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Advanced Power Quality Concepts
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Standards
Primary international standards for power quality
How they affect our business
How they influence the market
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Cat IV
Outside and
service entrance
Service drop from
pole to building
Run between
meter and panel
Overhead line to
detached building
Underground line
to well pump
IEC 61010 safety ratings CAT {x}
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NFPA 70E
Hazard/Risk Category 2: 240 600V electrical environments
FR long sleeved shirt with sleeves rolled down and front fully buttoned up
FR work pants (not denims) or coveralls over natural fiber
600 V rated leather over rubber gloves
Leather work boots
Switching hood containing hearing protection
No jewelry or watch
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IEC 61000-4-30
First Edition February 2003
Testing and
measurement techniques
power quality
measurement methods
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Scope Of IEC 61000-4-30
IEC 61000-4-30 defines the methods for measurement and
interpretation of results for power quality parameters in 50/60 Hz
a.c. power supply systems.
Measurement of parameters covered by this standard is limited
to those phenomena that can be conducted in a power system,
including the voltage and/or current parameters, as appropriate.
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The Standard Identifies Measured
Parameters Relating To Power Quality
Power frequency
Magnitude of the supply voltage
Flicker
Supply voltage dips and swells
Voltage interruptions
Transient voltages
Supply voltage unbalance
Voltage and current harmonics
Inter-harmonics
Mains signaling on the supply voltage
Rapid voltage changes
Measure of underdeviation and overdeviation
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Class A Performance - where high precision measurements are
necessary, for example:
Contractual applications
Compliance with standards
Resolving disputes
Class B Performance where less uncertainty is required, for
example:
Statistical surveys
Troubleshooting
Two classes of performance
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Testing PQ Instrumentation
The standard defines the critical PQ parameters that must be varied to
insure proper measurement performance
For Class A measurements, IEC 61000-4-30 identifies 9 different power
quality parameters of the input signal that can affect measurements due
to their variation
Frequency
Voltage Magnitude
Flicker
Unbalance
Harmonics (THD)
Interharmonics
Mains signaling voltage
Transient voltages
Fast Transients
It also identifies their range of influence
The intention is that a proper measurement is made under realistic
variations of all these parameters
For Class B the number of parameters is reduced to 6
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IEC 61000-4-30 require that the measurements tests are repeated under
three different states of overall power quality
1 state with clean & balanced power quality
2 other states with differing power quality conditions
(Note for class B measurements, there are no special power states defined.)
Testing PQ Instrumentation
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In addition, all tests in each state are repeated while each influence
is individually changed through a range of 5 equally spaced points
For example on the voltage magnitude influence, the test range
is from 0 to 200% of the nominal value. Tests are done at 0%,
50%, 100%, 150% and 200% of the normal input value while all
the other influences are held steady
The Class A test is very thorough including 3 states, individually
testing all 12 types of measurements while individually varying each
of 9 parameters over a 5 point range
Testing PQ Instrumentation
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Class A required accuracies
Power Frequency - 10 mHz
Magnitude of Supply Voltage - .1% of Nominal
Flicker - Per IEC 61000-4-15
Voltage Dips & Swells - measured to 0.2%
Voltage Interruptions - measured within 2 cycles
Supply Voltage Unbalances - .15%
Voltage & Current Harmonics and Interharmonics - Per IEC
61000-4-7
Mains signaling voltage less than 7% of reading
(Note: For Class B, the original manufacturers recommendations are
used for the instruments tested.)
Testing PQ Instrumentation
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Flagging
During a dip, swell, or interruption, the measurement algorithm for other
parameters might produce an unreliable value. The flagging concept
therefore avoids counting a single event more than once in different
parameters and indicates that an aggregated value might be unreliable.
Flagging is only triggered by dips, swells, and interruptions.
The flagging concept is applicable for Class A measurement
performance .
If during a given time interval any value is flagged, the aggregated value
including that value shall also be flagged.
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Mains Signaling
Mains signaling voltage measurement shall be based on
either the corresponding 10/12-cycle rms value
interharmonic bin;
or the rms of the four nearest 10/12-cycle rms value
interharmonic bins
For example, a 316.67 Hz ripple control signal in a 50 Hz power
system shall be approximated by an r.m.s. of 310 Hz, 315 Hz,
320 Hz and 325 Hz bins, available from the FFT performed on a
10-cycle time interval.
FFT on 10/12 cycles provides 5Hz resolution
300 Hz 350 Hz
316,67 Hz
325 Hz
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EN50160
Followed primarily in Europe
Adopted in some countries
Modified in others
Focus is mostly on minimum distribution limits
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EN50160
Specifies the quality of electricity
Intended for Service Entrance Monitoring
Sets limits for:
Frequency, Voltage Magnitude and variations ,Transients, Rapid
voltage changes, Flicker severity, Voltage dips, Voltage
Interruptions, Unbalance, Harmonic Voltage, Main signaling
Concept: You cant blame the electricity supplier when still having
problems.
Some parameters are assigned a tolerance they must meet 95% of
the time, so they can be out of tolerance over 8 hours per week!
Most measurements are Averages of Averages so short variations
are smoothed out
Staying within limits doesnt guarantee good power quality
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Phenomena Parameter Limit Not exceeding probability
Power frequency Mean value over 10 sec +1%/-1%
+4% / - 6%
99.5% of a year
100% of the time
Supply voltage variations Mean rms over 10 min +10%/-10%
+10% / -15%
95% of one week
100% of the time
Rapid voltage changes Number of events Short duration and 5%Un
Short duration and 10% Un
Normal
Several time per day
Flicker severity Plt (2hr) 1 for 95% of one week
Voltage dip Number of events duration < 1 second and < 60% Un 10..1000 events per year
> 50% of all dips
Short Interruptions Number of events duration < 1 second and < 1% Un 10..1000 events per year
> 70% of all interruptions
Long interruption Number of events with duration >180 seconds
and <1% Un
10...50 events per year
Overvoltages (50Hz) Number of events with few sec duration > 110% Un and 1.5kV
Transient Overvoltages Number of events sec to msec duration > 1.5kV and < 6kV
Unbalance Uneg/Upos over 10 min <2% 95% of one week
Harmonic voltage Mean rms over 10 min
THD 8%
See harmonic Limits Table
8%
95% of one week
95% of one week
InterHarmonic Under consideration
Mains signaling Mean rms over 3 sec 99% of a day day
EN50160
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Upper limits for individual harmonic voltages at the supply terminals
in % of nominal voltage. 95% of 10-minute average Vrms over 1
week must be below limits
Odd harmonics Even Harmonics
Not multiples of 3 Multiples of 3
Order
h
Relative voltage Order
h
Relative voltage Order
h
Relative voltage
5 6 % 3 5 % 2 2 %
7 5 % 9 1.5 % 4 1 %
11 3.5 % 15 0.5 % 624 0.5 %
13 3 % 21 0.5 %
17 2 %
19 1.5 %
23 1.5 %
25 1.5 %
EN50160 Harmonics
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How to Read EN50160
RMS voltage readings over every 10 cycles (50Hz)
These readings are averaged over non-overlapping 10-minute intervals (50 x 10
cycles avg)
168 hours x 6 = 1008 average voltages
95% of the readings (958 readings) must be within 10% of nominal.
No readings may be 10% above or 15% below nominal.
So up to 5% of the readings (50 readings) may be below 207V, but no lower than
195.5V.
95% of the average
Vrms samples
taken during 1 week
must be within this
range
Average Vrms must
never fall outside
this range
Lets assume we are monitoring voltage magnitude on a 230V system.
Over a one week monitoring period we will take:
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Lower limit
as specified
by EN50160
Upper limit
as specified
by EN50160
Small: Maximum
voltage measured
relative to upper
limit
Red indicates upper limit is
exceeded.
Example: 100% of the 10 min
avg readings should be within
+10/-15%. At least one reading
exceeded this limit
Plt reading
Number of events
Dips, interruptions, rapid voltage
changes and swells
Wide: Avg voltage
measured relative
to lower limit
430 EN50160 graphic
Unbalance
and
frequency
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Bar Graphs have a wide base indicating adjustable time related
limits (for instance 95 % of time within limit) and a narrow top
indicating a fixed 100 % limit. If one of both limits is violated, the
related bar changes from green to red. Dotted horizontal lines
on the display indicate the 100% limit and the adjustable limit.
The 100 % limit means that the 10-minute averages must
always (i.e. 100 % of time or with 100 % probability) be within
range. The bar graph will turn to red if a 10-minute average
crosses the tolerance range. The adjustable limit of for instance
95 % (i.e. 95 % probability) means that 95 % of the 10-minute
averages must be within tolerance. The 95 % limit is less
stringent than the 100 % limit.
430 EN50160 graphic
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430 EN50160 graphic
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Value table
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Flicker
Flicker is the subjective impression of fluctuating luminance,
caused by the modulation of the RMS supply voltage.
M. De Koster - E. De Jaeger W.Vancoetsem
Defined by standard IEC 61000-4-15
Perceptible flicker in lighting caused by periodic voltage sags.
Measured by a statistical Lamp-Eye-Brain model that duplicates
how most people are affected by flickering incandescent lights.
Causes
Loads that draw in periodic gulps (ex: arc furnaces, welders)
The Basic Measurements
PST -- A statistical figure derived over 10 minutes. A reading of 1.0
causes flicker that can be perceived by 50% of people
PLT -- A statistical figure derived from PST over 2 hrs
Represents the likelihood that fluctuations will cause annoyance
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Flicker
Penalties applied in South America
Generally unknown in North America
Standards applied in Europe and Asia
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(IEC 61000-4-15)
P
st
: Short time (10 min)
P
lt
: long time (2 hours)
8,4Hz modulation
60 Hz
Effects
Flicker is the effect produced on the visual human perception by a changing
emission of light by lamps subjected to fluctuations of their supply voltage.
Flicker
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Industry Low Voltage
Eolic Generators
Loads Variations
Arc furnace (c.a. & c.c.)
Welding machines
Business copy machines
Large Motors
X-rays machines
Causes
Flicker sources
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IEC 61000-4-15
It has been shown in [19] that different digital flicker meter
implementations that meet the performance tests defined in IEC
61000-4-15, Amendment 1 can still disagree significantly in some
actual measurements.
IEC Flicker Meter used in Power System Voltage Monitoring
Prepared by: CCU2 Cigr C4.05 / CIRED 2 / UIE WG2 Joint Working Group on Power Quality
DRAFT 10 October 2003
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61000-4-7
General guidelines on harmonics and interharmonics measurements
and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment
connected
harmonic
order
n n+1 n+2 n+3
harmonic
subgroup n+1
interharmonic
subgroup n+2,5
DFT output
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Interharmonics
IH voltages can cause flicker in electronic ballasts when the frequency
is near a multiple of the fundamental.
IH voltages can cause flicker in incandescent lamps primarily when the
frequency is near the fundamental or second harmonic.
1%IH near the fundamental frequency can result in a Pst of 5.
Interference with low frequency power line carrier (PLC) signals.
IH currents cause IH voltage distortion according to the network
impedance in the same manner as harmonic currents.
IH currents have the same thermal effects as harmonic currents in the
same frequency range.
Can cause undesirable effects with tuned filters.
IEC presently has a limit recommendation of 0.2% voltage distortion
from 0-2 kHz.
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230 Vac
Vac
t
10 ms
10 values interval = 100 ms
Vmax
Vmin
Vavg
A 10 min interval contains 10x60x100=60,000 cycles .
During 1 week 7 x 24 x 6 = 1,008 (x 3) values are recorded .
Voltage variations
A value each cycle
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Dips, swell and interruptions are characterized by duration, magnitude and time of
occurrence
Starts when from one of the phases the voltage goes below/above the threshold
Stops when all phases are above/below the threshold + hysteresis.
Levels and duration are specified by EN 50160
Dip
Interruption
Swell
Whats a Dip (sag), swell or interruption?
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Rapid Voltage change
A quick change of the RMS voltage between two steady voltages.
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Short Interruption
t
Short Interruption
Voltage rms in [%] U
N
10 ms 1s 1 h 3 min
90%
110%
100%
t
e
t
s
1%
0%
Duration
Voltage variations
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Long Interruption
t
Voltage rms in [%] U
N
10 ms 1s 1 h 3 min
90%
110%
100%
Long Interruption
1%
0%
Voltage variations
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Dips and Swells
1%
0%
Short Interruption Long Interruption
Voltage rms in [%] U
N
10 ms 1s 1 h 3 min
90%
110%
100%
Dip
1 min
Swell
Voltage variations
10%
+10 % / -15 %
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Sources and Effects
Causes
Effects
Rebooting of computers and similar
Loss of data
Light flashing
Short circuits
Overload
Load variations
Voltage variations
10%
+10 % / -15 %
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PQ Solutions
A quick look into possible solutions and techniques
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Branch Circuit Solutions:
Performance Wiring
Limit length of feeder and branch runs
Eliminate shared neutrals
Max of 3 outlets per branch
Dedicated
circuits for
problem loads
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Sources of Noise: Ground Loops
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Bubble Principle
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The insidious 3rd harmonic
On a three-phase / four-wire system,
triplen (zero sequence) harmonics will
add up in the neutral.
This is true for all triplen harmonics
including 6
th
, 9
th
, 12
th,
15
th
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
0 90 180 270 360
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
0 90 180 270 360
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
0 90 180 270 360
The third harmonics
are all in phase and
create unbalance
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What to check?
Motors, transformers and neutral conductors serving
electronic loads
How much is ok?
Voltage distortion (THD) should be investigated if it is over
5 % on any phase
Some current distortion (THD) is normal on any part of the
system serving electronic loads
Monitor current levels and temperature at transformers to
be sure that they are not overstressed
Neutral current should not exceed the capacity of the
neutral conductor
When is distortion a problem?
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Replace overheating transformers with higher K-factor rated units
Reduce load on overheating transformers
Rewire or redistribute loads to reduce source impedance and
isolate non-linear loads
Passive filters
Active filters
Zig-zag transformer or zero sequence filter
Larger conductors will have lower source impedance - less prone
to voltage distortion
Double the size of neutral or pull parallel neutral cable to handle
triplens
Solutions to harmonics problems
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Transformer Derating Curve
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Separately Derived System
Transformer as SDS
Secondary is source
Lower source impedance
Electrical isolation
Ground reference
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Single-point ground:
single N-G bond at the source
Correct Grounding of SDS
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Lightning Protection
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Transients
Causes of transients:
Utility transformer tap switching
Capacitors switching on
Lightning
Motors switching off
Switch and relay contact bounce
Effects of transients:
Damage semiconductor junctions
Damage Insulation
Couple into adjacent circuits because of high
frequency (fast rise times)
Corrupt data signals
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Transient waveform capture
Set a tolerance around an
ideal sinewave
Any event that goes outside
the envelope triggers the
instrument to capture the
waveform
Products that do peak detect
via capacitor charging do not.
Most instruments that support transient capture use Envelope Triggering
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Reading the waveforms
Capacitive transients will exhibit
some ringing
Switching and lightning
transients usually show a single
prominent spike with a fast
decay
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Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors (TVSS)
Uninterruptible power supply with built-in surge
suppression
Isolation transformer
Protecting against transients
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Motors: Inrush Current
Nuisance breaker tripping
Voltage sags
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Application notes
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Summary & Questions
Importance of understanding the standards.
How they effect our business
How they effect the customer
The benefit of our product to the customer
Being able to relate to the customer.
Know the terminology or lingo
Understand what the customer is trying to relate
Recognize what you see and hear