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Stress Analysis

Stress Analysis

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Piping Systems

12/10/2012 2 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which

address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects

of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures,

changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity.

Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of

stress analysis.

Purpose of piping stress analysis

Purpose of piping stress analysis is to ensure:

Safety of piping and piping components.

Safety of connected equipment and supporting structure.

Piping deflections are within the limits

12/10/2012 3 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Support locations and types to

satisfy nozzle loads, valves

accelerations and piping

movements.

Interrelated with Piping layout and support design

Layout should take care of sufficient flexibility for

thermal expansion, and simplified supports

Pipe section properties to be suitable for intended

service, temperatures, pressures and anticipated

loadings.

12/10/2012 4 of 82

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course from web

BECHT Engineering Company, Inc.

12/10/2012 5 of 82

The Stress-Strain curve (1/3)

12/10/2012 6 of 82

The Stress-strain curve (2/3)

It should be emphasized that the extent of

each region in stress-strain space is

material dependent, and that not all

materials exhibit all of the above regions.

In the elastic region, the slope of the

stress-strain curve is the Young's

Modulus. Thus s = e E

The stress-strain curve characterizes the behavior of the material

tested.

It is most often plotted using engineering stress and strain measures,

because the reference length and cross-sectional area are easily

measured.

Typical regions that can be observed in a stress-strain curve are:

Elastic region

Yielding

Strain Hardening

Necking and Failure

12/10/2012 7 of 82

Stress-strain curves for structural steel

(ASTM A36) at elevated temperatures (3/3)

The yield and ultimate strength decrease with

temperature as does the modulus of elasticity.

12/10/2012 8 of 82

Examples

What's the Young's Modulus of a steel bar that has a cross-

sectional area of 0.73 in

2

, is 4 inches long, and supports a load of

3.9x10

7

lbs, deforming 0.2 percent?

E = 9.36 x 10

-6

psi

E = 2.67 x 10

10

psi

E = 3.74 x 10

-11

psi

E = 2.67 x 10

+10

lbs.

During plastic deformation, the volume of the specimen, as well

as its cross-sectional area, decrease. Yes/No?

12/10/2012 9 of 82

Failure Theories

The two theories commonly used are

Maximum principal stress theory

Maximum shear stress theory

Maximum principal stress theory forms basis of B31

series codes.

Yielding in a pipe component

occurs when the magnitude of any

of the three mutually perpendicular

principal stresses exceeds the

yield strength of materials.

12/10/2012 10 of 82

Stress Categories

The major stress categories are

Primary Stresses These are developed by the imposed loading.

Limits are intended to prevent plastic deformation and bursting. These

satisfy equilibrium between internal and external forces and moments of

the piping system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.

Secondary Stresses Primary + Secondary stress limits are intended

to prevent excessive plastic deformation leading to incremental

collapse. These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a

structure e.g. Thermal expansion or movement of an anchor.

Secondary stresses are self-limiting.

Peak Stress limit is intended to prevent fatigue failure from cyclic

loading. Examples are stress concentrations at discontinuity and

thermal gradient through pipe walls

12/10/2012 11 of 82

Secondary Stresses

Therefore, secondary

stresses are self limiting.

Only ductile materials with

a well defined minimum

yield points are used in

piping wherever thermal

stresses are encountered

Piping system must satisfy an imposed strain pattern rather than

be in equilibrium with imposed forces.

Local yielding and minor distortions tend to relieve these

stresses.

12/10/2012 12 of 82

Classifications of Loads

Expansion loads

thermal expansions,

seismic anchor

movements, thermal

anchor movements,

building settlements.

Sustained loads: present throughout normal plant

operations (pressure, weight etc.)

Occasional loads: infrequent intervals during plant

operations e.g. earthquake, wind, transients e.g.

water hammer, relief valve discharge

12/10/2012 13 of 82

B31.3-2008 Process Piping Code

The loadings required to be considered are

Pressure

Weight (live and dead loads)

Impact

Wind

Earthquake induced horizontal forces

Vibrations

Discharge reactions

Thermal expansions and contractions

Temperature gradients

Anchor movements.

12/10/2012 14 of 82

Stresses due to sustained loads

The thickness of pipe used in

calculating S

L

shall be the nominal

thickness minus mechanical,

corrosion, and corrosion

allowances.

The sum of longitudinal stress S

L

due to pressure, weight, and

other sustained loads must not exceed S

h

(basic allowable stress

at maximum temperature).

S

L

S

h

S

L

= P D / 4 t + S

b

12/10/2012 15 of 82

Stresses due to occasional loads

The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to

pressure, weight and other sustained loads and of

the stresses produced by occasional loads such as

earthquake or wind shall not exceed 1.33S

h

Earthquake and wind loading need not be

considered as acting simultaneously.

12/10/2012 16 of 82

Stress range due to expansion loads

The displacement stress range S

E

shall not exceed S

A

S

E

S

A

Where S

E

= (S

b

2

+ 4 S

t

2

)

1/2

S

b

resultant bending stress psi = [(i

i

M

i

)

2

+ (i

o

M

o

)

2

]

1/2

/

Z

M

i

in-plane bending moment in-lbs

M

o

out of plane bending moment in-lbs

i

i

= In plane stress intensification factor

i

o

= out of plane stress intensification factor

S

t

= torsional stress, psi = M

t

/ (2Z)

M

t

= torsional moment in-lbs

For definition of S

A

, see next slide

12/10/2012 17 of 82

Allowable Displacement Stress Range S

A

[Refer ASME B 31.3-2008, 302.3.5(d)] (1/2)

The computed displacement stress range S

E

shall not

exceed allowable displacement stress range.

S

A

= allowable displacement stress range

= f (1.25 S

c

+ 0.25 S

h

)

when S

h

> S

L

S

A

= f [1.25 (S

c

+ S

h

) S

L

],

S

c

= basic allowable stress at minimum metal

temperature, psi

S

h

= basic allowable stress at maximum metal

temperature, psi

f = Stress range factor = 6.0 (N)

-0.2

f

m

f

m

= maximum value 1.2 for ferrous materials with

SMTS < 517 MPa (75 ksi), metal temp 371 C (700

F), otherwise f

m

= 1.0

12/10/2012 18 of 82

Allowable Displacement Stress Range S

A

[Refer ASME B 31.3-2008, 302.3.5(d)] (2/2)

N equivalent number of full displacement cycles during the

expected service life of the piping system

When computed stress range varies, whether from thermal

expansion or other conditions, S

E

is defined as greatest

computed displacement stress range. The value of N can be

calculated as

N = N

E

+ (r

i

5

N

i

) for i = 1, 2, ., n

r

i

= S

i

/ S

E,

S

i

is any computed displacement stress range smaller

than S

E

12/10/2012 19 of 82

Stress Range Factor f

12/10/2012 20 of 82

Stress Intensification Factor (SIF)

A Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) is defined as the ratio between the

peak stress and average stress in a given component:

SIF = Actual Peak Stress / Nominal Stress in Part

A. R. C. Markl and his team (1950s) developed the original SIFs still

used in ASME piping Codes today.

In his study, Markl determined that girth butt-welds typically resulted in

stresses approximately 1.7 to 2.0 times the stress in non-welded piping.

As a result, all of the piping codes have been base lined to include the

factor of 2.0 for girth welds:

Z) Modulus (Section / M) (Moment * 2

M Moment to due Stress) (Peak Actual

3 . 31

M Moment to due Butt Weld Girth in Stress

M Moment to due Stress) (Peak Actual

3 . 31

SIF B

or

SIF B

12/10/2012 21 of 82

ASME B31.3, sample. Refer code for complete table

12/10/2012 22 of 82

Analysis of Integral welded

attachments (IWA)

Used to support piping systems

Local stresses are evaluated using Welding

Research Council (WRC) Bulletin #107.

WRC #107 approach has limitations on attachment

parameter (0.01 b 0.5) and shell parameter (5 g

300)

Shell parameter g = D

m

/ (2T), where D

m

= D

o

-T

Attachment parameter b = 0.875 (d

o

/D

m

) for circular

attachments or b

1

= C

1

/D

m

an b

2

= C

2

/D

m

for

rectangular attachment

Add figure

12/10/2012 23 of 82

WRC 107

Nomenclature applicable

to Cylindrical shells

V

c

Concentrated shear load in the circumferential direction, lb

V

L

Concentrated shear load in the longitudinal direction, lb

M

c

external overturning moment in the circumferential direction with

respect to the shell lb

M

L

external overturning moment in the longitudinal direction with

respect to the shell lb

12/10/2012 24 of 82

WRC Bulletin 107

LOCAL STRESSES IN SPHERICAL AND

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS DUE TO EXTERNAL

LOADINGS

K. R. Wichman, A. G. Hopper, and J. L. Mershon

WRC Bulletin 107 presents the results of an analytical and

experimental research program aimed at providing methods for

determining the stresses in pressure vessel nozzle connections

subjected to various forms of external loadings.

Based on the work of P.P. Bijlaard, the Bulletin covers the sign

conventions, parameters, calculation of stresses,

nondimensional curves, and limitations on application for

spherical and cylindrical shells and an abridged calculation for

maximum stress in spherical shells.

http://www.forengineers.org/wrc/

12/10/2012 25 of 82

WRC Bulletin 198

SECONDARY STRESS INDICES FOR INTEGRAL

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENTS TO STRIAGHT PIPE;

STRESS INDICES AT LUG SUPPORTS ON PIPING SYSTEMS

W.G. Dodge; E.C. Rodabaugh, W.G. Dodge and S.E. Moore

This report presents a simplified method for calculating the stresses

induced in straight pipe by thrust and moment loadings applied to lugs

and other integral attachments.

Following the philosophy of the nuclear power piping portion of Section

III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, appropriate

secondary stress indices are defined.

A simple and conservative formula for computing the stress indices is

developed using analytical results as a guide.

A comparison is made between experimental stress indices and those

obtained using the simplified analysis procedure developed here as well

as the more complex analysis procedures of Welding Research Council

Bulletin 107 (WRC-107 method). The method is extended to

attachments having a variety of cross sections.

12/10/2012 26 of 82

WRC Bulletin 297

LOCAL STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS DUE TO

EXTERNAL LOADINGS ON NOZZLES

J. L. Mershon, K. Mokhtarian, G. V. Ranjan, and E. C. Rodabaugh

WRC Bulletin 297 presents methods and data for treating two normally

intersecting cylindrical shells, i.e., cylindrical nozzles radially attached

to cylindrical vessels (shells).

Stresses in both the nozzle and vessel can be determined, and the

range of vessel diameter-to-thickness ratio covered is increased over

that in Bulletin 107.

The analytical method used was derived and developed by C.R. Steele

on the basis of the thin shell theory.

12/10/2012 27 of 82

Shear Stresses

Square/ rectangular

IWA

Circular IWA

V

L

t = V

L

/ (2C

2

T) t = 2 V

L

/ (d

o

T)

V

C

t = Vc / (2C

1

T) t = 2 V

C

/ (d

o

T)

M

T

t = M

T

/ F t = 4M

T

/ [2(d

o

)

2

T]

F = larger of T [C

max

+ C

min

] (C

min

/2) or

[1.57 + 0.093 (C

max

/C

min

)] (C

min

)

2

(C

max

/8)

Where C

max

= maximum of C

1

and C

2

, C

min

= minimum of C

1

and C

2

Formula for Shear Stress calculations (WRC 107)

12/10/2012 28 of 82

Expansion Joints

When piping elbows, bends, and expansion loops

may not provide adequate flexibility in piping,

expansion joints may be used to absorb the

expansion and contractions of piping.

Following may be its applications

Thermal movements inducing excessive stress

Space restrictions

Large reactions to pipe anchors

Large reactions to equipment nozzles

In expansion joints, pressure forces must be resisted

by pipe supports and anchors. (Pressure force =

internal pressure x max sectional area where

applied.)

Types can be rubber hoses or metal bellows, etc.

12/10/2012 29 of 82

Expansion Joints

Expansion joint is defined as an

assembly containing one or more

bellows used to absorb

dimensional changes caused by

thermal or mechanical movement

in a pipeline or duct.

Expansion joints assembly consist of

Bellow (Flexible Element) and end

connections (Pipe, Flange or any

special as per requirements). As per

design requirements Limit Rods (Tie

Rods), Internal Sleeve (Liner),

Shroud (External Cover) are also

provided

Three basic types of movements

absorbed by Expansion Joints.

Axial

Lateral

Angular

12/10/2012 30 of 82

Flexible Pipe loops

12/10/2012 31 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(1/9)

Sustained Load: Pressure

Internal pressure in piping induces stresses in pipe wall not result in

pipe support loading.

The longitudinal stress in pipe due to internal pressure

S

LP

= P D / 4 t

It can also be represented as

S

LP

= P d

2

/ (D

2

d

2

) = P (A

f

/ A

m

)

Where S

LP

= longitudinal stress psi

P = Internal design pressure psig

D = Outside diameter in

d = Inside diameter in

A

f

= Flow area in

2

A

m

= metal area in

2

t = pipe wall thickness in

12/10/2012 32 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(2/9)

Sustained Load: Weight

Design load on piping supports will include

Live loads: weight of medium transported or for test

Dead loads: weight of piping, fittings, insulation, valves,

flanges etc.

When a gas or steam piping is to be hydrotested, its

effects also need to be considered.

If pipe supports are not designed for this load,

temporary supports may be needed,

12/10/2012 33 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(3/9)

Thermal Expansion Loads

Piping systems are to be analyzed for maximum operating

temperature.

Free thermal analysis may be performed considering terminal

points and anchors and equipment nozzles. A thermal stress <

10,000 psi means adequate flexibility in piping system.

Equipment nozzle displacements due to thermal expansions

need to be considered

The thermal stress developed in the pipe are in fact stress

range i.e. difference between thermal expansion and highest

and lowest temperatures.

Loads due to differences in expansion characteristics as in

bimetallic, lined, jacketed or metallic-non metallic piping also

need to be considered.

12/10/2012 34 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(4/9)

Occasional Loads - Seismic

Piping Seismic analysis, if required, may be performed by one of the

three methods eg

Time history analysis

Modal response spectrum analysis

Static analysis

A basic equation of motion for any piping system subjected to seismic

excitation is

M d

2

x/dt

2

+ C dx/dt + kx = f

Where M mass matrix of system

C damping matrix

K stiffness matrix

d

2

x/dt

2

acceleration vector

dx/dt velocity vector

x displacement vector

f external loading vector, function of time.

12/10/2012 35 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(5/9)

Seismic anchor movements (SAM)/ Support

settlements

A piping system supported on two seismically independent

structures that move out of phase will experience stresses due to

differential displacements.

The analysis is done by applying corresponding displacements at

pipe supports or anchor locations.

Usually evaluated as secondary stress

If SAM is less than thermal stress range, effective secondary

stress range is sum of two.

If SAM is more than thermal stress range, effective secondary

stress range is twice SAM stress.

12/10/2012 36 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(6/9)

Dynamic Loads (1/4)

Dynamic Effects may consist of the following

Impact caused by external/ internal conditions

Wind exposed piping

Earthquake horizontal forces to be considered

Vibration- due to any source as impact, pressure

pulsations, flow vortices, resonance in compressors

and wind.

Discharge reaction let down or discharge of fluids.

12/10/2012 37 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(7/9)

Dynamic Loads (2/4)

Safety Relief Valve Discharge Analysis

Safety Relief Valve are of two types

Open discharge discharging to atmosphere

Closed discharge to a closed system

Static analysis method for a open discharge system is as given in

ASME B 31.1

The reaction force due to steady state flow following opening of valve F

= W V / g + (P-Pa) A

F = Force reaction at exit

W = mass flow rate lbm/s

G = Acceleration due to gravity 32.2 ft/sec

2

P = Static pressure at exit, psia

Pa = Atmospheric pressure, psia

A = Exit area in

2

12/10/2012 38 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(8/9)

Dynamic Loads (Continued 3/4)

The Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) used to account for increased

laod caused bu sudden application of discharge load, range from

1.1 to 2.0.

Calculate the safety valve installation period T = 0.1846 (W h

3

/

EI)

0.5

Where T = safety valve installation period sec

W = Weight of safety valve, installation piping, flanges,

attachments etc. lb

h = distance from run pipe to centreline of outlet pipe in

E = Youngs Modulus psi

I Moment of inertia of inlet pipe in4

Calculate the ratio t0/T determine the DLF.

Moment = force x distance x DLF. The stress is than calculated

accordingly.

12/10/2012 39 of 82

Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(9/9)

Dynamic Loads (Continued 4/4)

The water hammer loading to be discussed

12/10/2012 40 of 82

Computer Programs

CAESAR II

Autopipe

Triflex Windows

Ansys

CAEPIPE (prounounced "K-pipe")

SIMFLEX

12/10/2012 41 of 82

ASME B 31.3-2008 302.3

Allowable Stress and Other Stress limits

Basic allowable stress in tension for metals and design stresses

for bolting materials as per Table A-1 and A-2

Bolting materials design stress 1/4 x minimum tensile strength or

2/3 minimum yield strength

For materials except Bolting, CI, malleable iron etc. basic

allowable stress is

Lower of 1/3 S

T

or tensile strength at temperature.

Lower of 2/3 of S

Y

or 2/3 of yield strength at temperature

For Aus SS and Ni alloys, lower of 2/3 of S

Y

and 90% of Yield

strength at temperature.

Other criteria for creep rate and stress for rupture as per code

12/10/2012 42 of 82

Equipment & piping

12/10/2012 43 of 82

Allowance for thermal expansion

Using Figure, find the approximate expansion from 15C, of 100 metres of carbon steel pipework used to

distribute steam at 265C Temperature difference is 265 - 15C = 250C.

Where the diagonal temperature difference line of 250C cuts the horizontal pipe length line at 100 m,

drop a vertical line down. For this example an approximate expansion of 330 mm is indicated.

12/10/2012 44 of 82

ASME B31.3:2006 319.4

Flexibility Analysis (Sht 1 of 3)

No formal analysis of adequate flexibility is required for piping

system which

Duplicates or replaces a system operating successfully.

Judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed

systems

Is of uniform size, no more than two points of fixation, no

intermediate restraints, and falls within

D y / (L-U)

2

K

1

D Outside diameter of pipe mm (in)

E

a

reference modulus of elasticity at 21 C (70 F) MPa ksi

K

1

= 208,000 S

A

/ E

a

(mm/m)

2

= 30 S

A

/ E

a

(in/ft)

2

30 x (25.4 mm/ 1 in)

2

(3.2808 ft/ 1m)

2

= 208,328 (mm/m)

2

12/10/2012 45 of 82

ASME B31.3:2008 319.4

Flexibility Analysis (Sht 2 of 3)

L developed length of piping between anchors m (ft)

S

A

allowable displacement stress range MPa (ksi)

B31.3 302.3.5(d) S

A

= f (1.25 S

c

+ 0.25 S

h

)

U anchor distance straight line between anchors m (ft)

y = resultant of total displacement strains, mm (in) to

be absorbed by the piping system

All the parameters may be taken from ASME B31.3-2006 code

various appendices as below.

Cold and hot allowable stresses S

c

and S

h

from Table A-1, Basic

Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals.

12/10/2012 46 of 82

ASME B31.3:2008 319.4

Flexibility Analysis (Sht 3/3)

Thermal Coefficients a from Table C-1 (Total thermal expansion)

or Table C-3 (Coefficients for Metals), at the maximum

temperature

E

a

value from Table C-6, Modulus of Elasticity, US units for

Metals.

Stress range Factor f from Fig 302.3.5 of B31.3 or by given

formula in par. 302.3.5(d). Number of cycles may need to be

assumed based your knowledge of the operation.

y resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by piping

system may be calculated using the above thermal expansion

value with no restraints.

Therefore, y = a x U x Dt, Dt is change in temperature, U anchor

distance

12/10/2012 47 of 82

Example (Sht 1 of 2)

Given that: Formal Analysis not required

Pipe material: Carbon Steel, C 0.3%

Pipe Size: 8" sch 40

S

A

= f (1.25 S

c

+ 0.25 S

h

), Assume f = 1

Temperature range: 30C to 400C

(Range F: 86 F to 752 F)

E

a

at 21 C (70 F) 2.95 x 10

7

psi (Refer B31.3 Table C6)

From Table A-1; ASME B31.3-2006

S

c

= 20,000, psi

S

h

= 12,900 psi

Length m 100 Find: h where 2h = L - U

Determine no. of sizes of expansion loops needed in pipe sizes

as given.

2 5

1

1

2

) / ( 10 08 . 2

,

) (

m mm

E

S

K

K

U L

y D

a

A

h

12/10/2012 48 of 82

Example (Sht 2 of 2)

Thermal Expansion Coeff. a = 7.54 x 10-6 in/in F

Refer ASME B31.3 table C3.

e = a DT; y = e U DT

y = 7.54E-6 x (752-86) x 100 = 0.502 m (19.8 inch)

S

A

= 1 x (1.25 x 20,000 + 0.25 x 12,900) = 28,225 psi

K

1

= 2.08x105 x 28,225 / 2.95 x 107 = 199 (mm/m)

2

(L U) = (D y / K1)

0.5

= (219.1 x 502/ 199)

0.5

= 23.5 m

h = 23.5 / 2 = 11.75m

The number of sizes of expansion loops will be decided by piping

engineer to suit his overall layout. Both 2D and 3D loops may be

considered.

Three loops of 4m each may be considered.

12/10/2012 49 of 82

Expansion Loops

Load due to axial expansion causes

bending stresses to be developed,

increasing upwards in the vertical pipes

and becoming a maximum at the loop

elbows.

That bending moment stays at that

maximum bending moment level for the

entire length of the top horizontal pipe

until it gets to the next elbow and starts

reducing until it reaches the bottom

pipe on the other side of the loop.

As the loop gets higher, both axial

resultant stress in the horizontal pipes

and the bending moments in the loop

are reduced.

12/10/2012 50 of 82

Expansion loops

12/10/2012 51 of 82

Min. Leg length Z

Z-Shaped

Expansion

Compensator

Minimum leg

length of Z-

shaped

pressfit piping

temperature

expansion

loops are

indicated in

the diagram

below.

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pressfit-pipes-expansion-loops-d_1169.html

12/10/2012 52 of 82

Min. Leg length, U

U-Shaped

Expansion

Compensator

Minimum leg

length of U-

shaped pressfit

piping

temperature

expansion loops

are indicated in

the diagram

below.

12/10/2012 53 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (1/6)

Why carry out stress analysis?

The reasons one does a pipe stress analysis on a piping system are as

follows

to comply with legislation

to ensure the piping is well supported and does not sag or deflect in an

unsightly way under its own weight

to ensure that the deflections are well controlled when thermal and

other loads are applied

to ensure that the loads and moments imposed on machinery and

vessels by the thermal growth of the attached piping are not excessive

to ensure that the stresses in the pipework in both the cold and hot

conditions are below the allowables

12/10/2012 54 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (2/6)

How to carry out piping stress analysis?

The piping system is modelled using analysis software such as

CAESAR II, available from COADE Software.

The model is constructed from piping general arrangement

drawings, piping isometric drawings and piping and valve

specifications.

Once the system is accurately modelled, taking care to set the

boundary conditions, comprehensive stress analysis calculations

are done, modifications to the model are made to ensure

compliance with the above requirements.

The modifications may include one or more of the following tools

12/10/2012 55 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (3/6)

Restraints

A device which prevents, resists or limits the free thermal

movement of the pipe. Restraints can be either directional,

rotational or a combination of both.

Anchors

A rigid restraint which provides substantially full fixity, i.e., ideally

allowing neither movements nor bending moments to pass

through them.

True anchors are usually difficult to achieve. A seemingly solid

gusseted bracket welded to a house column does not qualify as

an anchor if the column does not have the strength to resist the

loads applied to it.

12/10/2012 56 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (4/6)

Expansion Loops

A purpose designed device which absorbs thermal growth; usually used

in combination with restraints and cold pulls.

Neutral Planes of Movement

This refers to the planes on the 3 axes of a turbo machine or pump from

where expansion of the machine starts e.g. the fixed end of a turbine

casing. This information is normally provided by the equipment

manufacturer. If not available from this source, the fixed points of the

machine must be determined by inspection and an estimation of the

turbine growths calculated.

A pipe restraint positioned in line with a neutral plane prevents

differential expansion forces between the pipe and the machine.

12/10/2012 57 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (5/6)

Cold Pull or Cold Spring

This is used to pre-load the piping system in the cold condition in the

opposite direction to the expansion, so that the effects of expansion are

reduced. Cold pull is usually 50% of the expansion of the pipe run

under consideration. Cold pull has no effect on the code stress, but can

be used to reduce the nozzle loads on machinery or vessels.

Spring Hangers

Used to support a piping system that is subjected to vertical thermal

movements. Commercially available single coil spring units are suitable

for most applications. Supplier's catalogues adequately cover the

selection of these springs.

According to Hooke's law, the spring's supporting capacity will vary in

direct proportion to the amount of displacement the spring undergoes

due to thermal movement. This variation between cold and hot should

be between 25 and 50% of the hot loaded condition.

12/10/2012 58 of 82

Pipe Stress Analysis

CAESAR II (6/6)

Solid Vertical Support

In places where vertical thermal movement does not

create undesirable effects, or where vertical

movement is intentionally prevented or directed,

solid supports in the form of rollers, rods or slippers

are used.

It is important that free horizontal movement of the

pipe is not impeded unless horizontal restraint is

desired. Slippers and rollers must be well designed

and lubricated.

12/10/2012 59 of 82

Example

Example 1

Comparison between 4 Sch 40 (I = 7.23 in

4

) and 10 Sch 40

pipe (I = 160.8 in

4

), cantilever, length 4. The force required for an

end displacement of for each pipe will be

F = 3 E I / l

3

D 3 x 29 x 10

6

I / (4 x12)

3

x = 196.7 x I

For 4 pipe, force is 1,422 lbs (6325 N) while for 10 pipe 31,629

lbs (140,690 N) or 22.4 times for same deflection.

If the force 1,422 lbs is applied on 10 pipe, the deflection will be

0.0112 or 0.283 mm.

Example 2

The force developed in a restrained 10 Sch 40 pipe subjected to

a temperature 200 F from an installation temperature of 70 F

shall be

F = E a A (metal area) = (29 x 10

6

psi) x (0.99 in/100ft / 12) x

(11.91 in

2

) = 284,946 lbs

Force F for 4 pipe (metal area 3.17 in

2

) = 109,213 lbs

F

12/10/2012 60 of 82

Nozzle loads - example

Example 3

Displacement of a 4 pipe from 70 F to 200

F is 0.99 x 4 / 100 = 0.0396or 1 mm. This

1 mm deflection of middle portion will give

bending forces 3EI / l

3

D (assume

cantilever) as below

For 4 pipe, = 224 lbs

For 10 pipe = 4981 lbs

Corresponding moment on nozzle will be F l

/ 2 = 9,962 lb-ft (13,507 N-m) for 10 case.

This load in larger pipe size is well above

allowed by equipment codes.

Thus, more flexibility is required in piping.

Nozzle

Nozzle

4

4

4

4

Nozzle

Nozzle

4 Sch 40

10 Sch 40

12/10/2012 61 of 82

AVEVA Pipe Stress Interface 11.6

Integrates pipe stress

analysis with AVEVA PDMS

design

Analysing piping designs to

check stresses and to design

the supports is a specialist job.

AVEVA Pipe Stress Interface

provides an interactive and

intuitive method of specifying a

stress network and delivers

major savings by automating

the two-way flow of information

between PDMS designers and

stress analysts - Coade's

CAESAR II .

12/10/2012 62 of 82

12/10/2012 63 of 82

Piping Flexibility Analysis

NPS 4

CARBON STEEL

AMB to 315 C (600 F)

SG Contents 1.0

12/10/2012 64 of 82

Piping Flexibility Analysis

12/10/2012 65 of 82

ASME B31.3-2008 Appendix S

This was added in 2004 edition and

further elaborated in 2006 edition, by

adding two more examples.

The Index of the Appendix S is as under:

Piping System Stress Analysis

Examples

S300 Introduction

S300.1 Definitions and Nomenclature

S301 Example 1 : Code Compliant Piping

System

S302 Example 2: Anticipated Sustained

conditions considering pipe lift off

S303 Example 3: Moment Reversal

Each of these para. S 301, S302, S303

are subdivided as in enclosed table

Ex. 1 Ex. 2 Ex. 3

Paragraph S301 S302 S303

Example Description S301.1 S302.1 S303.1

Design Conditions S301.2 S302.2 S303.2

Computer Model Input S301.3 S302.3 S303.3

Pressure Effects S301.4 S302.4 S303.4

The Operating Load case S301.5 S302.5 S303.5

The sustained load case S301.6 S302.6 S303.6

Displacement stress

Range Load Case S301.7 S302.7 S303.7

Code Compliance

Satisfying the Intent of the

code - S302.8 S303.8

12/10/2012 66 of 82

Appendix S: Piping System Stress Analysis Examples

1, 2, 3 figures

12/10/2012 67 of 82

ASME B 31.3-2008 APPENDIX P

Alternative rules for performing flexibility

analysis were added, as Appendix P, in ASME

B31.3, the Process Piping Code, 2004 edition.

These rules are considered to be more

comprehensive than before; they were designed

around computer flexibility analysis.

To determine stress range, the difference in

stress states, considering all loads, is

computed.

12/10/2012 68 of 82

DESIGN CODES REQUIRE

SURGE ANALYSIS

B31.3 Ch. II Design, PAR 301.2 Design Pressure

PAR 301.2.1 (a) The design pressure of each component in a piping

system shall be not less than the pressure at the most severe

condition of coincident internal or external pressure and

temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service, except

as provided in Para. 302.2.4

PAR 301.2.2 (b) Sources of pressure to be considered include ambient

influences, pressure oscillations and surges, improper operation,

decomposition of unstable fluids, static head, and failure of control

devices.

PAR 301.5 Dynamic Effects

PAR 301.5.1 Impact fores caused by external or internal conditions

(including changes in flow rate, hydraulic shock, liquid or solid

slugging, flashing, and gysering) shall be taken into account in the

design of piping.

12/10/2012 69 of 82

12.3 Flexibility Analysis

12.3.2 Stress due to sustained loads

The sum of primary stresses

1

, due to calculation pressure, p

c

, and the resultant

moment, M

A

, from weight and other sustained mechanical loads shall satisfy the

following equation:

(12.3.2-1)

where

M

A

is the resultant moment from the sustained mechanical loads which shall be

determined by using the most unfavourable combination of the following loads:

piping dead weight including insulation, internals and attachments;

weight of fluid;

internal pressure forces due to unrelieved axial expansion joints etc.

BSI BS EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and calculation

- AMD 16050: December 17, 2005; CORR 16362: June 29, 2007 (1/2)

h

A

n

o c

f

Z

M i

e

d p

75 . 0

4

1

s

12/10/2012 70 of 82

12.3.3 Stress due to sustained and occasional or exceptional loads

The sum of primary stresses,

2

, due to internal pressure, p

c

, resultant moment, M

A

, from weight

and other sustained mechanical loads and resultant moment, M

B

, from occasional or exceptional

loads shall satisfy the following equation:

(12.3.3-1)

where

M

B

is the resultant moment from the occasional or exceptional loads which shall be determined by

using the most unfavourable combination of the following loads:

wind loads (T T

B

/10);

snow loads;

dynamic loads from switching operations (T T

B

/100);

seismic loads (T T

B

/100);

k = 1 if the occasional load is acting for more than 10 % in any 24 h operating period,

e.g. normal snow, normal wind;

k = 1,15 if the occasional load is acting for less than 10 % in any 24 h operating period;

k = 1,2 if the occasional load is acting for less than 1 % in any 24 h operating period, e.g.

dynamic loadings due to valve closing/opening, design basis earthquake;

BSI BS EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and calculation -

AMD 16050: December 17, 2005; CORR 16362: June 29, 2007 (2/2)

h

B A

n

o c

f k

Z

M i

Z

M i

e

d p

75 . 0 75 . 0

4

2

s

The code may need to be studied in detail, once a copy is available.

Piping Stress Analysis

Where do I start?

12/10/2012 72 of 82

Five factors influencing piping

Temperature

-200 F to

1000 F

Pressure

Vacuum to

High pr.

Weight

Live load/

Dead load

Force

Internal /

External

Vibration

(mechanical/

acoustics)

While analysis cannot create a good

design, it can confirm a good design

12/10/2012 73 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (1/10)

Prior to beginning to model a piping system for a stress analysis,

following may need to be done:

1. Identify what is to be achieved in the analysis. Possible reasoning

for conducting a piping stress analysis:

a) Stresses in a specific piping system and to determine if these

stresses are within the range allowed by the Piping Code?

b) Loads on a piece of rotating equipment?

c) Loads on a heat exchanger, pressure vessel or tank nozzle?

d) Loads on one or more structural anchors?

e) Loads on one or more pipe supports?

12/10/2012 74 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (2/10)

f) Movements of portions of the piping system due to thermal

growth or contraction?

g) Effects of wind loads on the piping system and/or attached

equipment?

h) Effects of earthquake loads on the piping system and/or

attached equipment?

i) Effects of wave loading on the piping system and/or attached

equipment?

j) Effects of soil resistance to movement for underground or

buried piping system and/or any attached equipment?

k) Effects of changes in temperature, pressure and weight on

flanged couplings and to determine if there is a tendency for the

connections to leak?

12/10/2012 75 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (3/10)

Once the objective has been established, check each of the

following steps.

2. Determine which piping code will govern the design of the piping

system. For Process Piping, use ASME B 31.3-2006

3. Collect all the plan and elevation drawings necessary to fully

document the piping routing.

4. Obtain or construct an isometric drawing Stress ISO of the

entire piping system.

5. Collect all the necessary physical properties for all of the piping

components in the piping system as follows:

a) Nominal Pipe Diameter

12/10/2012 76 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (4/10)

b) Pipe Schedule or Pipe Wall Thickness.

c) Corrosion Allowance.

d) The Weight per unit length of the contents.

e) The Insulation weight per linear unit length.

f) Piping Material density, modulus of elasticity and coefficient of

expansion.

g) Operating Temp (Min and max, if applicable), Design Temp,

Upset Condition Temp and Base or Ambient Temp.

h) Operating Pressure (Internal or External), Design Pressure

and Upset Condition Pressure.

i) Flange Rating and Flange Type

12/10/2012 77 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (5/10)

j) Valve Type (Gate, Globe, Butterfly, etc.) Rating or Valve

Weight and Length.

k) Elbows and/or Bends Radius or Bend Radius Ratio, Fitting

Thickness and the number of miter points, if applicable.

l) Reducer length, inlet and outlet diameters, schedule or wall

thickness, concentric or eccentric and, if eccentric, the flat side

orientation.

m) Branch Connections - welding tee, weld-in contour insert,

weld-on fitting, fabricated tee with the reinforcing pad thickness,

extruded tee with the crotch radius or lateral fitting data.

12/10/2012 78 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (6/10)

n) Expansion Joint Properties

Translational Spring Constants in force/unit length of travel

Axial and Lateral or Shear and Rotational Spring Constants in

moment/degree of rotation

About the axis of the expansion joint (normally considered to be

totally rigid) and about the radial axes.

o) Structural Members Details of any structural member that is

welded or bolted to the piping system and is expected to act as

part of the piping system.

6. For all Anchors, the location of the anchor point in the piping

system. A complete definition of the equipment or structure to

which the piping system is connected.

12/10/2012 79 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (7/10)

7. The location of each restraint acting on the piping system as well as the

specifics as to how each restraint affects the piping system. The

following covers restraints acting along one of the X, Y, Z axes.

a) Translational Restraints

b) Limit Stops

c) Imposed Movements

d) Imposed Forces

e) Dampers

f) Frictional Resistance to Movement

g) Existing Spring Hangers

h) New Spring Hangers to be Designed

i) Rotational Restraints

j) Imposed Rotations

k) Imposed Moments

12/10/2012 80 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (8/10)

8. Special Effects such as cold spring must be defined. The location

of the cold spring in the piping system must be specified.

9. Special Loading Conditions

a) Wind Loading The piping components on which the wind

loads are to be applied must be identified.

b) Wave Loading The piping components on which the wave

loads are to be applied must be identified.

c) Seismic Loads - The magnitude of the loading must be

quantified and a decision as to the analysis method to be

employed must be made.

d) Soil Interaction The piping components on which the soil

interaction is to be modeled must be identified.

12/10/2012 81 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (9/10)

10. Once all the physical data has been collected, the Global

(overall) Axis System (X, Y, Z) must be oriented on the isometric

drawing for easy reference. (The standard right-hand rule axis

system is used with Y being the vertical axis. Consider gravity

exerting a negative Y force on the piping system.)

11. Now we are ready to begin assigning data point numbers to all

pertinent piping components in the piping system. All such data

point numbers should be placed on the isometric drawing. A data

point must be assigned to any location in the system for which

output data is desired.

12/10/2012 82 of 82

Piping Stress Analysis

Where Do I start? (10/10)

The logic of the data collection effort that should

occur prior to beginning to model a piping system for

a stress analysis.

It is to be clearly understood the scope of stress

analysis, and the results expected.

It is always better to draw one Stress ISO instead of

referring many Iometrics.

Each blind or a nozzle shall be assigned a node

number.

Additional data may be needed for each of the

above categories, than listed in this summary.

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