research
Ms. Renu Anand
Ms. Gayatri Khanna
Dr. N K Sehgal
Ms. Anita Sharma
Ms. Rashmi Kathuria
Ms. Neha Sharma
Ms. Neeta Rastogi
Ms. Manjushtha Bose
Ms. Varsha Manku
Dr. K L Chopra
Chemistry :
Ms. Poonam Kumar Mendiratta
Ms. Rashmi Sharma
Ms. Kavita Kapoor
Ms. Divya Arora
Physics :
Ms. Vidhu Narayanan
Ms. Mukta Kaushik
Ms. Patarlekha Sarkar
Ms. Neelam Malik
Biology:
Mr. Saroj Kumar
Ms. Rashmi Ramsinghaney
Ms. Prerna Gosain
Ms. Seema Kapoor
Mr. Manish Panwar
Ms. Vikram Yadav
Ms. Monika Chopra
Ms. Jaspreet Kaur
Ms. Preeti Mittal
Ms. Shipra Sarcar
Ms. Leela Raghavan
Mathematics :
Ms. Deepa Gupta
Ms. Gayatri Chowhan
Ms. N Vidya
Ms. Mamta Goyal
Ms. Chhavi Raheja
Hindi:
Mr. Akshay Kumar Dixit
Ms. Veena Sharma
Ms. Nishi Dhanjal
Ms. Kiran Soni
CORE-SEWA
Ms. Vandna
Ms. Nishtha Bharati
Ms. Seema Bhandari
Ms. Seema Chopra
Ms. Reema Arora
Ms. Neha Sharma
ICT
Mr. Yogesh Kumar
Ms. Nancy Sehgal
Ms. Purvi Srivastava
Ms. Babita Mahajan
Ms. Ritu Arora
Ms. Swati Panhani
Ms. Chanchal Chandna
Geography:
Ms Suparna Sharma
Ms Aditi Babbar
History :
Ms Leeza Dutta
Ms Kalpana Pant
Ms Ruchi Mahajan
Political Science:
Ms Kanu Chopra
Ms Shilpi Anand
Economics :
Ms. Leela Garewal
Ms Anita Yadav
CORE-Perspectives
Ms. Madhuchhanda,
RO(Innovation)
Ms. Varsha Seth, Consultant
Ms Neha Sharma
Chief Co-ordinators: Dr. Srijata Das, EO
Co-ordinators
Ms. Sugandh Sharma,
E O
Ms.S. Radha Mahalakshmi,
E. O.
Dr Rashmi Sethi, E O Ms. Madhu Chanda, R O
(Inn)
Mr. Navin Maini, R O
(Tech)
Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO Mr. R P Singh, AEO Ms. Anjali, AEO
Ms. Neelima Sharma,
Consultant (English)
Shri R. P. Sharma, Consultant
(Science)
Mr. Sanjay Sachdeva, S O
1
TEACHER STUDENT'S SUPPORT MATERIAL (TSSM)
NATURAL FIBRES
We prefer wearing cotton clothes during summers and woolen clothes in winters. Have you
ever wondered how a cotton fabric or a woolen yarn is obtained? How does the cotton we use
to make a wick or ear bud gets converted to a shirt? How does wool we see over a sheeps body
gets converted to the yarn used to knit sweaters? Let us explore and answer these interesting
questions.
Activity 1
Aim: To study that fabrics are made up of fbres.
Material required: A small piece of cotton or jute or linen fabric and a scissor.
Steps:
1. Cut a small piece of fabric using scissors.
2. Pull few threads/yarns out of them.
3. Press one end of the thread with your thumb and scratch the other with your nails or pin/
needle.
Observation:
You will see loose threads or yarns at the edges. Notice that the cloth is made of a number of
such strands woven together.
You will also observe that yarn splits into thin strands which on further scratching, splits into
still thinner fbres.
Conclusion: Fabrics are made of yarns woven together and yarns are made up of fbres.
Now the question comes how these strands of fbres made into are yarns and how are yarns
made into fabrics? Explore.
FIBRES ------------> YARN ------------> FABRIC
NATURAL FIBRES AND FABRICS
2
Natural fibres are substances produced by plants and animals. Cotton, Wool, Jute
are some examples of natural fibres. These can be spun into threads or ropes or
can be woven and knitted to form fabrics.
Synthetic fbres are man-made fbres that are produced artifcially by processing and chemical
treatment of certain substances. E.g. Rayon is made from cellulose
3
PLANT FIBRES
A. COTTON
Cotton is the most important of all plant fbres used to make clothes. It has special
properties that make it the best choice for people to wear it especially during summer
season.
Properties
Cotton fbres have a natural twist that makes them suitable for spinning into a very
strong yarn.
It is a soft and fuffy fbre.
Water reaches the core of the fbre easily and removes the dirt from the cotton garments.
Its crease can easily be removed by ironing.
Due to its ability to absorb moisture cotton fabric is comfortable to wear during
humidity.
They are porous in nature and allow air to penetrate and keep the body cool.
They are eco-friendly as they are biodegradable.
COTTON CULTIVATION AND PROCESSING
It is a warm season crop and needs a moderate rainfall and black soil for best production. The
fbres grow in a ball around the seeds of a cotton plant.
Cotton seeds are planted in early spring. Cotton seeds grow steadily
and within a span of two months become bushes. They start bearing
yellow or white fowers, which turn pink within a week. At this
moment green pods appear which may contain two or more seeds.
The seeds develop within the pods and are gradually covered with
white fbrous material which is called cotton. The pods then grow
into spherical structures of the size of walnut, and are commonly
called cotton balls.
After maturing the cotton balls are picked up from the felds either
manually, using hands or mechanically, using machines. The seeds
are separated from them by combing. This process of separation of
seeds from cotton balls is known as ginning.
The process of making a yarn from fbres is called spinning. In
spinning the fbres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and
twisted. This brings the fbres together to form a yarn.
A cotton ball
Ginning machine
4
You can try spinning and making a yarn yourself. Take some cotton and start pulling out a few
fbres. While pulling, twist them too. You will notice that yarn is formed. Spinning can be done
by a charkha (spinning wheel) or a takli (spindle).
Weaving is interlacing of two sets of yarns at right angles to make a fabric. Weaving is done
on looms. Hand operated looms are called handlooms and the ones which are power operated
are called power looms.
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WORKSHEET 1
1. Why Cotton clothes are considered as bio degradable?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. The fruit of cotton is also called ____________.
3. Name the following:
a) A simple device used for spinning cotton.
_____________________________________________________________________
b) Process of removing seeds from cotton fbres.
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Name the process by which seeds are removed from cotton balls.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. When are cotton seeds sown in the soil? And when do they start bearing fowers?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6
B. Linen
Linen is a textile made from the fbres of the fax plant. Today linen is usually an expensive
textile. Its individual fbre length is longer than cotton and other natural fbres.
Many products are made of linen: apron, bags, towels, napkins, bed linen, linen table cloth,
chair cover, mens and womens wear.
Properties
Linen fabric feels cool to touch.
It has a smooth texture, and softens with each wash.
Linen fabrics have a high natural lustre; their natural color ranges between shades of
ivory, tan, or grey.
When properly prepared, linen fabric has the ability to absorb and lose water rapidly.
It is a very durable, strong fabric, and one of the few that are stronger when wet than
dry.
Linen Production
Flax is one of the few crops still produced in Western Europe,
with nearly 130,000 acres under cultivation annually.
Climatic conditions in this region are perfect for growing
fax. Flax cannot endure very hot weather; thus in many parts
of the world, fax are sown in winter because of heat in early
spring.
The growing cycle is short.
To preserve the full potential of each plant, fax is never mowed
but must be uprooted. Earlier this was an exhausting process
done by hand but today, mechanical grubbers do this tiring work.
Therefore while harvesting; fax is always pulled up, never cut,
to preserve the maximum fbre length.
After pulling, the fax is tied in bundles known as sheaves or
beets and taken to a feld to dry. The bundles are untied and the stems are laid out thinly on
the feld, this process is known as grassing.
Once dried, the seeds are moved through a mechanized process called rippling or by
winnowing.
7
A process called retting is employed to loosen the fbres from the stalk.
In this process, certain bacteria (micro-organisms) are used to decompose
(or break down) the binding material responsible for keeping the fbres
together. The fbres are thus loosened from the stalk to separate the loosened
fbres from the stalk; the process of Scutching is used. Scutching can be
done either by hand or by machine. It involves scraping down and pulling
away pieces of stalk separating the fbres. The fbres are then heckled.
On passing through heckling combs, the short fbres and impurities are
separated. The long, clean fbres are thus separated, ready to be spun. After
spinning, it can be used for weaving into Linen.
8
WORKSHEET-2
1. Name the following:
a) Plant from which linen fbres are obtained
_____________________________________________________________________
b) Part of the plant from which fbres are obtained
_____________________________________________________________________
c) Process of loosening fbres from the stem
_____________________________________________________________________
d) Device by which fbres are aligned for spinning
_____________________________________________________________________
e) Stage at which Harvesting is done
_____________________________________________________________________
f) Months of sowing fax plant
2. Arrange the following processes in the sequence in which they are performed to make
linen fbres from fax plant:
Scutching, retting, harvesting, dyeing, heckling, and spinning
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. At what stage of production of linen are micro-organisms used and how?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9
C. Jute
Another plant fbre about which we will learn is jute. As we take the journey from jute fbre to
jute fabric you will fnd many similarities between the processing of jute and linen.
Jute is a natural vegetable fbre. Jute is obtained from the stem of a plant called Patsun. Since
ancient times, it has been traditionally grown in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent,
which is the present day West Bengal of India and plains of Bangladesh.
Properties
It is one of the strongest and most durable natural fbre.
It is biodegradable.
It has superior heat insulation properties.
It has a high tensile strength and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute
is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
After cotton, jute is second most important fbre in terms of usage, global consumption,
production, and availability. Because of its natural golden colour and silky shine it is known
as The Golden Fibre.
The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of
which is occupied by Bangladesh.
Conditions for growing Jute
Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. Jute fourishes best under warm and humid
climate with temperature ranging from 24 to 37 degree centigrade.
Jute can be grown on all kind of soils from clay to sandy, loam but loamy alluvial soil suits it
most.
Jute rope Jute fbre is being dehydrated after
retting alongside a road
10
Jute Production
Jute crop can be harvested between 100 120 days. After harvesting the jute bundles are kept
in the feld for 2 -3 days to allow leaf shedding.
As in case of linen, fbres need to be separated from their stem by retting. After the retting
process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fbrous matter is scraped off, thus the
fbres are obtained.
India, Pakistan, China are the large buyers of local jute while Britain, Spain, Ivory Coast,
Germany and Brazil also import raw jute from Bangladesh.
The primary fber is pressed into a highly compressed bale, similar to other fbers like cotton
and wool.
Jute fbre is extracted from retted stem of jute plants
11
WORKSHEET 3
1. Name the following:
a) Plant from which jute is obtained
_____________________________________________________________________
b) Part of the plant which yields jute fbres
_____________________________________________________________________
c) Soil suitable for cultivation of jute plant
_____________________________________________________________________
d) Process by which non fbrous material is scraped off
_____________________________________________________________________
2. How is retting done?
____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Why are jute fbres called golden fbre?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Why jute is suitable for bulk packaging?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Which season is most suitable for cultivation of jute and why?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12
ANIMAL FIBRES
A. WOOL
Wool is majorly obtained from sheep. List fve items
that are made of wool
____________ , ______________ , ______________ ,
______________ , ______________ .
Characteristics of wool
It is crimped (the natural wave of wool fbre).
Wool is naturally fre resistant.
Wool has the ability to stretch and then return to its
natural length.
Wool readily absorbs water and can also release it.
Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than
other textiles and retain air, which causes the product to
retain heat.
Wool is a natural fbre and renewable resource
Other animals that produce wool
Angora Rabbit Found in Angora, Turkey. Produces fne quality
of white or coloured wool called mohair. Mohair is used in making
carpets, scarves, winter hats, suit, sweaters, coats and socks.
Alpaca Camel Found in Peru and other areas of South America.
Alpaca camel wool is very fne and of yarn quality and so it is used
for shawls, stoles and carpets.
Did you know?
Bedouins and Turaeg
use woolen clothes to
keep the heat out.
13
Angora goat is a descendant of wild goats from the Angora region
in Asia Minor, near present-day Ankara, Turkey. Called by some the
most effcient fber producers on Earth, angora goats are docile and
personable creatures that contribute a wonderful dimension to our
farm.
From fbre to wool
Processing of wool involves the following steps.
a) Shearing of wool
b) Scouring
c) Sorting
d) Grading
e) Dyeing
f) Spinning weaving and knitting
a) SHEARING The process of removing feece from the sheeps body is called
shearing. The person who shears the sheep is called shearer. Shearing is usually
done in spring or non winter months as it is not cold and the sheep can live without
its feece. Shearing is done by hands using clippers or a pair of scissors. Machines
are also used to make shearing easy and fast. The feece has to be removed in a
single piece and therefore requires a skilled person. Shearing does not hurt the sheep
as the uppermost layer of the skin is dead and the hair of the sheep continues to grow
just as our hair grows.
Shearing
14
b) SCOURING After shearing the feece is washed thoroughly in tanks to remove dust,
dirt and grease. This process is called scouring. Nowadays machines are used for this
purpose.
c) SORTING Scouring is followed by sorting. It is done in factories where hair of
different textures are separated and sorted. The small fuffy fbres are then picked out
from the hair. You can also observe them in the form of wool burrs in your woolen
clothes.
d) GRADING In this process the wool is grouped according to its length, colour, texture
and ease of drying.
Grading
Scouring
Sorting of wool
15
e) DYEING The colour of natural feece of sheep hair is black, brown and white. So, the
processed fbres are dyed in various colors depending on our choice.
e) SPINNING, WEAVING AND KNITTING After dyeing the fbres are dried and
then straightened combed and rolled into yarn. The shorter fbres are spun and woven
into fabrics of desired shape or size. The larger fbres are spun and knitted into woolen
garments.
Some breeds of sheep
Name Wool Country
Afrino Fine wool South Africa, Australia
Altay Carpet wool China
Apennine Medium wool Italy
Barki Long wool Middle east
Aragonesa Medium wool World wide
Awassi Carpet wool World wide
Dyeing
Spinning of wool Knitting of wool Knitting of wool
16
Activity 2
Read the labels of different wool items:
A) Identify the places where it is manufactured.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
B) How are these to be maintained?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
C) What properties of the wool do you infer from it?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
17
WORKSHEET 4
1. Match the following:
Column I Column II
i. Cloth
ii. Very thin hair like threads from which fabric is made
iii. Twisted fbres
iv. Synthetic fbre
v. Spinning device
vi. Making yarn from fbres
vii. Animal fbre
viii. Separation of cotton fbres from its seeds
ix. Interlinking two sets of yarn
x. Plant fbre
a) Fibres
b) Silk
c) Takli
d) Fabric
e) Weaving
f) Cotton
g) Ginning
h) Nylon
i) Spinning
j) Yarn
2. Correct the following statements and rewrite in space provided.
a) Fibre is a material that is woven from threads.
_____________________________________________________________
b) Wool is obtained only from sheep.
_________________________________________________________________
c) Merino wool is obtained from camels.
_________________________________________________________________
d) Bactrian sheep give the best quality wool.
_________________________________________________________________
e) Cashmere goat gives fbre called mohair.
_________________________________________________________________
f) Angora goat gives us mohair fbres.
_________________________________________________________________
18
3. Find out and write examples of:
a) Animal fbres
____________________________________________
b) Camel that gives us wool
___________________________________________
c) Goat that gives us wool
_______________________________________________
d) Countries manufacturing wool garments
_______________________________________________
e) Types of silk
_______________________________________________
19
WORKSHEET 5
Q1 Fill in the blanks with appropriate words
a) The _______________ of sheep is spun to make yarn.
b) Wool is a _________________ which we get from sheep.
Q2 Why do you think shearing should be done in summers?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Q3 Defne the term scouring and grading.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Q4 Write S for man made and N for natural fbre.
a) Nylon ________ b) Cotton __________
c) Wool _________ d) Silk _________
Q5 Which of these is not a natural fbre?
a) Nylon b) Jute c) Wool d) Cotton
20
B. SILK
Silk is the most beautiful of all textile fbres. It is also called the queen of textiles. Silk is also
a protein fbre obtained from various insects and spiders. The best known type of silk used in
commercial textiles is produced from the cocoons made by larvae of the Bombyx mori moth.
Properties of silk
1. Silk has shimmering appearance which comes from the fbres triangular prism like
structure which allows silk cloth to refect incoming light at different angles.
2. It is versatile and comfortable to wear.
3. Can be easily dyed into different colors.
4. Silk is a bad conductor of heat and so it is cool to wear in summers and warm in winters
as compared to cotton and linen.
5. It is the strongest natural fbre.
6. It burns with smell of hair.
The four commercially known varieties of silk are: mulberry silk, tassur silk, eri silk and muga
silk.
Do you know from where the silk come from?
Silk is obtained from cocoons of silk moth. What are
cocoons?
To understand it we have to study the life cycle of silk
moth.
The lifecycle of silk moth starts when a female silk
moth lays its eggs on the leaves of a mulberry tree.
These eggs then hatch into larvae. What are these larvae
known as ...
Any guesses? The larva is not a worm at all but a
caterpillar.
Larvae eat voraciously and grow fast. During this
stage they shed their skin four times which is called
moulting.
After four to six weeks the larvae achieve their maximum size and stops eating. A fully grown
larva attaches itself to a twig. At this stage it is called Pupa. The pupa starts secreting fbres
from the glands in its head. It moves its head in the shape of number 8 and keeps secreting silk
fbres until it is completely covered with them. The fbres harden when exposed to air and form
Did you know?
Until World War I,
bullet proof vests
were also made from
silk.
The cultivation of
cocoons of silkmoth
to obtain silk
flaments is called
sericulture.
21
a shell like structure around the pupa. This hard covering is known as cocoon. The further
development of moth starts inside the cocoon. If the adult moth were allowed to emerge from
the cocoon naturally, it would secrete a chemical, which would eat the cocoon and the silk
fbre will get damaged. Therefore the silk worms are killed by dipping them in boiling water,
steaming or drying in an oven. The silk fbre obtained by cocoon undergo following steps in
the silk producing factories:
Processing of silk
a) Sorting of cocoons: The cocoons are sorted according to the color, size, shape and
texture as these defne the quality of silk.
b) Softening of sericin: Silk flaments are bound together by gummy substance called
sericin. After sorting, cocoons are
put through a series of hot and cold
immersions to soften the sericin. This
allows the unwinding of flament as
a continuous thread.
c) Reeling of filament: Reeling
is the process of unwinding the
filaments from the cocoon. As
the silk fibres are very fine, they
are combined together to make a
thread of raw silk. Three to ten
22
strands are usually reeled at a time
to produce the desired thickness of
raw silk.
d) Bailing of flament: The reeled silk
is packed in small bundles called
books. These books are put into bales
weighing about 60kg. These are then
transported to the silk mills for silk
production.
e) Weaving: Weaving is a method of
fabric production in which two distinct
sets of yarns of threads are interlaced
at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods are knitting, lace making and
felting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft
or flling. (Weft is an old English word meaning that which is woven.) The method in
which these threads are interwoven affects the characteristics of the cloth.
Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while flling
threads are woven through them.
Silk weaving is similar to the weaving of other types of yarns: warp and weft threads are
intertwined according to a pattern to produce a woven fabric. Sheer, soft fabrics like chiffon
or lightweight crepe de chine; satin, taffeta, twill, damask, and brocades; even velvets are all
woven from silk.
Activity: 3
Aim: To study different stages of life cycle of butterfy or moth.
Material required: Any infested vegetable like pea, brinjal or caulifower, one wide mouthed
bottle, muslin cloth.
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Procedure:
1. Take infested vegetable, and collect the green wriggling worm like creature called larva/
caterpillar from it.
2. Place the caterpillar in the bottle along with some small pieces of vegetable from where
you have collected the caterpillar.
3. Cover the mouth of the bottle with muslin cloth.
4. Record you observations in a notebook.
Observation:
You will observe that after few days caterpillar will transform into a dark brown stationary
structure called pupa or cocoon.
After another few days adult moth will emerge out from the cocoon
Uses of silk
1. In the manufacture of clothes, dress materials, curtains and upholstery.
2. For handicrafts and items like parachutes, bicycle tyres, comforter flling.
3. Through a special manufacturing process, it is made suitable for use as non-absorbable
surgical sutures.
4. Doctors also use it to make prosthetic arteries.
Demonstration
Aim: Identifcation of Fibres with the help of burning test.
Materials required: Different types of fbres, matchbox and a candle
Procedure: - For the burning test:-
1. Take out a yarn from the fabric.
2. Burn one end of the yarn either with a match stick or burning candle.
3. Check the following:
a) How the fbre catches fre.
b) Type of fame.
c) Smell after burning.
d) Observe and comment upon ash left behind.
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Answers to all these points will help to identify fbres
FIBRE INFLAME TYPE OF FLAME SMELL ASH
COTTON AND
RAYON
Catches fre easily Continues to burn
with a bright Yellow
fame
Smell of burning
paper
Light feathery ash
SILK AND WOOL Does not catch fre
easily
Burns with a yellow
fame. Does not
continue to burn
Smell of burning
hair
Black crushable
bead
NYLON Does not catch fre Shrinks away No defnite Smell Hard, uncrushable
bead
POLYSTER
ACRYLIC
Easily, melts away Flame. Burns with
sputtering
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POST CONTENT WORKSHEET
1. Choose the correct alternative to answer the following questions:
(i) Which of the fabric is most suitable for summer?
(a) Cotton
(b) Nylon
(c) Silk
(d) TERYLENE
(ii) Which of the following fabrics does not take stains easily?
(a) Cotton
(b) Nylon
(c) Wool
(d) Silk
(iii) Which of the following fabrics is a bad conductor?
(a) Nylon
(b) Wool
(c) Rayon
(d) Cotton
(iv) Which fabric is made of staple fbre?
(a) Cotton
(b) Nylon
(c) Polyester
(d) Silk
(v) Which is the strongest fbre?
(a) Cotton
(b) Nylon
(c) Rayon
(d) Wool
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(vi) Which fabric has a dull surface?
(a) Nylon
(b) Polyester
(c) Silk
(d) Wool
(vii) Cotton is most desirable fabric for making undergarments because it is:
(a) Absorbent
(b) Dull
(c) Shinning
(d) Strong
2. Name four wool yielding animals.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
3. Name three vegetable fbres.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
4. Which complex compounds are animal fbres made of?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
5. List few properties of fbres.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
6. Why linen is a suitable fabric for making body or wash towels?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
7. What type of soil and climate is required for cultivation of fax?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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8. Write in brief about retting of fax fbres.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
9. What is Scutching? How is it done?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
10. Write a short note on spinning of linen fbres.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
11. How does wool fbre keep our body warm?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
12. We wear clothes suited to the weather. Explain the statement giving suitable examples.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
13. Draw the diagram of life cycle of a silk moth.

14. For obtaining silk fbres from cocoons why are cocoon put in boiling water?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
15. Why are mulberry leaves required during larval stage of silkworm?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
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16. What is the meaning of books in relation to sericulture?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
17. Name the natural varieties of silk.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
18. What is the difference between weaving and knitting?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
19. Your mother goes to buy a woolen shawl from the market. The shopkeeper takes out a small
strand of yarn from the shawl and burns it. It smells of burning plastic. Will it be a good
decision to buy the shawl? Give reason for your answer.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
20. List various stages in the life cycle of silkworm. Can you name some other insects that have
similar life cycle?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
21. Differentiate between;
a) Shearing and scouring
b) Cashmere and angora
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
22. Raghu took out a torn shirt. He pulled out few strands called X from his shirt. When he
untwisted them, he found very thin strands called Y. Identify X and Y.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
23. List four types on natural fbres and their sources.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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24. Why is the trade of animal products usually banned in many countries?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
25. Why is sericulture not considered an eco-friendly practice?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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Glossary
Fabric material that is made from fbres either natural or artifcial
Spinning twisting of fbres to obtain yarn
Yarn thread obtained after spinning of fbres which is ready to be weaved.
Weaving interlacing two sets of yarns to make a fabric.
Sheaves bundles of fax.
Rippling process of removing seeds from dried fax.
Retting microbial decomposition of stem to loosen the fbres.
Scutching process of removing straw and other woody material from the fax fbres.
Mohair a kind of fne wool obtained from Angora goat.
Shearing process of removal of wool from the skin of an animal with the help of razors.
Scouring removal of dust dirt and grease by using chemicals.
Sericulture commercial rearing of silk to obtain silk.
Resources :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5i8KRcccDw (link for hand spinning wool)
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Justine-37887-Cotton-as-Education-ppt-powerpoint/
(ppt on processing of cotton fbres)
galaxysite.weebly.com/uploads/6/4/9/5/6495197/3fbretofabric.ppt (ppt on fbre to fabric)
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/yashrastogi-749387-sericulture-by-yash/ (ppt on
sericulture)
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/98Anshul-761112-wool/ (ppt on wool)
www.avs.uidaho.edu/avs476/IntroWoolNX.ppt (ppt on wool)
www.jute.org/.../Int.%20Con.%20Feb-2009%20H.%20S.%20Sen.pp (ppt on jute)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBeHpDqnqMk (video on cotton harvesting and processing)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSe1gQNl4Ns (spinning of cotton)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUHMTsfhshY (spinning with the help of takli)