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LESSON

1
LECTURE
PUMP THEORY AND
CLASSIFICATIONS
SUB-OBJECTIVE
At the end of thi Leon the T!"inee #i$$ %e "%$e to de&!i%e P'()
Theo!* + C$"i,&"tion #itho't e!!o!-
1-. INTRODUCTION
A pump is a machine that adds pressure (energy) to a liquid in order to :
* Move fuid from lower elevation to higher elevation see Fig. !"".
* Move fuid from lower pressure area to area of higher pressure see
#g. !""$.
* %ncrease the fow rate of a fuid see Fig. !""&.
%n the processing and manufacturing plant pump wor's li'e the human
heart( and when the pump functions incorrectly or doesn)t operate at all
whole system *ecomes ine+cient or in operative and the maintenance
craftsman is called to restore service.
Fi/- 1.-1-1- B* )'()0 $i1'id (o2e f!o( $o#e! e$e2"tion to hi/he!
e$e2"tion-
M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345, M2630, !
0,552/ 7A8, 1 73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-,
Fi/- 1.-1-3- B* " )'() $i1'id (o2e f!o( $o#e! )!e'!e "!e" to "!e" of
hi/he! -
)!e'!e
Fi/- 1.-1-4- B* " )'() in&!e"e the 5o# !"te-
3-. CLASSIFICATION
A pump may *e classi#ed on the *asis of :
* Applications they serve.
* 1he materials from which they are constructed
* Fluid they handle
A more *asic system of classi#cation is the principle in which energy is
added to the fuid under this system all pumps may *e divided into two
ma9or types.
. 6ynamic (-entrifugal pump)
$. 7ositive displacement
M2630, ! M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345,
73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-, 0,552/ 7A8, 2
4-. DYNAMIC PUMPS
All types of dynamic pumps depend on centrifugal force of their operation.
-entrifugal force acts on a *ody moving in a circular path tending to force
it further away from the a:is or center point of the circle. 5ee Fig. !"";.
Fi/- 1.-1-6-
According to the same principle as shown in Fig. !""<.
Fi/- 1.-1-7- Rot"tion of i()e$$e! on h"ft-
M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345, M2630, !
0,552/ 7A8, 3 73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-,
. As the impeller spins( the fuid gains 'inetic energy (energy of
motion).
$. Fluid moves away from the center of impeller and creates suction of
vacuum in eye that draw more fuid from the suction piping.
&. 2utward movement of the fuid against casing wall further increases
the 'inetic energy in the fuid as shown in Fig. !""=.
Fi/- 1.-1-8- E9e&t of &ent!if'/"$ fo!&e-
;. At the discharge edges of the impeller( when the fuid reaches the
volute it moving very fast( and it has gained considera*le 'inetic
energy.
<. 1he shape of the volute changes this energy of motion into pressure
energy.
=. At the discharge and fuid e:pand fuid. 1he e:pansion causes the
to slow down and to give up 'inetic energy and it is transferred into
pressure( which forces the fuid out of the pump and through the
discharge piping as shown in Fig. !"">.
Fi/- 1.-1-:- F'n&tion of the 2o$'te-
M2630, ! M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345,
73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-, 0,552/ 7A8, 4
6-. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
A liquid can *e moved *y displacement Fig. !""? clear that concept that
two o*9ects cannot stay in one place. %n Fig. !""?.
Fi/- 1.-1-;- Di)$"&e(ent %* )$"&in/ " o$id "nd %* " !e&i)!o&"tin/
(otion-
@hen a *loc' placed in the *uc'et the *loc' will displace liquid from the
*uc'et. 5o liquid can *e displaced with rotary as shown in Fig. !""A or
reciprocating motion as shown in #g. !""?.
M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345, M2630, !
0,552/ 7A8, 5 73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-,
Fi/- 1.-1-<- Di)$"&e(ent %* !ot"!* (otion-
A positive displacement pump #rst traps a volume of liquid in a cylinder or
casing then a moving part displaces a volume of liquid from the cylinder or
casing.
Fig. !""A shown a piston pump in function( #rst piston move the air
outside and creates a suction *y drawing a vacuum in the space the piston
leaves and due to vacuum fuid fow in the cylinder then again piston
pushes the fuid and that is discharge from discharge valve.
Fi/- 1.-1-1.- A )iton )'() in f'n&tion-
Fig. !""! shown a gear type rotary pump in the gears rotate in opposite
direction and the gear teeth ma'e a good trap for the liquid. 2n the
discharge side where the gears mesh to relive the pressure.
M2630, ! M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345,
73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-, 0,552/ 7A8, 6
Fi/- 1.-1-11- A !ot"!* /e"! )'() in f'n&tion-
M,-.A/%-A0 MA%/1,/A/-, -2345, M2630, !
0,552/ 7A8, 7 73M7 A/6 73M7 MA%/1,/A/-,