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At the end of this lesson, the trainee ill !e a!le to de"onstrate an
#nderstandin$ of Piston %al%es&
Interior partitioning of the valve is the same as in the preceding types. The
cut-off member is a hollow cylindrical piston sliding between two sealing
rings screwed into the body. The piston is provided with openings which go
up and down in front of the outlet hole, thus permitting variation of flaw
section Fig. 8-1 show valve components.
The piston is of chrome steel and perfectly machined; the sealing rings are
often of self lubricating Teflon. o that lubrication is unnecessary. !t the
beginning of opening a displacement uncovers a small flow section,
permitting precise control of low rates of flow. For each profile the
manufacturer supplies the curve of the variation of flow as a function of the
height of lift of the disc. "ost automatic valves are of the double disc type.
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)i$& 8-'& List of Piston Val%e *o"+onents&
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)i$& 8-,& Piston Balan*e Val%e shoin$ do#!le dis* arran$e"ent&
The double disc design can be used to e0uali1e the pressure across the
disc and it can be varied to change flow characteristics through the valve or
to change the operation of the valve, such as by decreasing the response
time of the valve2s action. (ften, double disc valves used for flow control
will be designed for special flow characteristics. Fig. 8-/.
3hen a single disc valve is put into operation, all pressure drop across the
valve is e4erted on the area of the valve seat. This force of pressure must
be over come by the valve actuator. To overcome this problem, certain
valves are designed with a double disc arrangement. This design is
especially serviceable where system pressure is very high or where
constant ad5ustment must be made to control a flow through the valve.
! piston balance valve allows the force e4erted across the seating area to
be as e0ual as possible, while being directed in opposite direction. The
double disc arrangement has the flow coming from the left. In the closed
position, the fluid pressure would press against the bottom of the top disc
and against the top of the bottom disc e0uali1ing flow pressure. #ven
when the valve is open, there is an e0uali1ing force which gives the valve a
smooth operation.
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3hen the standard valve is fully closed, there is of course, 1ero flow. !s
the valve is opened, flow begins to increase rapidly through it. 3hen the
valve is 7 open, there is almost no additional increase as the valve is
opened all the way.
3hen fine flow control re0uired, such as during controlled chemical
additions or for boiler feed flow, a precise control of flow through the valve
as it open is re0uired. This control can be achieved by a valve designed to
have linear flow characteristics. !n e4ample of this type of valve is one
designed with a double disc arrangement and used for the control of water
going to a boiler.
)i$& 8--& Linear )lo Chara*teristi*s )i$& 8-.& )lo Chara*teristi*s
of a /o#!le /is* Val%e C#r%e for a /is* Val%e&
$omparison between a regular valve and valve designed for special flow
The graph 8-6 illustrates the general flow characteristic curve for standard
design values. Flow versus valve opening is plotted on the graph. The
valve position is plotted on the hori1ontal a4is, and the percent of flow is
plotted along the vertical a4is.
The graph 8-8 shows the characteristics of linear flow through a double disc
valve. !s with the standard valve graph, the comparison is made between
valve opening and percent of flow through the valve. The valve position is
plotted along the hori1ontal a4is and the percent of full flow is plotted along
the vertical a4is. For flow to be linear, the characteristics curve must be a
straight line; hence, the name 9'inear:. The graph shows that for each
percent that the valve is opened or closed the flow ill change by the same
percent. If the valve position is change from 1;8 open to < open, flow will
increase by the same amount from 1;8 to < percent.
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