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Sect. VI.
2200. An account of tlio miterials used bj the slater lias been detailed in Chap. II.
Sect. IX. The tools used by this artificer are the scantlc, which is a gauge by which
.slates are regulated to their proper length
the trowel; the hammer
the zax, an instru-
ment for cutting the slates
a small kandpick; and a hod and a hoard for mortar. The
cax is an instrument made of tempere I iron, about 16 indies long and 2 inches wile,
like a large knife bent a little at one end, with a wooden handle at the otiier, and
having a projecting piece of iron on its back, drawn to a sharp point, to make holes in
the slates for the nai's, the other side being used to chip and cut the slates to their re-
quired size, aswlien ln')Ught from the quarry they are not sufficiently square and cleaned
for the slater's use. The places for the nail holes are marked usually on the slate where
they have to be punched, with a gaugp, and then the iron of the zax is struck through the
slate. Each slate has two holes
large slates require three. A better mode of obtaining
the place for the holes is to mark a plank with two small pieces of wood across it, at the
distance required
the position is thus shown at once.
2210. Slating is laid in inclined courses, beginning from the eaves and working upwards,
the courses nearest the ridge of the roof being less in width than those below. The lap
of one slate over another is called its bo7td, and it is the distance between the nail of the
under slate and the lower end of the uppfr slate. The bed of a slate is its under side,
and the upper side is called its hack. The part of each cour-e which is exposed to the
weather is called its gauge, bare, or margin. The slates are nailed to close or open board-
ing, lying on the back of the rafters, with nails, whi^h sbouhl be of copper or zinc If
iron nails are used they should be we'l painted. The operation of cutting or paring the
side and bottom edges of the slates is called trimming them
but the head of the slate is
never cut. In that part the holes were formerly pierced by which the nails pass to the
boarding. This boariling ^or sarkiitg, as it is cnlled in tlio north of Great Britain) is
inch to Ij- inches thick, r-ugh, of equal thickness, and well secured to the
common rafters. A good practice obtains of bedding slates in mortar, on boarding, which
gives them a sound bearing, especi.illy if tlie roof will have to stand much wear from
persons passing along the gutters, or over the ridge, for repairs or other purposes.
2210. Another method of forming a roof, as lately employed by some architects, con-
f-ists in blating on boards fixed to purlin-rafters, without any common rafters, as shown
6J5a. and 697. The purlins are plac?d somewhat closer than when rafters are
used; the boards are
inches thick, usually placed diagonally. It makes very sound
work, rind ^aves height, where that may be an object. Another method, as noticed in
par. 2285cr., is to mil the boarding on to common rafters laid as purlins, as shown in
695 and 696.
2210/). The common method of slating is to nail the slatfs to laths or battens, as in
tiling, but a house so done is more liable to be afFt-cted with the various changes from
heat to cold than by the other system. These laths are cut to boards of 20, 25, 30 or 36.
Thus a board 12x9
3, cut 3 deep and 4 flat, equals 1 board 20. If cut 4 deep and
4 flat, equals 1 board 25. If cut 4 deep and 5 flat, equals 1 board 30. If cut 5 deep
and 5 flat, equals 1 board 36. Slating laid on battens, at places on the sea coast, and as
usual in work in Irehind, is either wlioUy
with lime and hair on the uniler
i^ide, or only the under edges and laths are thus secured. AVithout this precaution the
slates rattle, and the driving winds get under them, tending to strip the roofs. Eender-
ing properly done, lasts as long as the slates exist in a perfect state.
22i0c. 0["en or ventilated slating, which is nearly equally as waterproof as the usual
method of slating, will save one third of the quantity per square.
22\Qd. Felt. Slate is also laid on felt, on |-inch boarding. Croggon's patent asphalte
roofing felt is impervious to rain, snow, and frost, and is a non-conductor. From its anti-
corrosive properties, it is of sei-A-ice when placed between iron and wood and betwi'en
metals. It is manufactured of any required Ungtli, by 32 inches wide. There is some
risk ot dry rot occurring, however, by using it thus
the better plan is to lay the fell on
boards, and then to batten for the slates over the felt, so as to leave an air space between
the felt and the slates. Its general weight is about 42 lbs. per square. Patent asphaltic
roofing felt is about
in. thi?k ; slaters' or sarking fe't is about ^i'l. thick, as is also
inodorous felt. Fibrous asphalle or foundation felt is suggested for preventing damp
rising when placed above the footings of a wall; but it has some disadvantages. Non-
conducting dry hair felt, in sheets 34 ii.chcs by 20 inches, is also obtainable in long lengths.