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At the end of this lesson, the trinee !ill "e "le to de#onstrte n $nderstndin% of
Sfet& Vl'es(
)(* +RESSURE ,
Is a force per unit area. (1pound per sq.in.) (PSI) = .143 or kilo Pascal. 7 k
Pascal = 1 PSI.
Is a piece of metal on other material that is designed to rupture at a
predetermined pressure !s per ("igure # $ 1 and # $ %)&

FI/, 9 0) FI/, 9--
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 1 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
another t4pe of rupture disc is t5o $piece component6 one piece is the disc and the
other is a frame that holds a sharp knife point. !s per ("igure #73).
FI/, 9-2 Re"$34lin% .is3
)( ! rupture in a s4stem 5ill occur at the 5eakest point in that s4stem.
-( ! rupture disc can protect a s4stem from pressure damage 8ecause the rupture
disc is the 5eakest point in a s4stem& so it 5ill rupture 8efore an4 other part of
the s4stem is damage 84 e9cess pressure.
2( 0upture disc ma4 8e connected to discharge piping to ensure the safe remo:al
of pressuri;ed fluid in the e:ent of a rupture.
5( <hen a rupture disc is replaced& the ne5 disc must ha:e the same pressure
rating as the original disc.
6 Simple.
"6 ,ight 5eight.
36 "ast $ opening
d6 0elati:el4 ine9pensi:e.
e6 +o maintenance.
)( -he ma=or disad:antage of rupture discs is that the4 must 8e replaced 5hen
the4 rupture and this required shut do5n the s4stem.
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( %
-( <hen a rupture disc is used in a :acuum s4stem& a support de:ice is needed to
hold the disc in place and pre:ent atmospheric press. ! support de:ice can 8e
used to keep the rupture disc 8ulging out 5ord. -he rupture disc and the
support de:ice fit into a holder that can 8e 8olted in place 8et5een t5o flanges.
!s per ("igure #74).
FI/, 9 0 5 R$7t$re .is3 B$ilt- In S$77ort
FI/, 9 0 8 +rts of T&7i3l Relief Vl'e
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 3 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
to relie:e e9cess pressure in a s4stem. !s per ("igure # $ >).
Ad'nt%es of relief 'l'e o'er r$7t$re dis3 re,

)( -he4 close 5hen s4stem pressure returns to normal le:els.
-( -he4 can 8e ad=usted as necessar4 to maintain a :er4 accurate set point.
0elief :al:es are used primaril4 on s4stems that handle pressuri;ed liquids.
-he spring 5asher forms a flat surface on the top of the spring. -he flat surface
ensure e:en contact 8et5een the spring and the ad=usting scre5.
-he position of the ad=usting scre5 is changed to ad=ust the tension of the spring.
!s the pressure increase o:er the set pressure& the :al:e disc 5ill continue to lift&
until it has risen as far as it can go. -hat point is called the full4 open position of the
is the difference 8et5een the pressure at 5hich the disc 8egins to lift and the
pressure at 5hich the :al:e is full4 open position. (Start open at %? psi& full open at
%> psi& accumulation of the :al:e > psi).
Lift or Tr'el, is the distance that the disc mo:es from the closed position to the
full4 open position. ! relief :al:e remains in full4 open position until
the e9cess pressure in the s4stem has 8een relie:ed.
.ifferen3e "et!een li;$ids nd /ses,
)( 2olume.
-( )ompressi8ilit4.
3as take up much more space (:olume) then liquid do& and the molecule of a
gaseous su8stance can 8e squee;ed closer together (compressed)& 5hile the
molecules of a liquid can not.
E<#7le, If one cu8ic inch of 5ater (liquid) is 8oiled& the amount of steam (gas) that is
produced 5ill fill a space of o:er 1>?? cu8ic inches& if press does not
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 4
FI/, 9 0 = 'l'e set
It is important that the mating surface of the disc and no;;le seat fit together
perfectl4. -his 5ill pre:ent the :al:e from leaking under pressure. It is also
important that the seat is 5ide enough to carr4 the 8earing load from the
spring and narro5 enough to eliminate simmer. "or most safet4 relief :al:es
of this t4pe& the seat 5idth is 8et5een .?3?@ and .?37@.
Set at 5idth can 8e accuratel4 measured using a measuring magnifier. -he
measuring magnifier is placed against the no;;le seat as sho5n in the ("igure
# $ A) sho5s 5hat 4ou 5ill see 5hen 4ou look through the e4e piece of the
!s per ("igure #77) safet4 :al:es can 8e classified according to the 5a4 that the4
open and the num8er of ad=usting rings that the4 contain. "igure # $ 7 is cut 5a4
dra5ing of *uddling )ham8er Safet4 2al:e.

-he spindle is threaded past the disc threads so that it sits on the disc and acts
like a 8all =oint. <hen the spindle is full4 threaded into the disc the thread of the
spindle are disengaged from the thread of the disc. In the position& normal
:i8rations of the :al:e can not separate the spindle from the disc or the disc from
the seat.
-he disc of the huddling cham8er safet4 :al:e is shaped quite differentl4 from the
disc of a relief :al:e. -he safet4 :al:e disc has a lip that is not e9posed to s4stem
pressure 5hen the :al:e is closed.
-he disc in a huddling cham8er safet4 :al:e is also called a fether.
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( > 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
FI/, 9 0 >
-he center portion of the disc in a huddling cham8er safet4 :al:e is called
7ress$re-sensin% re.
If the :al:e is set to open at %? psi& the disc 5ill 8egin to left off the seat 5hen
that pressure is reached. <hen this happens& the lip of the disc 5hich 5as not
pre:iousl4 e9posed to s4stem pressure& suddenl4 is e9posed to s4stem pressure.
-his larger area of the disc e9posed to the same a mount of s4stem pressure (%?
psi) so there is more total force e9erted on the 8ottom of the disc.
For3e ? 7ress$re @ Are there for& an increase in area results in a increase in
force& 5hile pressure remains the same. -he increased force causes the disc to
7o7 o7en to a 8out a A?B open position.
At this 7oint t!o for3e hold the dis3 t =*A o7en 7osition,
)( S&ste# 7ress$re(
-( The 'elo3it& of the es37in% ste# stri4in% the dis3(
In terms of relie:ing e9cess pressure& if one cu8ic foot 5ater must 8e
released to relie:e one psi of pressure in 5ater s4stem& then 1>?? cu8ic
feet of steam 5ould ha:e to released from a steam s4stem of the same
si;e and pressure to relie:e same a mount of pressure one psi.

There re t!o #Bor resons for not $sin% relief 'l'e on %s ste#
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( A
). ! relief :al:e open graduall4. It does not open =uicil4 enough to let out the large
:olume of gas or steam that is needed to relie:e e9cess pressure in the s4stem.
-( -he possi8ilit4 of damage to the :al:e seat and disc. <hen a relief :al:e first
8egins to open the space 8et5een the :al:e disc and its seat is e9tremel4 small.
-he :elocit4 of the steam or gas escaping through that small space could actuall4 cut
the metal. -his damage called Cste# 3$t@ CCire dr!n@ in contrast& the initial
popping action of the safet4 :al:e instantl4 pro:ides a relati:el4 5ide escape route
for e9cess gas or steam. Decause the escape route is 5ide& the :elocit4 of the
escaping fluid is relati:el4 lo5. D4 reducing the :elocit4 of the gas or steam in this
5a4& the popping action of the safet4 :al:e minimi;es the steam cutting that 5ould
occurs if the disc 5ere e9posed to a high $ :elocit4 flo5 of steam.
If the s4stem pressure continues to increase the :elocit4 of the escaping steam 5ill
also increase and the t5o forces 5ill lift the disc e:en higher. !fter the initial
popping to the A?B open position& the :al:e open more graduall4 (if s4stem press.
continues to increase) until it reached the full4 open position.
-he :al:e does not close until the s4stem press drops a predetermined a mount
8elo5 the set point (%? psi). then the :al:e snaps shut quickl4 due to the shape of
the disc& to cut off the flo5 of steam and thus minimi;e steam cutting. -his occurs at
a8out the %?B open position& as the force of the escaping steam is lost. ! small
cushion of steam trapped in the huddling cham8er of the :al:e keeps the disc and
the seat from slamming together hard enough to 8e damaged.
+o77in% 7ress$re, Is the pressure at 5hich the :al:e 5ill pop open. )an 8e
ad=usted 84 ad=usting scre5.

Si##erin%, <hen the press. in a s4stem reaches the popping press. of a safet4
:al:e& the disc 8egins to rise off its seat. -he :al:e does not pop
open immediatel4& 8ecause the press. has no time to act on the lip of
the disc. -he condition in 5hich the disc has lifted onl4 slightl4 is
called simmering. In most cases& simmering lasts for onl4 a fraction
of a second& until s4stem press. acts on the lip of the disc and the
:al:e pop open.
+ositi'e setin%, <hen s4stem press. drops 8elo5 the popping press& the spring is
a8le to snap the :al:e shut. <hen the disc is firml4 in place against
its seat& the :al:e is said to ha:e positi:e seating. Positi:e seating is
important& 8ecause it means that the :al:e 5ill not leak.
Blo!do!n or "lo!"34, -he difference 8et5een the popping press. of a :al:e
and its positi:e seating press. is called Dlo5do5n or Dlo58ack. )an
8e ad=usted 84 ad=usting ring.
If the :al:e has a popping press. of %? psi and also a positi:e seating press. of %? psi.
In this e9ample& the 8lo5do5n is ?. !fter the e9cess press. is relie:ed& s4stem press.
start to drop. <hen it reaches %? psi& the :al:e does not kno5 5hether it should
remain closed or pop open again. -he disc is likel4 =ump up and do5n its seat until
press. either increase enough to pop the :al:e open or decrease enough to keep it
closed. -his condition is kno5n as 3htterin%& 8ecause of the sound made 84 the disc
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 7 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
as it mo:es up and do5n. )hattering can damage the disc and the seat& so it must 8e
pre:ented. )hattering is pre:ented 84 8lo5do5n& 5hich insure that the popping press.
and the position seating press. are different.
E!8normal rapid reciprocating mo:ement of the disc on the seatF
The dB$stin% rin%,
<hen the ad=usting ring is in the raised position& the escaping steam is directed
right at the disc. -he :elocit4 of the escaping steam e9erts a great deal of
up5ard force& 8ecause most of the steam is aimed at the disc. -his means that
s4stem press& must drop 5ill 8elo5 the popping press& of the :al:e 8efore the
spring can force the disc 8ack onto its seat. -herefore& raising the ad=usting ring
increase the 8lo5do5n of the :al:e.
If the ad=usting ring is lo5ered& the escaping steam is not aimed directl4 at the
disc 5ith the ad=usting ring in the lo5ered position& the :al:e 5ill close against
higher s4stem pressure than it did 5hen the ring 5as raised. !s a result& the
8lo5do5n of the :al:e decrease.
-he function of the ad=usting ring& then& is to ad=ust the 8le5do5n of the :al:e.
-he higher the ring& the higher the 8lo5do5n the lo5er the ring& the lo5er the
FI/, 9 0 D
See ("igure #7G).
*a:e t5o ad=usting rings
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( G
An $77er rin% for,
)( !d=usts the 8lo5do5n of the :al:e.
-( 1irects the escaping steam a5a4 from the disc.
The lo!er rin% for,
)( 1irects the escaping s4stem at the disc.
-( -raps a cushion of steam to soften the metal to metal contact
as the :al:e closes.
-he upper ad=usting ring ad=usts the 8lo5do5n of the :al:e 84 ad=usting the si;e
has a 5ide& straight path to the outlet. <ith the ring raised& little of the escaping
steam acts on the disc& so the :al:e can close at higher s4stem press. (-he
:al:e thus has a smaller 8lo5do5n). -he a mount that the upper ring is raised
is important& if the ring is raised too much& it might allo5 so much steam to
escape 5ithout acting on the disc that the :al:e might not a8le to lift all the 5a4.
7If the upper ad=usting ring is lo5ered& the escape route for the steam is
narro5ed& so more of the steam 5ill act on the disc. ,o5ering the upper ring
also directs the steam do5n5ard and thus creates a force called Creacti:e
Re3ti'e for3e is a t4pe of force that is equal to the original force& 8ut opposite
in direction. -hus& the force of the pressuri;ed gas or steam that is directed
do5n5ard 84 the upper ring 5ill e9ert an up 5ard force on the disc. <hen the
upper ring is in its lo5er position& the com8ination of the narro5ed escape route
and the reacti:e force results in a greater 8lo5do5n of the :al:e.

-he lo5er ad=usting ring aims the escaping steam directl4 at the disc to insure
a clean forceful popping action.
If set too high the space 5ill 8e too narro5. Steam 5ill not 8e a8le to escape
through the narro5 space& and the 8lo5do5n 5ill 8e increased. -here is also
possi8ilit4 that the disc hit the lo5er ring.
If the lo5er ring set too lo5 much of the steam escape 5ith out hitting the disc.
!s a result the :al:e might simmer too long 8efore popping open& or it might not
pop open at all.

-he second function of the lo5er ad=usting ring is to trap a cushion of steam
that softens the metal to metal contact 8et5een the disc and the seat 5hen the
:al:e closes. If the lo5er ring is set too lo5& no cushion of steam is formed.
!fter the rings ha:e 8een properl4 set& the4 are locked in place& 84 tightening
the ring pins that protrude through the :al:e 8od4.
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( # 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
FI/, 9 0 9
("igure # $ #) is 8asicall4 a t5o7ring :al:e 5ith a middle7ad=usting ring
added 8et5een the lo5er and upper ring. -he middle ring is a fine7
tuning ad=ustment for controlling the up5ard force of the steam. It is
ad=usted to co:er or e9pose a series of radial holes that ha:e 8een
drilled in the upper ring. <hen these holes are full4 e9posed& steam
can escape through them& so less steam hit the disc so the :al:e 5ill
not open all the 5a46 8lo5do5n is also :er4 small.
If the middle7ad=usting ring completel4 co:ers the holes in the upper ring a large
amount of steam hits the disc. In this situation& the :al:e opens 5ith too much
force& and the disc ma4 easil4 8e damaged6 also& Dlo5do5n is rather large.
-he position of the middle ring in a three $ ring huddling cham8er safet4 :al:e
is e9tremel4 important. "or this reason& all ad=ustment 5as made at the
factor4. +o ad=ustments are made during maintenance.
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 1?
FI/, 9 0 )*
'ost no;;le reaction safet4 :al:e& like the one sho5n in ("igure # $
1?) has a no;;le $ shaped inlet and t5o ad=usting rings. -he upper
ring is called the %$ide rin% and the lo5er ring is called the noFFle
!s s4stem press. 0ises to the simmering point& the :al:e disc lifts off its seat.
-he shape of the disc turns the path of the escaping steam do5n5ard& thus
creating a reacti:e face& as sho5n in ("igure # $ 11) and is directed 8ack to5ard
the disc. <hen it hits the disc& the steam again changes direction& and a
second reacti:e force is e9erted to the escaping steam. Steam deflected off the
guide ring then adds still another reacti:e force against the disc that lifts the
disc higher.
FI/, 9 0 ))
0aising the guide ring 5idens the escape path for the steam and decreases the
8lo5do5n. ,o5ering the guide ring narro5s the escape path and increases the
lifting force and the 8lo5do5n.
0aising the no;;le ring directs more steam against the disc. Prolonged
simmering can occur if the ring is set too high.
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 11 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
,o5ering the no;;le ring decrease the amount of steam that is directed against
the disc. If the ring is set too lo5& the cushion of steam that pre:ents damage
as the :al:e closes 5ill 8e eliminated.
FI/, 9 0 )-
!s per ("igure # $ 1%).
Is a :al:e that is suita8le for use as either a safet4 or relief :al:e&
depending on the application. Safet4 $ :al:es are commonl4 used in
refineries& on s4stem that contain liquid $ :apor mi9ture& and in some
lo5 $ pressure steam s4stem.
-he :al:e sho5n in ("igure # $ 1%) is a safet4 $relief :al:e that acts as a safet4
:al:e 5ith the ad=usting rings in one position and as a relief :al:es 5ith the ring
in another position.

-he construction is :er4 similar to that of the no;;le reaction safet4 :al:e. -he
:al:e has a no;;le $ shaped and upper and lo5er ad=usting rings.
-he :al:e set up for ser:ice as a safet4 :al:e 84 ad=usting the lo5er ring to
direct fluid against the disc& 5hich 5ill cause the :al:e to pop open. In this
position& the lo5er ring 5ill also trap a cushion of gas or steam to protect the
:al:e from damage as it close.
- If the :al:e is to 8e used as a relief :al:e& the 8ottom7ad=usting ring must 8e
lo5ered so that fluid is not directed against the disc. -hat ad=ustment 5ill
allo5 the disc to open graduall4 instead of popping open.
!d=ustments to safet4 $ relief :al:es are made 84 the :al:e manufacture 8efore
the :al:es are sent to the plant for installation.
Plant maintenance personnel do not normall4 make the ad=ustment that
con:erts safet4 $ relief :al:es from one t4pe to the other.
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 1%
FI/, 9 0 )2
!re :al:es that ha:e a separate sensing de:ice that reacts to e9cess
pressure conditions. -his arrangement allo5s e9cess press. to 8e detected
in one part of a s4stem (such as a steam line) 5hile the :al:e protects
another port of the s4stem (such as the 8oiler).
Pilot $ actuated relief :al:es are also called po5er $ actuated pressure $
relief :al:e (P.! $ relief :al:es)& electromatic relief :al:es& and pressure $
matic relief :al:es.
-he :al:e consists of t5o ma=or components !s per ("igure # $ 13).
1. -he :al:e it self.
%. ! separate pilot de:ice that senses changes in press. and initiates
the :al:e $ opening sequence
FI/, 9 0 )5
-he :al:e component of a t4pical pilot $ actuated relief :al:e& is sho5n in
("igure # 7 14). -he spring in this :al:e is 8elo5 the disc& the disc opens
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 13 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
do5n 5ard& allo5ing the steam to escape through the outlet at the upper
past of the :al:e 8od4. -he :al:e also has a disc guide& 5hich is a slee:e
that aligns the disc.
!s sho5n in ("igure # $ 14) there is a small opening 8et5een the disc
guide and the disc that allo5s s4stem fluid to pass through from the inlet
to the 8ottom of the main disc. Decause of this feature& s4stem pressure
is e9erted on 8oth the top and 8ottom of the disc during normal s4stem
operation. If s4stem puss. Increase& it increase on 8oth sides of the disc.
-he :al:e 5ill not open ho5e:er& 8ecause the press. on the top of the
disc counter8alance the pressure on the 8ottom.
-he opening of a pilot $ actuated relief :al:e is initiated 84 a separate
pilot de:ice& such as the one sho5n in ("igure # $ 14). -he pilot de:ice
consists of
1. ! pressure7 sensing tu8e.
%. !n electrical rela4.
3. ! solenoid.
4. ! pilot :al:e.
-he pilot de:ice is set to open at a predetermined pressure. Increase in
s4stem pressure is detected 84 the press. sensing tu8e.
<hen s4stem press. reaches the predetermined le:el& the pressure $
sensing tu8e acti:ates the electrical rela4. -he electrical rela4 closes an
electrical circuit and energi;es the solenoid. -he solenoid then lifts the
pilot :al:e& and the e9cess pressure is relie:ed.
-he e9cess pressure that is relie:ed 84 the pilot :al:e comes from 8elo5
the disc in the main :al:e. (-he amount of press. that the pilot :al:e is
capa8le of relie:ing is greater than the amount that could leak 8et5een
the disc and the disc guide). <hen this press. is relie:ed& the onl4 press&
remaining on the disc is the pressure that is a8o:e it. <ith no press.
8elo5 the disc to counter8alance it& the pressure a8o:e the disc easil4
o:ercomes the spring tension& so the :al:e opens to release s4stem fluid
through the out let a8o:e the disc.
<hen s4stem press& returns to normal& the pilot :al:e close. Pressure
then 8uilds up again 8elo5 the main :al:e disc and helps the spring to
hold the disc closed.
Pilot $ actuated relief :al:e are used on gas and steam s4stems& like
safet4 :al:es& the4 pop open and the4 ha:e a predetermined a mount of
8lo5do5n to pre:ent chattering.
Pilot $ actuated relief :al:es are often used on s4stems that use safet4
:al:es in such instance& the pilot $ actuated relief :al:es are set to open
at lo5er s4stem press. than the safet4 :al:es. -his t4pe of arrangement
sa:es 5ear and tear on safet4 :al:es and pre:ents the costl4 shutdo5ns
that 5ould 8e required for safet4 :al:es repairs. D4 la5& safet4 :al:es
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 14
cannot 8e isolated from the s4stems that the4 protect& 8ecause of the
damage that might occur if the s4stems 5ere operated 5ith out protection.
-here fore& 5hene:er a safet4 :al:e is damaged& its s4stem must 8e shut
$ do5n 5hile repairs are made. Pilot $actuated :al:es& ho5e:er& can 8e
isolated from a s4stem& 8ecause the4 are not part of the s4stem
safeguards. -hese :al:es can 8e used and then repaired& if necessar4&
5ith out ha:ing to shut do5n the s4stem.
FI/, 9 - )8
(9ternal inspection of this t4pe of :al:e usuall4 in :al:es checking the
1. -he lock 5ire on the ad=usting ring pin.
%. Signs of leakage a round the Hoke or 8onnet 8olts and the
discharge piping 8olts.
3. -he temperature of the :al:e and the discharge piping.
4. -he condition of the catch tra4 on the discharge piping. ("igure
# $ 1>).
>. Signs of possi8le leakage from the discharge piping out let.
If a safet4 :al:e is suspected& a stethoscope is used to listen for a hissing
or 5histling sound.
!nother 5a4 to detect leak through is to go out side and check the
e9haust pipe form the :al:e.
-he catch tra4 on the discharge piping collects condensate that comes
do5n the discharge piping 5hen the :al:e is open. It should 8e clean
and dr4. If not cleaned& then it is possi8le for condensate& dirt& and
corrosion particles coming do5n into the :al:e seat disc.
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 1> 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
-here ma4 8e some sure signs that the :al:e is leaking through 8et5een
the disc and seat. -5o possi8le cause of such leakage are
1. -he :al:e did not reseat correctl4 after its last popping.
%. Some kind of forcing material& like ash& dirt or rust particles& is trapped
8et5een the seat and the feather. -hese can 8e corrected 84 hand
lifting the :al:e. *and lifting clears foreign material out of the :al:e
and gi:es the feather a chance to reseat properl4.
-he operator must kno5 5hen a safet4 :al:e is to 8e hand lifted so that
he can compensate for the drop in s4stem press. !nd keep it from take
emergenc4 measures to raise press. .r to shut the s4stem do5n. Such
an error 5ould 8e costl4 and perhaps dangerous.
*and lifting a safet4 :al:e requires some important safet4 precaution (ar
protection& safet4 goggles or a full7face shield& and glo:es should all 8e
FI/, 9 0 )=
<hene:er the :al:e hand lifting& a great deal of hot& pressuri;ed fluid is
released& so the person lifting the :al:e should 8e as far a 5a4 from the
:al:e as possi8le. !s a safet4 precaution& a hook and lan4ard are
connected to lifting le:er so that the :al:e can 8e lifted from a distant
("igure # $ 1A).
-he :al:e should 8e held open form onl4 % or 3 seconds. If it is held
open an4 longer& the rush of steam could damage the feather.
Defore an4 5ork is started on a safet4 :al:e& it is important to get as much
information as possi8le a8out the :al:e. !t4pical :al:e nameplate
pro:ides these data.
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 1A
Defore a :al:e is disassem8led& it should 8e cleaned to keep the dirt and
corrosion particles on the outside of the :al:e from getting inside the
:al:e and damaging it.
-o maintain proper set points& the position of the compression scre5& the
upper ad=usting ring& and lo5er ad=usting ring must 8e precisel4 measured
and recorded 8efore these parts are remo:ed from the safet4 :al:e.
-he parts of safet4 :al:e according to the order in 5hich the4 are
1. *and lifting assem8l4.
%. )ap.
3. ,ock nut and lifting nut.
4. )ompression scre5.
>. Hoke nuts and 4oke.
A. Spindle and feather.
7. /pper and lo5er ad=usting rings.
Safet4 :al:e parts are cleaned 5ith sol:ent and a 8rush or 84 dipping
directl4 in the sol:ent.
,apping uses a8rasi:es in the form of a lapping compound to restore
damaged surfaces.
<hen a lapping plate is used& the 8asic lapping motion is figure $ eight
1amage to a :al:e seat usuall4 appears in the form of cracks or steam
-he 8asic difference 8et5een lapping a flat :al:e seat and lapping a
:al:e seat that is not flat is the shape of the lapping tool.
-he action that can 8e taken 5hen a :al:e seat that is a permanent port
of the :al:e 8od4 is se:erel4 damage are
1. /se a special tool to restore the damage surface.
%. 'ount the :al:e in a lathe and remachine the seat.
(9tensi:e maintenance on a :al:e seat can also change the lift of the
:al:e. ,ift ad=ustment can 8e made 84 mo:ing the lift stop collar up (to
decrease the lift) or do5n (to increase the lift). ! :al:e that dose not ha:e
a lift stop collar for making lift ad=ustment might ha:e to 8e replaced.
!d=usting rings are su8=ect to damage in the form of nicks& cracks& and
steam cutting& 8ut this does not happen :er4 often. -he ring still require
careful inspection& ho5e:er& 8ecause an4 damage might cause them to
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 17 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
fail 5hen the :al:e is put 8ack in ser:ice $ 1amage ad=usting rings are
al5a4s replaced.
-he spindle must also 8e inspected carefull4 for cracks and other signs of
damage. -he end of the spindle that fits into the feather must 8e smooth
and round. Decause it acts like a 8all and socket =oint inside the feather
so that the feather can align itself properl4 5ith the :al:e seat 5ith out
damaging the seat. "lat spots on that end of the spindle can cause
une:en contact and un5anted friction 8et5een the spindle and the
C$ses of "ent s7indle re
1. )areless handling.
%. Improper gagging.
/%%in% 7ro3ed$re ste7s re,
a. 0emo:e the hand7lifting le:er.
8. 0emo:e the protecti:e cap from the top of the spindle.
c. !lign the gag spindle 5ith the :al:e spindle.
d. !ttach the gag =a5s to the 4oke.
e. -ighten the gag finger $ tight.
-he correct position of the lo5er ad=usting ring determined 84 a lapping
8lock laid flat against the :al:e seat is used as a reference point. -he
ring is ad=usted until there is full contact 8et5een the seating surface and
the lapping 8lock. -he ring is then turned and the notches are courted.
-he ring is in the proper position 5hen the num8er of notches equals the
num8er gi:en in the notes made during disassem8l4.
-he tip of the spindle is lu8ricated 8efore it is scre5ed into the feather
8ecause lu8rication minimi;es the friction caused 8e the side to side
motion 5hen the :al:e is in operation.
Perfect contact 8et5een the feather and the :al:e seat is necessar4 in
order to pre:ent passing (steam leak through the :al:e 8et5een the t5o
-he e9act position of the upper ring is measured first. <itness marks can
8e made 5ith an indeli8le marking pen and used as descri8ed in the
procedure for remo:ing the compression scre5. (to a:oid damaging the
ring& a hammer and a punch are not used to make the 5itness marks).
-he measurement can also 8e taken 84 la4ing rigid rule across the lip of
the :al:e 8od4 and then placing a second rule :erticall4 5ith one end7
resting flat against the top of the upper ring. -he measurement is taken
on the :ertical rule at the pint 5here it intersects 5ith the hori;ontal rule.
-he measurement must 8e e9act so that the ad=usting ring can 8e
replaced in the same position during reassem8l4.
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( 1G
9ethod for testin% the 3ont3t "et!een the fether nd the 'l'e
!ppl4 a thin la4er of Prussian 8lue around the seating surface of the
feather and insert it into the :al:e seat. ! thin uniform circle of 8lue on
the :al:e seat indicates correct fit.
<hen the compression scre5 has 8een turned the e9act num8er of time
stated in the notes& its position is checked. -he tips of the di:ider used $
during disassem8l4 are inserted into the 5itness marks. If the tips of the
di:ide fit precisel4 into the marks& position of the compression scre5 is
! safet4 :al:e should 8e tested after reassem8le to make sure that it has
8een reassem8led correctl4.
T!o #ethods $sed to test sfet& 'l'es re,
1. 0aise s4stem pressure.
%. /se an au9iliar4 de:ice to lift the spindle onl4 for popping
Popping set point can 8e ad=usted 84 turning the compression scre5.
! h4drostatic test is not a test of safet4 :al:e& it is a test of the s4stem that
the safet4 :al:e protect.
-he purpose of a h4drostatic test is to determine 5hether or not a s4stem
can tolerate e9cessi:el4 high pressure in case of an emergenc4.
!fter lapping the :al:e seat& a 8lue check should 8e performed to
make sure that the meeting surface of the disc and seat fit together
properl4. !ppl4 alight& e:en coat of 8luing and set the disc on the
:al:e seat and rotate it a quarter turn (in one direction onl4 remo:e the
disc and check for an un8roken& e:en 8lue line around the disc seating
/%%in% 7ro3ed$re,
1. 0emo:e the hand lifting le:er.
%. 0emo:e the protecti:e cap from the top of the spindle.
3. !lign the gag spindle 5ith the :al:e spindle.
4. !ttach the gag =a5s to the 4oke.
>. -ighten the gag finger $ tight onl4. (! 5rench in ne:er used on a
gag& it might damage the :al:e 84 making the gag too tight $ a
condition called o:er $ gagging)
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( 1# 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
If a leaking safet4 :al:e is noted during a h4drostatic test the s4stem
pressure reduced and then tightens the gag further.
!fter the h4drostatic test has completed& it is essential to remo:e the
gags from all safet4 :al:es 8ecause gagged :al:es can not protect the
s4stem from o:er pressure conditions.

U77er Rin%, to ad=ust the 8lo5 do5n press.
If Dlo5 do5n present more than >B turn upper ring
)ounter clock to decrease the 8lo5do5n present.
If Dlo5 do5n present less to increase turn clock 5ise the upper ring
Lo!er Rin%, to ad=ust the simmering of the safet4 :al:e.
-o increase or decrease Popping Press. -ight or loose the nut. (ach nut flat
increase the popping press % or 3 8ars
.ne flat
Installation of safet4 :al:e should 8e a 5a4 G to 1? times of the pipe diameter
a5a4 from 8end or el8o5.
/se cast iron for lapping of the safet4 :al:e (0ing lap )
+e:er gag the safet4 :al:e until the 8oiler pressure retch 7>B or G?B of the
normal pressure.
+e:er gag all the SI2 during the test lea:e one 5ith out gag. -his one should
8e 5ith hand le:er on it safet4.
G ) 6 G 2 6
Blo! .o!n G - 6 Lon%

O4 Short Blo!
Blo! .o!n
!12!+)(1 )./0S( '()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S(
2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)( ,(SS.+ # P!3( %?
% 100
Press Poping
Press Reset - Press Pop
Present Down Blow = =
Pop 0eset Pop 0eset 0eset
For dB$st#ent of the SHV,
1. Shattering from lo5er ring.
%. Simmering from lo5er ring should 8e left up.
3. ,o5er ring should 8e 3 to > notches from straight adage of the or +o;;le
of the SI2. Straight adage
*and popping should 8e done 8efore the test take place to clean the seat and
disc and should 8e done 8efore the set pressure 84 7 to 1?B of the set
0elease nut should 8e checked for final assem8l4 if the pin in position so it 5ill
restrict the mo:ement of the spindle so the :al:e 5ill not close.
:i%h 7ress$re SHF dB$st#ent,
1. Popping pressure (open).
%. Set pressure +ear J 1B (from the name plate).
3. 0eset pressure
Blo! do!n = (Pop Pr.) $ (0eset Pr.)Ipopping pursuer 9 1?? = B
/ood Blo! do!n = 3 to > B of the pop pr.
-o increase the DI1 take the upper 0ing do5n.
1ecrease the DI1 take the upper 0ing up 1? to %? notches. Secondar4
ad=ustment for DI1 if the upper ring not 5ork good for ad=ustment then ad=ust
caller for ad=usting DI1 opposite to upper ring (1o5n to decrease the DI1 and
up to increase the DI1 of the Safet4 :al:e).
'()*!+I)!, '!I+-(+!+)( )./0S( !12!+)(1 )./0S(
,(SS.+ # P!3( %1 2!,2(S !+1 2!,2( '!I+-(+!+)(
Pr. Pop
Down Blow
% =