ELSEVIER
ht. J. Pm. Ves. & Piping 61(1996) 219297
@J 1996 Elsevier Science Limited
030&i0161(95)000267
Printed in Northern Ireland. All rights reserved
030%0161/96/$15.00
Review of analysis of tube sheets
V. G. Ukadgaonker, P. A. Kale, Mrs. N. A. Agnihotri & R; Shanmuga Babu
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay 400 076, Zndia
(Received 15 January 1995; accepted 9 February 1995)
Various design methods have been proposed by a number of researchers for
analyzing stresses and deflections in multiperforated plates, popularly known
as tube sheets. The purpose of this paper is to show the different techniques
developed by various researchers in the analysis of tube sheets. A thorough
literature review is undertaken and the different techniques such as analytical,
experimental and numerical are dealt with separately. Finally the results
obtained by various research workers are compared and the authors work is
also mentioned. The future scope in this field as proposed by the authors is
also discussed.
NOMENCLATURE
d hole diameter
Eh3
D=
12(1  Y2)
flexural rigidity of perforated plate
D* = ti*h3
12(1  Y2)
flexural rigidity of the equivalent
solid plate
E Elastic modulus of the plate material
E* Elastic modulus of equivalent plate
h plate thickness
P
pitch of the hole pattern
7 (D*/D) X 100 deflection efficiency
p [(p  d)/p] X 100 ligament efficiency
Y Poissons ratio of the plate material
V* Poissons ratio of equivalent solid plate
Subscripts:
A triangular pitch pattern
Cl square pitch pattern
INTRODUCTION
Tube sheets, which are multiperforated plates, Ligament eficiency: the ratio of the minimum
being important components of pressure vessels ligament width, (p  d), to the pitch, p, of the
from functional, structural and cost points of hole pattern as shown in Fig. 1, i.e. [(p  d)/p] X
view, the optimum design is of paramount 100. Ligament efficiency varies from unity for an
importance. The stress concentration factor
isolated hole to nearly zero for as ligament width
found at the edge of the hole in a stressed plate is becomes small relative to the distance between
of great practical importance. An exact theoreti holes.
279
cal solution for the stresses and deformation
everywhere in the tube sheet is not possible but
approximate solutions can be obtained. During
the last decade many authors have proposed
analytical, experimental or numerical techniques
to solve this problem. Osweiller in his literature
review concerning the tube sheet has shown the
evolution of equivalent solid plate concept over
four decades. The purpose of the present paper is
to study the different concepts developed over
recent decades by various authors in the analysis
of the tube sheet.
Definitions
Hole pattern: the holes in the tube sheet can be
arranged as shown in Fig. 1 in three different
patterns viz equilateral triangular, square and
staggered square. The equilateral triangular
pattern is most widely used since it is the most
effective packaging arrangement.
280 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
0000
00000
000000
0
om
0000

EQUILATERAL S Q?iARE
TRIANGULAR (0 PITCH 1
(DPITCHI , , h , ,
STAGGERED
SQUARE
(0 PITCH 1
Fig. 1. Different types of hole patterns.
Stress concentration factor: The ratio of maxi
mum principal stress to the nominal stress
without any discontinuity at the same section.
Literature review
The deflections and the stresses in a drilled plate
subjected to any type of loading is more
compared to a solid plate of the same dimensions
under similar loading conditions. The weakening
effect of the perforations may be described either
in terms of deflections and ligament efficiencies
or in terms of the ratios of the elastic properties
such as Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, for the
drilled plate and the solid plate. Various
theoretical, experimental and numerical methods
have been proposed for evaluation of these
deflection efficiencies or modified elastic con
stants. The following section discusses each of the
three techniques separately.
Analytical techniques
Gardner in 1948 was the first to introduce the
concept of equivalent solid plate for the design of
a floating tube sheet heat exchanger. He
introduced the terms called Deflection Efficiency
and Ligament Efficiency which takes into account
the weakening effect of the perforations. The
flexural rigidity D* of the equivalent solid plate is
given by
where q is the
depends upon the
and the degree of
ligament efficiency.
solid plate having
deflection efficiency which
type of penetration pattern
drilling of the plate, i.e. the
The stresses in an equivalent
the flexural rigidity D* are
calculated using classical structural analysis
methods and then in the real plate by dividing
D*=r/D
them by p, where p is the ligament efficiency.
Due to lack of experimental results, Gardner
proposed formulae based on minimum ligament
width in circumferential direction:
n*=l
4
 sin
[
lb
Jr
l 1(1
q,=13sine1 
n
[;(lP)]
which leads to values of about O5 for typical
values of CL. Gardner later adopted the same
method for the design of fixed tube sheet heat
exchanger.3 The main drawback of Gardners
analysis is that no consideration has been given
to the interaction effect of the tube sheet with
other parts of the pressure vessel and that the
edge condition he assumed is either simply
supported or clamped, but the actual edge
condition lies somewhere in between these two.
In 1952 Miller proposed4 the use of the mean
ligament width divided by the pitch for the
calculation of 71
which leads to the values of about O6 for typical
values of p.
In 1952 Malkin and Horvay proposed5,6 that
the perforated plates could be replaced by a
hexagonal honey comb structure as shown in Fig.
2 with parallelsided loadcarrying members. This
approximation is valid only for small ligament
efficiencies less than 20%. By equating the strain
energy for this idealized structure to that of
equivalent solid plate, they obtained curves for
the effective Youngs modulus E* and the
Poissons ratio y* of the plate and for the
corresponding stress concentration factors. Based
on these results they calculated the deflection
efficiency which was found to be
obtained by Gardner and Miller.
lower than that
Fig. 2. Circular hole approximated by hexagon.
Review of analysis of tube sheets 281
Blake and Paton proposed7 a method for
estimating stresses in a rectangular tube plate or
large circular tube plates, taking into account the
effect of a bellows or diaphragm. The theory of
Timoshenko for beams on elastic foundation was
used. Relationships between tube plate stress,
tube loads and deflection for diaphragm or
bellowstype heat exchangers were derived.
Figure 3 shows the values of deflection efficiency
obtained by mechanical tests and electrical
resistance tests based on the conducting sheet
analogy. A tube plate test rig was constructed to
test the validity of the design expressions
obtained by analytical technique. The ex
perimental work of Blake and Paton will be
discussed later in the present paper.
In 1969 GardneP improved his floating tube
sheet method by considering the unperforated
annulus of the tube sheet periphery and proposed
a direct formula.
Figure 4 shows the comparison of deflection
efficiency obtained by various researchers includ
ing Duncans experimental results discussed later.
The figure clearly reveals the greater disparity of
results of various authors. Solemo and Mahoney
reviewed and compared all these theories and
proposed a refinement to Horvay and Duncan
theories, which, however, does not agree with the
experimental results. In later years more
attention has been paid to the accurate
determination of effective elastic constants E*
and use of them in design of the perforated
plates.
The earlier research works, theoretical or
experimental, for the evaluation of effective
04
o2 o3 04 o5
fmax %/ fmax
01
I I I I I I ,,,,I
01 015 02 33 OC 05 06 07 080910
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 3. Deflection efficiency values obtained by Blake and Fig. 5. Sampsons effective elastic constants for bending and
Paton.
plane stress.
t
'1
0 0.25 0.50 O75 l00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 4. Comparison of deflection efficiencies.
elastic constants was mainly focused on the
triangular penetration pattern. The effective
elastic constants given in 1971 ASME codes was
based on the expeimental results obtained by
Sampson~ which are discussed later. Sampson
found E*/E and Y* values for inplane loading
are different than for bending loading, but they
exhibit isotropic behaviour. Figure 5 gives the
Sampson experimental elastic constants values as
a function of ligament efficiency.
 PLANE STRESS CONSTANTS
282 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
In 1962 ODonnell and Langer proposedl*
general effective elastic constants values based
on Sampsons results as shown in Fig. 6 which
can be used for both inplane loading and
bending loading and for any thickness h/p > 2.
The error due to the approximation involved was
found to be 8%. They have also given the
expression for the ligament stress intensity based
on stresses averaged across the minimum
ligament section at the plate surface which is as
follows:
where p/h is reciprocal of the ligament efficiency
factor and crl = u, or oe whichever has largest
absolute value; and k is the stress concentration
factor whose value depends upon the biaxiality
ratio p, which can be evaluated from Fig. 7.
Similar expressions have been given for finding
ligament stress intensities averaged through the
depth of the plate and the peak stresses in
perforated plates taking into account mechanical
as well as thermal loads. Other work was based
on the application of energy principles to
idealized geometries.5*6T317
Methods for analysis for the plates perforated
by square penetration pattern came to be known
with the start of 1960s. In the case of square
u
z  0.5
a
ii
w 0.4
z
=
it 0.3
::
0.2
1
0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 (ZLO 0.5 0.6 030~091.0
h/R, LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 6. Effective elastic constants used for design.
K.
I , I I I I I 1
QfcAVERAGE STRESSINTENSITY~
IN MINIMUM LIGAMENTSECTION
r a=6 :STRESSES IN EQUIVALENT
SOLID PLATE
ml=QrofQe(WHICHEVER HAS THE
LARGEST ABSOLUTE VALUE)
0.6 Illlllll 11 IIIl11.
1.0  Mb 0.6 0.40.2 0 l 0.2 0.4 l 0.6+0.6 et.0
/i BIAXIALITY RATIO
Fig. 7. Stress intensities in perforated plate ligaments.
penetration pattern the effective elastic constants
in pitch direction and in diagonal direction are
different, i.e. they exhibit anisotropic behaviour.
Meijers**19 has considered the most general
case of a doubly periodic pattern of equal circular
holes. The Complex Variables technique is used
i.e., normal and shear stresses are related to two
complex stress functions. Both inplane loading
and bending loading were considered. Equations
which relate the moments per unit length
M,,M,, i& and shear forces per unit length
N,, NY to the two complex stress functions are
given. Similarly the mean values of the above
quantities are related to the two complex stress
functions. From the equivalent solid plate one
can obtain the values of the mean moments; from
this it is possible to find out the two complex
stress functions. Once the stress functions are
known it is possible to find out the moment
distribution in actual perforated plate. Meijers
considered a thin plate for the bending problem
for which Kirchotfs assumptions are valid.
Extensive numerical results were given in the
graphical form for rectangular and rhombic
penetration patterns. Results given include
effective Youngs modulus, effective Poissons
ratio and stress distribution for inplane loads
and moment distribution for bending loads
covering the entire range of parameters given by
the ratio of hole diameter to pitch in respective
directions, required to define the doubly periodic
pattern of holes. Figures 8 and 9 show the
Review of analysis of tube sheets
283
0.2 0.L
Al 26
0.8 1.0
Fig. 8. Effective Youngs modulus for rectnagular pattern
(P. Meijers).
@6
t
;lw 0% 
>I?
o2 
v,~+ EFFECTIVE POISSONS RATIO
I
02 0 . 1.0
Al*
Fig. 9. Effective Poissons ratio for rectangular pattern (P.
Meijers).
curves for the effective Youngs modulus and
effective Poissons ratio.
By using the Complex Variable technique
Meijers has obtained stress distribution for
square patterns under uniaxial and shear
loading. Figure 10 shows the stress concentra
tion in square pattern for various values of hole
diametertopitch ratios. Similar curves are given
for diagonal or diamond pattern and general
rhombic pattern. He has also considered the
problem of bending of thin perforated plates.
Figure 11 shows the variation of bending
moment in the ligament of the plate and around
the hole boundary for square pattern. M,* and
44: are the bending moments per unit length
applied at the edge of the plate. He has also
given results for torsional loading on square
pitch pattern and triangular pitch pattern.
Bailey and Hicks in 1960 derived the effective
elastic constants for plates with square penetra
tion pattern using an Airy stress function
approach which takes advantage of the symmetry
Fig. 10. Stress concentrations at point A for rectangular
pattern and notched strip (Meijers).
Fig. 11. Square pattern moment distribution along hole
boundaries and xaxis for M:= My*= 1 (M,, small)
(Meijers).
properties of the typical element. The loading
conditions were unequal uniform tension in x and
y directions and uniform applied shear. The
general problem with unequal uniform displace
ments in the x and y directions, are split into two
cases as shown in Fig. 12 and the total solution of
the problem is obtained as superimposition of
these two cases. Boundary conditions are
satisfied only at discrete points at every 10
around the edges of the square element of the
plate as only a finite number of terms in the
infinite series have been taken. The error due to
this approximation was found to be only 0.01%.
Imposition of the boundary conditions as shown
in Fig. 12 calculates the unknown arbitrary
284 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
CASE 1 CASE 2
5x
= 6,~ 6x z6,,
ux =vy Ux =vy
Fig. 12. Symmetrical and antisymmetrical displacements.
constants in the series. By using this approach
they have developed formulae for E*/E and Y*.
Variation of elastic constants with respect to p/d
is shown in Figs 13 and 14. Bailey and Hicks have
evaluated local stresses at certain locations in a
square penetration using a numerical method and
a digital computer. They have considered the
basic cases of isotropic tension and pure shear in
both pitch and diagonal directions. Figure 15
shows the stress distribution across the minimum
ligament section for uniaxial tension loading.
Experimental values were obtained from the
photoelasticity tests.
Slot and ODonnell have developedl a new
theory and formulas for the thick perforated
plates for square and triangular pitch patterns
subjected to uniform inplane loading, based on a
generalized plane strain condition. Plane stress
condition was assumed in the analysis of thin
perforated plates. The influence of Poissons ratio
,
t
,SY_MPTOTI C VALUE FOR c/a
la0 1.5 20 25 30 :
PITCH OF HOLES/DIA.OF
HOLES
d
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3 .5
PITCH OF HOLES/DIAMETER OF HOLES
Fig. 14. Effective Poissons ratio (Bailey and Hicks).
on the effective elastic constants was also
analyzed. In this method displacement of a point
in the perforated plate is equated to its
displacement in the equivalent solid plate. Figure
16 gives the comparison of the theoretical results
of Slot and ODonnell for the perforated plates
loaded in bending with the experimental results
of Sampson9 and theoretical results of Meijers
approximate formulae. The results of ODonnell
PHOTOELASTIC MEASUREMENT OF STRESSES
ACROSS LIGAMENT
XPERIMENTAL
DISTANCE ACROSS LIGAMENT, X/2h or Y /2h
Fig. 15. Stress distribution across the ligament section for
uniaxial tension (Bailey and Hicks). Fig. l3. Effective modulus (Bailey and Hicks),
Review of analysis of tube sheets 285
0 b PHOTOELASTIC TESTS (HIP=?) 1
SAMPSON
 . THEORETICAL FORMULAS 
MEIJERS
 THEORETICAL FORMULAS 
SLOT AND ODONNELL
,
OO
I I I I I I I I I
o2 0L 0.6 04 1.0
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY  y1
Fig. 16. Effective elastic constants obtained by Slot and
ODonnell for triangular pattern.
are in agreement with the design practice and
confirms that the effective elastic constants of
thick perforated plate are the same for inplane
loading, bending or torsion.
The problem involving a number of holes in
nonsymmetric arrays has been solved by Hulbert
in 1970 by using a boundary point least square
technique which is an extension of the point
matching technique.22 He used a computer
program based on this technique to calculate
stresses in plates with symmetric or non
symmetric arrays of holes either in plane strain
or plane stress conditions. Though the numerical
work in the boundary point least squares
approach increases as the number of series
coefficients and number of boundary equations
needed increases with the number of rows of
holes, it is not too difficult.
A more rational method of analysis of heat
exchanger tube sheet stresses was presented by
Yu and Syracuse in 1955.23 Their analysis
includes the interaction effect between the tube
sheet and the connecting shell and flange. The
condition at the joint is formulated based on the
fact that the sum of the moments acting on
various parts of the joint must be equal to zero.
This condition replaces the usual one of zero
edge moment for a simply supported tube sheet
or one of zero edge rotation for a clamped tube
sheet. The edge moment condition is shown in
Fig. 17. They have found from their analysis that
in the case of an external floating head type of
Ma
Fig. 17. Balance of moments at joint (Yu and Syracuse).
K,, K,,, Kf= rotation stiffness of shell, head and flange
respectively; e,, & = edge rotations of shell.
heat exchanger, the tube stresses are not
independent of shellside pressure, which is in
contrary to Gardners and Millers observations.
Yu and Syracuse in 1956 presented another
paper, a step further towards a more exact
analysis of tube sheet problem.24 The analysis
takes into consideration the force in the middle
plane of the tube sheet due to the motion of the
joint in a direction normal to the shell axis, the
rotationresisting capability of the tube bundle,
and the bending moments exerted by the flanges
and shells. Figure 18 shows an element of a plate
under the various loadings as described above.
The stresses in the tube sheet calculated by this
method are bound to be lower than those
calculated by their previous method.23 However,
a direct stress is at the same time induced due to
any presence of the force N. Therefore, although
the maximum final stress in the plate is always
decreased through the additional considerations
of the effect of the tube bundle, this is not so
when iV is taken into account.
Boon and Walsh25 in 1964 took into account
the reactive bending of tubes in addition to the
interaction effects under any combination of
hydrostatic differential pressure and thermal
!
Fig. 18. Element of plate under various loadings (Yu and
Syracuse) q and m are respectively the resisting and moment
exerted by the foundation Nforce in the middle plane of the
tubesheet.
286 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
g 016 
5
g on
 014 
z
E 013
; 012
s Oll
TUBE BENDING NOT
 CONSIDERED
007f
 TUBE BOJDING
CONSIDERED
006 
10 12 14 16 16 20 22 24 26 28 30
Nla
Fig. 19. Tube sheet deflection versus n/a (Boon and Walsh).
expansion loading, in the analysis of fixed
tubesheet exchange. Figure 19 shows a plot
between the tubesheet deflection at the centre of
the tube sheet and n/a, where IE is the number of
tubes and a is the inside radius of the shell. Only
a small percentage reduction in deflection,
considering tube bending, is observed which do
not justify the use of more complicated models
for practical applications.
EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES 0.7
Experimental values of effective elastic constants
reported by Nuno, Fujie and Ohkumaz6 are
shown in Figs 20 and 21. Experiments conducted
on plastic plates with Poissons ratio of O39, were
perforated in a square pattern and were tested
for uniaxial loading in both the pitch and
diagonal directions. Plates with four different
ligament efficiencies ranging between 13% and
50% were tested. The dotted line in Fig. 21 takes
into account the influence of Poissons ratio Y*
based on the empirical relation developed by
ODonnell and Langer.*
In 1960 Sampson9 undertook experimental
tests on rectangular plastic plates with v = 0.5,
using the photoelastic frozen stress technique for
both inplane loading and bending. Sampsons
effective elastic constants for relatively thin plates
1o
I I I 11111
EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULII
  BAlLEV,HlCKS AND HULBERT   BAlLEV,HlCKS AND HULBERT
THEORIES THEORIES
 PvRC APPROXIMATION  PVRC APPROXIMATION ,
0.6
so.5
w
04
0.3
0.2
o1
0
DIRECTION _ DIRECTION _
DIRECTION. DIRECTION.
EXPERlMENtq  EXPERlMENtq 
Lb1 0.15 0.2 0.3 04 0.5 0.6 04 1O
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 20. Effective modulus obtained by Nuno, Fujie and
Ohkuma.
0.9
0.6
I
o
0.1
I I I I ' l'l"'l'~1
EFFECTIVE P;lSiJNS RATIO
z .
I
0
cd NUNO,FUJIEld34
0 LAWRENCE
DIAGONAL
DIRECTION
CALCULATED FOR &%iiALUES
MEASURED ON MATERIALS HAVING 3 ~0.39
I I 1 I I I ,l.,IIIl&.
045 0.2 0.3 04
LIGAMENT EFFIC
O5 0.6
IENCY
04 I.0
Fig. 21. Effective .Poissons ratio obtained by Nuno, Fujie
and Ohkuma.
Review of analysis of tube sheets 287
in bending differ from those of plane stress, but
as the plate gets thicker, for h/p 3 2, E* and Y*
values for bending approach those for inplane
loads, as shown in Fig. 22. This figure shows the
variation of the elastic constants with respect to
the thickness of the plate. It appears from Fig. 22
that h/p = 2 is the transition region between thin
and thick perforated plates. Tests were also
performed on an aluminium specimen with
Y = O327 under bending to study the effect of
the materials Poissons ratio on the effective
elastic constants. Based on the test values,
Sampson established an empirical relation as
shown in Fig. 23 to estimate the values of the
effective elastic constants for any material and for
any ligament efficiency.
Leven also conducted tests27*28 on circular
plastic plates with Y = O5. The plates were
simply supported and uniformly loaded. Plate
deflections were measured and ligament stress
variations along radial sections were obtained.
The measured deflections agreed with those
calculated using Sampsons elastic constants
thereby supporting their validity.
As mentioned earlier, Bailey and Hicks2
carried out a number of experiments to verify
h 1
=
OCR 3
h1
o3 x7
q o2
*
w
I
PLANE STRESS
0.2 0406oal 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80100
H/R
1o
. H DEPTH OF PLATE 1
2 R  PITCH OF TRIANGULAR HOLE PATTERN
0.8
t
2h  MINIMUM LIGAMENT WIDTH
Fig. 22. Variation of effective elastic constants with
thickness of the plate (Sampson).
12
I I I I1 IIIIII.~
_ EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIP
1O v~v*p[O.L3L3(vpIVl)(L,hIRt23026H~~
_ WHERE V#bvp=POISSON S RATIOS FOR _
PLASllC(\H).S)
 $6~ I POISSION S RATIOS FOR METALS 
0.6 
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 08 1.0
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 23. Effect of material Poissons ratio Y on effective
Poissons ratio v* (Sampson).
their theoretical analysis. They conducted uni
axial tensile tests on wide aluminium plates
perforated with circular holes having a pitchto
diameter ratio of 1.5. The holes were drilled such
that the load was applied in the pitch direction in
one series of tests and in a diagonal direction in a
second series. Test results are shown in Table 1.
Bailey and Hicks conducted photoelastic tests
on an Araldite model to study the stress
distribution in a plate. 2o The model was 0.135
inch thick and was perforated with square system
of holes having a diameter of l/2 inch and a
pitch of 3/4 inch. Stresses were measured across
the ligaments and along the sides of the square
panels.
As mentioned earlier Blake and Paton
conducted tests on rolled brass strips 1 inch thick
drilled with 1 inch diameter holes on different
triangular pitches, for the evaluation of deflection
efficiency.7 Electric resistance measurements
were made in tests conducted on replicas of
these test specimens prepared in electric
resistance paper. Deflection efficiency was
Table 1. Comparison of elastic constants for square pe
netration pattern
Loading
direction
Pitch
Pitch
Diagonal
Diagonal
Elastic
constants
E*/E
V*
E*/E
V*
Experimental
values
O46
o2
0.27
0.55
Analytical
values
045
0.20
O29
o51
288 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
calculated by comparing the results with those for
undrilled specimen. The experimental results are
shown in Fig. 3 from which one can observe that
the curve does not depart greatly from the boiler
joint efficiency line especially between the
standard ligament efficiency ranges of 20% to
28.5%. The results obtained by the electrical
resistance paper tests are linear and suggests
greater stiffness than the boiler joint efficiency
line whereas the mechanical tests exhibit a dip
when diametertopitch ratio approaches unity.
An apparatus (a tube plate test rig) was
constructed for measuring stresses and deflec
tions in a tube plate for various loading
conditions. The tube sheet material was naval
brass and had dimensions 3.5 inches wide, O5
inch thick perforated by 5/8 inch diameter holes.
The CuproNickel tubes of 5 feet effective length
was expanded into the tube plate and the other
end was rigidly attached to a column. Arrange
ment for varying the diaphragm dimensions from
0 to 8 inches was provided. The deflection was
measured by a dial gauge and stresses at any
point of the tube plate by means of strain gauges.
The experimental results are bound to be in good
agreement with theoretical design values.
Duncan in 1955 carried out experiments for the
bending of circular plates.29 The actual loading
conditions were approximated by the technique
of equivalent loading, using the concentrated
loads and simulated hydrostatic loading, using
the flexiblebag technique He compared the
deflection and stress in a given test plate before
and after four, two and onepan drilling and
provided specific experimental values for the
structural efficiency of each type of drilled plate.
He also investigated the dependence of this
efficiency on the ratios of hole size/pitch and
pitch/thickness. Deflection efficiency for the
three different patterns tested used were 60%
for fourpass drilling, 51% for twopass drilling
and 41% for onepass drilling.
Hydrostatic loading experiments were per
formed to study the effect of deflection values
when hole size of given pattern was enlarged
keeping the thickness of the model constant and
when thickness was varied for a fixed drilling
pattern. Table 2 gives the results for hydrostatic
loading experiments for twopass drilling
patterns.
Duncan and Upfold in 1963 conducted30
flexural and tension tests on a series of
rectangular sections of steel, gun metal and
Table 2. Dellection efficieocy values obtained by hydros
tatic loading experiments for twopass drilliig
Deflection
efficiency
Holes
S/32 inch
dia.,
2 inch
thick
Holes
l/8 inch
dia.,
2 inch
thick
Holes
3132 inch
dia.,
2 inch
thick
7
54% 68% 81%
77
44% 56% 66%
Where n = deflection of undrilled plate (theoretical)/
deflection of drilled plate obtained by experiments X 100;
17 = deflection of undrilled plate obtained by experiments/
deflection of drilled plate obtained by experiments X 100.
perspex perforated by triangular, square and
square/diagonal layout. The holes were progres
sively jig drilled on a fixed pitch covering a range
of ligament efficiencies from 100 to 0 for all three
drilling layouts. An interferometric technique
was used to observe flexural behavior for mild
steel specimen and the SaletIkeda technique
was used for other materials. Tensile tests were
carried out for all the three type of drilling
patterns. Figures 2427 summarize the results of
bending and tension tests carried out on 45
specimens. The authors concluded from their
experiments that different materials with
different modulus of elasticity and Poissons
ratio exhibit similar equivalent physical pro
perties when perforated in a geometrically similar
manner. The experimental results also support
the theory of Bailey and Hicks.
ODonnell in 1972 conducted31 bending tests
on a series of aluminium beam specimens
perforated in triangular or square array for
various ligament efficiencies of 50%, 20% and
10%. The thicknesstopitch ratio ranged from
3.5 for the thickest specimen to O25 for the
thinnest. For the case of plate perforated in a
square penetration pattern, effective elastic
constants are evaluated for loading in pitch
direction as well as in diagonal direction.
ODonnells solution21 for thick perforated plate,
Meijers solutions18,19 for thin perforated plates
and Sampsons11 experimental results are also
included in his graphs.
For the case of a triangular pattern,
theoretical values of effective Youngs modulus
for thin plates are significantly higher than those
for thick plates for the same ligament efficiency.
ODonnells experimental results also follow the
same trend, i.e. an increase in effective Youngs
modulus with decrease in h/p. Theoretical values
Review of analysis of tube sheets 289
0.6
I
TOFVALIDITY ,sO.Z
BOILER EFFld.. _ . ,
0 0.2 0.k 0.6 0*6 1.0
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 24. Effective Youngs modulus for triangular pattern obtained by Duncan and Upfold.
I I
4 AA DUNCAN
(TENSILE 1
.&.&.A. DUNCAN
+ TURLEY
TRIANGULAR PATTERN
0 0.2 04 0.6 O8
Pd/P
Fig. 25. Effective Poissons ratio for triangular pattern
obtained by Duncan and Upfold.
of effective Youngs modulus for the thick
perforated plate appear to be valid for the entire
range of thickness h/p 3 2. Experimental results
of ODonnell also confirm this behaviour. But
ODonnells experimental vaues of E*/E in the
thin plate region is slightly higher than
theoretical results, which implies that thin plate
theoretical results of E*/E are applicable to only
much thinner plates. Again the experimental
results of Y* obtained by ODonnell follows the
same trend but slightly higher than the
theoretical results which implies that theoretical
GUN
METAL
3
SQUARE PATTERN
LAWRENCE (FLEXURE 1
A DUNCAN 1 FLEXURE 1
DIAGONAL PATTERN
LAWRENCE ( FL EXUREI
DUNCAN (FLEXURE)
BATT (PHOTOELASTIC
PLANE STRESS 1
THEORETICAL CURVES
FROM BAILEY AND
HICKS
i 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3
P/d
L
I L I
0 O2 04 0.5 O6 0.7
( Pd 1 /P
Fig. 26. Effective Youngs modulus for square pattern
obtained by Duncan and Upfold.
thin plate Y* values are applicable to much
thinner plates.
For the case of square pitch pattern,
experimental results of E*/E obtained by
ODonnell are in good agreement with the
290 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
L
0
1 I
4 DUNCAN (F\EXRk)
0 BATT(PH~TOELASTIC),
0 LAWRENCE (FLEXURE I
GUN METAL
THEORETICAL
CURVES FROM
BAILEY AND
SQUARE PATTERN
I I I I
1.5
I
' p/d2;' 1
0.33 o5 0.6 0.66
(pd)/P
1
Fig. 27. effective Poissons ratio for square pattern obtained
by Duncan and Upfold.
theoretical results in the thick plate region. In the
thin plate region, the measured values of Y* are
slightly higher than theoretical values. Measured
values of Y* in the pitch direction differ from the
theoretical values even in thick plate region
especially for a ligament efficiency of 10%.
ODonnell has suggested one should use the
theoretical values for Y*.
NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES
Jones has determined3* the elastic stress distribu
tion in the perforated plate with triangular
penetration pattern for inplane loads and
bending loads. 3D analysis was made for a plate
with 5% ligament efficiency and 2D analysis for a
plate with 10% ligament efficiency. Only the
shaded portion of the plate as shown in Fig. 28 is
required to be modelled. Figure 29 shows the 3D
model. Boundary conditions, in terms of
displacements for the shaded region are obtained
from the concept of equivalent solid plate and
type of loading. Results are given in the form of
contours of stress intensity as shown in Fig. 30. In
addition to this Jones has also considered the
problem of determining the stress distribution in
EA OF FINITE
EMENT STUDY
Fig. 28. Shaded area used for finite element modelling
(Jones).
1 LCO ELEMENTS
I
1925 NODES
t =c*o
t/p2*0
L
h/b r0.05
_
X
w
(a) TOP VIEW (bl OVERALL VIEW OF THE
THREE DIMENSIONAL
MODEL
Fig. 29. Threedimensional finite element model (Jones).
a circular plate with a centrally placed circular
hole which is subjected to step change of
temperature on the surface.
Meijers has given33 the refined theory of
bending and torsion of a thin perforated plate.
The classical solution requires refinement as the
ratio h/R tends to zero, where h is the thickness
of the plate and R is the hole radius. For very
thick perforated plates, i.e. for h/R+ 03,
solutions are available which are approximations
of plane stress or generalized plane strain
conditions. Meijers has given interpolation of
results for the intermediate values of h/R. The
accuracy of the interpolated results was checked
by using finiteelement solution. Figure 31 shows
the element type and the element distributions in
the ligament. The element used is a prism
Review of analysis of tube sheets 291
3 0 * 5019
4 O5675
5 O63&1
6 0.7006
7 O7672 10
8 0*8339
9 0 9005
10 0 l 9870
Fig. 30. Contour plot of stress intensity for plane stress,
isotropic loading (Jones).
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 32. Comparison of results.
results are in good agreement with the theoretical
results of Bailey and Hicks,* Meijers and
Hulbert** in respective cases of loading.
Ukadgaonker and Kale have considered35 the
problem of plates with square penetration
patterns with ligament efficiencies of 17*14%,
28*57%, 37.14% and 48.57% subjected to
inplane loads in pitch and diagonal directions.
Finite element analysis was done by using
ANSYS version 5.0 program. 8noded quad
rilateral elements are used for analysis. Figure 32
shows the graph of the stress concentration factor
versus ligament efficiency for pitch and diagonal
directions.
COMPARISON OF RESULTS
Fig. 31. Element type and element distribution (Meijers).
Triangular penetration pattern
element with 18 nodal points. He stated that he
found that the finite element solution agreed well
with interpolated results. No numerical results
were given in his paper.
Kushwaha et al. have carried out finite element
analysis of thin perforated plates with square
penetration pattern.34 Plates with thicknessto
pitch ratio from 0.17 to O28 were considered
with ligament efficiencies varying from 15% to
50%. Stress concentration factors were found out
for inplane as well as bending loads. The finite
element program COSMOS was used. Their
Thick perforated plates. As pointed out by
Sampson in Fig. 22, a thick perforated plate is
one having the thicknesstopitch ratio greater
than 2. For thick plates the effective elastic
constants for bending loads approach their
respective values for inplane loads. Hence for
comparison purposes the results have been
shown for inplane loads only. Figures 34 and 35
show the values of effective Youngs modulus
and effective Poissons ratio respectively, ob
tained by various researchers. ASME Code36
292 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
Fig. 33. Infinite plate with square pattern of holes.
prescribes the values obtained by ODonnell and
Lange?* to be used in design equations.
Therefore their results have been shown by solid
curves in these figures. Figures 34 and 35 show
that the results obtained by other researchers are
in close agreement with that of ODonnell and
Langer.
Thin perforated plates. These are ones having
ratio of thicknesstopitch less than 2. For thin
plates effective elastic constants are different for
In In
22 0.50  0.50 
22
00
LL
. ! ! . ! ! 0.40  0.40 
z z
22
a a
3; OJO 3; OJO
/
0
/
/
/
22
22 / 22 /
2 2 020 020
/
w w
> >
10
F F
y OJO t t
w w
0.00
+f,
00 SLOT AND SLOT AND ODONNELL[211 ODONNELL[Zll  
A A MEIJERS [191 MEIJERS [191
+ ODONNELL AND LANGEROD: + ODONNELL AND LANGEROD:
Q HORVAY [61 Q HORVAY [61
I
y 0.10
x SAMPSON [lo] x SAMPSON [lo]
I . . DUNCAN 1301 DUNCAN 1301
0.60
0.00 I m I m
0.00 0.00 0.20 0.20 OLO OLO 060 040 060 040 1.00 1.00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 34. Comparison of results for thick plate/triangular Fig. 34. Comparison of results for thick plate/triangular
pattern/inplane loading. pattern/inplane loading.
o70 1111~~1111111.lllrlllll11ll111111111~
00  SLOT AND ODONNELL I211
AA  MEIJERS Cl91
0.60
o o ODONNELL AND LANGER Cl21
1 0.00 0.20 * 0.60 0.00 l00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
fig. 35. Comparisons of results in plane loading (thick
plate/triangular pattern).
inplane loads and bending loads. Figures 36 and
37 show the results obtained by various
researchers. In these figures a solid curve is
shown for the results obtained by Meijers.
Square penetration pattern
Thick perforated plates. Figures 38 and 39 show
the values of effective Youngs modulus in pitch
and diagonal directions obtained by various
z 0*60
Ga
z
= 0*50 
.P
z
2 040 
*
.
ul
2 0.30
2
0
=0.20
?
L
k O.lO
L
w
MEIJERS[19]
 DDONNELLB
++ SAMPSON
o.ootm 11
0.00 0.20 O40 0.60 O60 l00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 36. Comparison of results (thin plate/triangular
pattern/bending).
Review of analysis of tube sheets
293
0.60
1
&ea MEIJERS [191
A A A ODONNELL [311
o o o SAMPSON 1101
Q BAILEY 6 HICKS 1201 Q BAILEY 6 HICKS 1201
A MEIJERS [191 A MEIJERS [191
t SLOT 6 ODONNEL[211 t SLOT 6 ODONNEL[211
o NUNO, FUJIE 6 OHKUMA o NUNO, FUJIE 6 OHKUMA
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 39. Comparison of results for thick plate/square
pattern/inplane loading.
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 37. Comparison of results (thin plate/triangular
pattern/bending).
035
g 0.30
C
0.
i 025
a
a i
investigators for plane stress loading. Bailey and
Hicks results are based on accurate theoretical
method hence these values are represented by a
solid curve in Figure 40 and Figure 41 which
show the values of effective Poissons ratio for
plane stress loading. Since the effective elastic
constants in bending are the same as those for
inplane loading, they have not been shown
separately.
(: 0.20
=:
i 0.15
t
0
oBAILEY 6 HlCKSt201
A MEIJERS[lSI
.SLOT 6ODONNELLt211 :
o NUNO,FUJIE 6 OHKUMA t261:
0.001
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 40. Comparison of results for thick plate/square
plate/inplane loading.
Thin perforated plates. Figures 42 and 43 show
the values of effective Youngs modulus for
bending loads applied in pitch and diagonal
directions. Experimental results of ODonnell
and theoretical results of Meijers have also been
shown. Figures 44 and 45 show the variation of
effective Poissons ratio for bending loads.
0.00 0.20 040 0.60 0.80 l00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 38. Comparison
of results (thick plate/square
pattern/inplane loading)
Comparison of stress concentration factors
Figure 46 shows the ratio of the maximum local
stress to the nominal stress in the equivalent solid
294 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
g 0.30
. . . NUNO,FUJlE AND
::
OHKUMA1261
o M BAILEY AND HICKSI  o  BAILEY AND HICKSI
A A A MEIJERS1191 A A A MEIJERS1191
00  SLOT AND ODONNEL[Zl I  SLOT AND ODONNELI21 I
. . . NUNO,FUJlE AND
OHKUMA1261
5 5
g 0.25 g 0.25 
\? \?
f f
s 0.20 s 0.20 
aa
v) v)
g 0.15 g 0.15 
ww
> >
u 0.10 u 0.10 
L
E
\
w 0.05 
\ \
\ \
0 DONNELL [31]
MElJERS c 91
O00 O00 OBO OBO oco oco 0.60 0.60 O80 O80 TOO TOO
o00 0.20 040 060 080 I00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 41. Comparison of results for thick plate/square
pattern/inplane loading.
1:
0.70 1,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1,,,,,,,,~
/
+1
0 0 ODONNELL131J :
MC MEIJERS[lS]
 0.00 0.20 040 0.60 O80 1.00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Rg. 42. Comparison of results for thinplate/square
pattern/bending.
plate or the stress concentration factor for
isotropic nominal stress field. Figures 47 and 48
show the same ratio for uniaxial and pure shear
nominal stress fields respectively. Theoretical
solutions obtained by Bailey and Hicks* and
Hulbert** are plotted in these figures.
Nuno, Fujie and Ohkuma have conducted26
photoelastic tests using uniaxial tensile loads in
both pitch and diagonal directions. Specimens
having four different ligament efficiencies ranging
Fig. 43. Comparison of results for thin plate/square
pattern/bending.
9
f
0 .l 0
Y
k
w 0.05
0 0 0 ODONNELLt311
 MEIJERS [ 19 I
0
1./
0
0
0.00 0.20 0.10 0.60 0.80 1.00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 44. Comparison of results for thin plate/square
pattern/bending.
between 15% and 50% were tested. The
twodimensional photoelastic method using thin
models at room temperature was used.
Satio has published3 some series solutions for
infinite rows of holes in an isotropic stress field.
These results are included in Figure 46.
Stepanek has reported results of some
photoelastic work with uniaxial tension in pitch
direction and with isotropic tension.38 These
results are included in Figure 46 and 47.
Review of analysis of tube sheets 295
L
;; 0.70 
H
$ o*so 
9
2 o50 
m
2 51 040 
In
: 0.30 
w
>
5 0.20 
W
IL
:: 0.10 
HZ1
P
a 0 ODONNELL(30
 MEIJERS (19)
o*oot~
0.00 0.20 040 0.60 030 l00
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 45. Comparison of results for thin plate/square
pattern/bending.
BAILEY HICKS & 
\ HUBERT THEORIES _
 . NUNO,FUGlEit OHKUMA
\
1  & SAlfO
_ e STEPANEK
0
I I I I .IlIIIII.lL
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 a546 08 10
$ LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fsg. 415. Maximum stress multipliers for equal biaxial
(isotropic) tension.
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
Future work is proposed to be undertaken in the
following three areas: Analytical, Numerical and
Experimental.
Analytical approach
The method of solution proposed here is for a
plate with square penetration pattern. The
EiAILEV,HICKSANDHULBE
 PVRCAPPROXlYAlION
NUN0 FUJIELOHKUMA _
EXPERIMENTS
0 DIAGONAL DIRECTION 
l SQUARE DIRECTION
o L EVEN EXPERIMENTAL 
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.50.6 0.6 180
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 47. Maximum stress multiplier for uniaxial tension.
NUNO, FUJIE 6. OHKUMA
EXPERIMENTS
l DIAGONAL DIRECTION
0 SQUARE DIRECTION
36
I 1 II11111
SHEAR LOAD
 BAILEY h HICKS AND
HULBERT THEORIES
 PVRC APPROXIMATION
LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY
Fig. 48. Maximum stress multiplier for pure shear stress
field conditions.
solution is based on the Complex Variable
technique and the results obtained from finite
element analysis. Consider the infinite perforated
plate as shown in Fig. 33. The dotted square
portion in Fig. 33 shows the general square
element with a hole. Stress boundary conditions
are determined first at the boundaries of this
square boundary with stressfree hole boundary
by finiteelement analysis for uniaxial tension in
296 V. G. Ukadgaonker et al.
the pitch direction. For finiteelement analysis
the plate with a finite number of holes is taken.
Then the unknown complex stress functions are
found out which satisfy the edge boundary
condition on this square boundary. Similarly the
two complex stress functions can be found out for
complex loading conditions such as biaxial
tension, hydrostatic tension, bending, etc.
Numerical approach
10.
The entire tube sheet could be modelled with
actual geometry details in three dimensions. The
11.
actual boundary conditions can be simulated.
Combined action of the inplane loads and the
bending due to the lateral fluid pressures can be
considered. It is also possible to include the
stiffening effect of the tubes and the temperatures
at various locations to account for the thermal
stresses. Solution may be found by finiteelement
or finitedifference method. Due to the
enormous data in three dimensions a high speed
super computer will have to be used.
Experimental approach
A loading frame may be devised to test a
photoelastic model in biaxial hydrostatic
tension. The model may be tested for combined
loading, i.e. inplane and bending loads. Effects
of pressurized holes may be simulated by
introducing fluid at very high pressures in tubes
by some hydraulic loading arrangement. All
these tests may be carried out by stress freezing
technique used for 3D photoelasticity.
REFERENCES
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elastic concept for the design of tubesheets, ASME
Transaction of Pressure Vessel Technology, 111, (1989)
209217.
2. Gardner, K. A., Heatexchanger tubesheet design,
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 70, (1948)
377385.
3. Gardner, K. A., Heatexchanger tubesheet design2,
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 74, (1952)
159166.
4. Miller, K. A. G., The design of tube plates in
heatexchangers, Proceedings of Institution of Mechani
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5. Malkin, T., Notes on a theoretical basis for the design of
tubesheets of triangular layout, ASME Journal of
Applied Mechanics, 74, (1952) 389396.
6. Horvay, G., The plane stress problem of perforated
7.
8.
9.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
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18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
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Blake, C. S. & Paton, A. D., Design of rectangular tube
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Gardner, K. A., Tubesheet design: a basis for
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Salerno, V. L. & Mahoney, J. B., A review, comparison
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perforated plates, Welding Research Council Bulletin,
52, July 1959.
Sampson, R. C., Photoelastic Frozen Stress Study of the
Effective Elastic Constants of Perforated Plates, WAPD
DLE319, May 1959.
Sampson, R. C., Photoelastic analysis in perforated
material subjected to tension or bending, Bettis
Technical Review, WAPD BT 18, April 1960.
ODonnell, W. J. & Langer, B. F., Design of perforated
plates, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry,
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Horvay, G., Bending of honeycombs and perforated
panels, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 74, (1952)
122123.
Mahoney, J. B. & Salerno, V. L., Stress analysis of
circular plate containing a rectangular array of holes,
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Mahoney, J. B., Salerno, V. L. & Goldberg, J. E.,
Analysis of perforated circular plate containing
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Bulletin, 80, August 1962.
Mahoney, J. B. & Salerno, V. L., Stiffness coefficients
for a circular plate with rectangular array of holes, ATA
Research Report No. ZOO, April 1964.
Mahoney, J. B., Salerno, V. L. & Goldberg, J. E.,
Analysis of Perforated Plates Containing a Rectangular
Array of Holes, RE145, Grumman Aircraft Engineer
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Meijers, P., Doubly periodic stress distribution in
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Meijers, P., Plates with doubly periodic pattern of
circular holes loaded in plane stress or in bending,
Proceedings of the First International Conference on
Pressure Vessel technology, Part Z, Design and
Analysis, Delft, ASME, (1969) 551570.
Bailey, R. & Hicks, R., Behaviour of perforated plates
under plane stress, Journal of Mechanical Engineering
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Slot, T. & ODonnell, W. J., Effective elastic constants
for thick perforated plates with square and triangular
penetration pattern, ASME Journal of Engineering for
Industry, 93, (1971) 10811088.
Hulbert, L. E. & Niedenfuhr, F. W., Accurate
calculations of stress distributions in multiholed plate,
ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, 87, (1965)
331336.
YiYuan, Yu & Syracuse, N. Y., Rational analysis of
heat exchangertube sheet stresses, ASME Journal of
Applied Mechanics, 23, (Sept. 1956) 468473.
YiYuan Yu & Syracuse, N. Y., Axisymmetric bending
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26. Nuno, H., Fujie, T. & Ohkuma, IL, Experimental Study
of the Elastic Properties of Perforated Plates with
Circular Holes in Square Pattern, MAP1 Laboratory
Research Report No. 74, Mitsubishi Atomic Power
Industries Laboratory, March 1964.
27. Leven, M. M., Preliminary Report on Deflection of Tube
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28. Leven, M. M., Photoelastic deformations of stress in
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Technical Review, WAPDBT18, (April 1960).
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heat exchangers, Proceedings of Institute of Mechanical
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properties of perforated bars and plates, Journal of
Mechanical Engineering Science, 15, (l), (1963) 5365.
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bending of thin perforated plates with triangular and
square penetration patterns, ASME Journal of Engi
neering for Industry, 95, (1973) 121128.
32. Jones, D. P., FEA for perforated plates containing
triangular penetration pattern of 5 and 10 percent
ligament efficiency, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, 97, (August 1975) 199205.
33. Meijers, P., Refined theory for bending and torsion of
perforated plates, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, loS, (November 1986) 423429.
34. Bhatacharya, A., Kushwaha, H. S. & Mahajan, S. C.,
Determination of Stress Multipliers for Thin Perforated
Plates with Square Penetration Pattern, Bhabha Atomic
Research Center Report, 1991.
35. Ukadgaonker, V. G. & Kale, P. A., Stress analysis of
perforated plates by finiteelement and photoelasticity
methods, 39th Congress of the Indian Society for
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Article A8000, 1971.
37. Saito, H., Stress in a plate containing infinite parallel
rows of holes, Math. Mech., 37, (April 1957) 111115.
38. Stepanek, S., Skoda Works, Pilsen, Czechoslovakia,
transmitted these results to James L. Mershon, Vice
Chairman, PVRC Design Division.
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