You are on page 1of 82

Stress Analysis

Piping Systems
12/10/2012 2 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which
address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects
of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures,
changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity.
Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of
stress analysis.

Purpose of piping stress analysis

Purpose of piping stress analysis is to ensure:
Safety of piping and piping components.
Safety of connected equipment and supporting structure.
Piping deflections are within the limits
12/10/2012 3 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Support locations and types to
satisfy nozzle loads, valves
accelerations and piping
movements.
Interrelated with Piping layout and support design
Layout should take care of sufficient flexibility for
thermal expansion, and simplified supports
Pipe section properties to be suitable for intended
service, temperatures, pressures and anticipated
loadings.
12/10/2012 4 of 82
ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course from web
BECHT Engineering Company, Inc.
12/10/2012 5 of 82
The Stress-Strain curve (1/3)
12/10/2012 6 of 82
The Stress-strain curve (2/3)
It should be emphasized that the extent of
each region in stress-strain space is
material dependent, and that not all
materials exhibit all of the above regions.
In the elastic region, the slope of the
stress-strain curve is the Young's
Modulus. Thus s = e E
The stress-strain curve characterizes the behavior of the material
tested.
It is most often plotted using engineering stress and strain measures,
because the reference length and cross-sectional area are easily
measured.
Typical regions that can be observed in a stress-strain curve are:
Elastic region
Yielding
Strain Hardening
Necking and Failure
12/10/2012 7 of 82
Stress-strain curves for structural steel
(ASTM A36) at elevated temperatures (3/3)
The yield and ultimate strength decrease with
temperature as does the modulus of elasticity.
12/10/2012 8 of 82
Examples
What's the Young's Modulus of a steel bar that has a cross-
sectional area of 0.73 in
2
, is 4 inches long, and supports a load of
3.9x10
7
lbs, deforming 0.2 percent?

E = 9.36 x 10
-6
psi
E = 2.67 x 10
10
psi
E = 3.74 x 10
-11
psi
E = 2.67 x 10
+10
lbs.

During plastic deformation, the volume of the specimen, as well
as its cross-sectional area, decrease. Yes/No?

12/10/2012 9 of 82
Failure Theories
The two theories commonly used are
Maximum principal stress theory
Maximum shear stress theory
Maximum principal stress theory forms basis of B31
series codes.

Yielding in a pipe component
occurs when the magnitude of any
of the three mutually perpendicular
principal stresses exceeds the
yield strength of materials.

12/10/2012 10 of 82
Stress Categories
The major stress categories are
Primary Stresses These are developed by the imposed loading.
Limits are intended to prevent plastic deformation and bursting. These
satisfy equilibrium between internal and external forces and moments of
the piping system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.
Secondary Stresses Primary + Secondary stress limits are intended
to prevent excessive plastic deformation leading to incremental
collapse. These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a
structure e.g. Thermal expansion or movement of an anchor.
Secondary stresses are self-limiting.
Peak Stress limit is intended to prevent fatigue failure from cyclic
loading. Examples are stress concentrations at discontinuity and
thermal gradient through pipe walls
12/10/2012 11 of 82
Secondary Stresses
Therefore, secondary
stresses are self limiting.
Only ductile materials with
a well defined minimum
yield points are used in
piping wherever thermal
stresses are encountered
Piping system must satisfy an imposed strain pattern rather than
be in equilibrium with imposed forces.
Local yielding and minor distortions tend to relieve these
stresses.
12/10/2012 12 of 82
Classifications of Loads
Expansion loads
thermal expansions,
seismic anchor
movements, thermal
anchor movements,
building settlements.
Sustained loads: present throughout normal plant
operations (pressure, weight etc.)
Occasional loads: infrequent intervals during plant
operations e.g. earthquake, wind, transients e.g.
water hammer, relief valve discharge
12/10/2012 13 of 82
B31.3-2008 Process Piping Code
The loadings required to be considered are
Pressure
Weight (live and dead loads)
Impact
Wind
Earthquake induced horizontal forces
Vibrations
Discharge reactions
Thermal expansions and contractions
Temperature gradients
Anchor movements.

12/10/2012 14 of 82
Stresses due to sustained loads
The thickness of pipe used in
calculating S
L
shall be the nominal
thickness minus mechanical,
corrosion, and corrosion
allowances.
The sum of longitudinal stress S
L
due to pressure, weight, and
other sustained loads must not exceed S
h
(basic allowable stress
at maximum temperature).
S
L
S
h
S
L
= P D / 4 t + S
b
12/10/2012 15 of 82
Stresses due to occasional loads
The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to
pressure, weight and other sustained loads and of
the stresses produced by occasional loads such as
earthquake or wind shall not exceed 1.33S
h
Earthquake and wind loading need not be
considered as acting simultaneously.
12/10/2012 16 of 82
Stress range due to expansion loads
The displacement stress range S
E
shall not exceed S
A
S
E
S
A
Where S
E
= (S
b
2
+ 4 S
t
2
)
1/2
S
b
resultant bending stress psi = [(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
]
1/2
/
Z
M
i
in-plane bending moment in-lbs
M
o
out of plane bending moment in-lbs
i
i
= In plane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
S
t
= torsional stress, psi = M
t
/ (2Z)
M
t
= torsional moment in-lbs
For definition of S
A
, see next slide
12/10/2012 17 of 82
Allowable Displacement Stress Range S
A

[Refer ASME B 31.3-2008, 302.3.5(d)] (1/2)
The computed displacement stress range S
E
shall not
exceed allowable displacement stress range.
S
A
= allowable displacement stress range
= f (1.25 S
c
+ 0.25 S
h
)
when S
h
> S
L
S
A
= f [1.25 (S
c
+ S
h
) S
L
],
S
c
= basic allowable stress at minimum metal
temperature, psi
S
h
= basic allowable stress at maximum metal
temperature, psi
f = Stress range factor = 6.0 (N)
-0.2
f
m
f
m
= maximum value 1.2 for ferrous materials with
SMTS < 517 MPa (75 ksi), metal temp 371 C (700
F), otherwise f
m
= 1.0
12/10/2012 18 of 82
Allowable Displacement Stress Range S
A

[Refer ASME B 31.3-2008, 302.3.5(d)] (2/2)
N equivalent number of full displacement cycles during the
expected service life of the piping system

When computed stress range varies, whether from thermal
expansion or other conditions, S
E
is defined as greatest
computed displacement stress range. The value of N can be
calculated as
N = N
E
+ (r
i
5
N
i
) for i = 1, 2, ., n

r
i
= S
i
/ S
E,
S
i
is any computed displacement stress range smaller
than S
E

12/10/2012 19 of 82
Stress Range Factor f
12/10/2012 20 of 82
Stress Intensification Factor (SIF)
A Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) is defined as the ratio between the
peak stress and average stress in a given component:
SIF = Actual Peak Stress / Nominal Stress in Part

A. R. C. Markl and his team (1950s) developed the original SIFs still
used in ASME piping Codes today.

In his study, Markl determined that girth butt-welds typically resulted in
stresses approximately 1.7 to 2.0 times the stress in non-welded piping.
As a result, all of the piping codes have been base lined to include the
factor of 2.0 for girth welds:

Z) Modulus (Section / M) (Moment * 2
M Moment to due Stress) (Peak Actual
3 . 31
M Moment to due Butt Weld Girth in Stress
M Moment to due Stress) (Peak Actual
3 . 31

SIF B
or
SIF B
12/10/2012 21 of 82
ASME B31.3, sample. Refer code for complete table
12/10/2012 22 of 82
Analysis of Integral welded
attachments (IWA)
Used to support piping systems
Local stresses are evaluated using Welding
Research Council (WRC) Bulletin #107.
WRC #107 approach has limitations on attachment
parameter (0.01 b 0.5) and shell parameter (5 g
300)
Shell parameter g = D
m
/ (2T), where D
m
= D
o
-T
Attachment parameter b = 0.875 (d
o
/D
m
) for circular
attachments or b
1
= C
1
/D
m
an b
2
= C
2
/D
m
for
rectangular attachment
Add figure
12/10/2012 23 of 82
WRC 107
Nomenclature applicable
to Cylindrical shells
V
c
Concentrated shear load in the circumferential direction, lb
V
L
Concentrated shear load in the longitudinal direction, lb
M
c
external overturning moment in the circumferential direction with
respect to the shell lb
M
L
external overturning moment in the longitudinal direction with
respect to the shell lb


12/10/2012 24 of 82
WRC Bulletin 107
LOCAL STRESSES IN SPHERICAL AND
CYLINDRICAL SHELLS DUE TO EXTERNAL
LOADINGS
K. R. Wichman, A. G. Hopper, and J. L. Mershon

WRC Bulletin 107 presents the results of an analytical and
experimental research program aimed at providing methods for
determining the stresses in pressure vessel nozzle connections
subjected to various forms of external loadings.
Based on the work of P.P. Bijlaard, the Bulletin covers the sign
conventions, parameters, calculation of stresses,
nondimensional curves, and limitations on application for
spherical and cylindrical shells and an abridged calculation for
maximum stress in spherical shells.

http://www.forengineers.org/wrc/
12/10/2012 25 of 82
WRC Bulletin 198
SECONDARY STRESS INDICES FOR INTEGRAL
STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENTS TO STRIAGHT PIPE;
STRESS INDICES AT LUG SUPPORTS ON PIPING SYSTEMS
W.G. Dodge; E.C. Rodabaugh, W.G. Dodge and S.E. Moore

This report presents a simplified method for calculating the stresses
induced in straight pipe by thrust and moment loadings applied to lugs
and other integral attachments.
Following the philosophy of the nuclear power piping portion of Section
III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, appropriate
secondary stress indices are defined.
A simple and conservative formula for computing the stress indices is
developed using analytical results as a guide.
A comparison is made between experimental stress indices and those
obtained using the simplified analysis procedure developed here as well
as the more complex analysis procedures of Welding Research Council
Bulletin 107 (WRC-107 method). The method is extended to
attachments having a variety of cross sections.

12/10/2012 26 of 82
WRC Bulletin 297
LOCAL STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOADINGS ON NOZZLES
J. L. Mershon, K. Mokhtarian, G. V. Ranjan, and E. C. Rodabaugh

WRC Bulletin 297 presents methods and data for treating two normally
intersecting cylindrical shells, i.e., cylindrical nozzles radially attached
to cylindrical vessels (shells).
Stresses in both the nozzle and vessel can be determined, and the
range of vessel diameter-to-thickness ratio covered is increased over
that in Bulletin 107.
The analytical method used was derived and developed by C.R. Steele
on the basis of the thin shell theory.
12/10/2012 27 of 82
Shear Stresses
Square/ rectangular
IWA
Circular IWA
V
L
t = V
L
/ (2C
2
T) t = 2 V
L
/ (d
o
T)
V
C
t = Vc / (2C
1
T) t = 2 V
C
/ (d
o
T)
M
T
t = M
T
/ F t = 4M
T
/ [2(d
o
)
2
T]
F = larger of T [C
max
+ C
min
] (C
min
/2) or
[1.57 + 0.093 (C
max
/C
min
)] (C
min
)
2
(C
max
/8)
Where C
max
= maximum of C
1
and C
2
, C
min
= minimum of C
1
and C
2
Formula for Shear Stress calculations (WRC 107)
12/10/2012 28 of 82
Expansion Joints
When piping elbows, bends, and expansion loops
may not provide adequate flexibility in piping,
expansion joints may be used to absorb the
expansion and contractions of piping.
Following may be its applications
Thermal movements inducing excessive stress
Space restrictions
Large reactions to pipe anchors
Large reactions to equipment nozzles
In expansion joints, pressure forces must be resisted
by pipe supports and anchors. (Pressure force =
internal pressure x max sectional area where
applied.)
Types can be rubber hoses or metal bellows, etc.
12/10/2012 29 of 82
Expansion Joints
Expansion joint is defined as an
assembly containing one or more
bellows used to absorb
dimensional changes caused by
thermal or mechanical movement
in a pipeline or duct.

Expansion joints assembly consist of
Bellow (Flexible Element) and end
connections (Pipe, Flange or any
special as per requirements). As per
design requirements Limit Rods (Tie
Rods), Internal Sleeve (Liner),
Shroud (External Cover) are also
provided
Three basic types of movements
absorbed by Expansion Joints.
Axial
Lateral
Angular
12/10/2012 30 of 82
Flexible Pipe loops
12/10/2012 31 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(1/9)
Sustained Load: Pressure
Internal pressure in piping induces stresses in pipe wall not result in
pipe support loading.
The longitudinal stress in pipe due to internal pressure
S
LP
= P D / 4 t

It can also be represented as
S
LP
= P d
2
/ (D
2
d
2
) = P (A
f
/ A
m
)

Where S
LP
= longitudinal stress psi
P = Internal design pressure psig
D = Outside diameter in
d = Inside diameter in
A
f
= Flow area in
2
A
m
= metal area in
2
t = pipe wall thickness in
12/10/2012 32 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(2/9)
Sustained Load: Weight
Design load on piping supports will include
Live loads: weight of medium transported or for test
Dead loads: weight of piping, fittings, insulation, valves,
flanges etc.
When a gas or steam piping is to be hydrotested, its
effects also need to be considered.
If pipe supports are not designed for this load,
temporary supports may be needed,
12/10/2012 33 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(3/9)
Thermal Expansion Loads
Piping systems are to be analyzed for maximum operating
temperature.
Free thermal analysis may be performed considering terminal
points and anchors and equipment nozzles. A thermal stress <
10,000 psi means adequate flexibility in piping system.
Equipment nozzle displacements due to thermal expansions
need to be considered
The thermal stress developed in the pipe are in fact stress
range i.e. difference between thermal expansion and highest
and lowest temperatures.
Loads due to differences in expansion characteristics as in
bimetallic, lined, jacketed or metallic-non metallic piping also
need to be considered.
12/10/2012 34 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(4/9)
Occasional Loads - Seismic
Piping Seismic analysis, if required, may be performed by one of the
three methods eg
Time history analysis
Modal response spectrum analysis
Static analysis
A basic equation of motion for any piping system subjected to seismic
excitation is
M d
2
x/dt
2
+ C dx/dt + kx = f
Where M mass matrix of system
C damping matrix
K stiffness matrix
d
2
x/dt
2
acceleration vector
dx/dt velocity vector
x displacement vector
f external loading vector, function of time.

12/10/2012 35 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(5/9)
Seismic anchor movements (SAM)/ Support
settlements
A piping system supported on two seismically independent
structures that move out of phase will experience stresses due to
differential displacements.
The analysis is done by applying corresponding displacements at
pipe supports or anchor locations.
Usually evaluated as secondary stress
If SAM is less than thermal stress range, effective secondary
stress range is sum of two.
If SAM is more than thermal stress range, effective secondary
stress range is twice SAM stress.
12/10/2012 36 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(6/9)
Dynamic Loads (1/4)
Dynamic Effects may consist of the following
Impact caused by external/ internal conditions
Wind exposed piping
Earthquake horizontal forces to be considered
Vibration- due to any source as impact, pressure
pulsations, flow vortices, resonance in compressors
and wind.
Discharge reaction let down or discharge of fluids.


12/10/2012 37 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(7/9)
Dynamic Loads (2/4)
Safety Relief Valve Discharge Analysis
Safety Relief Valve are of two types
Open discharge discharging to atmosphere
Closed discharge to a closed system
Static analysis method for a open discharge system is as given in
ASME B 31.1
The reaction force due to steady state flow following opening of valve F
= W V / g + (P-Pa) A
F = Force reaction at exit
W = mass flow rate lbm/s
G = Acceleration due to gravity 32.2 ft/sec
2
P = Static pressure at exit, psia
Pa = Atmospheric pressure, psia
A = Exit area in
2



12/10/2012 38 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(8/9)
Dynamic Loads (Continued 3/4)
The Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) used to account for increased
laod caused bu sudden application of discharge load, range from
1.1 to 2.0.
Calculate the safety valve installation period T = 0.1846 (W h
3
/
EI)
0.5
Where T = safety valve installation period sec
W = Weight of safety valve, installation piping, flanges,
attachments etc. lb
h = distance from run pipe to centreline of outlet pipe in
E = Youngs Modulus psi
I Moment of inertia of inlet pipe in4
Calculate the ratio t0/T determine the DLF.
Moment = force x distance x DLF. The stress is than calculated
accordingly.
12/10/2012 39 of 82
Types of Pipe Loading Conditions(9/9)
Dynamic Loads (Continued 4/4)
The water hammer loading to be discussed
12/10/2012 40 of 82
Computer Programs
CAESAR II
Autopipe
Triflex Windows
Ansys
CAEPIPE (prounounced "K-pipe")
SIMFLEX

12/10/2012 41 of 82
ASME B 31.3-2008 302.3
Allowable Stress and Other Stress limits
Basic allowable stress in tension for metals and design stresses
for bolting materials as per Table A-1 and A-2
Bolting materials design stress 1/4 x minimum tensile strength or
2/3 minimum yield strength
For materials except Bolting, CI, malleable iron etc. basic
allowable stress is
Lower of 1/3 S
T
or tensile strength at temperature.
Lower of 2/3 of S
Y
or 2/3 of yield strength at temperature
For Aus SS and Ni alloys, lower of 2/3 of S
Y
and 90% of Yield
strength at temperature.
Other criteria for creep rate and stress for rupture as per code
12/10/2012 42 of 82
Equipment & piping
12/10/2012 43 of 82
Allowance for thermal expansion
Using Figure, find the approximate expansion from 15C, of 100 metres of carbon steel pipework used to
distribute steam at 265C Temperature difference is 265 - 15C = 250C.

Where the diagonal temperature difference line of 250C cuts the horizontal pipe length line at 100 m,
drop a vertical line down. For this example an approximate expansion of 330 mm is indicated.
12/10/2012 44 of 82
ASME B31.3:2006 319.4
Flexibility Analysis (Sht 1 of 3)
No formal analysis of adequate flexibility is required for piping
system which
Duplicates or replaces a system operating successfully.
Judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed
systems
Is of uniform size, no more than two points of fixation, no
intermediate restraints, and falls within
D y / (L-U)
2
K
1

D Outside diameter of pipe mm (in)
E
a
reference modulus of elasticity at 21 C (70 F) MPa ksi
K
1
= 208,000 S
A
/ E
a
(mm/m)
2
= 30 S
A
/ E
a
(in/ft)
2
30 x (25.4 mm/ 1 in)
2
(3.2808 ft/ 1m)
2
= 208,328 (mm/m)
2
12/10/2012 45 of 82
ASME B31.3:2008 319.4
Flexibility Analysis (Sht 2 of 3)
L developed length of piping between anchors m (ft)
S
A
allowable displacement stress range MPa (ksi)
B31.3 302.3.5(d) S
A
= f (1.25 S
c
+ 0.25 S
h
)
U anchor distance straight line between anchors m (ft)
y = resultant of total displacement strains, mm (in) to
be absorbed by the piping system

All the parameters may be taken from ASME B31.3-2006 code
various appendices as below.
Cold and hot allowable stresses S
c
and S
h
from Table A-1, Basic
Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals.

12/10/2012 46 of 82
ASME B31.3:2008 319.4
Flexibility Analysis (Sht 3/3)
Thermal Coefficients a from Table C-1 (Total thermal expansion)
or Table C-3 (Coefficients for Metals), at the maximum
temperature
E
a
value from Table C-6, Modulus of Elasticity, US units for
Metals.
Stress range Factor f from Fig 302.3.5 of B31.3 or by given
formula in par. 302.3.5(d). Number of cycles may need to be
assumed based your knowledge of the operation.
y resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by piping
system may be calculated using the above thermal expansion
value with no restraints.
Therefore, y = a x U x Dt, Dt is change in temperature, U anchor
distance



12/10/2012 47 of 82
Example (Sht 1 of 2)

Given that: Formal Analysis not required
Pipe material: Carbon Steel, C 0.3%
Pipe Size: 8" sch 40
S
A
= f (1.25 S
c
+ 0.25 S
h
), Assume f = 1
Temperature range: 30C to 400C
(Range F: 86 F to 752 F)
E
a
at 21 C (70 F) 2.95 x 10
7
psi (Refer B31.3 Table C6)

From Table A-1; ASME B31.3-2006
S
c
= 20,000, psi
S
h
= 12,900 psi
Length m 100 Find: h where 2h = L - U

Determine no. of sizes of expansion loops needed in pipe sizes
as given.

2 5
1
1
2
) / ( 10 08 . 2
,
) (
m mm
E
S
K
K
U L
y D
a
A

h
12/10/2012 48 of 82
Example (Sht 2 of 2)
Thermal Expansion Coeff. a = 7.54 x 10-6 in/in F
Refer ASME B31.3 table C3.
e = a DT; y = e U DT

y = 7.54E-6 x (752-86) x 100 = 0.502 m (19.8 inch)

S
A
= 1 x (1.25 x 20,000 + 0.25 x 12,900) = 28,225 psi
K
1
= 2.08x105 x 28,225 / 2.95 x 107 = 199 (mm/m)
2

(L U) = (D y / K1)
0.5
= (219.1 x 502/ 199)
0.5
= 23.5 m
h = 23.5 / 2 = 11.75m
The number of sizes of expansion loops will be decided by piping
engineer to suit his overall layout. Both 2D and 3D loops may be
considered.
Three loops of 4m each may be considered.
12/10/2012 49 of 82
Expansion Loops
Load due to axial expansion causes
bending stresses to be developed,
increasing upwards in the vertical pipes
and becoming a maximum at the loop
elbows.
That bending moment stays at that
maximum bending moment level for the
entire length of the top horizontal pipe
until it gets to the next elbow and starts
reducing until it reaches the bottom
pipe on the other side of the loop.

As the loop gets higher, both axial
resultant stress in the horizontal pipes
and the bending moments in the loop
are reduced.

12/10/2012 50 of 82
Expansion loops
12/10/2012 51 of 82
Min. Leg length Z
Z-Shaped
Expansion
Compensator
Minimum leg
length of Z-
shaped
pressfit piping
temperature
expansion
loops are
indicated in
the diagram
below.
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pressfit-pipes-expansion-loops-d_1169.html
12/10/2012 52 of 82
Min. Leg length, U
U-Shaped
Expansion
Compensator
Minimum leg
length of U-
shaped pressfit
piping
temperature
expansion loops
are indicated in
the diagram
below.

12/10/2012 53 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (1/6)
Why carry out stress analysis?

The reasons one does a pipe stress analysis on a piping system are as
follows
to comply with legislation
to ensure the piping is well supported and does not sag or deflect in an
unsightly way under its own weight
to ensure that the deflections are well controlled when thermal and
other loads are applied
to ensure that the loads and moments imposed on machinery and
vessels by the thermal growth of the attached piping are not excessive
to ensure that the stresses in the pipework in both the cold and hot
conditions are below the allowables
12/10/2012 54 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (2/6)
How to carry out piping stress analysis?
The piping system is modelled using analysis software such as
CAESAR II, available from COADE Software.
The model is constructed from piping general arrangement
drawings, piping isometric drawings and piping and valve
specifications.
Once the system is accurately modelled, taking care to set the
boundary conditions, comprehensive stress analysis calculations
are done, modifications to the model are made to ensure
compliance with the above requirements.
The modifications may include one or more of the following tools
12/10/2012 55 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (3/6)
Restraints
A device which prevents, resists or limits the free thermal
movement of the pipe. Restraints can be either directional,
rotational or a combination of both.

Anchors
A rigid restraint which provides substantially full fixity, i.e., ideally
allowing neither movements nor bending moments to pass
through them.
True anchors are usually difficult to achieve. A seemingly solid
gusseted bracket welded to a house column does not qualify as
an anchor if the column does not have the strength to resist the
loads applied to it.
12/10/2012 56 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (4/6)
Expansion Loops
A purpose designed device which absorbs thermal growth; usually used
in combination with restraints and cold pulls.

Neutral Planes of Movement
This refers to the planes on the 3 axes of a turbo machine or pump from
where expansion of the machine starts e.g. the fixed end of a turbine
casing. This information is normally provided by the equipment
manufacturer. If not available from this source, the fixed points of the
machine must be determined by inspection and an estimation of the
turbine growths calculated.
A pipe restraint positioned in line with a neutral plane prevents
differential expansion forces between the pipe and the machine.
12/10/2012 57 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (5/6)
Cold Pull or Cold Spring
This is used to pre-load the piping system in the cold condition in the
opposite direction to the expansion, so that the effects of expansion are
reduced. Cold pull is usually 50% of the expansion of the pipe run
under consideration. Cold pull has no effect on the code stress, but can
be used to reduce the nozzle loads on machinery or vessels.
Spring Hangers
Used to support a piping system that is subjected to vertical thermal
movements. Commercially available single coil spring units are suitable
for most applications. Supplier's catalogues adequately cover the
selection of these springs.
According to Hooke's law, the spring's supporting capacity will vary in
direct proportion to the amount of displacement the spring undergoes
due to thermal movement. This variation between cold and hot should
be between 25 and 50% of the hot loaded condition.
12/10/2012 58 of 82
Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II (6/6)
Solid Vertical Support
In places where vertical thermal movement does not
create undesirable effects, or where vertical
movement is intentionally prevented or directed,
solid supports in the form of rollers, rods or slippers
are used.
It is important that free horizontal movement of the
pipe is not impeded unless horizontal restraint is
desired. Slippers and rollers must be well designed
and lubricated.
12/10/2012 59 of 82
Example
Example 1
Comparison between 4 Sch 40 (I = 7.23 in
4
) and 10 Sch 40
pipe (I = 160.8 in
4
), cantilever, length 4. The force required for an
end displacement of for each pipe will be
F = 3 E I / l
3
D 3 x 29 x 10
6
I / (4 x12)
3
x = 196.7 x I
For 4 pipe, force is 1,422 lbs (6325 N) while for 10 pipe 31,629
lbs (140,690 N) or 22.4 times for same deflection.
If the force 1,422 lbs is applied on 10 pipe, the deflection will be
0.0112 or 0.283 mm.

Example 2
The force developed in a restrained 10 Sch 40 pipe subjected to
a temperature 200 F from an installation temperature of 70 F
shall be
F = E a A (metal area) = (29 x 10
6
psi) x (0.99 in/100ft / 12) x
(11.91 in
2
) = 284,946 lbs
Force F for 4 pipe (metal area 3.17 in
2
) = 109,213 lbs
F
12/10/2012 60 of 82
Nozzle loads - example
Example 3
Displacement of a 4 pipe from 70 F to 200
F is 0.99 x 4 / 100 = 0.0396or 1 mm. This
1 mm deflection of middle portion will give
bending forces 3EI / l
3
D (assume
cantilever) as below
For 4 pipe, = 224 lbs
For 10 pipe = 4981 lbs
Corresponding moment on nozzle will be F l
/ 2 = 9,962 lb-ft (13,507 N-m) for 10 case.

This load in larger pipe size is well above
allowed by equipment codes.
Thus, more flexibility is required in piping.
Nozzle
Nozzle
4
4
4
4
Nozzle
Nozzle
4 Sch 40
10 Sch 40
12/10/2012 61 of 82
AVEVA Pipe Stress Interface 11.6
Integrates pipe stress
analysis with AVEVA PDMS
design

Analysing piping designs to
check stresses and to design
the supports is a specialist job.
AVEVA Pipe Stress Interface
provides an interactive and
intuitive method of specifying a
stress network and delivers
major savings by automating
the two-way flow of information
between PDMS designers and
stress analysts - Coade's
CAESAR II .
12/10/2012 62 of 82

12/10/2012 63 of 82
Piping Flexibility Analysis
NPS 4
CARBON STEEL
AMB to 315 C (600 F)
SG Contents 1.0
12/10/2012 64 of 82
Piping Flexibility Analysis
12/10/2012 65 of 82
ASME B31.3-2008 Appendix S
This was added in 2004 edition and
further elaborated in 2006 edition, by
adding two more examples.
The Index of the Appendix S is as under:

Piping System Stress Analysis
Examples
S300 Introduction
S300.1 Definitions and Nomenclature
S301 Example 1 : Code Compliant Piping
System
S302 Example 2: Anticipated Sustained
conditions considering pipe lift off
S303 Example 3: Moment Reversal

Each of these para. S 301, S302, S303
are subdivided as in enclosed table
Ex. 1 Ex. 2 Ex. 3
Paragraph S301 S302 S303
Example Description S301.1 S302.1 S303.1
Design Conditions S301.2 S302.2 S303.2
Computer Model Input S301.3 S302.3 S303.3
Pressure Effects S301.4 S302.4 S303.4
The Operating Load case S301.5 S302.5 S303.5
The sustained load case S301.6 S302.6 S303.6
Displacement stress
Range Load Case S301.7 S302.7 S303.7
Code Compliance
Satisfying the Intent of the
code - S302.8 S303.8
12/10/2012 66 of 82
Appendix S: Piping System Stress Analysis Examples
1, 2, 3 figures
12/10/2012 67 of 82
ASME B 31.3-2008 APPENDIX P
Alternative rules for performing flexibility
analysis were added, as Appendix P, in ASME
B31.3, the Process Piping Code, 2004 edition.
These rules are considered to be more
comprehensive than before; they were designed
around computer flexibility analysis.
To determine stress range, the difference in
stress states, considering all loads, is
computed.
12/10/2012 68 of 82
DESIGN CODES REQUIRE
SURGE ANALYSIS
B31.3 Ch. II Design, PAR 301.2 Design Pressure
PAR 301.2.1 (a) The design pressure of each component in a piping
system shall be not less than the pressure at the most severe
condition of coincident internal or external pressure and
temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service, except
as provided in Para. 302.2.4
PAR 301.2.2 (b) Sources of pressure to be considered include ambient
influences, pressure oscillations and surges, improper operation,
decomposition of unstable fluids, static head, and failure of control
devices.
PAR 301.5 Dynamic Effects
PAR 301.5.1 Impact fores caused by external or internal conditions
(including changes in flow rate, hydraulic shock, liquid or solid
slugging, flashing, and gysering) shall be taken into account in the
design of piping.

12/10/2012 69 of 82
12.3 Flexibility Analysis

12.3.2 Stress due to sustained loads

The sum of primary stresses
1
, due to calculation pressure, p
c
, and the resultant
moment, M
A
, from weight and other sustained mechanical loads shall satisfy the
following equation:

(12.3.2-1)

where
M
A
is the resultant moment from the sustained mechanical loads which shall be
determined by using the most unfavourable combination of the following loads:

piping dead weight including insulation, internals and attachments;

weight of fluid;

internal pressure forces due to unrelieved axial expansion joints etc.

BSI BS EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and calculation
- AMD 16050: December 17, 2005; CORR 16362: June 29, 2007 (1/2)
h
A
n
o c
f
Z
M i
e
d p

75 . 0
4
1
s
12/10/2012 70 of 82
12.3.3 Stress due to sustained and occasional or exceptional loads

The sum of primary stresses,
2
, due to internal pressure, p
c
, resultant moment, M
A
, from weight
and other sustained mechanical loads and resultant moment, M
B
, from occasional or exceptional
loads shall satisfy the following equation:


(12.3.3-1)
where
M
B
is the resultant moment from the occasional or exceptional loads which shall be determined by
using the most unfavourable combination of the following loads:

wind loads (T T
B
/10);
snow loads;
dynamic loads from switching operations (T T
B
/100);
seismic loads (T T
B
/100);

k = 1 if the occasional load is acting for more than 10 % in any 24 h operating period,
e.g. normal snow, normal wind;
k = 1,15 if the occasional load is acting for less than 10 % in any 24 h operating period;
k = 1,2 if the occasional load is acting for less than 1 % in any 24 h operating period, e.g.
dynamic loadings due to valve closing/opening, design basis earthquake;
BSI BS EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and calculation -
AMD 16050: December 17, 2005; CORR 16362: June 29, 2007 (2/2)
h
B A
n
o c
f k
Z
M i
Z
M i
e
d p

75 . 0 75 . 0
4
2
s
The code may need to be studied in detail, once a copy is available.
Piping Stress Analysis
Where do I start?
12/10/2012 72 of 82
Five factors influencing piping
Temperature
-200 F to
1000 F
Pressure
Vacuum to
High pr.
Weight
Live load/
Dead load
Force
Internal /
External
Vibration
(mechanical/
acoustics)
While analysis cannot create a good
design, it can confirm a good design
12/10/2012 73 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (1/10)
Prior to beginning to model a piping system for a stress analysis,
following may need to be done:
1. Identify what is to be achieved in the analysis. Possible reasoning
for conducting a piping stress analysis:
a) Stresses in a specific piping system and to determine if these
stresses are within the range allowed by the Piping Code?
b) Loads on a piece of rotating equipment?
c) Loads on a heat exchanger, pressure vessel or tank nozzle?
d) Loads on one or more structural anchors?
e) Loads on one or more pipe supports?
12/10/2012 74 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (2/10)
f) Movements of portions of the piping system due to thermal
growth or contraction?
g) Effects of wind loads on the piping system and/or attached
equipment?
h) Effects of earthquake loads on the piping system and/or
attached equipment?
i) Effects of wave loading on the piping system and/or attached
equipment?
j) Effects of soil resistance to movement for underground or
buried piping system and/or any attached equipment?
k) Effects of changes in temperature, pressure and weight on
flanged couplings and to determine if there is a tendency for the
connections to leak?
12/10/2012 75 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (3/10)
Once the objective has been established, check each of the
following steps.
2. Determine which piping code will govern the design of the piping
system. For Process Piping, use ASME B 31.3-2006
3. Collect all the plan and elevation drawings necessary to fully
document the piping routing.
4. Obtain or construct an isometric drawing Stress ISO of the
entire piping system.
5. Collect all the necessary physical properties for all of the piping
components in the piping system as follows:
a) Nominal Pipe Diameter
12/10/2012 76 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (4/10)
b) Pipe Schedule or Pipe Wall Thickness.
c) Corrosion Allowance.
d) The Weight per unit length of the contents.
e) The Insulation weight per linear unit length.
f) Piping Material density, modulus of elasticity and coefficient of
expansion.
g) Operating Temp (Min and max, if applicable), Design Temp,
Upset Condition Temp and Base or Ambient Temp.
h) Operating Pressure (Internal or External), Design Pressure
and Upset Condition Pressure.
i) Flange Rating and Flange Type
12/10/2012 77 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (5/10)
j) Valve Type (Gate, Globe, Butterfly, etc.) Rating or Valve
Weight and Length.
k) Elbows and/or Bends Radius or Bend Radius Ratio, Fitting
Thickness and the number of miter points, if applicable.
l) Reducer length, inlet and outlet diameters, schedule or wall
thickness, concentric or eccentric and, if eccentric, the flat side
orientation.
m) Branch Connections - welding tee, weld-in contour insert,
weld-on fitting, fabricated tee with the reinforcing pad thickness,
extruded tee with the crotch radius or lateral fitting data.
12/10/2012 78 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (6/10)
n) Expansion Joint Properties
Translational Spring Constants in force/unit length of travel
Axial and Lateral or Shear and Rotational Spring Constants in
moment/degree of rotation
About the axis of the expansion joint (normally considered to be
totally rigid) and about the radial axes.
o) Structural Members Details of any structural member that is
welded or bolted to the piping system and is expected to act as
part of the piping system.
6. For all Anchors, the location of the anchor point in the piping
system. A complete definition of the equipment or structure to
which the piping system is connected.
12/10/2012 79 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (7/10)
7. The location of each restraint acting on the piping system as well as the
specifics as to how each restraint affects the piping system. The
following covers restraints acting along one of the X, Y, Z axes.
a) Translational Restraints
b) Limit Stops
c) Imposed Movements
d) Imposed Forces
e) Dampers
f) Frictional Resistance to Movement
g) Existing Spring Hangers
h) New Spring Hangers to be Designed
i) Rotational Restraints
j) Imposed Rotations
k) Imposed Moments
12/10/2012 80 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (8/10)
8. Special Effects such as cold spring must be defined. The location
of the cold spring in the piping system must be specified.
9. Special Loading Conditions
a) Wind Loading The piping components on which the wind
loads are to be applied must be identified.
b) Wave Loading The piping components on which the wave
loads are to be applied must be identified.
c) Seismic Loads - The magnitude of the loading must be
quantified and a decision as to the analysis method to be
employed must be made.
d) Soil Interaction The piping components on which the soil
interaction is to be modeled must be identified.
12/10/2012 81 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (9/10)
10. Once all the physical data has been collected, the Global
(overall) Axis System (X, Y, Z) must be oriented on the isometric
drawing for easy reference. (The standard right-hand rule axis
system is used with Y being the vertical axis. Consider gravity
exerting a negative Y force on the piping system.)
11. Now we are ready to begin assigning data point numbers to all
pertinent piping components in the piping system. All such data
point numbers should be placed on the isometric drawing. A data
point must be assigned to any location in the system for which
output data is desired.
12/10/2012 82 of 82
Piping Stress Analysis
Where Do I start? (10/10)
The logic of the data collection effort that should
occur prior to beginning to model a piping system for
a stress analysis.
It is to be clearly understood the scope of stress
analysis, and the results expected.
It is always better to draw one Stress ISO instead of
referring many Iometrics.
Each blind or a nozzle shall be assigned a node
number.
Additional data may be needed for each of the
above categories, than listed in this summary.