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At the end of this lesson, the trainee will e ale to de!onstrate an
"nderstandin# of Val$es%
Valves are extensively used in piping systems and on equipment to which
piping is connected. Some valves are used continuously, others
intermittently, and some, like safety values, are utilized only in rare
Most basic valve designs either embody a bonnet to oin the moving part to
the body or utilize plugs or balls without a bonnet.
!unction of Valves is to start, stop or regulate a flow of liquid or gas through
a plant system. "his is accomplished by maintaining the valve in a partially
open position or an open or closed liquid or gases flow from areas of higher
pressure to areas of lower pressure because there control of flow is of high
importance. Mechanical devices that are used in industrial piping for flow
control are called valves. "he term Valves includes all equipment that acts
on the movement of fluid by one of the following two functions#
$. %pening or closing a circuit.
&. 'ontrolling of flow.
"he fluid may be liquid, gas or a loose solid such as powder, sand of slurry.
(hen a valve allows some flow, but not maximum flow it is said to be in the
")*%""+,-. position to /"hrottle0 with a valve is to regulate the 1*ate or
direction2 flow.
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Valves can be classified by function, by disc arrangement, by operating
condition such as temperature and pressure, or by the way they are
incorporated into plant systems.
"he most common way to classify a valve is by the arrangement or shape
of the disc, which is part of the valve that controls the flow of fluid through
the valve.
S"4*" %* S"%7 !+%(. "he interruption or start of flow is the most widely
performed function of valves. 4 basic requirement in the design of these
valves is that they offer minimum flow restriction and pressure loss when
open. ,n many applications, tight shut8off at closure is also an essential
feature. ,n some applications, this may not be critical.
.ate, plug, ball, or butterfly valves are most widely used for the interruption
or start of flow. 6iaphragm valves may be preferred in corrosive
applications or in service where contamination of the fluid is not
permissible, such as in the drug and beverage industry.
*3.5+4",%- %! !+%(. Many applications require that the flow of the
fluid or gas be regulated 1or throttled2 in various steps between closed and
open limits. "his is generally done by introducing resistance to flow either
by a change in direction, or by causing a restriction, or by combinations of
these. 'ommonly used valves designs are of the globe, angle, needle, and
butterfly types.
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(i#% 1-1% (a!ilies of Val$es%
4 common method of classification is the method by which they actually
control flow !ig. $8$ below illustrates these methods together with some
examples of valves in each family.
a. !ig. $8& shows the basic construction of a common valve type,
namely a stop valve, and shows the principle of operation.
b. !luid flows into the valve through /,nlet 7ort0 through the passages in
the valve body past the element that controls the flow, and then flows
out via the /%ut let0 or /6ischarge port0
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(i#% 1-)% -ow a $al$e o.erates%
c. ,f the closing element 1named a disc2 in the close position the
passage way is blocked and no fluid can flow until it is opened again.
"his is done, as in the case of !ig. $8& by raising element i.e. it may
be controlled by hand or it may be power operated 1servo2.
d. ,n the 'ase of !ig. $8&, the closing element of the Valve is controlled
by handwheel attached to the valve S"3M:S7,-6+3. "o prevent
leakage, a seal is required where the stem leaves the valve body.
"he seal in this case is a Stuffing box filled with packing. "o keep the
Valve tightly closed the closing element 16isc2 sits on the seat.
Valves are subected to the effects of heat, pressure and corrosion, so it is
important that they are made from appropriate materials. "hat can be
made from #
'ast iron
Stainless steel
;rass and other metals as well as from plastic and glass. Valves are
usually made to the some standards and specifications of the pipe work ,
the system. "hey also come in a large variety of sizes.
Manufacturing method relates closely to body design. 'asting is well suited
to complicated shapes and can give well formed fluid paths. !orging
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requires heavy tooling costs or considerable boring and machining to
create internal passages. (elding allows buildup of the body from simple
tubular and plate forms, reinforced as necessary.
'asting is simple and cheap in many metals, such as irons and bronzes.
Steel and steel alloys are more difficult. !laws in castings may require
heavy rework in demanding nuclear services.
!orging, for steel and alloys, gives a body with uniformity through the metal
and with good surface. Machining may create stress problems, of course.
!abrication by welding may begin with plates, rings, forging, or even
castings. Stiffeners may be added as needed. ,nterior surface is usually
smooth, but the flow passages may not be as streamlined as they are in
cast bodies. (elded oints need attention to assure quality and corrosion
,n some designs the body itself is split into two sections that bolt together.
"his is common in ball and butterfly valves, and also in some control valves
requiring periodic disassembly for inspection and cleaning.
"he bonnet complicates manufacturer, increases valve size, and introduces
another potential leakage path to the outside.
!luid8control elements inside the valve include the seat, the disc, plug, or
ball the stem or spindle, and any sleeves needed to guide the stem and
disc. "hese elements are also called the trim. "he disc:seat interface and
the relation of disc position to seat determine valve performance to a large
"wo basic motions are possible. 3ither the disc 1ball or plug2 can side
closely past the seat to produce a change in flow opening, or else the disc
can lift perpendicularly away from the seat, so that an annular orifice
appears. Sliding past the seat characterizes ball, plug, and gate valves.
7erpendicular movement away from the seat occurs in globe valves, check
valves, and safety valves.
'ombination of the two basic motions is possible, too. 4 symmetric
butterfly valve=s disc slides past the seat ring, but the opening quickly
extends nearly all the way around the seat opening.
6isc and seat interaction is a vital factor in valve tightness and actuation
force. (ear from erosion or 'avitation may destroy disc and seat surfaces
in a single opening of a valve on high pressure8drop or slurry service.
Sliding of disc past seat under high fluid pressure or heavy interference fit
can inure the sealing surfaces enough to develop leaks. 7articles
embedded or caught between the surfaces also scar the sealing area.
%n the other hand, in designs where the disc lifts off the seat, the very
narrow annular orifice when the disc is close to the seat allows high8speed
fluid flow with danger of erosion and 'avitation. "he taper8plug type disc is
one remedy for this, and many control valves reflect the results of especial
attention to the problem.
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"here are many aspects of valve technology and application that call for in8
depth study by the manufacturer and the user. !ire safety for valves with
soft 3lastomer seats is an example of this. -eed for many valves to fail
safe, meaning that a loss of actuating force will bring into play a system for
valve opening, closing, or holding in last position, is another important area.
6emanding special services have involved into almost separate branches
of the valve field. -uclear valves, with radiation exposure and low8leakage
requirements, are an example. Maintainability in this service is especially
important if worker exposure to radiation is to be within bounds.
)igh pressure drops through valves and noise originating in such drops are
added examples of problems calling for research and experiment. 4t far
lower pressures, but with liquids carrying heavy particle loads, there is the
slurry valve problem crucial to flue8gas desulfurization, coal firing, and ash
and waste disposal.
,n valve design work, considerable advances have been made with the help
of finite8element analysis. Made possible for practical applications by the
computer and pioneered in nuclear8valve design this analysis procedure
has often superseded trial and error and enlightened hunches in
determining stresses and deflections of irregular shapes of valve bodies
and trim elements. "he disc of butterfly valves and the components of
pressure seals are two examples of success in reducing unnecessary metal
but assuring adequate margins for strength and, above, all, stiffness for
leak prevention.
Service conditions and material choice are closely interconnected.
"emperature is perhaps the most influential condition in power plants valve
work. 7ressure effects are easier to handle, requiring only moderate
changes in a wall thicknesses that usually exceed by far the values needed
for pressure retention alone.
*eduction in allowable pressure as temperature increases is universal and
is especially pronounced for nonmetallic materials. .raphitation of low8
alloy steels at temperatures upward of about ??> ! is a recognized danger.
.alling of contacting metal surfaces, in the seat:disc contact area, is a
serious problem, even where the theoretical motion of the disc is directly
toward the seat. -ot only metal properties but also the fluid itself can
influence this.
Sizing of valves for the flow they must handle relief@s often on knowledge of
the valve ', or flow coefficient. "his value is the number of gallons of AB!
water flowing through the wide8open valve per minute at a pressure drop of
$ psi, 'onversion to actual pressure8drop conditions for water and other
fluids is by simple equations.
,n many cases, valve8size specification is solely on the basis of piping size.
!or control8valve work and with reduced8orifice valves, however, the '
value is indispensable.
"he way in which flow rate through the valve changes as the disc
approaches the seat is another principal element of valve section. 4 control
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system can depend on the valve flow characteristic, as the curve is called.
4 glance at the instrument valve characteristic immediately tells the
systems designer that the valve flow decreases quickly during closing from
a partly open setting, which could be an important consideration in case of
an emergency with an instrument or a control line.
;i8directionality of a valve is a large consideration with several types and
specific models of valve. "his concept involves flow characteristics,
actuator sizing, trim life, and even safety. %bviously, it is to the advantage
of cost and maintenance effort if a valve has exactly the same behavior,
whichever the direction of flow.
Symmetry of form is one condition for full ;i8directionality. "he symmetric
butterfly valve and the gate valve are examples. 3ccentric butterfly valves
have less complete ;i8directionality, giving slightly different flow coefficients
and characteristics for different directions of flow. ,n addition, because of
differences in fluid pressure effect on the seat rings in this type of valve
pressure ratings may differ for the two directions.
4ngle valves have less ;i8directionality than do globe valves, as a rule. ,n
addition, the actuation force to open or close these two types of valve
varies greatly depending on flow direction. 'ontrol8valve selection and
control systems design take this factor into account.
*eparability and maintainability are factors in valve section. "he cost of
removal of a large weld8end valve, either to be replaced or repaired in the
shop, is so high that in8line repair is attractive. +eakage through the seat
may call for grinding or lapping of the seat and disc or for replacement of
seat ring and disc. ,n both cases, special tools may be needed, and the
repair may demand the services of outside specialists.
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(i#% 1-,% Val$e Co!.onents%
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1%1 VALVE CO0+ONENTS AS +ER (I2% 1-,%
$. Valve body # is the largest structural part of the valve. ,t provides the
means for attaching the valve to the system components or piping.
System flow passes through the body of the valve. "he
design of the valve body can allow for 1$2 Straight8through
fi#% 1-/ or it 3an 3han#e the dire3tion of flow as 4)5 4An#le #loe Val$e5 (i#% 1-
(i#% 1-/% Strai#ht - Thro"#h (low%(i#% 1-1% An#led 2loe Val$e%
&. Seating 4rea# is located inside of the valve body. "his is the area
where the disc closes on the valve body seat. "he disc and seat
must be smooth, and must fit together perfectly.
"he seat can be #
$. threaded
&. 7ress8fit
9. (elded into the body
<. 'ost as part of the valve body. See !ig. $8A.
,n high temperature, high pressure system, a combination of threading and
welding is used to prevent leakage between the valve body and the seat.
Materials used for seat construction#
D !or low8pressure low temperature system valve seat may be made of
bronze or teflon type material.
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!ig. $8A. "hreaded and (elded Seat 4ttachment
!or high pressure F temperature the seat area must be very strong same
as stellite.
9. 6isc is the part of the valve that close against the seat to stop flow
the could be8disc arrangement is designed for special proposals. ,t=s
used to equalize the pressure difference across the disc.
<. Stem is connects the disc to the hand wheel. "he stem transmits the
motion of the handwheel to the internal disc open F close the valve
ways disc attached to the stem#
D ,n slip8type oint
D "hreading is another method
6 Stem F 6isc manufactured as one piece
>. ;onnet# is attached to the valve body by bolting, threading, or
welding. "he shape of the bonnet is determined by the type and
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shape of the disc, since it provides housing for the disc when it=s
raised up from the valve seat.
A. Stuffing box# is filled with a packing to prevent leakage.
?. 4 packing gland# ,s to hold and compressed the packing in place to
prevent leakage by the stem and through the bonnet.
C. )and wheel or %perator# is control the movement of the disc inside
the valve. 4 handwheel is generally turned manually, while an
operator is controlled by an electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic motor.
E. ;ridge wall markings# is provide useful information indicates how the
internal parts of the valve are arranged, will show the direction of
$B. Service markings# indicates the maximum allowable pressure service
the letters /(0, /%0, or /.0 on the valve body indicate the type of
service the valve is designed for.
D "he smaller the valve, the finer the control.
D *eparability and Maintainability are factors in valve selection.
D "he component that make up all valves are essentially the
M3')4-,'4+ M4,-"3-4-'3 '%5*S3 46V4-'36 '%5*S3
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