Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

LESSON

2
LECTURE
GATE VALVES
SUB-OBJECTIVE
At the end of this lesson, the trainee ill !e a!le to de"onstrate an
#nderstandin$ of Gate Val%es&
'&( INTRO)UCTION
Gate valve the disc arrangement is not designed to control the rate of flow.
Its used for isolation or for on or off unable to throttle.
Normally, gate valves are placed where straight free flow is desired and
where an immediate shut off of flow may be necessary.
Often described simply as a GAT, this type of valve has a gate that goes
up and down in the body, integral with a stem ending in screw thread on
which the hand wheel is screwed. The handwheel rotates freely at fi!ed
height, so that its rotation causes vertical movement of the stem or the gate
depend on the stem type. The gate valve is used e!clusively on lines for
li"uid.
In a gate valve, the disc is wedge#shaped with mating surfaces on two
sides. These mating surfaces close against the seats to stop the flow of
fluid. An important point to remember is that the function of the disc and
the seats is to provide an on#off action. discs and seats are designed to
control the flow of fluid in either direction through the valve.
$odies of gate valves, whether small or large, can ta%e the form of two
intersecting cylinders, with one for the fluid flow and the other to house the
raised disc. &ig. '#(. Illustrates this. $onnet closures can be simple, for
small low pressure valves, or they can be as advanced as the pressure#
seal type.
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG ( 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
*i$& 2-'& Gate Val%e&
2&( GATE VALVE CONSTRUCTION
The e!terior construction of most gate valves is similar. The body houses
the fluid, and the bonnet acts as a lid for the body. The operator 3a
handwheel, for e!ample4 opens and closes the valve.
The interior construction of gate valves varies, depending on the type of
valve and the manufacturing design. &ig. '#' shows a typical e!ample of a
gate valve.
/T) $-/+ING )any valves are e"uipped with a nec% bushing, or stem
bushing, to act as guide for the stem and to form the bottom
of the stuffing bo!. The threaded end of the stem, screws
through the stem, bushing, the handwheel and the stem
bushing are solidly connected, thus raising or lowering the
stem when the handwheel is turned.
$O05 )ain part of the valve directly attached to the pipe.
&,ANG0 N0/ 2art of the body with bolt holes to allow the connection with
the flanges set on the pipes.
GA/6T Inserted between pipe and valve to have a tight, lea% proof
connection
$ONNT 2art of the valve mounted on the top of the body to form a
tight enclosure.
5O6 2art of the valve to support the handwheel and bushing.
/T) /olidly connected to the gate, the rotation of the stem raise
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG '
or lowers the gate.
+AN07+, The operator is used to control the stem, which moves the
disc up and down to control the flow of fluid through the
valve.
GAT Is the part of the valve that controls the opening.
/AT .ING/ 7hen the gate is lowered, the seat rings fit with the gate to
stop all flow.
/T-&&ING $O8 very valve with a stem has 3/T-&&ING $O84 to ensure
the sealing between the fluid and the atmosphere.
2A*6ING /pecial material 3made of asbestos, grease, neoprene each
manufacturer specifies a given type and si9e of pac%ing for
each stuffing bo!4 used to fill the stuffing bo!.
G,AN0 After the pac%ing is installed the gland compresses the
pac%ing, the gland also serves as the stuffing bo! covers.
2ac%ing is installed in the stuffing bo! to control the flow of
fluid along the stem. The pac%ing is held in place and
compressed by the gland follower.
$A*6/AT In order to permit re#pac%ing under pressure, some valves
are e"uipped with a bac% seat. The bac% seat is a tapered
restriction which mates with a widened section on the stem
to stop the flow of fluid along the stem.
$ONNT GA/6T The bonnet gas%et is provided to eliminate lea%age
between the bonnet and body. The yo%e acts as a support
for the stem, and has a stem nut that raises and lowers the
stem.
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG : 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
*i$& 2-2& Gate Val%e&
The stem on a gate valve is either rising or non rising 3N./4. Non#rising
%ind of gate valve is an indicator attached to; it shows the position of the
disc and whether the valve is open or closed. As &ig. '#:. The 5o%e in this
type has no threads, so the stem is %ept from rising when handwheel is
rotated. A limit switch often connected to a valve to control the movement
of the open < close of the valve li%e remote control device. It indicate the
position of the valve on panels so that operator dont have to inspect the
valve to tell whether it is open or close. /tem does not rise through the
handwheel.
= +ard to tell if valve is opened or closed.
= Threads are e!posed to the fluid
= 1ery little overhead room needed
*i$& 2-+& Non Risin$ Ste"&
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG >
*i$& 2-,& Non-risin$ ste" solid ed$e $ate %al%e for 2-( .si$ stea"
ser%i/e&
In the non#rising stem valve, the lower end of the stem is threaded and
screws into the dis%, vertical motion of the stem being restrained by a thrust
collar. &ig. '#>.
The non#rising stem 3N./4 configuration places the stem threads inside,
out of contact with the environment, and also assures that the stem merely
rotates in the pac%ing, without much danger of carrying dirt into the pac%ing
from outside or inside.
+&( RISING-STE0
In the rising stem type of valve, the upper part of the stem is threaded and
a nut is fastened solidly to the handwheel and held in the yo%e by thrust
collars. As the handwheel is turned, the stem moves up or down. The
rising stem valve re"uires a greater amount of space when opened. It is
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG ? 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
generally to be preferred, however, a because the position of the stem
indicates at once whether the valve is open or closed.
In the open position there valves can be recogni9ed by the fact that the
threaded stem rises above the handwheel. As &ig. '#? < '#@. /tem rises
through the hand wheel easy to tell if valve is opened or closed threads are
not in contact with fluid needs over head space.
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG @
*i$& 2-- risin$ Ste"&
*i$& 2-1& Risin$ ste" solid ed$e $ate %al%e for 2-( .si$ stea" ser%i/e
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG A 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
*i$& 2-2& Risin$ ste" solid ed$e $a$e %al%e ith /ir/#lar !onnet
flan$e3 for 1(( .si$ ser%i/e&
-p to a steam wor%ing pressure of '?B psig, gate valves are usually made
with an oval bonnet flange to reduce the face#to#face dimension. In the
valves designed for higher pressures, a bonnet flange or circular shape is
preferred to provide a recessed gas%et Coint. A typical valve design for @BB
lb steam pressure is illustrated in &ig. '#A.
2ressure#sealed bonnet Coints are recommended for high pressure, high#
temperature steam and feed water service. They are normally available in
the @BB#, DBB#, (?BB#, and ',?BB lb classes.
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG E
,&( GATE )ESIGNS
Gate valve shave two vertical seating surfaces. Their discs are generally
constructed in a wedge shape as &ig. '#E or a double disc.
The seats on a gate valve are either cast as part of the valve body or are
installed, which ma%e them replaceable. ,arge valve generally replaceableF
There are several types of gatesF
a. /olid wedge gate As per &ig. '#E.
/uch a gate is made of one part. The complete shut off with a solid
gate is accomplished through a close fit between the gates and the
seat rings.
A solid wedge gate is lowered into closed position.
/O,I0 &O. +IG+ &,O7 .AT/
The flow e!erts pressure on one of the gate li"uids or gases flowing
under high pressure tend to erode material that opposes their flow.
*i$& 2-4& Solid 5ed$e Gate& 2-6& Solid S.lit Gate&
b. /olid split Gate as per &ig. '#D.
/2,IT NO.)A,,5 &O. 2O//I$, )I/A,IGN)NT
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG D 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
*. 2arallel discs and wedge gate &ig. '#(B.
7hen closing, the parallel discs descend between two matching
seats. 7hen the lower wedge, or spreader, reaches the top, it
cannot descend further as the upper.
/preader is forced on to the lower spreader, the discs are pushed
outward against the seat rings.
*i$& 2-'(& 7arallel )is/s&
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG (B
,&' )OUBLE )IS8
0is% touches the seat as soon as closing beings and used in high
temperatures sealed by spring pressure sealed by fluid pressure sealed by
wedging action of the stem as per fig. '#((.
*i$& 2-''& )o#!le )is9 ith S.rin$& The flo e:erts .ress#re on one
side of the dis9 or $ate&
,&2 )OUBLE )IS8 T;7E
In the double#dis% parallel#seat gate valves, the dis%s are forced against the
valve seats by a wedging mechanism as the stem is tightened.
/ome double#dis% parallel#seat valves employ a design which depends for
its tightness mainly upon the fluid pressure e!erted against one side or the
other of the dis%. The maCor advantage of this type is that the dis% cannot
be Cammed into the body, which otherwise might ma%e it difficult to open the
valve subse"uently. This is particularly important where motors are used
for opening and closing. +owever, the tightness of the solid wedge gate
valve may also result to a significant degree from the action of fluid
pressure against one side or the other. Thus, the two types are essentially
similar in this respect.
ach dis% in the parallel#seat types slides against its seat while the valve is
being opened or closed. *onse"uently, these components must be made
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG (( 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
of metals which do not tend to gall or tear when in sliding contact with each
other. $y means of guides, the wedge gate does not come into contact
with the seat until the closing point is almost reached. The double#dis%
parallel seat gate valve is often favored for high#temperature steam service
because it is less li%ely to stic% in the closed position as a result of change
in temperature. Gate valves are used where a straight through flow is
desired with a minimum amount of pressure loss.
The valve has been assembled by welding. This valve, with welding ends,
a welded bonnet Coint, and welded#in seat rings, is particularly suited for
high#temperature service where trouble might be e!perienced in %eeping
flanged Coint tight. The use of welded#in seat rings with stellite facing is
deemed to insure sufficient durability to warrant welding the bonnet Coint as
well as the line Coints.
*i$& 2-'2 <'+
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG ('
,&+ LUBRICANT VALVES
/ome gate valves are furnished with lubricant seal systems to fill damaged
valve seats which have become scored or pitted. In these valves, a sealing
material, which is insoluble in the li"uid or gas flowing through the valve, is
pressed through a small port in the valve body into a groove under the seat
ring &rom the groove, the sealing material passes through small holes in
the seat ring into an annular groove in the face of the ring. The holes in the
seat ring are made small in order to prevent the sealant from being washed
out. The lubricant also reduces sliding friction between the seat and
wedge. ,ubricant#seal systems are available in cast#iron and cast steel
bodies.
*i$& 2-', Gate %al%e ith l#!ri/ant sale s=ste"&
-&( )I**ERENT T;7ES O* GATE VALVES >*i$& 2-'-?
3A4 .ising stem, double wedge dis% 3$4 /olid wedge dis%, rising stem G
Non#rising stem single wedge dis% 304 Outside screw and yo%e union
bonnet, single wedge dis%. 34 Non#rising stem, single wedge dis%,
renewable seat rings.
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG (: 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
*i$ 2-'- Gate %al%es&
-&' IN-SERVICE INS7ECTION
1alves are inspected while in service to determine if the components
function properly under routine operating conditions. 7hen inspecting a
valve, it may be necessary to perform minor adCustments, such as adCusting
the pac%ing or the operator, to %eep the valve in good operating condition.
2articular attention should be given to the stuffing bo! and flanges to chec%
for lea%s in the pac%ing or gas%ets. 7hen defects are found that cannot
be corrected immediately, they must be reported so that necessary action
can be ta%en.
-&2 REASONS *OR 0AINTENANCE
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG (>
0epending on facility procedures, repair of a valve may be re"uired
because of failure or loss of efficiency.
fficiency can be lost due to stem lea%s, stem binding, improper operator
adCustment , lea%ing while the disc is closed against the seat, lea%s in
flange mating surfaces, or other defects.
1alves are not usually disassembled for periodic maintenance. In most
instances, valves are not ta%en out of service until a loss of operating
efficiency is noted. Of course, failure of a valve may re"uire a complete
overhaul.
7hen performing maintenance, the manufacturers instructions should be
reviewed before proceeding with any disassembly wor%.
The maintenance of the valve follows commonsense lines. The stem
threads should be %ept lubricated and free from dirt. 7hen the valve is
wide open for a long period of time, the e!posed stem threads should be
protected by a light sheet#iron tube placed over them.
To repac% the valve, move the swing gland bolts out of the way. The gland
is raised and rests on the ledges provided for that purpose. The stuffing
bo! is then accessible for renewal of the pac%ing. ach ring of new
pac%ing should be compressed by the gland before another ring is added.
/plits in split ring pac%ing should be staggered. The valve can be repac%ed
under pressured.
/hould the downstream seats become scored, the upstream seats will
fre"uently be found to be in good condition. .everse the valve (EBH, and
the valve will be as good as new.
/hould it become necessary to replace the seat rings, remove the valve
from the line and prepare a correct si9e pipe with s"uare notches to fit the
lugs in the seat rings. As the pipe with lugs is twisted 3by means of a bar4,
tap the body smartly with a hammer to help loosen the ring. *lean all
threads and seating surfaces with a wire brush before installing new rings.
Graphite or pipe dope can be used. A new dis% should be installed with
new rings. It may have to be lapped in. .etighten body bonnet bolts
uniformly using a crisscross pattern and at least three passes.
Normally valve attached to low pressure < temperature system are made of
bron9e or brass. *ast iron valves will be found on low#pressure steam or
lubricated system valves used in high pressure < temperature systems are
made of special alloy metals. /tainless steel is commonly used where
there is possibility of corrosion to the valve.
In large gate valve on steam service, closure of the valve in fully heated
state can lead to Camming when the valve cools later. This is because the
heated body e!pands along the pipe a!is, increasing a!ial distance
between seats. *ooling when the valve has been closed with enough
thrust to ma%e it lea% proof may result in enough contraction between seats
to prevent re#operating without heating the body. The parallel disc is
intended to prevent this difficulty. $oth low pressure iron valves and high#
)*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./ A01AN*0 *O-./
,//ON ' 2AG (? 1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN*
pressure steel types have this disc. 2rinciple of operation is that wedge
surfaces between the parallel faced disc halves are caused to press
together under stem thrust and spread apart the discs to seal against the
seats. The tapered wedges may be part of the disc halves or may be
separate elements. The lower wedge must bottom out on a rib at the valve
bottom so that the stem can develop seating force. In one version, the
wedge contact surfaces are curved to %eep the point of contact closed to
the optimum.
A01AN*0 *O-./ )*+ANI*A, )AINTNAN* *O-./
1A,1/ AN0 1A,1 )AINTNAN* ,//ON ' 2AG (@