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ACKNOWLEGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank God the almighty for his blessings
showered on me throughout my research process.
I would like to thank all the respondents for their consent and kind co-
operation in providing information for the purpose of my research that made
it meaningful.
I am indebted to Dr. (Sr.) Sarguna M.Com., M.Phil., Ph.., Principal, !oly
Cross College " #utonomous$ %richy , who has given me this opportunity.
I am grateful to Mrs. J. Josphine Jea &.'c., M.#.(')*., &.+d ( 'pl.
+du.,*., C#., P.,.ip Counselling, !ead of the epartment of 'ocial )ork
!oly Cross College " #utonomous$ %richy.
I am thankful to the guide Ms.!.Dais" #ani, #ssistant Professor,
epartment of 'ocial )ork !oly Cross College " #utonomous$ %richy for
motivating, encouraging and helping me throughout research work. I am
grateful to her for providing me to work under her esteem guidance by
providing me with insight in submitting my research reports.
%o conclude, I would like to thank my beloved parents, friends, and well-
wishers for supporting me throughout the study. I would like to e-tend my
heartfelt thanks to my friends who have provided their valuable assistance to
me and motivated me for completing the pro.ect
%hank /ou,
. 0+''I# C!1I'%I2#
II M')
CONTENTS
S.NO CONTENT $AGE
NO
3 Certificate 4
4 #cknowledgement 5
5 6ist of %ables 7
8 Chapter-I 9 Introduction
7 Chapter-II 9 1eview of 6iterature 5:
; Chapter-III- 1esearch Methodology 7;
< Chapter I= 9 #nalysis and Interpretation ;>
> Chapter = 9 Ma.or Findings, 'uggestions and
conclusion
3??
: &ibliography 33?
3? #ppendi--I@ Auestionnaire 334
L%ST O& TA'LES
S.No T%TLE $AGE
NO.
3 istribution of the 1espondents by #ge ;>
4 istribution of the 1espondents by ,ender ;:
5 istribution of the 1espondents by Place of 1esidence <?
8 istribution of the 1espondents by %ype of Family <3
7 istribution of the 1espondents by 2ature of &ackground <4
; istribution of the 1espondents according to the presence of
=isually Impaired in their family
<5
< A.2o.<@ I help the visually Impaired to cross the road whenever
I see them trying to do so.
<8
> A.2o.>@ I get up and offer my seat to the =isually Impaired
while travelling in the bus.
<;
: A.2o.:@ I am very much aware of the difficulties faced by the
=isually Impaired in terms of mobility.
<<
3? A.2o.3?@ I help the =isually Impaired students in my college to
reach their desired places.
<>
33 A.2o.33@ I have often pondered upon the difficulties of the
=isually Impaired in carrying over their daily activities.
<:
34 A.2o.34@ I have gone as a scribe to help the =isually Impaired
student to write hisBher e-am.
>?
35 A.2o.35@ I have sponsored the school, college fee of the =isually
Impaired.
>3
38 A.2o.38@ I have helped the =isually Impaired to finish their
pro.ects, assignment.
>4
37 A.2o.37@ I have helped the =isually Impaired by reading out
hisCher lessons for the preparation of the e-ams.
>5
3; A.2o.3;@ I have helped the =isually Impaired students to buy
their &raille books.
>8
3< A.2o.3<@ I have donated to the !omes which take care of the
=isually Impaired.
>7
3> A.2o.3>@ I have raised funds for the welfare of the =isually
Impaired.
>;
3: A.2o.3:@ I have purchased the hand made goods produced by
the =isually Impaired.
><
4? A.2o.4?@I have referred the =isually Impaired for .obs to the
people whom I know.
>>
43 A.2o.43@ I have referred the =isually Impaired entrepreneurs to
the potential business providers.
>:
44 A.2o.44@ 1ailways are giving <7D discount on travel to the
physically challenged people.
:?
45 A.2o.45@ %2 government gives priEes to the 3, 4, 5 state rank
holders in the %welfth state board e-am.
:3
48 A.2o.48@ 01/ (0awahar 1o.gar /ogna* is a +mployment
promotion scheme which generates additional gainful
employment for the blind.
:4
47 A.2o.47@ Marriage assistance is given to the people who marry a
=isually Impaired.
:5
4; A.2o.4;@ 5D .obs are reserved for the physically challenged
with in which 3D reservation is for the visually impaired.
:8
4< A.2o.4<@ Most people who are blind live by themselves. :7
4> A.2o.4>@ &lind people have been successful in the field of
accounting, law, customer service, travel, stock brokerage,
electrical engineering, teaching and medical transcribing.
:;
4: A.2o.4:@ People who went blind later in life can dream about
the world they have seen.
:<
5? A.2o.5?@ #bout ><D of the worldFs visually impaired live in
developing countries.
:>
53 A.2o.53@ Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness ::
globally, e-cept in the most developed countries.

C(A$TE#) %
%NT#OD*CT%ON
+The greatest traged" in ,i-e is peop,e .ho ha/e sight0 ut no /ision.+
=ision impairment is vision loss (of a person* to such a degree as to Gualify
as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual
capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or
degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means,
such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery. %his functional loss of
vision is typically defined to manifest with
&est corrected visual acuity of less than 4?B;?, or significant central
field defect,
'ignificant peripheral field defect including homonymous or
heteronymous bilateral visual, field defect or generaliEed contraction
or constriction of field, or
1educed peak contrast sensitivity with either of the above conditions.
%he terms Hpartially sighted,H Hlow vision,H Hlegally blind,H and Htotally blindH
are used by schools, colleges, and other educational institutions to describe students
with visual impairments. %hey are defined as follows@
$artia,," sighted indicates some type of visual problem, with a need of person to
receive special education in some casesI
Lo. /ision generally refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to
distance vision. 6ow vision applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to
read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or
contact lenses. %hey use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although
they may reGuire adaptations in lighting or the siEe of print, and, sometimes,
&railleI
Myopic - unable to see distant ob.ects clearly, commonly called near-
sighted.
!yperopic - unable to see close ob.ects clearly, commonly called far-
sighted.
Lega,," ,ind indicates that a person has less than 4?B4?? vision in the better eye
after best correction (contact lenses or glasses*, or a field of vision of less than 4?
degrees in the better eye.
Tota,," ,ind students learn via &raille or other non-visual media.
=isual impairment is the conseGuence of a functional loss of vision,
rather than the eye disorder itself. +ye disorders which can lead to visual
impairments can include retinal degeneration, albinism, cataracts, glaucoma,
muscular problems that result in visual disturbances, corneal disorders,
diabetic retinopathy, congenital disorders, and infection.H =isual impairment
can also be caused by brain and nerve disorders, in which case it is usually
termed cortical visual impairment (C=I*.
%he #merican Medical #ssociationFs ,uides to the +valuation of Permanent
Impairment attempts to provide Ha standardiEed, ob.ective approach to
evaluating medical impairments.H %he =isual 'ystem chapter Hprovides
criteria for evaluating permanent impairment of the visual system as it
affects an individualFs ability to perform activities of daily living.H %he
,uide has estimated that the loss of one eye eGuals 47D impairment of the
visual system and 48D impairment of the whole personI total loss of vision
in both eyes is considered to be 3??D visual impairment and >7D
impairment of the whole person. =isual impairments have considerable
economic impact on even developed countries. =isual impairment is one of
the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.
Causes
'erious visual impairment has a variety of causes. %he leading causes of e-isting
cases of blindness are@ glaucoma, macular degeneration, cataract, optic nerve
atrophy, diabetic retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. %hese causes account for
73D of all cases of blindness.
#ccording to )!J estimates, the most common causes of blindness around the
world in 4??4 were@
3. Cataracts (8<.:D*,
4. ,laucoma (34.5D*,
5. #ge-related macular (>.<D*,
8. Corneal opacity (7.3D*
7. iabetic retinopathy (8.>D*,
;. Childhood blindness (5.:D*,
<. %rachoma (5.;D*
>. Jnchocerciasis (?.>D*
In terms of the worldwide prevalence of blindness, the vastly greater number of
people in the developing world and the greater likelihood of their being affected
mean that the causes of blindness in those areas are numerically more important.
Cataract is responsible for more than 44 million cases of blindness and glaucoma ;
million, while leprosy and onchocerciasis each blind appro-imately 3 million
individuals worldwide. %he number of individuals blind from trachoma has dropped
dramatically in the past 3? years from ; million to 3.5 million, putting it in seventh
place on the list of causes of blindness worldwide. Kerophthalmia is estimated to
affect 7 million children each yearI 7??,??? develop active corneal involvement,
and half of these go blind.
Central corneal ulceration is also a significant cause of monocular blindness
worldwide, accounting for an estimated >7?,??? cases of corneal blindness every
year in the Indian subcontinent alone. #s a result, corneal scarring from all causes
now is the fourth greatest cause of global blindness (=aughan L #sburyFs ,eneral
Jphthalmology, 3<e*
Anor1a,ities and in2uries
+ye in.uries, most often occurring in people under 5?, are the leading
cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye*. In.uries and cataracts
affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia
affect the nerve bundle that sends signals from the eye to the back of the
brain, which can lead to decreased visual acuity. People with in.uries to the
occipital lobe of the brain can, despite having undamaged eyes and optic
nerves, still be legally or totally blind.
Geneti3 de-e3ts
People with albinism often have vision loss to the e-tent that many are
legally blind, though few of them actually cannot see. 6eberFs congenital
amaurosis can cause total blindness or severe sight loss from birth or early
childhood. 1ecent advances in mapping of the human genome have
identified other genetic causes of low vision or blindness. Jne such e-ample
is &ardet-&iedl syndrome.
$oisoning
1arely, blindness is caused by the intake of certain chemicals. # well-known
e-ample is methanol, which is only mildly to-ic and minimally into-icating,
but when not competing with ethanol for metabolism, methanol breaks down
into the substances formaldehyde and formic acid which in turn can cause
blindness, an array of other health complications, and death. Methanol is
commonly found in methylated spirits, denatured ethyl alcohol, to avoid
paying ta-es on selling ethanol intended for human consumption.
Methylated spirits are sometimes used by alcoholics as a desperate and
cheap substitute for regular ethanol alcoholic beverages
Wi,,-u, a3tions
&linding has been used as an act of vengeance and torture in some instances,
to deprive a person of a ma.or sense by which they can navigate or interact
within the world, act fully independently, and be aware of events
surrounding them. #n e-ample from the classical realm is Jedipus, who
gouges out his own eyes after realiEing that he fulfilled the awful prophecy
spoken of him.
In 4??5, a Pakistani anti-terrorism court sentenced a man to be
blinded after he carried out an acid attack against his fiancee that resulted in
her blinding. %he same sentence was given in 4??: for the man who blinded
#meneh &ahrami.
Co 1oridities
&lindness can occur in combination with such conditions as mental
retardation, autism, cerebral palsy, hearing impairments, and epilepsy. In a
study of 44> visually impaired children in metropolitan #tlanta between
3::3 and 3::5, 378 (;>D* had an additional disability besides visual
impairment. &lindness in combination with hearing loss is known as deaf
blindness.
Manage1ent
# 4??> study published in the 2ew +ngland 0ournal of Medicine tested the
effect of using gene therapy to help restore the sight of patients with a rare
form of inherited blindness, known as 6eber Congenital #maurosis or 6C#.
6eber Congenital #maurosis damages the light receptors in the retina and
usually begins affecting sight in early childhood, with worsening vision until
complete blindness around the age of 5?. %he study used a common cold
virus to deliver a normal version of the gene called 1P+;7 directly into the
eyes of affected patients.
1emarkably all 5 patients aged 3:, 44 and 47 responded well to the
treatment and reported improved vision following the procedure. ue to the
age of the patients and the degenerative nature of 6C# the improvement of
vision in gene therapy patients is encouraging for researchers. It is hoped
that gene therapy may be even more effective in younger 6C# patients who
have e-perienced limited vision loss as well as in other blind or partially
blind individuals.
S3a,es
=arious scales have been developed to describe the e-tent of vision loss and
define blindness. %otal blindness is the complete lack of form and visual
light perception and is clinically recorded as 26P, an abbreviation for Hno
light perception.H &lindness is freGuently used to describe severe visual
impairment with residual vision.
%hose described as having only light perception have no more sight
than the ability to tell light from dark and the general direction of a light
source. In order to determine which people may need special assistance
because of their visual disabilities, various governmental .urisdictions have
formulated more comple- definitions referred to as legal blindness.
&y the 3?th 1evision of the )!J International 'tatistical Classification of
iseases, In.uries and Causes of eath, low vision is defined as visual acuity of less
than 4?B;? (;B3>*, but eGual to or better than 4?B4?? (;B;?*, or corresponding visual
field loss to less than 4? degrees, in the better eye with best possible correction.
&lindness is defined as visual acuity of less than 4?B8?? (;B34?*, or
corresponding visual field loss to less than 3? degrees, in the better eye with
best possible correction.
&lind people with undamaged eyes may still register light non-
visually for the purpose of circadian entrainment to the 48-hour lightBdark
cycle. 6ight signals for this purpose travel through the retinohypothalamic
tract, so a damaged optic nerve beyond where the retinohypothalamic tract
e-its it is no hindrance.
&a1ous Sight %1paired $eop,e4
(e,en Ke,,er - (3>>? - 3:;>* !elen #dams Meller (0une 4<, 3>>? - 0une 3,
3:;>* was an #merican author, activist and lecturer. 'he was the first
deafBblind person to graduate from college. 'he was not born blind and deafI
it was not until nineteen months of age that she came down with an illness
described by doctors as Han acute congestion of the stomach and the brainH,
which could have possibly been scarlet fever or meningitis. %he illness did
not last for a particularly long time, but it left her deaf and blind. Meller went
on to become a world-famous speaker and author. 'he is remembered as an
advocate for people with disabilities amid numerous other causes.
Ste/ie Wonder (born 'teveland !ardaway 0udkins on May 35, 3:7?, name
later changed to 'teveland !ardaway Morris*, is an #merican singer-
songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and record producer. &lind from infancy,
)onder signed with Motown 1ecords as a pre-adolescent at age twelve, and
continues to perform and record for the label to this day.
It is thought that he received e-cessive o-ygen in his incubator which
led to retinopathy of prematurity, a destructive ocular disorder affecting the
retina, characteriEed by abnormal growth of blood vessels, scarring, and
sometimes retinal detachment.
&ran5,in De,ano #oose/e,t - (0anuary 5?, 3>>4 - #pril 34, 3:87* Franklin
was the 54nd President of the Nnited 'tates of #merica and played a big role
during )orld )ar II. 1oosevelt eventually aided the poor and un-employed
of #merica and restored order at various times during his Presidency. !e
was also the only President to ever get elected 8 years in a row mostly
because of his help for the recovery of the economy. It has been said that
1oosevelt had several disabilities including vision impairment.
(arriet Tu1an - (3>4? - 3:35* !arriet %ubman was a slave throughout
her youth, being treated as an animal until she eventually escaped captivity.
)hen she had reached Canada she did not stay to en.oy her freedom. 'he
returned to the lands and brought hundreds of black slaves back to safety,
saving them from slavery by escaping from what they then called %he
Nnderground 1ailroad. #fter a severe wound to the head, which was
inflicted by a slave owner before her escape, she became victim to vision
impairment and seiEures. %his did not keep her from tossing her fears aside
and to keep fighting for the freedom of her people.
Louis 'rai,,e - (0anuary 8, 3>?: - 0anuary ;, 3>74* 6ouis &raille became
blind after he accidentally stabbed himself in the eye with his fatherFs awl.
!e later became an inventor and designed braille writing, which enables
blind people to read through feeling a series of organiEed bumps
representing letters. %his concept was beneficial to all blind people from
around the world and is commonly used even today. If it were not for 6ouis
&railleFs blindness he may not have invented this method of reading and no
other blind person could have en.oyed a story or been able to comprehend
important paperwork.
A,e3 Te1p,eton - (0uly 8, 3:?:, March 4>, 3:;5* was a satirist and pianist
who had moved from )ales to the Nnited 'tates where he played with
several orchestras, eventually making it to his first radio performances on
the 1udy =allee 'how.
%he way he would memoriEe his scripts before the show was by asking
someone to read them 4? times in a row while he would listen. !e was blind
from birth but it did not stop him to doing what he wanted to do in the end.
Ga,i,eo Ga,i,ei - (37 February 37;8 - > 0anuary 3;84* ,alileo ,alilei was a
%uscan (Italian* astronomer, mathematician, physicist, and philosopher
being greatly responsible for the scientific revolution. 'ome of his
accomplishments include improvements to the telescope, accelerated motion
and astronomical observations. ,alileo was the first to discover the four
largest satellites of 0upiter which were named the ,alilean moons in his
honor. ,alileo had also improved compass design and eventually opposed
the geocentric view. !is sight started to deteriorate at the age of ;> years old
and eventually leaded to complete blindness.
John Mi,ton - (ecember :, 3;?> - 2ovember >, 3;<8* 0ohn Milton was a
civil servant, +nglish poet and prose polemicist. Milton was well known
through his epic poem Paradise 6ost and also for his radical views on
republican religion. !e never was well ad.usted in school and once got
e-pelled for having a fist fight with his tutor. +ventually he began to write
poetry in +nglish, 6atin and Italian. 0ohn Milton became blind at the age of
85 in 3;73, and has written books containing Guotes of how the e-perience
sometimes made him miserable.
Ja1es Thurer - (ecember >, 3>:8-2ovember 4, 3:;3* 0ames %hurber
was a comedian and cartoonist most known for his contributions to 2ew
/orker MagaEine. )hile playing with his brothers )illiam and 1obert,
)illiam shot him in the eye with and arrow while playing a game of )illiam
%ell making him almost completely blind after the loss of an eye. #t school
0ames could not play sports with his friends due to this accident so he
decided to work on his creative mind, putting his skills in writing.
(oratio Ne,son - (4: 'eptember 3<7> - 43 Jctober 3>?7* !oratio was a
&ritish admiral and was one of the first to go against the conventional tactics
of his time by cutting through the enemyFs lines in the 2apoleonic )ars.
!oratio became blind in one eye early in his 1oyal 2avy career, he would
use his blindness as cockiness during certain fights.
ADA$T%!E TEC(N%6*ES AND A%DS
MO'%L%T7
Many people with serious visual impairments can travel independently,
using a wide range of tools and techniGues. Jrientation and mobility
specialists are professionals who are specifically trained to teach people with
visual impairments how to travel safely, confidently, and independently in
the home and the community. %hese professionals can also help blind people
to practice travelling on specific routes which they may use often, such as
the route from oneFs house to a convenience store. &ecoming familiar with
an environment or route can make it much easier for a blind person to
navigate successfully.
%ools such as the white cane with a red tip - the international symbol of blindness
- may also be used to improve mobility. # long cane is used to e-tend the userFs
range of touch sensation. It is usually swung in a low sweeping motion, across the
intended path of travel, to detect obstacles.
!owever, techniGues for cane travel can vary depending on the user andBor the
situation. 'ome visually impaired persons do not carry these kinds of canes, opting
instead for the shorter, lighter identification (I* cane. 'till others reGuire a support
cane. %he choice depends on the individualFs vision, motivation, and other factors.
SO&TWA#E
In addition, some blind people use software using ,P' technology as a mobility
aid. 'uch software can assist blind people with orientation and navigation, but it is
not a replacement for traditional mobility tools such as white canes and guide dogs.
GO!E#NMENT ACT%ONS &O# MO'%L%T7
,overnment actions are sometimes taken to make public places more
accessible to blind people. Public transportation is freely available to the
blind in many cities. %actile paving and audible traffic signals can make it
easier and safer for visually impaired pedestrians to cross streets
.
In addition to making rules about who can and cannot use a cane, some
governments mandate the right-of-way be given to users of white canes or
guide dogs.
TEC(N%6*ES *SED '7 'L%ND $EO$LE TO ASS%ST T(EM
%N DA%L7 ACT%!%T%ES
&lind people may use talking eGuipment such as thermometers, watches, clocks,
scales, calculators, and compasses. %hey may also enlarge or mark dials on
devices such as ovens and thermostats to make them usable. Jther techniGues used
by blind people to assist them in daily activities include@
3. #daptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by
touch.
For e-ample@
In some currencies, such as the euro, the pound sterling and the Indian
rupee, the siEe of a note increases with its value.
Jn N' coins, pennies and dimes, and nickels and Guarters are similar in siEe.
%he larger denominations (dimes and Guarters* have ridges along the sides
(historically used to prevent the HshavingH of precious metals from the coins*,
which can now be used for identification.
'ome currenciesF banknotes have a tactile feature to indicate denomination.
For e-ample, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised
dots in one corner, based on &raille cells but not standard &raille.
It is also possible to fold notes in different ways to assist recognition.
4. 6abeling and tagging clothing and other personal items
5. Placing different types of food at different positions on a dinner plate
8. Marking controls of household appliances
Most people, once they have been visually impaired for long enough, devise their
own adaptive strategies in all areas of personal and professional management.
E$%DEM%OLOG7
%he )!J estimates that in 4??4 there were 3;3 million visually
impaired people in the world (about 4.;D of the total population*. Jf this
number 348 million (about 4D* had low vision and 5< million (about ?.;D*
were blind. In order of freGuency the leading causes were cataract,
uncorrected refractive errors (near sighted, far sighted, or an astigmatism*,
glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. In 3:><, it was estimated
that 7:>,??? people in the Nnited 'tates met the legal definition of
blindness. Jf this number, 7>D were over the age of ;7. In 3::8-3::7, 3.5
million #mericans reported legal blindness.
SOC%ET7 AND C*LT*#E
S$O#TS
&lind and partially sighted people participate in sports such as
swimming, snow skiing and athletics. 'ome sports have been invented or
adapted for the blind such as goal ball, association football, cricket, and golf.
%he worldwide authority on sports for the blind is the International &lind
'ports Federation. People with vision impairments have participated in the
Paralympics ,ames since the 3:<; summer Paralympics in %oronto
%he NP and %2 study surveyed .ust over 38?? households with and
without disabled members about their attitudes to participation of P) in
some key social and economic activities. %he three ma.or activities assessed
as critical to OnormalP social participation of P) were education,
employment and marriageBfamily life. %he survey also asked about
participation in local community and political life.
Edu3ation and Disai,it"
Jverall, there is low acceptance of children with disabilities attending
regular schools. 8 #t the same time, there are ma.or differences by disability
type in the acceptability of C) attending regular schools.
#cceptance that children with locomotors disabilities can always attend
regular school is high (though acceptance that they could attend a special
school is even higher*.
For those with vision and speechBhearing disabilities, only between a fifth
and a Guarter of respondents thought that they could alwaysBalmost always
attend regular schools. !owever, for children with mental illness or
retardation, there was very high agreement that they should never attend
regular schools.
)ith respect to education, people were asked under what
circumstances children with specified disabilities could participate in regular
school, andBor in special schools. %able 4.3 presents the findings on regular
and special schooling. %he table reports the share of respondents reporting
that children with the indicated disabilities should always or almost always
attend each type of school.
%he results receive some support from the #P survey, where 84
percent of respondents disagreed that children with disabilities could be
educated in regular schools. It is also worth noting that there is a school of
thought particularly for hearing and visually impaired children that supports
separate education in primary school, with integration later. In India, the fact
is that only around 7 percent of children with disabilities who attend school
at all are in general schools, so that for the ma.ority such options are not a
practical reality
Litera3" a1ong $ersons .ith Disai,ities
In rural India, about <? per cent of the physically disabled persons are found
illiterate as against 8; per cent in urban India. Jnly about 8 per cent of the
disabled in rural India have reported educational level Osecondary and
aboveP as against about 34 per cent in urban India. %he urban bias in literacy
is well known. It is more pronounced in the case of disabled persons
probably because of the availability of better educational facilities in general
and e-istence of special schools for the disabled in the urban sector in
particular. %he pattern of literacy observed at the all India level is also seen
in all the ma.or states. Merala, as usual, has marked the highest literacy level
among the disabled also in both the sectors.
%he lowest literacy level is found in Jrissa in the rural sector and in
N.P. in the urban sector. Jut of 3??? persons with disabilities living in rural
India, only 34 have completed any vocational
In urban India, a comparatively higher number of physically disabled
persons (53* have done so of them about 4? to 4< per cent have completed
courses in engineering trade and <5 to >? per cent in non-engineering trade. In the
urban sector, the highest proportion is reported by Maharashtra (7>*. Jn the other
hand, the lowest proportion (; per 3???* is observed in Jrissa and Madhya Pradesh
in the rural sector and in !aryana (33 per 3???* in the urban sector.
#s usual, the current enrolment ratio per 3??? disabled children is found
higher in urban than in rural areas - 774 and 87>, respectively for the two sectors.
%he ratio is also higher among males than females in both the sectors.
Marriage and Disai,it"
Previous research has pointed to significant challenges for persons
with disability in getting married and having families. +ven where marriage
can be arranged, disabled women in particular are freGuently married to
much older men, and rates of divorce and abandonment have been found to
be high, as the 2'' data on widowhood among disability would seem to
support.
Jverall, unconditional acceptance of a P) marrying a non-P) was
found in only around half of households. %his did not show much state variation.
Aualitative work undertaken in parallel with the survey revealed that there was
wider acceptance of P) men marrying non-P) women than the reverse,
particularly if the men were well-off. ; %he insight is supported by survey findings
from ,u.arat of women with disabilities having more than doubled the rate of
spouses with disabilities. In addition, communities indicated that it would generally
be easier for people with the same disabilities.
It is seen that at the all India level, out of 3??? disabled residing in the rural areas -
5>5 are never married, 5>< are currently married while in the urban areas, the
corresponding numbers are 875 and 57:. %he male-female differences in these
proportions are Guite significant.
%he proportion of the never married and also the currently married among
disabled males is much higher than among females in both the sectors. #lmost 8?
per cent of disabled females in rural India and 5; per cent of disabled females in
urban India are either widowed, divorced or separated as against 33 and < per cent
of disabled males (widowed, divorced or separated* in rural and urban India
respectively. #t the state level, the differences in the said proportion over se- and
sector are observed to be large.
E1p,o"1ent and Disai,it"
Jverall, the assessment of P) capacity for successful employment is low.
+ven in the best case (locomotors disability* only half of respondents felt that P)
could be alwaysB almost always successfully employed. %his share fell to less than
5? percent for vision impairments, and was less than 4 percent for both mental
illness and mental retardation. In contrast, respondents felt that people with mental
illness could never be successfully employed in >; percent of cases, and for mental
retardation the share was <> percent .
%he 2''J 'urvey established that only 4: percent and 47 percent persons
with disability are employed in rural and urban India respectively. Jut of these, ;?
percent were self employed, < percent regular employees and remaining 55 percent
as casual laborers in the rural areas.
%he corresponding percentages were 8>, 5? and 44 for the urban
areas. %hus the scope for self-employment is much higher in the rural areas,
whereas regular employment seems to be comparatively more prominent in
the urban areas. %he survey also establishes that a little less than 3 percent of
persons with disabilities have chosen to beg as their source of livelihood in
both sectors.
%here is ma.or variation in attitudes to the possibility of successful
employment by disability type, with mental disabilities e-periencing the most
negative attitudes. For the other three categories, the shares are higher. In addition,
around a further third of respondents felt that those with locomotors, vision and
hearingBspeech disabilities could be successfully employed sometimes. %he
variation by disability type is consistent with previous research in rural south India,
though the relative impact of different disabilities varied, with for e-ample a strong
premium placed on visual acuity but notably less on hearing capacity (reflecting the
demands of agricultural work*.
)hile the above findings are perhaps not surprising, the ma.or
variation between NP and %2 on attitudes to non-mental disabilities was less
e-pected. More research is needed on the drivers of such differences. Part of
the e-planation may lie in commonness of disabilities in different areas, as
for e-ample the incidence of locomotors disabilities from polio is higher in
NP and may be associated with more accepting attitudes.
#n additional interesting finding on employment is that responses by
P) themselves to the same Guestion revealed surprisingly similar results
in terms both of low share of respondents answering positively on P)
employment capacity and in terms of the variation in positive response
shares across disability types. In all cases, the share of P) answering
positively was slightly lower than for household heads, indicating that there
is a ma.or self-esteem agenda among P) to be addressed in order to
improve their labor market outcomes.
$o/ert" and !isua, %1pair1ent
People in developing countries are significantly more likely to
e-perience visual impairment as a conseGuence of treatable or preventable
conditions than are their counterparts in the developed world. )hile vision
impairment is most common in people over age ;? across all regions,
children in poorer communities are more likely to be affected by blinding
diseases than are their more affluent peers. %he link between poverty and
treatable visual impairment is most obvious when conducting regional
comparisons of cause.
In developing countries, wherein people have shorter life
e-pectancies, cataracts and water-borne parasitesQboth of which can be
treated effectivelyQare most often the culprits (see river blindness, for
e-ample*. Jf the estimated 8? million blind people located around the
world, <?9>?D can have some or all of their sight restored through
treatment.
COMM*N%T7 #E(A'%L%TAT%ON O& D%SA'LED W%T( A
&OC*S ON 'L%ND $E#SONS
%ND%AN $E#S$ECT%!E
India, the largest democratic country in the world, is marching ahead
strongly on the growth and developmental front and is poised to be the leader in the
market economy. %his role creates and increases far greater responsibilities on us in
ensuring that the benefit of the developmental cycle reaches each and every citiEen
of this country, including the able and the disabled ones.
It has been enshrined in the Constitution of India to ensure eGuality, freedom,
.ustice, and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society.
)ith increase in consideration of Guality parameters in all spheres of life
including availability, access, and provision of comprehensive services to the
disabled, it is pertinent to have a look on the contribution of government in keeping
the aspiration and commitment towards common people. %he article attempts to
review the concept of rehabilitation for the disabled keeping a focus on the blind
person, and list out the activities, programsBschemes, institutional structure and
initiatives taken by the ,overnment of India (,JI* for the same and the
incentivesBbenefits e-tended to blind persons.
%he article concludes by reiterating the importance of individual need
assessment and mentioning new initiatives proposed on 6ow =ision services in the
approved 33
th
plan under 2ational Programme for Control of &lindness (2PC&*.
%he source of information has been annual reports, notification and the
approved 33
th
five-year plan of ,JI, articles published with key words like
rehabilitation, disability, assistive devices, low vision aids, andBor blind person
through the mode of Internet. #nne-ure provides a list of selected institutions in the
country offering 6ow =ision services compiled from various sources through
personal communication and an approved list of training institutes under 2PC&,
,JI offering 6ow =ision training.
%ND%AN $E#S$ECT%!E &O# WEL&A#E O& T(E D%SA'LED
%he Constitution of India ensures eGuality, freedom, .ustice, and dignity of all
individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including persons
with disabilities (P)s*. In the recent years, there have been vast and positive
changes in the perception of the society towards P)s. It has been realiEed that a
ma.ority of P)s can lead a better Guality of life if they have eGual opportunities
and effective access to rehabilitation measures. #ccording to the Census 4??3, there
are 4.3: crore P)s in India constituting 4.35D of the total population.
%his includes people with visual, hearing, speech, locomotor, and mental
disabilities. Jut of these, <7D live in rural areas, 8:D are literate, and only 58D are
employed. P)s in India are defined as people who are suffering from not less
than 8?D of any ability as certified by medical authority.
CONCESS%ON O&&E#ED '7 T(E GO!E#NMENT O& %ND%A
TO 'L%ND $E#SONS
#ccording to guidelines by the Ministry of 'ocial 0ustice and
+mpowerment, ,JI, the minimum degree of disability should be 8?D for an
individual to be eligible for any concessions or benefits. 'tate government also
e-tends various benefits in addition to those initiated by the ,JI.
T#A!EL
%he blind person traveling alone or with an escort on production of a
certificate from a government doctor or a registered medical practitioner is eligible
to get a concession to the tune of <7D if traveling in first, second or sleeper class in
Indian railways. %he Indian #irlines Corporation allows 7?D concessional fare to
blind persons on single .ourney or single fare round trip .ourney on all domestic
flights. +scorts are to pay full fare however an air hostessBsteward will look after the
blind person not accompanied by escorts in flight.
$OSTAGE
%here are no postal charges levied on transmission of blind literature packets
"papers, periodicals, books printed in &raille, sound records, disc films, tapes and
wires for the use of the blind and when sent by, or addressed to, an officially
recogniEed institution for the blind$ to inlandBforeign destination if sent by surface
route weighing upto < kg only. If packets are to be sent by air, prescribed airmail
charges needs to be paid.
TELECOMM*N%CAT%ON
%he blind person is entitled for rental rebate of 7?D on telephone facility on
2on-J/% "s$ category only. #n educated unemployed handicap person with at least
=III
th
or middle schools pass for rural areas and matriculation or high school for
urban areas is eligible for allotment of '%BPCJ on priority basis.
C*STOMS CONCESS%ONS
'elected goods when imported into India by a disable person for their
personal use are e-empted from customs duty if a certificate from a government
medical officerBinstitution certifies that import of goods is essential to overcome the
said disability.
CON!E7ANCE ALLOWANCES
#ll central government employees who are in a regular establishment and
who are blind or orthopedically handicap are to be granted conveyance allowance at
7D of the basic pay sub.ect to a ma-imum of 1s. 3??Bmonth.
C(%LD#EN ED*CAT%ON ALLOWANCES
,rant of children educational allowances, reimbursement of tuition fees to
central government employees are governed by central civil services orders.
E!AL*AT%ON AND NEED ASSESSMENT &O# LOW !%S%ON
=isual impairment in general affects four main functional areas@
JrientationBmobility, communication, activities of daily living (#6* and sustained
near vision task. +arly intervention and special education can balance the negative
effects of visual impairment.
In many cases environmental adaptations, vision training, follow up for ensuring
compliance, coordinating with stakeholders, removing myth and misconception and
counseling would help in empowering the individual andBor enhancing functional
residual vision.
%he effect of low vision is not same for all people and the following assessment
needs to be compiled for each individual before embarking upon the decision of
assistive devices@
+-tent of vision@ 2ear and distance visual acuity
'iEe of the visual field "if relevant$
+ffect of light and glare
+-tent of recognition and naming of colors
+-tent to which contrast affects their activities
+-tent of use of vision for different activities and purpose in the
environment
+-tent to which a person sees and recogniEes an ob.ect depends,
amongst other on@ Familiarity of the ob.ectI lightI siEeI distanceI
contrastI colorI detail or simplicity of the ob.ect
#ge, socioeconomic conditions, literacy status, and level of
motivation
S$EC%AL ASS%ST%!E DE!%CES &O# T(E !%S*ALL7
%M$A%#ED
#ssistive devices for the visually impaired can be broadly divided into the
following categories@ +ducation, mobility, vocational, daily living devices, low
vision devices, and psychological test for vocational assessment and training
Edu3ation de/i3es
&raille duplicators and writers, for e-ample, &railler and thermoform
machine to convert material into &railleI )riting devices@ &raille slates, %aylor
postcard frame, pocket &raille frameI &raille paperI talking books and tape
recorders@
Material recorded on cassettes has emerged as the most popular mode of
imparting educationI 1eading machines@ MurEweil reading machine, which reads
typeset or typewritten te-t and turns it into speechI &raille computers@ &raille
)indows, Inde- &raille, &railleFn speak helps individual while working with
personal computersI
Moi,it" de/i3es
Canes (symbol canesI guide canesI long canesI electronic travel devices*, mobility
show-card, mini beeper.
!o3ationa, de/i3es
,oniometer, attachment to lathe, spot welding, continuity tester, &raille micrometer.
Dai," ,i/ing de/i3es
aily living devices can be further classified into five broad categories namely,
clocks and watches, games and puEEles, sports, kitchen eGuipment and personnel
devices.
Lo. /ision de/i3es
6ow =ision devices can be further divided into two types@ Jptical devices,
which use lenses to magnify ob.ects and non-optical devices and techniGues, which
make ob.ects easier to use. # third category is electronic magnifier which is
sometimes subsumed under non-optical devices. %hese devices include telescopes
(telescopic spectacles, hand held, tele-bifocal spectacles*, visualtek, schmidt reader,
magnifying lenses (fi-ed focusI variable focus standI half cylindrical rodI hand
magnifierI foldingI high plus spectacleI half eye spectacle-prism glassesI clip on
magnifier*, microscopic spectacles, visolett, fluorescent reading lamps, tinted lenses.
+lectronic magnifierBadaptive technology in the form of closed circuit television
(CC%=*, computer software (0#)', M#,IC, te-t &raille software*, speech
synthesiEer, talking books, overhead pro.ector.
$S7C(OLOG%CAL ASSESSMENT TESTS
Psychological assessment tests and training program is designed to
develop a personFs skill potential to the e-tent possible. %hese include
Minnesota rate of manipulation testI Pennsylvania bi-manual work sampleI
Purdue pegboardI Crawford small parts de-terity testI 'tanford-kolhs block
design test for the blindI &lind learning aptitude test.
2ew initiative on low vision services in approved 33
th
five-year
(4??<-34* plan under 2PC& 'trengthening 6ow =ision service is one of the
thrust areas under 33
th
five-year plan under 2PC& in addition to ongoing
activities. 1egional Institutes of Jphthalmology (1IJ* and government
medical colleges are being developed as 6ow =ision units in a phased
manner.
Financial assistance for 6ow =ision devices like high plus spectacles,
hand held magnifiers, stand magnifiers, telescope, video magnifiers "closed
circuit television$, absorptive lensesI field e-panding devices are being
provided by 2PC& especially for poor patients. +ye surgeons working in
public sector are being provided seven days orientation training on 6ow
=ision services and financial support is borne by the ,JI.
%echnical guidelines and comprehensive resource on 6ow =ision
services is being developed involving all stakeholders for reference and
dissemination.
Improving Guality of life of persons suffering from visual impairment
involve patience, perseverance, multi-disciplinary approach with efficient
coordination amongst stakeholders including medical, paramedical,
socialBpsychological and educational professional.
%he gap between need and availability of 6ow =ision services is
known globally, however, a beginning has been made by the ,JI to address
this issue and fruitful results will be evident in times to come.
O#GAN%8AT%ONS AND SC(OOLS &O# T(E !%S*ALL7
%M$A%#ED
2+%1#!++2 =IM#' '#2'%!#2
(&lind 'chool 0odhpur-1a.asthan-India* is a welfare organiEation that
is doing social work for the disabled, blind, deaf and dumb students in India.
It is an organiEation that is working for rehabilitation of blind students since
last 53 years in 'un city 0odhpur by providing free education with boarding
and lodging facility separately for boys and ,irls.
'JCI+%/ FJ1 +=+6JPM+2% JF %!+ &6I2
(Indian &lind 'chool* !uman body is very important and invaluable
in oneRs life. +yes are the most precious amongst the different organs. Jne
has to face in many difficulties in absence of eyes. Imagine the life one has
to live without seeing the beauty of rising sun, deprived of en.oyment of
observing the beauty of blooming flowers and even unable to see the face of
his mother. !ere one can truly realiEe 1a.asthan proverb O%he wearer knows
where the shoe pinches.PIt is well said that there cannot be any kith and kin
of a blind person e-cept his intellectual eyes developed in him otherwise in
absence of it he has to be fully dependent for every routine work upon
others. 2o one can provide eyes to the blind but proper training can make
them self-reliant and self- dependent. 1ealiEing the painful sufferings of the
blind this 'ansthan ('ociety* was started, with 4 children on 37th #ugust
3:<< in this historic 'uncity, 0odhpur. It has its own constitution and also
anyone giving help to this society will en.oy e-emption from income ta-
under >?-,.
Cu,tura, progra111e
Jccasions like Independence ay, 1epublic ay, !andicapped ay, 'ocial
welfare week, ,andhi 0ayanti, 6oullic &raille &irth ay are celebrated with
full preparation and enthusiasm in which the art and cultural level of the
blind students are some times so high that even the 'pectators are amaEed to
see that level of art.
%hey also take part in cultural competitions held at state as well as national
level s that they may gain more efficiency and self confidence.
!OCAT%ONAL)T#A%N%NG
+fficient artisans are employed to train the students in weaving bed sheets,
towels, 2iwar etc. %hey are also given training of canning chairs, and to
make and sew bags and foot mats, candle making etc. #ll these activities are
done under the scheme of 6earn and +arn program where students are paid
some remuneration. %he efficiency when achieved in a particular field
naturally gives them the guarantee of self employment.
S$%#%T*AL CAM$
%o improve the moral character of students and to keep them away from the
bad habits like tobacco eating, smoking and drinking etc. various lectures are
organised at freGuent intervals by famous saints and spiritual teachers of
different religion to give them moral education and to teach them the
importance of relationship of mind, soul and body.
DEA& 9 D*M'0 MENTALL7 #ETA#DED AND 'L%ND
*N%T
# multipurpose disabled unit namely #charya !asti multipurpose disable
unit was started on 37th #ugust 4??; in association with epartment of
'ocial )elfare, ,overnment of 1a.asthan for rehabilitation of deaf L dumb,
mentally retarded and blind students with 47 students.
#t present there are total ;? students who are provided free lodging.
&oarding and education. %here are three trained teachers L physiotherapists
to teach them by aid of !earing machines and various other necessary
eGuipments. %he students are trained in making Photo Frames, Canning of
Chairs, Painting and 'ewing work also.
#)#1'
%he state ,overnment awarded the best service institution of the year 4??<
by !onorable r Pratibha Patil ,
,overnment of 1a.asthan and our lady teacher Mrs. 'alma #rora awarded as
best national teacher in 4??8 by !onorable president of India r. #.P.0.
#bdul Malam.
DE!ELO$%NG SENS%T%!%T7 TOWA#DS T(E !%S*ALL7
%M$A%#ED
%he most important thing to remember when meeting a blind or
visually impaired person is that they are people .ust like you. %hey could be
talented or clumsy, tone-deaf or musical, graceful or awkward, but they are
not helpless. %ry to respect their autonomy, but donFt be afraid to ask if you
can help.
%he best thing you can do to help a blind person have fun is to rela-
and have fun yourself. If you are in a situation that is very visual, describe
what you see around you. If your situation does not reGuire a verbal
description, en.oy the wealth of pleasure that your other senses bring you.
'e sensiti/e to ,ind peop,e0 'o1a" high 3ourt te,,s go/ern1ent
Friday, 0une 3>, 4?3? ?@7; I'%, Mu1ai4
Maharashtra governmentRs attitude treating persons with total and
partial blindness SuniformlyR while considering them for .obs under the
physically challenged Guota has not gone down well with the &ombay high
court.
# division bench of acting chief .ustice 02 Patel and .ustice 'C
harmadhikari on %hursday observed@ O%he authorities need to be careful
and sensitive towards these people. %hese people are not beggars, they can
perform if given an opportunity.P
%he court was hearing a public interest litigation (PI6* filed by
!arshad 0adhav, a blind man seeking directives to the state government to
implement the provisions of isabilities #ct, 3::7, and provide .obs to the
physically challenged people in government bodies.Chief secretary 0P
ange, in an affidavit submitted in the court, stated that the government is
following the recommendations of an e-pert committee, as per the
provisions of the act.
O%herefore, the recommendations are binding and the state has no
authority to overrule them,P said the affidavit. ange also .ustified stateRs
stand on treating the totally blind and those with low vision uniformly.
OIf the number of persons from totally blind category find it difficult
to get selected, the state can hardly do anything in this regard,P said his
affidavit.%he .udges particularly e-pressed displeasure about this statement,
observing that such an attitude will make the totally blind compete with
either with the partially blind or those with poor vision.
=isual Impairments can mean a number of things. If you are visually
impaired it doesnFt necessarily mean you are blind, it could mean you are
blind or have impaired vision. # person who is totally blind cannot see light
or anything else.
'ome people use different things to help with their visual impairments
by using adoptions such as glasses, &raille, 'eeing +ye dogs, canes,
andCadaptiveCcomputerCtechnology.
%here are many devices such as screen readers, computers and many
other inventions that were made and still being made to help people that are
visually impaired. %here are many inventions for computers that make other
technological devices then usable to the =isually Impaired - and can change
their lives forever. Many studies have done in relation to the difficult lives
faced by visually impaired, peoples perception about these visually impaired
and sensitivities towards them. )e will see them in detail in the ne-t chapter.

C(A$TE#)%%
%NT#OD*CT%ON
%his chapter deals with 1eview of 6iterature on the 'ensitivity of the
=isually Impaired among the College 'tudents 'tudying in Masters of 'ocial
work.
#E!%EW O& L%TE#AT*#E
Auek F0 Mc2eill . (:;;<) Conducted a study on +mbodiment
awareness, mathematics discourse, and the blind in the Center for !uman-
Computer Interaction, 44?4 Mraft rive, =irginia %ech, &lacksburg, =#
48?;3, N'#. %he study says that, &lindness might be described as a
biological condition, and thus remedies could be in the realm of
biotechnology. !owever, the convergence of information technology and
cognitive science offers great opportunities for understanding and helping
blind children as they learn mathematics, the crosscutting discipline most
important for all branches of science and engineering. %his article outlines
our logic and approach for providing blind students with awareness of the
embodiment of their teachers to maintain situated communication. First, we
shall show that math discourse is inherently spatiotemporal, and that this
information is carried by gesticulation in con.unction with speech. 'econd,
we shall e-plore the capacity of those who are blind for the imagism
necessary for mathematics reasoning. %hird, we shall advance a set of
augmentative devices suggested by our analysis. Finally, we shall outline our
ongoing e-periments to validate our rationale.
#caroglu ,. +t al ( :;;=) conducted a study on pro.ected color slides
as a method for mass screening test for color vision deficiency (a
preliminary study*, in the epartment of Physiology, !acettepe Nniversity,
Faculty of Medicine, and #nkara, %urkey.%he article compared the
efficiency of the mass screening test with pro.ected color slides in detecting
color-blindness with the authentic classic method of Ishihara. %he study was
conducted in a randomly selected lecture room with 3?8 students aged
between 3:-47 years (median 43*.
Nsing Ishihara pro.ected slides, performed mass screening test. 1e-testing
was done individually with printed Ishihara plates. 'i- male and one female
with color-blindness were detected.
%he freGuency of color-blindness was 35.;D among males, with a
total incidence of ;.<D. %he results of two testing methods were compared
statistically. 'ensitivities and specificities of both tests were 3??D. Nsing
pro.ected slides of Ishihara plates instead of the authentic method is an
effective and timesaving method for detecting color-blindness. %his method
can be suggested as a mass-screening test and might be beneficial in
detecting color-blindness in large populations such as students, soldiers, and
so on.
Macdonald 0'0 6avie 2 (:;;=) conducted a study on 6oad induced
blindness in the epartment of Psychology, Nniversity College 6ondon,
6ondon, +ngland. %he study says that, #lthough the perceptual load theory
of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of
perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect
measures that infer perception from distracter effects on reaction times or
neural activity . !ere we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search
task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant
shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of
awareness (presentBabsent reports*. etection sensitivity (dF* was
consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was
unaffected by the level of working memory load. &ecause alternative
accounts in terms of e-pectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect
due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these e-periments
clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious
perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a
stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.
,aebler-'pira and 0 %hornton 6'. (:;;>) Conducted a study on
In.ury prevention for children with disabilities in 2orthwestern Nniversity,
Feinberg 'chool of Medicine, Pediatric 1ehabilitation Program,
1ehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, I6, N'#. %he study talks about
how, 6ittle in.ury data e-ists for children who have disabilities. %here is an
urgent need to address in.ury prevention and to improve safety standards for
this group.
Nnderstanding the epidemiology of in.uries will allow clinicians to
accurately advise patients and their families on individual risks and counsel
them in steps to take to reduce those risks. 'afety information must be
tailored to consider each childFs functional impairments. #ll children who
have disabilities are at risk for maltreatment. Jpen discussion of this
problem is warranted given the immensity of the problem. Identifying
parental concerns and supporting parents in the use of respite resources are
appropriate.
For children who have problems in mobility, falls are the number one
concern. Collaboration with reliable vendors and therapists that adhere to
standards for safe seating is essential for reducing the risk of wheelchair tips
and falls. Many children will always need supervision for tasks that put them
in situations of in.ury risk (i.e., swimming, street crossing, bathing*. 'ensor
neural deficits such as blindness or deafness create significant alterations in
negotiating the environment and an increased risk of in.ury. #wareness of
the special needs for fire risk reduction and street safety are critical in this
population. %he collection of in.ury data is critical to define the scope of the
problem and to influence changes in policy and the development of technical
standards. +ducational efforts focused on safety should include
pediatricians, rehabilitative therapists, social workers, teachers, parents,
and--most importantly--the empowerment of children as they age in.ury-free
into adults. iscussion of maltreatment risk should be addressed during
routine office visits and appropriate resources should be made available to
provide support to families. +ducational programs should be developed to
alert providers to the risks of abuse of children who have disabilities.
#ee33a Ad,er S3hi-- (:;;?* conducted a study on the Information literacy
and the visually impaired students. %he study says that as a part of the city
university of 2ew /ork people tech summer institute held at &aruch
College, the author thought in information literacy to a group of blind and
visually impaired students, using assistive technology to access the resources
of the college library. espite considerable preparation and e-perience,
teaching the class presented une-pected difficulties, detailed in this paper.
1apid advantages in Information literacy technology present unusual
challenges for the average student 9 challenges which are magnified when
the intermediate assistive technology is itself not easy to master.
Mitsuhiro M# et al (:;;@) conducted a study on =isual impairment and
blindness@ an overview of prevalence and causes in &raEil. %he purpose of
the study is to provide a summary overview of blindness and visual
impairment on the conte-t of recent &raEilian ocular epidemiologic studies.
'ynthesis of data from two cross-sectional population-based studies - the
'To Paulo +ye 'tudy and the 1efractive +rror in 'chool Children 'tudy is
presented. 5;<> older adults and 4883 school children were e-amined
between 0uly 4??8 and ecember 4??7. Prevalence of blindness in older
adults using presenting visual acuity was 3.73D decreasing to 3. ?<D with
refractive correction.
%he most common causes of blindness in older adults were retinal
disorders, followed by cataract and glaucoma. In school children, the
prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was 8.>4D decreasing to
?.83D with refractive correction. %he most common cause of visual
impairment in school children was uncorrected refractive error. =isual
impairment and blindness in &raEil is an important public health problem. It
is a significant problem in older &raEilians, reinforcing the need to
implement prevention of blindness programs for elderly people with
emphasis on those without schooling. In school-children cost-effective
strategies are needed to address a readily treatable cause of vision
impairment - prescription and provision of glasses.
Li1urg ( et a, (:;;@) conducted a study on 1eview of recent
surveys on blindness and visual impairment in the International Centre for
+ye !ealth, 6ondon 'chool of !ygiene L %ropical Medicine, Meppel 'treet,
6ondon. The 1ain ai1 o- the stud" is to review recent data on prevalence
and causes of blindness and visual impairment in 6atin #merica using the
ata from recent population-based prevalence surveys in nine countries in
6atin #merica, covering 5?,788 people aged 7? years and older, are
presented. %t .as seen that0 %he prevalence of bilateral blindness (=# U5B;?
in the better eye with available correction* ranged from 3.5D in urban
&uenos #ires, #rgentina, to 8.?D in two rural districts of PeruI low vision
from 7.:D in &uenos #ires to 34.7D in rural ,uatemala. Cataract was the
main cause of blindness (83-><D*, followed by posterior segment disease
(<-8<D*. #voidable blindness ranged from 85D in urban &raEil to :8D in
rural ,uatemala. %t .as Con3,uded that 85D to >>D of all blindness in
6atin #merica is curable, being caused by cataract and refractive errors.
'imple and cost-effective intervention strategies e-ist and need to be
made available to more people. #lso, the visual outcome from cataract
surgery can be improved. In the urban areas with adeGuate eye care services,
blindness and low vision due to posterior segment disease are increasing.
1esults from these surveys may help planners to estimate the prevalence and
causes of blindness in their own area or country.
=irgili ,0 #costa 1.(:;;@) Conducted a study on 1eading aids for
adults with low vision in the Nniversity of Florence, +ye Clinic II,
epartment of Jto-neuro-ophthalmological 'urgical 'ciences, Italy. %he
study infers that, the purpose of low vision rehabilitation is to allow people
to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, reading being one of
the most important. %his is achieved by providing appropriate optical
devices and special training in the use of residual vision and low vision aids,
which range from simple optical magnifiers to high power video magnifiers.
%he ob.ective of this review was to assess the effects of reading aids for
adults with low vision.%he review included randomiEed and Guasi-
randomiEed trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been
compared to another device or aid in people aged 3; or over with low vision
as defined by the study investigators.
+ach author independently assessed trial Guality and e-tracted data. It
was found that, +ight small studies with a cross-over design (443 people
overall* and one three parallel-arm study (485 participants* were included in
the review. %he cross-over studies evaluated various types of aids. %he
Guality of the studies was unclear in most cases, especially concerning carry-
over or period effects. In one study on 4? participants head-mounted
electronic devices (four types* were worse than optical devices. %hey could
not find any differences in comparisons among electronic devices when
pooling 45 participants of two small studies. Jne study on 3? people found
that overlay colored filters was no better than a clear filter. # parallel-arm
study including 485 patients with age-related macular degeneration found
that custom or standard prism spectacles are not different from conventional
near spectacles, but the estimated difference was not precise.
It was concluded that, further research is needed on the comparison of
different types of low vision aids. It will be also necessary to delineate
patientFs characteristics that predict performance with costly electronic
devices as well as their sustained use in the long term compared to simpler
and cheaper optical devices.
=an Isterdael C+ et a, (:;;A) conducted a study on ;,44?
institutionaliEed people with intellectual disability referred for visual
assessment between 3::5 and 4??5@ overview and trends in &artimVus,
Medische ienst, Weist, 2etherlands.
%he aim of the study is to summarise the results of visual performance
tests and other data of institutionaliEed people with intellectual disability
referred to a visual advisory centre (=#C* between 3::5 and 4??5, and to
determine trends in these data. # retrospective medical record review was
undertaken of ;,44? consecutive people e-amined ophthalmologically
according to a standard protocol by one =#C that specialiEed in visual
assessment and treatment of people with intellectual disability, between
3::5 and 4??5. Chi4 test for linear trend was used and linear regression
coefficients were calculated. it was found that, %he proportion of people
aged X or Y7? years increased from 3:.5D to 58.4D between 3::7 and 4??5
(pU?.??3*I the combined figure of severe or profound intellectual disability
decreased from >?.?D to 74.;D (pU?.??3*I the proportion of mobile people
increased from 74.3D to :>.?D (pU?.??3*I the combined proportion of
people with visual impairment or blindness decreased from <?.:D to 44.:D
(pU?.??3*, and that of people with visual disorders decreased from >:.;D to
<7.5D (pU?.??3*. Causes of intellectual disability were identified in 7>.8D
peopleI 4?.>D had ownFs syndrome. Finally it was concluded that, many
ocular diagnoses were found, indicating the need for ophthalmological
monitoring. 'pecialiEed centers are helpful, because assessment and
treatment of people with intellectual disability is complicated and time
consuming. Protocols for efficient referral will have to be developed. #
ma.or task lies ahead to improve the treatment rates of refractive errors,
cataract and strabismus, and to find specific causes of intellectual disability.
,uEEetta # et al in the year (:;;A) conducted a study on Plasticity of the
visual system after early brain damage in the epartment of evelopmental
2euroscience, 'tella Maris 'cientific Institute, Pisa, Italy.%he aim of this
review is to discuss the e-isting evidence supporting different processes of
visual brain plasticity after early damage, as opposed to damage that occurs
during adulthood. %here is initial evidence that some of the neuroplastic
mechanisms adopted by the brain after early damage to the visual system are
unavailable at a later stage.
%hese are, for e-ample, the ability to differentiate functional tissue
within a larger dysplastic corte- during its formation, or to develop new
thalamo-cortical connections able to bypass the lesion and reach their
cortical destination in the occipital corte-.
%he young brain also uses the same mechanisms available at later
stages of development but in a more efficient way. For e-ample, in people
with visual field defects of central origin, the anatomical e-pansion of the
e-trastriatal visual network is greater after an early lesion than after a later
one, which results in more efficient mechanisms of visual e-ploration of the
blind field. # similar mechanism is likely to support some of the differences
found in people with blind sight, the phenomenon of unconscious visual
perception in the blind field. In particular, compared with people with late
lesions, those with early brain damage appear to have stronger sub.ective
awareness of stimuli hitting the blind visual field, reported as a conscious
feeling that something is present in the visual field. +-panding our
knowledge of these mechanisms could help the development of early
therapeutic interventions aimed at supporting and enhancing visual
reorganiEation at a time of greatest potential brain plasticity.
Pruning +0 ,ilovich %0 1oss 6 (:;;A) conducted a study on
Jb.ectivity in the eye of the beholder@ divergent perceptions of bias in self
versus others in the epartment of Psychology, Princeton Nniversity,
Princeton.%he study says that the important asymmetries between self-
perception and social perception arise from the simple fact that other
peopleFs actions, .udgments, and priorities sometimes differ from oneFs own.
%his leads people not only to make more dispositional inferences
about others than about themselves (+. +. 0ones L 1. +. 2isbett, 3:<4* but
also to see others as more susceptible to a host of cognitive and motivational
biases. #lthough this blind spot regarding oneFs own biases may serve
familiar self-enhancement motives, it is also a product of the
phenomenological stance of naive realism. It is e-acerbated, furthermore, by
peopleFs tendency to attach greater credence to their own introspections
about potential influences on .udgment and behavior than they attach to
similar introspections by others. %he authors review evidence, new and old,
of this asymmetry and its underlying causes and discuss its relation to other
psychological phenomena and to interpersonal and intergroup conflict.
Fletcher #+ et al (:;;;) conducted a study on #ge-related macular
degeneration causing visual impairment in people <7 years or older in
&ritain@ an add-on study to the Medical 1esearch Council %rial of
#ssessment and Management of Jlder People in the Community in the
epartment of +pidemiology and International +ye !ealth, Institute of
Jphthalmology, 6ondon 'chool of !ygiene and %ropical Medicine, Meppel
'treet, 6ondon )C3+ <!%, Nnited Mingdom.%he study says that, #ge-
related macular degeneration (#M* is the most commonly occurring cause
of visual loss in people registered as blind or partially sighted. %here are no
nationally representative data on the prevalence of #M in the &ritish
population. %he aim estimate the prevalence of #M causing visual
impairment in people <7 years or older in &ritain. Nsing, Population-based
cross-sectional study. !ere, %hirteen thousand nine hundred people <7 years
or older in 8: practices taking part in the Medical 1esearch Council %rial of
the #ssessment and Management of Jlder People in the Community. %rial
nurses tested visual acuity in everyone <7 years or older in participating
practices. )e collected data on the cause of visual loss for everyone who
was visually impaired. )e obtained these data from review of the general
practice medical notes and by sending a Guestionnaire to the hospital
ophthalmologist. =isual impairment was defined as a binocular acuity of less
than ;B3>.
It was found out that, there were :<; visually impaired people for
whom a cause of visual loss was established. Jf these, 73; (75D* had #M
as a cause of visual loss. )e estimate that 5.<D (:7D confidence interval,
5.4D-8.4D* of the population <7 years or older and 38.8D (33.;D-3<.4D*
of the population :? years or older are visually impaired due to #M. %here
are an estimated 3:4 ??? people <7 years or older visually impaired due to
#M in the Nnited Mingdom (:7D confidence interval, 388 ???-45: ???*.It
was Concluded that from the largest and most representative study of the
causes of vision loss in older people in the &ritish population, confirm the
substantial burden of #M in people <7 years and older. #s the population
ages, this problem will get worse. %he needs of this group for vision aids and
other support in the community should be addressedI research on the causes
of #M and possible preventive measures should be given priority.
Mlein 1. in the year (:;;;) Conducted a study on Prevention of visual
loss from diabetic retinopathy in the epartment of Jphthalmology and
=isual 'ciences, Nniversity of )isconsin, Madison, )I 75<4;, N'#. %he
study says that, despite the results of clinical trials showing the efficacy of
pan retinal and focal photocoagulation of proliferative retinopathy with high-
risk characteristics for severe visual loss and for clinically significant
macular edema, retinopathy remains an important cause of visual loss.
&ecause these treatments are associated with cost, may not always prevent
visual loss, and may result in complications, other nonsurgical interventions
have been sought to prevent visual loss from retinopathy. ata from
epidemiological studies showed an association between hyperglycemia,
hypertension, and dyslipidemia and the incidence and progression of
retinopathy and macular edema in people with diabetes. %hese findings
resulted in a number of clinical trials that have shown the efficacy of
intensive control of hyperglycemia and hypertension in reducing the
incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. espite these findings, the
ma.ority of persons with diabetes fail to achieve #merican iabetes
#ssociation-targeted guidelines for glycosylated hemoglobin, blood
pressure, and lipid levels. %hus, new approaches for achieving normaliEation
of blood glucose levels are needed and new clinical trials are underway to
assess these new interventions.
)arburg M (ABBB) conducted a study on =isual impairment in adult
people with intellectual disability@ literature review in the Centre for
isabled Persons, ,lostrup !ospital, ,lostrup, enmark. %he present paper
review studies on the prevalence of visual impairment (=I* in adults with
intellectual disability (I*. +very publication describes an alarming
prevalence of blindness and =I. Cataract and keratoconus were common.
Many cases of poor distance vision were treatable by ordinary spherical or
astigmatic glasses, but few people had had such prescriptions. +lderly
residents in community and institutional care often did not receive glasses
for near vision. Professional assessments disclosed higher prevalenceRs of =I
than Guestionnaires mailed to the care personnel. %he prevalence of =I
increased dramatically with the severity of I and with age. 1egular
professional assessment of eye disorders, visual acuity and refraction are
warranted in residents in both hospital and community care.
Anita Gupta et a, (ABB<) conducted a study on #wareness and
Perception 1egarding +ye onation in 'tudents of a 2ursing College in the
Center of +pidemiology, 2ational Institute of Communicable iseases,
elhi, India. %he study says that, corneal diseases constitute a significant
cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. %he
number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual reGuirement in
India. %his is largely due to the inadeGuate number of corneas collected.
)ell-informed nursing students could be e-pected to influence eye donation
rates. %he main #im is to assess the awareness and perception of 3>> first-
and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in &angalore.ata
were analyEed using the +pi-Info software package, =ersion ;.?8. It was
found that, the ma.ority (:;.>D* of students knew that eyes can be donated
after eath but only 5>.4D knew that the ideal time of donation was within
; hours of death. Most participants (>7.3D* were either willing or had
already donated their eyes. 2obility in the act of eye donation was the main
motivational force for eye donation according to >7.;D of students.
Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were@ the
unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (;<.:D*, lack of
awareness (84.>D*, ob.ection by family members (4>.7D*, and unsuitability
to donate because of health problem (3?.<D*.
%his study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye
donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. %he
perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating
awareness about eye donation in the community. %he nursing students could
be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can
act as counselors for eye donors. %hey can also contribute by participating in
creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.
Da/id $-ei--er (ABB<) conducted a study on # Comparative 'tudy of
'ervices to isabled 'tudents in Public Colleges and Nniversities in the
Nnited 'tates and in Massachusetts in the Center on isability Nniversity of
!awaii at Manoa #ndrea 'chein, Cambridge. For disabled students in
postsecondary education who need specialiEed services, the center for
disabled student services offers them services which can be crucial to
academic success.
%his article e-amines a number of characteristics of the centers in
public colleges and universities in the Nnited 'tates and in Massachusetts as
well as the services offered. #lthough the data is a decade old, it still offers
insight into services available to students with disabilities. 1egression
models are presented to e-plore some of the relationships found. %he article
concludes with a comparison between the centers in Massachusetts and the
rest of the Nnited 'tates. #fter discussing the general characteristics of the
centers as found in the samples, the services offered by the centers are
analyEed. 'ources of funding, levels of campus accessibility, and advocacy
with faculty and staff are ne-t considered. Nsing data available only for
Massachusetts the transition process from high school to college and the
centerFs role in it are covered. 2e-t is discussed the role and availability of
adaptive technology on MassachusettsF campuses. %he paper concludes with
a comparison of centers nation wide and in Massachusetts.
G C 'ro.n (AB<?) conducted a study on =ision and Guality-of-life in
the 1etina =ascular Nnit, )ills +ye !ospital, 0efferson Medical College,
Philadelphia, N'#. %he main ob.ective of the study is to determine the
relationship of visual acuity loss to Guality of life.
%hree hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of
4?B8? or greater in at least 3 eye were interviewed in a standardiEed fashion
using a modified =F-38, Guestionnaire. Ntility values were also obtained
using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility
assessment. &est-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual
function score on the modified =F-38 Guestionnaire, as well as with utility
values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods.
It was found that decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity
correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified
=F-38 Guestionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off
method of utility evaluation. #ge, level of education, gender, race, length of
time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic co morbidities did
not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual
loss in the better eye. It was concluded that, the time trade-off method of
utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing Guality of
life associated with visual loss. %ime trade-off utility values decrease in
direct con.unction with decreasing vision in the better-seeing eye.
Nnlike the modified =F-38 test and its counterparts, utility values
allow the Guality of life associated with visual loss to be more readily
compared to the Guality of life associated with other health (disease* states.
%his information can be employed for cost-effective analyses that
ob.ectively compare evidence-based medicine, patient-based preferences and
sound econometric principles across all specialties in health care.
# Jose and Sandeep Sa3hde/a (AB<;) conducted a study on
Community rehabilitation of disabled with a focus on blind persons@ Indian
perspective in the 2irman &hawan, 2ew elhi 9 33?. %he study speaks
about India, which is the largest democratic country in the world, is
marching ahead strongly on the growth and developmental front and is
poised to be the leader in the market economy. %his role creates and
increases far greater responsibilities on us in ensuring that the benefit of the
developmental cycle reaches each and every citiEen of this country,
including the able and the disabled ones. It has been enshrined in the
Constitution of India to ensure eGuality, freedom, .ustice, and dignity of all
individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society.
)ith increase in consideration of Guality parameters in all spheres of
life including availability, access, and provision of comprehensive services
to the disabled, it is pertinent to have a look on the contribution of
government in keeping the aspiration and commitment towards common
people.
%he article attempts to review the concept of rehabilitation for the
disabled keeping a focus on the blind person, and list out the activities,
programsBschemes, institutional structure and initiatives taken by the
,overnment of India (,JI* for the same and the incentivesBbenefits
e-tended to blind persons. %he article concludes by reiterating the
importance of individual need assessment and mentioning new initiatives
proposed on 6ow =ision services in the approved 33
th
plan under 2ational
Programmed for Control of &lindness (2PC&*. %he source of information
has been annual reports, notification and the approved 33
th
five-year plan of
,JI, articles published with key words like rehabilitation, disability,
assistive devices, low vision aids, andBor blind person through the mode of
Internet. #nne-ure provides a list of selected institutions in the country
offering 6ow =ision services compiled from various sources through
personal communication and an approved list of training institutes under
2PC&, ,JI offering 6ow =ision training.

MET(ODOLOG7
T%TLE O& T(E ST*D7
O# 'tudy on the 'ensitivity among Masters Jf 'ocial )ork 'tudents to the
=isually Impaired at %richy istrict.P
GENE#AL O'JECT%!E
%o 'tudy on the 'ensitivity of the Masters of 'ocial work 'tudents to the =isually
Impaired at %richy istrict.
S$EC%&%C O'JECT%!E
%o know about the demographic profile of the students
%o study about the awareness level of the college students with regard
to the socio economic conditions of the visually impaired
%o assess the awareness of the students pertaining to the education
and employment opportunities given to the visually challenged
%o learn about the awareness of the students about the ,overnment
schemes and facts pertaining to the visually impaired
STATEMENT O& T(E $#O'LEM
&lind and visually impaired persons face a lot of problem and challenges
which make them prone to powerlessness, inability to participate in decision
making and development programs that affect them and their fundamental rights.
Ignorance of the capabilities of visually is also a ma.or challenge for
members of the community. Many of them see the visually impaired and other
disabled persons as stubborn and good for nothing. #s such they are not involved
in family matters in decision making, community development programs and even
denied access to basic services in the community, like education or a social life.
%hese blind people are not well recogniEed in the society. %hey lack support and
encouragement especially from the youngsters. %here are many visually
challenged studying in colleges but the sad part is that other students are not aware
of the difficult life that they face. %hey do not recogniEe or appreciate the work
done by the visually challenged and very few students come forward to help them
in their activities.
'ensitivity about the visually impaired among the college students is not
known. It can be generally observed that they do not mostly take up any initiative
to assist these deprived blind people. %hey face a lot problem in family life too.
%he visually impaired are neglected by their own family members and relatives.
%hey long for care and the concern. %hey lack in financial resources too. Most of
the visually challenged students find it difficult even to pay their semester and
e-am fees. Physically too these people find it difficult to carry on their day today
activities.
!ence, college students should understand all the problems and lift life of
these visually challenged people face and should think about it, and should come
forward to help them socially and economically.
NEED &O# T(E ST*D7
%he study is conducted in different Colleges at %richy. Jver 87? M')
students studying in the different colleges and some colleges have visually
impaired students in considerable number. 6ot of visually impaired people are
found in and out of the college, but the awareness level of students regarding the
visually impaired is still unknown. %hey see blind people passing by but how far
they take steps to guide them and help them out is still a Guestion mark. Most of us
hardly think about the difficult life of these visually impaired. %he visually
impaired are affected physically, socially and economically. )ith this study, the
researcher shall study the 'ensitivity of the college students towards the visually
impaired.
%he findings shall reveal the 'ensitivity of the college students towards the
visually impaired and shall help in chalking out the relevant programmes for the
students and the visually impaired as well.
#ESEA#C( DES%GN
%he research design adopted by the researcher is escriptive 1esearch
esign. escriptive research studies are those which are concerned with
describing the characteristics of a particular individual or group. %he
researcher by using this research design describes the level of sensitivity
which is present among the college students about the visually impaired at
%richy istrict.
*N%!E#SE
%he universe of this study is Colleges offering Masters of 'ocial )ork
in %1IC!/.
SAM$LE S%8E@
%he sample siEe for this study is 7?
SAM$L%NG TEC(N%6*E@
%he researcher used 'imple 1andom 'ampling 9 6ottery Method to
select the respondents. %he researcher chose 7? respondents who are
studying Masters of 'ocial work. %here are totally 3? Colleges offering this
course and over from which the researcher selected reGuired respondents
from each college using lottery method.
%he researcher selected two colleges from the list of ten colleges and
the sample for the study was selected through the lottery method.
SO*#CE O& DATA
%he sources of data for this research are both primary and secondary
sources. %he primary source was obtained from the respondents and the secondary
source was collected from books, articles, .ournals and net sources.
TOOL &O# DATA COLLECT%ON
%he researcher used Auestionnaire to collect the primary data from the
respondents. # Guestionnaire is a research instrument consisting of series of
Guestions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from the
respondents. #lthough they are designed to gather statistical analysis of responses,
this is not always the case. %he reason why the researcher has chosen a
Guestionnaire was that it was found to be convenient for the students to provide
e-act information about them which was given in the Guestionnaire by taking their
time the Guestionnaire consists of 53 items totally in which the first > items was
regarding the demographic details of the student and the rest are dimension based.
%he dimensions are as follows@
'+2'I%I=I%/ %J %!+ P!/'IC#6 2++' JF %!+ =I'N#66/
IMP#I1+ (7 items*
'+2'I%I=I%/ %J %!+ +NC#%IJ2#6 2++' JF %!+ =I'N#66/
IMP#I1+ (7 items*
'+2'I%I=I%/ %J %!+ +CJ2JMIC 2++' JF %!+ =I'N#66/
IMP#I1+ (7 items*
,J=+12M+2% 'C!+M+' (7 items*
F#C%' (7 items*
$#E$A#AT%ON O& T(E TOOL
%he researcher prepared a self- developed Guestionnaire with socio
demographic details, and other dimensions checking the sensitivity of the college
students in respect to the visually impaired. %he Guestionnaire was designed under
the constant supervision of the faculty research guide.
$%LOT ST*D7
%he researcher first went to different colleges which are offering M')
course and selected 4 colleges out of that. %hen the researcher went to the M')
department to collect the details regarding strength of the students in both the
years. %he researcher got permission from the faculty in charge to collect data
regarding the sensitivity of visually impaired.
$#E) TEST%NG
%he tool was pre tested on < respondents and no ma.or changes were
found.
DE&%N%T%ON O& TE#MS
Operationa, de-inition
Sensiti/it"
It is the responsiveness of a person to any particular issue. In this research
sensitivity means, how far the student is aware, thinks of, feels for or shows
empathy towards the visually impaired.
!%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
=isual impairment (or vision impairment* is vision loss (of a person* to
such a degree has to Gualify as an additional support need through a significant
limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital
or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such
as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
$(7S%CAL NEEDS
%hese visually impaired face a lot of difficulties in carrying out their day to
day activities. %hey look for guidance in doing their work.
ED*CAT%ON NEEDS
=isually challenged students look forward to study to support them and
their family. In studies, they need help in doing their pro.ects, e-plaining to them
in the time of e-am preparation etc.
ECONOM%C NEEDS
=isually impaired students who belong to the economically weaker section
find it very difficult to pay their e-am and college fee.
GO!E#NMENT SC(EMES
%here are a lot of government schemes given to these visually impaired
which is unaware to them as well as the general public.
&ACTS
%here are a lot of facts and information about these visually challenged to
be known and understood in regard to their other talents, their capability, memory
power etc.
ANAL7S%S AND %NTE#$#ETAT%ON
%NT#OD*CT%ON
%he following are the interpretations and analysis of dataRs collected from
the respondents. ataRs are tabulated using simple tables.
TA'LE )A
Distriution o- respondents " their Age
S.NO Age &reCuen3"
(nD>;) $er3entage
3 4? 9 45 87 :?
4 45 and above 7 3?
Tota, 7? 3??
%he above table shows the distribution of the respondents by their #ge.
From the above table it is inferred that vast ma.ority (:? percent* of the
respondents are in the #ge group of 4?-45 years, and few (3? percent* of the
respondents are in the #ge group of 45 and above years.

&%G*#E A
Distriution o- respondents " their Age


TA'LE E :
Distriution o- respondents " their Gender
S.
No
Gender &reCuen3"
ND>;
$er3ent
3 Male 47 7?
4 Female 47 7?
%otal 7? 3??
%he above table shows the distribution of the respondents according to their
gender. %he above table reveals that half (7? percent* of the respondents are
Males, and half (7? percent* are Females.


&%G*#E E :
Distriution o- respondents " their Gender

TA'LE E @
Distriution o- respondents " p,a3e o- #esiden3e o- the #espondents
S.No #esiden3e &reCuen3" $er3ent
3 !ostel 33 44
4 ay 'cholar 5: <>
Tota, 7? 3??.?
%he above table shows the distribution of the respondents according to their
Place of 1esidence. %he above table reveals that a vast ma.ority (<> percent*
the respondents are day scholars and less than one third (44 Percent* of the
respondents stay in hostel.


TA'LE E @
Distriution o- respondents " p,a3e o- #esiden3e o- the #espondents
TA'LE E ?
Distriution o- respondents " their t"pe o- -a1i,"
%he above table shows the distribution of the 1espondents according to their
%ypes of families. %he above table reveals that Ma.ority (;; percent* of the
respondents live in nuclear Families and one third (58 percent* of the
respondents live in .oint families.

TA'LE ) >
Distriution o- respondents " their do1i3i,e
S. No T"pe o-
&a1i,"
&reCuen3" $er3ent
3 0oint 3< 58
4 2uclear 55 ;;
Tota, 7? 3??

S No. Nature o-
'a35ground
&reCuen3" $er3ent
3 1ural 33 44
4 Nrban 5: <>
Tota, 7? 3??
%he above table shows the distribution of the 1espondents according to the
2ature of &ackground. %he above table reveals that a vast ma.ority (<>
percent* of the respondents belongs to the urban sector and less than one
third (44 percent* of the respondents belong to the rural sector.


#ES$ONSES TO T(E !A#%O*S D%MENS%ONS O& SENS%T%!%T7
TO T(E !%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
TA'LE E=
SENS%T%!%T7 O& T(E #ES$ONDENTS TO T(E $(7S%CAL
NEEDS O& T(E !%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
Distriution o- respondents " their attitude to he,p the /isua,,"
%1paired to 3ross the road
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 35 4;
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 48 8>
5 2+=+1 4 8
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
33 44
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (8> percent* of the
respondents have occasionally helped the visually Impaired to cross the
road, less than one third (4; percent* of the respondents have always helped,
less than one third (44 percent* of the respondents did not get a chance and
few (8 percent* of them have never helped the visually Impaired to cross the
road whenever they saw them trying to do so.
&%G*#E E ?
Distriution o- respondents " their attitude to he,p the /isua,,"
%1paired to 3ross the road

TA'LE E F
Distriution o- the respondents " their attitude to get up and o--er seat
S.NO
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 4; 84
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3; 54
5 2+=+1 3 4
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
< 38
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (84 percent* of the
respondents have always offered their seats to the visually Impaired, one
third (54 percent* of them have Jccasionally offered, some (38 percent* of
them did 2ot get a chance and few 4 percent of the respondents have never
offered their seats to the =isually Impaired while travelling in the bus.

TA'LE E<
Distriution o- respondents " their a.areness on di--i3u,ties -a3ed "
the /isua,," i1paired
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 47 7?
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3; 54
5 2+=+1 8 >
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
7 3?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that more than half (7? percent* of the
respondents have always been aware of the difficulties faced by the visually
impaired, one third (54 percent* of them have occasionally been aware, some
(3? percent* of them did not get a chance and few (> percent* of the
respondents have never been aware of the difficulties faced by the visually
impaired in terms of mobility.

&%G*#E E>
Distriution o- respondents " their a.areness on di--i3u,ties -a3ed "
the /isua,," i1paired
TA'LE E B
Distriution o- respondents " their attitude to he,p the /isua,,"
i1paired to rea3h their desired p,a3es.
S.N
O
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 3< 58
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3> 5;
5 2+=+1 ; 34
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ : 3>
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that one third (5; percent* of the
respondents have Jccasionally helped the =isually Impaired students in the
college to reach their desired places, one third (58 percent* of them have
always helped, some (3> percent* of them did not get a chance and few (34
percent* of the respondents have 2ever helped the visually impaired students
in their college to reach their desired places.

TA'LE E A;
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ponder upon the
di--i3u,ties o- the /isua,," i1paired.
S.N #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7 $E#CENTAGE
O ND>;
3 #6)#/' > 3;
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 5? ;?
5 2+=+1 < 38
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 7 3?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that ma.ority (;? percent* of the
respondents have occasionally pondered upon the difficulties of the visually
Impaired, some (3; percent* of them have #lways pondered, some (38
percent* have never pondered and few (3? percent* of them did not get a
chance to ponder upon the difficulties of the =isually Impaired in carrying
over their daily activities.
SENS%T%!%T7 O& T(E #ES$ONDENTS TO T(E ED*CAT%ONAL
NEEDS O& T(E !%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
TA'LE E AA
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e gone as a s3rie to
he,p the /isua,," i1paired
S.N
O
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7 $E#CENTAGE
ND>;
3 #6)#/' 7 3?
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 7 3?
5 2+=+1 3? 4?
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 5? ;?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that ma.ority (;? percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to go as a scribe to help the =isually
Impaired students, some (4? percent* of them have 2ever gone and few (3?
percent* of the respondents have #lways and Jccasionally gone as a scribe
to help the visually impaired students to write hisBher e-am.
TA'LE E A:
Distriution o- the respondents " .hether the" ha/e sponsored the
s3hoo,0 3o,,ege -ee
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' > 3;
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ ; 34
5 2+=+1 4? 8?
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
3; 54
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (8? percent* of the
respondents have never sponsored the school, college fee of the =isually
Impaired, one third (54 percent* of them id 2ot ,et a Chance, some (3;
percent* have #lways and few (34 percent* of the respondents have
Jccasionally sponsored the school, college fee of the visually impaired.
TA'LE E A@
Distriution o- the respondents " .hether the" ha/e he,ped /isua,,"
%1paired to -inish their pro2e3ts
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 7 3?
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3< 58
5 2+=+1 > 3;
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
4? 8?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (8? percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to help the visually impaired to finish their
pro.ects, assignment, one third (58 percent* of them have occasionally
helped, some (3; percent* of them have never helped and few 3? percent of
the respondents have #lways helped the =isually Impaired to finish their
pro.ects, assignment.
TA'LE E A?
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e /isua,," i1paired "
reading out hisGher ,essons
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 34 48
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 38 4>
5 2+=+1 > 3;
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 3; 54
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that one third (54 percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to help the =isually Impaired by reading
out hisCher lessons for the preparation of the e-ams, less than one third
(4> percent* of them have Jccasionally helped, some (48 percent* of them
have #lways helped and few (3; percent* of the respondents have never
helped the visually impaired by reading out hisCher lessons for the
preparation of the e-ams.
TA'LE E A>
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e he,ped the !isua,,"
%1paired students to u" their 'rai,,e oo5s.
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (8> percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to help the visually impaired students to
buy their &raille books, less than one third (4> percent* of them have
Jccasionally helped and some (48 percent* of them have 2ever and none
of the respondents have #lways helped the visually impaired students to buy
their &raille books.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' - -
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 38 4>
5 2+=+1 34 48
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 48 8>
TOTAL 7? 3??

SENS%T%!%T7 O& T(E #ES$ONDENTS TO T(E ECONOM%CAL
NEEDS O& T(E !%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
TA'LE E A=
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e ho1es .hi3h ta5e
3are o- the /isua,," %1paired.
From the above table it is inferred that one third (5; percent* of the
respondents have 2ever donated to the homes which take care of the
=isually Impaired, less than one third (4; percent* of them did not get a
Chance, some (4? percent* of them have occasionally helped and few (3>
percent* of the respondents have always donated to the !omes which take
care of the visually impaired.
TA'LE E AF
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' : 3>
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3? 4?
5 2+=+1 3> 5;
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 35 4;
TOTAL 7? 3??

Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e raised -unds -or the
!isua,," i1paired
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 5 ;
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3> 5;
5 2+=+1 43 84
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ > 3;
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (84 percent* of the
respondents have never raised funds for the welfare of the visually Impaired,
one third (5; percent* of them occasionally raised, some (3; percent* of
them did 2ot ,et a Chance and few (; percent* of the respondents have
#lways raised funds for the welfare of the visually Impaired.
TA'LE E A<
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e pur3hased the hand
1ade goods 1ade " the /isua,," i1paired.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 33 44
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ 3> 5;
5 2+=+1 < <
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
38 4>
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that one third (5; percent* of the
respondents have occasionally purchased the hand made goods produced by
the visually Impaired, less than one third (4> percent* of them id 2ot ,et a
Chance, some (44 percent* of them have #lways and few (< percent* of the
respondents have never purchased the hand made goods produced by the
=isually Impaired.

&%G*#E =
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e pur3hased the hand
1ade goods 1ade " the /isua,," i1paired.
TA'LE E AB
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e re-erred the /isua,,"
%1paired -or 2os
S.N
O
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' 5 ;
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ > 3;
5 2+=+1 3? 4?
8 I 2J% ,+% # C!#2C+ 4: 7>
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that more than half (7> percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to refer the =isually Impaired for .obs, less
than one third (4? percent* of them have 2ever referred, some (3; percent*
of them have Jccasionally and few (; percent* of the respondents have
#lways referred the =isually Impaired for .obs to the people they know.
&%G*#E E F
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e re-erred the /isua,,"
%1paired -or 2os
TA'LE E :;
Distriution o- respondents " .hether the" ha/e re-erred the !isua,,"
%1paired entrepreneurs to the potentia, usiness pro/iders.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #6)#/' < 38
4 JCC#'IJ2#66/ : 3>
5 2+=+1 34 48
8 I 2J% ,+% #
C!#2C+
44 88
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that less than half (88 percent* of the
respondents did not get a chance to refer the =isually Impaired entrepreneurs
to the potential business providers, less than one third (48 percent* of them
have 2ever referred, some (3> percent* of them have occasionally and few
(38 percent* of the respondents have always referred the visually Impaired
entrepreneurs to the potential business providers.
SENS%T%!%T7 O& T(E #ES$ONDENTS TO T(E
GO!E#NMENT SC(EMES G%!EN TO T(E !%S*ALL7
%M$A%#ED
TA'LE E :A
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness aout rai,.a"s
3on3essions to /isua,," i1paired
S.N
O
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 5? ;?
4 2J% #)#1+ 4? 8?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, Ma.ority (;?percent* are aware and
less than half (8?percent* are not #ware that, the 1ailways are giving <7D
discount on travel to the physically challenged people.
&%G*#E E <
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness aout rai,.a"s
3on3essions to /isua,," i1paired

TA'LE E ::
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on distriution o-
priHes " TN go/ern1ent to /isua,," i1paired state ran5 ho,ders.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 58 ;>
4 2J% #)#1+ 3; 54
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, Ma.ority (;>percent* are aware and
more than one third (54 percent* are not #ware that, %2 government gives
priEes to the 3, 4, 5 state rank holders in the %welfth state board e-am.
TA'LE E :@
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on J#7 as an
E1p,o"1ent pro1otion s3he1e to /isua,," i1paired
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 3? 4?
4 2J% #)#1+ 8? >?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a vast ma.ority (>? percent* are not
aware and less than one third (4? percent* are #ware that 01/ (0awahar
1o.gar /ogna* is a employment promotion scheme which generates
additional gainful employment for the blind.

&%G*#E E B
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on J#7 as an
E1p,o"1ent pro1otion s3he1e to /isua,," i1paired
TA'LE E :?
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on 1arriage
assistan3e peop,e .ho 1arr" a /isua,," %1paired.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 38 4>
4 2J% #)#1+ 5; <4
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a Ma.ority (<4 percent* are not aware
and less than one third (4> percent* are aware that marriage assistance is
given to the people who marry a visually impaired.

TA'LE E :>
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on 2o reser/ation
-or /isua,," i1paired.
From the above table it is inferred that, a ma.ority (;8 percent* are aware and
one third (5; percent* are not aware that 5D .obs are reserved for the
physically challenged with in which 3D reservation is for the visually
impaired.
&%G*#E E A;
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 54 ;8
4 2J% #)#1+ 3> 5;
TOTAL 7? 3??
Distriution o- the respondents " their a.areness on 2o reser/ation
-or /isua,," i1paired.
SENS%T%!%T7 O& T(E #ES$ONDENTS TO T(E &ACTS
#ELAT%NG TO T(E !%S*ALL7 %M$A%#ED
TA'LE E :=
Distriution o- the respondents " the -a3t that 1ost peop,e .ho are
,ind ,i/e " the1se,/es.
S.N
O
#ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENT
AGE
3 #)#1+ 5; <4
4 2J% #)#1+ 38 4>
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a vast ma.ority (<4 percent* is aware
and less than one third (4> percent* are not aware that, most people who
are blind live by themselves.

TA'LE E :F
Distriution o- the respondents " the -a3t that ',ind peop,e ha/e een
su33ess-u, /arious -ie,ds
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 58 ;>
4 2J% #)#1+ 3; 54
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a ma.ority (;> percent* are aware and
one third (54 percent* are not aware that, blind people have been successful
in the field of accounting, law, customer service, travel, stock brokerage,
electrical engineering, teaching and medical transcribing.

TA'LE E :<
Distriution o- respondents " the -a3t that $eop,e .ho .ent ,ind ,ater
in ,i-e 3an drea1 aout the .or,d the" ha/e seen.
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7
ND>;
$E#CENTAGE
3 #)#1+ 4: 7>
4 2J% #)#1+ 43 84
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a more than half (7> percent* are
#ware and less than half ( 84 percent* are not aware that, people who went
blind later in life can dream about the world they have seen.
TA'LE E :B
Distriution o- respondents " the -a3t that 1a2orit" o- the .or,ds
/isua,," i1paired ,i/e in de/e,oping 3ountries.
S.N #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7 $E#CENTAGE
O ND>;
3 #)#1+ 37 5?
4 2J% #)#1+ 57 <?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, a ma.ority (<? percent* are not aware
and one third (5? percent* are aware that, about ><D of the worlds visually
impaired live in developing countries.

TA'LE E @;
Distriution o- respondents " the -a3t that 3atara3t re1ains the ,eading
3ause o- ,indness
S.NO #ES$ONSE &#E6*ENC7 $E#CENTAGE
ND>;
3 #)#1+ 5? ;?
4 2J% #)#1+ 4? 8?
TOTAL 7? 3??
From the above table it is inferred that, ma.ority (;? percent* are aware and
less than half (8? percent* are not #ware that, cataract remains the leading
cause of blindness globally, e-cept in the most developed countries.
MAJO# &%ND%NGS
%NT#OD*CT%ON
%his chapter deals with ma.or findings elicited from the study the findings
are both positive and negative factors based on the data that the respondents have
made available, which were analyEed and interpreted by the researcher.
MA%N &%ND%NGS
&indings re,ated to the So3io De1ographi3 detai,s o- the #espondents4
Ma.ority (:? percent* of the respondents are in the age group of 4?-45
years.
!alf (7? percent* of the respondents are males and females.
=ast ma.ority (<> percent* the respondents stay in hostel.
Ma.ority (;; percent* of the respondents live in nuclear families.
=ast ma.ority (<> percent* of the respondents belongs to the urban sector.
2o =isually Impaired members are present in the families of the
respondents.
&indings re,ated to the Sensiti/it" o- the $h"si3a, Needs4
6ess than half (8> percent* of the respondents have occasionally helped the
visually Impaired to cross the road
6ess than half (84 percent* of the respondents have always offered their
seats to the visually Impaired
!alf (7? percent* of the respondents have always been aware of the
difficulties faced by the =isually Impaired.
More than one fourth (5; percent* of the respondents have occasionally
helped the =isually Impaired students in the college to reach their desired
places.
Ma.ority (;? percent* of the respondents have occasionally pondered upon
the difficulties of the =isually Impaired.
&indings re,ated to the Sensiti/it" o- the Edu3ationa, Needs4
Ma.ority (;? percent* of the respondents have did not get a chance to go as
a scribe to help the =isually Impaired students.
6ess than half (8? percent* of the respondents have never sponsored the
school, college fee of the visually impaired.
6ess than half (8? percent* of the respondents did not get a chance to help
the =isually Impaired to finish their pro.ects, assignment.
Jne third (54 percent* of the respondents did not get a chance to help the
=isually Impaired by reading out hisCher lessons for the preparation of the
e-ams.
6ess than half (8> percent* of the respondents did not get a chance to help
the =isually Impaired students to buy their &raille books.
&indings re,ated to the Sensiti/it" o- the E3ono1i3 Needs4
Jne third (5; percent* of the respondents have never donated to the homes
which take care of the visually impaired.
6ess than half (84 percent* of the respondents have never raised funds for
the welfare of the =isually Impaired.
Jne third (5; percent* of the respondents have occasionally purchased the
hand made goods produced by the =isually Impaired.
More than half (7> percent* of the respondents did not get a Chance to refer
the =isually Impaired for .obs.
6ess than half (88 percent* of the respondents did not get a Chance to refer
the =isually Impaired entrepreneurs to the potential business providers.
&indings re,ated to the Sensiti/it" o- the Go/ern1ent S3he1es4
Ma.ority (;?percent* are aware that, the 1ailways are giving <7D discount
on travel to the physically challenged people.
Ma.ority (;>percent* are aware that, %2 government gives priEes to the 3,
4, 5 state rank holders in the %welfth state board e-am.
# vast Ma.ority (>? percent* are not aware that 01/ (0awahar 1o.gar
/ogna* is an +mployment promotion scheme which generates additional
gainful employment for the blind.
Ma.ority (<4 percent* are not aware that marriage assistance is given to the
people who marry a =isually Impaired.
Ma.ority (;8 percent* are #ware that 5D .obs are reserved for the physically
challenged with in which 3D reservation is for the visually impaired.
&indings re,ated to the Sensiti/it" o- the &a3ts
=ast ma.ority (<4 percent* is aware that, most people who are blind live by
themselves.
Ma.ority (;> percent* are aware that, blind people have been successful in
the field of accounting, law, customer service, travel, stock brokerage,
electrical engineering, teaching and medical transcribing.
More than half (7> percent* are aware that, People who went blind later in
life can dream about the world they have seen.
Ma.ority (<? percent* are not aware that, about ><D of the worlds visually
impaired live in developing countries.
More than half (;? percent* are aware that, cataract remains the leading
cause of blindness globally, e-cept in the most developed countries.
S*GGEST%ONS
%NT#OD*CT%ON
%his chapter deals with the recommendations that the researcher wishes to
put forward based on the findings that have been made and then the final
conclusion. %he suggestions are limited to the interpretations made in the previous
chapter.
S*GGEST%ONS
%he study reveals 'ensitivity of the students to the =isually Impaired. 2ot
all the respondents are sensitive towards them. In a lot of areas they are
unaware of what is happening to the visually impaired, how they are
treated, how much they suffer and what are the allowance and facilities
provided by both the government as well as private institutions which help
them to earn a living and for their education.
!ence they must be given some basic insight about these visually impaired.
For this, the students should be aware of the visually impaired studying in
their college before knowing about their condition and allowances.
Facts like the government which gives 4D reservation in the .obs, all the
colleges should come forward to allocate at least 4 to 5 seats for the
physically challenged. &y this way other students will come to daily contact
with the visually impaired students, where they will directly come to know
about these people, their miserable life, physical difficulties etc.
%hen it is the responsibility of the college to make the students aware of
these visually impaired. %hey should conduct awareness programs, where
the visually impaired will come to light.
#part from giving awareness to the college students it is more important
that the society should be aware. Public do not spend any of their time to
ever think of these visually impaired.
%he college should motivate the students to organiEe 1allies and !uman
Chain in public places which will make the people to understand the
difficulties and deprivation which is imparted to the visually impaired.
%here can also public speeches addressing to the society to make
them aware by this. %heir will some kind of social change, when it is done
on a regular basis. %his social change and change in the wrong perception
of the people about the visually impaired can be brought by the students
through such programs.
%here are many cultural events and programs which are happening in an
around the college. %he college council should see to that in all events there
should be at least one =isually Impaired student to participate.
%hough it cannot be made mandatory additional points to be given to the
groups where there is some kind of participation and work done by the
=isually Impaired.
&y this way we can not only give these physically challenged an
opportunity to face the world but also, there will be possibilities that the
other students will be greatly motivated by them.
%hese visually impaired students face a lot of difficulties right from writing
their assignments, preparing for their regular classes, and in writing their
e-ams. Jther students should also take effort to help these visually
impaired in the activities pertaining to their studies. !ence for more
involvement, the department may allocate marks or give credit for such
help rendered by the students and also encourage students to go as a scribe
to write e-ams for the visually impaired.

CONCL*S%ON
%he research has brought into light the level of sensitivity the college
students have towards the visually impaired. It is seen that a lot of students are not
aware of the conditions in which these =isually Impaired live. In terms of
economic struggle as well as socially, these =isually Impaired face a lot of
struggles. %hey look forward for the people to help and support them. %hey are
dependent on us for a lot of things. &ut the sad thing is that a lot of us do not even
notice such deprived people who are longing for our help.
%hus the sensitivity must be increased and the people must realiEe that it is
our duty to support them. %his sensitivity can be considerably raised by following
the above suggestions.
)hatever it is, it demands our time and thought to take one step forward to
help these visually impaired and raise !uman ignity.
&I&6IJ,1#P!/
A. !irginia E. 'ishop Tea3hing !isua,," %1paired Chi,dren (:;;? ).
:. Shuura Chatur/edi 0$S7C(OLOG%CAL 1a5e up o- /isua,," i1paired
Chi,dren0 #a2at $u,i3ation. (:;;@)
5. Ja1es L. Tho1as0 Caro, (. Tho1as. Dire3tor" o- 3o,,ege -a3i,ities an
ser/i3es -or the disa,ed Or"I $ress0 Ca1ridge. (AB<=).
?. Caro, Caste,,ano Getting #ead" -or Co,,ege 'egins in Third Grade4
Wor5ing To.ard an %ndependent &uture -or 7our ',indJ!isua,,"
%1paired Chi,d 0%A$0 Ne.De,hi(:;A;).
WE'S%TES
http@BBwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.govBpmcBarticlesBPMC4>37>35B - 3<B33B4?3?
http@BBlacuny.orgBul.Binde-.phpBcomponentBcontentBarticleB58-374B7?-
rebecca-adler-schiff - 3:B33B4?3?
http@BBwww.hcblind.orgB - 43B33B4?3?
http@BBwww.bpaindia.orgB - 43B33B4?3?
www.actionforblindpeople.org 9 43B33B4?3?
http@BBtimesofindia.indiatimes.com 9 44B33B4?3?
http@BBwww.indianngos.comBrecommendedngosBblindpeoplesassociation.asp
- 44B33B4?3?
http@BBlibrary.thinkGuest.orgB33<::BdataBblind.html -44B33B4?3?
www.newstrackindia.comBnewsdetailsB3>>7?<. 23/11/2010
6*EST%ONNA%#E
A Stud" on Sensiti/it" a1ong MSW Students to the !isua,,"
%1paired at Tri3h" Distri3t.
#espondent No
De1ographi3 detai,s4
3. #ge@
4. 'e-@
5. Place of residence@
8. %ype of family@
7. 2ature of background@
;. oes your family consist of any visually impaired personZ
#ead the state1ents gi/en e,o. and ti35 the option .hi3he/er is app,i3a,e
to "ou. There is no #ight or Wrong ans.er.
SENS%T%!%T7 TO T(E%# $(7S%CAL NEEDS
<. I help the visually Impaired to cross the road whenever I see them trying
to do so.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
>. I get up and offer my seat to the =isually Impaired while travelling in the
bus.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
:. I am very much aware of the difficulties faced by the =isually Impaired in
terms of mobility.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
3?. I help the =isually Impaired students in my college to reach their desired
places.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
33. I have often pondered upon the difficulties of the =isually Impaired in
carrying over their daily activities.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
SENS%T%!%T7 TO T(E%# ED*CAT%ONAL NEEDS
34. I have gone as a scribe to help the =isually Impaired student to write
hisBher e-am.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
35. I have sponsored the school, college fee of the =isually Impaired.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
38. I have helped the =isually Impaired to finish their pro.ects, assignment.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
37. I have helped the =isually Impaired by reading out hisCher lessons for the
preparation of the e-ams.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
3;. I have helped the =isually Impaired students to buy their &raille books.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
SENS%T%!%T7 TO T(E%# ECONOM%C NEEDS
3<. I have donated to the !omes which take care of the =isually Impaired.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
3>. I have raised funds for the welfare of the =isually Impaired.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
3:. I have purchased the hand made goods produced by the =isually
Impaired.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
4?. I have referred the =isually Impaired for .obs to the people whom I
know.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
43. I have referred the =isually Impaired entrepreneurs to the potential
business providers.
a* #lways b* Jccasionally c* 2ever d* id not get a chance
GO!E#NMENT SC(EMES
44. 1ailways are giving <7D discount on travel to the physically challenged
people.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
45. %2 government gives priEes to the 3, 4, 5 state rank holders in the
%welfth state board e-am.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
48. 01/ (0awahar 1o.gar /ogna* is a +mployment promotion scheme which
generates additional gainful employment for the blind.
a* #ware b* 2ot aware
47. Marriage assistance is given to the people who marry a =isually
Impaired.
a* #ware b* 2ot aware
4;. 5D .obs are reserved for the physically challenged with in which 3D
reservation is for the visually impaired.
a* #ware b* 2ot aware
&ACTS
4<. Most people who are blind live by themselves.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
4>. &lind people have been successful in the field of accounting, law,
customer service, travel, stock brokerage, electrical engineering, teaching
and medical transcribing.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
4:. People who went blind later in life can dream about the world they have
seen.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
5?. #bout ><D of the worldFs visually impaired live in developing countries.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware
53. Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, e-cept in the
most developed countries.
a*#ware b* 2ot aware