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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

Centrifugal compressor is a constant pressure & variable volume machine as


contrast to a positive displacement compressor being a constant volume &
variable pressure machine .
Centrifugal compressor consists of a impeller & a device to convert kinetic
energy into pressure energy. Process of converting kinetic energy is known
as diffusion & consequently that part is known as diffuser .
Fluid is sucked into the eye of the impeller , whirled round at high speed by
the vanes on the impeller disc &driven away by Centrifugal force. At any
point in the flow of fluid through the impeller, the centripetal acceleration is
obtained by pressure head, so that the static pressure of the fluid increases
from the eye to the tip of the impeller. he remainder of the pressure rise is
obtained in the diffuser, where the very high velocity with which the fluid
enters the empeller eye. !odern practice is to design the compressor so that
about half the pr. "ise occurs in the impeller & half in the diffuser.
Performance curve #
100
110
50
60
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30 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20
50
60
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30 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20
100
110
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Pe$&e" I(e" C.F.M
Q1 = WV1 = Wz1RT / P1* 144
$%& 'nlet volume ,cfm
( & otal mass thruput , lb)min
*%& +p. *olume at inlet condition, ft,)lb
-% & 'nlet compressibility factor
" & .niversal gas constant
% & 'nlet Pr. psia
't is possible to change completely the design inlet condition conditions &
still maintain design inlet cfm .For all practical purposes , the polytropic
head & efficiency of a given single stage centrifugal compr. remains the
same even though the design gas & gas conditions have changed, as long as
design inlet cfm & speed is obtained .
/p & -m " 0 knp) k1%2 3 0P%)P42k1%)npk 1%
C"''CA5 +P667 #
For a symmetrical body or for the compressor)urbine shaft, has a
particular length, diameter, weight, volume, contour of shaft or configuration
of the shaft, material of construction and mountings.
For the above factors the said turbine)compressor shaft itself has particular
frequency one or more than one, called the natural frequencies of the shaft.
7uring the construction)manufacture of the shaft one tries to match or
coincide geometric a8is and mass centre of the shaft. 9ut for practical
reasons mass centre of shaft never coincides with the geometric a8is. As a
result, when the shaft rotates by any driving force, than there will be a
transverse force whose direction of rotation at the same speed as the shaft
with a particular frequency. his frequency is called the rotor frequency or
the shaft frequency. At a particular r.p.m. when the natural frequency of the
rotor or shaft, coincides with the rotor or shaft frequency, then there will be a
resonance, causing e8cessive vibration and hence tending to deflect the
shaft.
he speed at which natural frequency of the shaft coincides with the shaft
frequency and resonance & high vibration occurs to deflect the shaft,
called the critical speed.
'n certain cases, if the speed is increased still further a second resonant
speed is encountered then the third and so on.
he normal running speed of the shaft is always for above or for below
the critical speed)speeds.
A:'A5 C;!P"6++;"+ #
he a8ial compressor is a dynamic type of machine, identified by the
use of moving and stationary blading to accomplish the velocity pressure
conversion for pressure increase. 'n general, a8ial compressor design is
based on the theory of <=> reaction. his means that half of the pressure
rise is accomplished in the rotor blade and half in stator blade.
As air or gas flows through the rotating blades, static pressure and kinetic
energy both increase. 6ach raw of stationary blades converts the kinetic
energy to pressure, acting as a diffuser for the air or gas flowing out of the
preceding row of rotating blades. Also, the stationary blades acts as no??les
to guide the air or gas into the ne8t row of rotating blades.
"A7'A5 C;!P"6++;" #
he gas flow through the impellers in a direction radial to the wheel. For
smaller capacity and higher operating pressure radial type compressor is
normally used. hey are having impeller instead of blades of the moving
part.
%. @eneral description of Parts #

he centrifugal compressor is of multistage type. 't is
hori?ontally split in the case of !C5 type and vertically split in the case of
9C5 type, and consists mainly of a static group i.e.
%2 casing
42 diaphragms
,2 bearings
A2 seals, etc.
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OD0 S"+"i& De-(e&"i!
DC0 D)+1i& ,e-(e&"i! %i"* $es'e&" "! D
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Ge!1e"$i& A2is
and a group of rotating parts i.e.
%2shaft
42impellers etc.
4 !C5 and 9C5 type compressors are modifications over
the above basic types and contains two phases of compression in one casing
i.e. the gas will be compressed in the first phase and before entering the ne8t
phase passes through a cooler and is further compressed to the final delivery
conditions in the second phase.
%., "otor #
he rotor comprises a shaft, impellers, balancing drum, thrust
collar , spacer rings and lock1nuts.
%.,.% +haft #
he shaft is machined from low alloy steel forgings. 't is precision
machined and ground at the Bournal portions. he shaft surfaces between any
two impellers are protected by chromium steel spacers to prevent the coming
in contact with the gas.
%.,.4 'mpellers #
he impellers are made from alloy steel forgings. hey are
closed type, with blades curved backwards. hey are of either welded or
spark eroded construction depending upon the width of the gas passages.
6ach impeller, after manufacture, is dynamically balanced and subsequently
spin tested at a speed %<> above the ma8imum continuous speed, before
assembled on the shaft. he impellers are shrunk fitted & keyed on to the
shaft. he spacers between the impellers are also shrunk fitted and they
correctly position the impellers on the shaft.
%.,., 9alancing 7rum #
he balancing drum is assembled on the shaft at the end
adBacent to the last stage impeller. his drum reduces considerably the thrust
acting towards the suction. his is achieved by connecting the space
between the balancing drum and the corresponding end labyrinth steel to the
compressor suction, by means of a thrust balancing pipe so as to create a
continuous differential pressure across the balancing drum.
he remaining unbalanced thrust is taken care of in the thrust bearing. he
balancing drum is made from forged chromium steel and is shrunk fitted and
keyed to the shaft.
%.A Cournal 9earings #
he Bournal bearings are normally of sleeve type and are force
feed lubricated. hey are housed in such a way that it is possible to inspect
and disassemble these without depressurising the casing. he bearings are
made from steel forgings and are lined with white metal of patented
composition. he bearings are hori?ontally split.
%.A hrust 9earings #
he thrust bearing which is installed at the suction end of the
shaft is of Dingsbury make and is provided with an oil control ring to
reduce power losses due to viscous friction.
't is designed to take the remainder of the a8ial thrust that is not fully
balanced in the balancing drum.
%.E Capacity Control 7evice #
For compressors which are used for recycle gas compression in
synthesis trains, a capacity control device with adBustable inlet guide vanes
is mounted on the end cover of the recycle suction side. his device consists
mainly of a crown gear wheel to which a number of pinions built on the
control vanes shafts are geared.
;ne of the vanes is manipulated from the outside and thus becomes
the driving element. he spindle of the above vane protrudes out of the
casing and is directly coupled to the drive shaft outside, on which a gear
0driven by e8ternal control system2 is installed.
he movement of the adBustable inlet guide vanes is accomplished
by a pneumatic cylinder through a rack and pinion of the shaft. ;n the outer
end of the shaft which carries the gear coupled to the rack, a graduated drum
is installed from which the angle of the guide vanes can be ascertained. -ero
position indicates that the guide vans are in radial position.