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PROJECT REPORT

ON
ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER
QUALITY OF GHAGGAR RIVER





SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY
DR. SIBY JOHN ABHISHEK KOUL
PROFESSOR 13201001
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG M.E ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG

1

1. Introduction
India is rich in water resources being endowed with a network of rivers that can
meet a variety of water requirements of the country. However, with the rapid
increase in the population of the country and the need to meet the increasing
demands of irrigation, human and industrial consumption, the available water
resources are getting depleted and the water quality has deteriorated. Indian rivers
are polluted due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. It can
be said that no water is pure or clean owing to the presence of some quantities of
gases, minerals and life. However, for all practical purposes, pure water is considered
to be that which has low dissolved or suspended solids and obnoxious gases as well
as low in biological life. Such high quality of water may be required only for drinking
purposes while for other uses like agriculture and industry, the quality of water can
be quite flexible and water polluted up to certain extent in general sense can be
regarded as pure.
griculture is a ma!or sector in the economic development of India, as it is the source
of livelihood for ma!ority of population. "he #haggar, a ma!or river of Haryana
originates from the Siwalik Hills of Himachal $radesh and Haryana. %uring its !ourney,
a number of streams, streamlets, drains and tributaries debouch their load into the
#haggar. "he river has a total stretch of about &'1 km with a catchment area of
(&,&)) sq. km.
*or the purpose of assessment of suitability of water for the irrigation purposes,
different properties were considered in accordance with IS+ 11,&(-1'., /#uidelines
for the 0uality of Irrigation 1ater2.


&

2. Methodology
*or analysis, water samples were collected from two locations near Sector &3 and &,,
$anchkula. t the time of sampling, the containers were thoroughly rinsed two to
three times with water to be sampled. "hen the samples were collected by dipping
the containers in the flowing water.
"he parameters which are to be assessed are Sodium dsorption 4atio, 4esidual
Sodium carbonate and 5lectrical 6onductivity.

Sodium dsorption 4atio
5xcess sodium in waters produces the undesirable effects of changing soil properties
and reducing soil permeability. Hence the assessment of sodium concentration is
necessary while considering the suitability for irrigation. "he degree to which
irrigation water tends to enter into cation-exchange reactions in soil can be indicated
by the sodium adsorption ratio. Sodium replacing adsorbed calcium and magnesium
is a ha7ard as it causes damage to the soil structure. It becomes compact and
impervious. S4 is an important parameter for the determination of suitability of
irrigation water because it is responsible for the sodium ha7ard. "he waters were
classified in relation to irrigation based in the ranges of S4 values.
It is calculated from following formula+
SAR =
Na
+
_
(Ca
2+
+ Ng
2+
)
2


1here S4 8 Sodium dsorption 4atio
9a
:
8 Sodium ion concentration, meq;l
6a
&:
8 6alcium ion concentration, meq;l
<g
&:
8 <agnesium ion concentration, meq;l

In relation to ha7ardous effects of S4, the irrigation water quality rating is given as

S.9o 6lass S4 4ange
1. 5xcellent =elow 1)
&. >ery #ood 1)-1.
?. #ood 1.-&,
(. $oor bove &,



?

4esidual Sodium 6arbonate
4esidual sodium carbonate /4S62 of irrigation water is used to indicate the alkalinity
ha7ard of soil. "he concentration of bicarbonate and carbonate also influences the
suitability of water for irrigation purpose. @ne of the empirical approaches is based
on the assumption that all 6a
&:

and <g
&:

precipitate as carbonate. "he water with
high 4S6 has high pH and land irrigated with such water becomes infertile owing to
deposition of sodium carbonateA as known from black colour of the soil.
4S6 is determined by the equation+
4S6 8 /6@
?
&-
: H6@
?
-
2 B /6a
&:
: <g
&:
2
1here 4S6 8 4esidual Sodium 6arbonate, meq;l
6@
?
&-
8 Sodium ion concentration, meq;l
H6@
?
-
8 6alcium ion concentration, meq;l
6a
&:
8 6alcium ion concentration, meq;l
<g
&:
8 <agnesium ion concentration, meq;l

In relation to ha7ardous effects of 4S6, the irrigation water quality rating is given as


S.9o 6lass 4S6 4ange
1. 5xcellent =elow 1.3
&. >ery #ood 1.3-?.)
?. #ood ?.)-,.)
(. $oor bove ,.)



5lectrical 6onductivity
"he most influential water quality guideline on crop productivity is the water salinity
ha7ard as measured by electrical conductivity /562. "he primary effect of high 56
water on crop productivity is the inability of the plant to compete with ions in the soil
solution for water /physiological drought2. "he higher the 56, the less water is
available to plants, even though the soil may appear wet. =ecause plants can only
transpire CpureC water, usable plant water in the soil solution decreases dramatically
as 56 increases.


(

In relation to ha7ardous effects of 56, the irrigation water quality rating is given as


S.9o 6lass 56 4ange
1. 5xcellent =elow 13))
&. >ery #ood 13))-?)))
?. #ood ?)))-,)))
(. $oor bove ,)))






3

3. Experiment Performed
1hile performing experiment, following parameters were calculated
6a
&:
concentration
*or detection of 6a
&:
, 5%" titrimetric method was used. 3) ml sample was taken
and titrated with standard 5%" solution /).)1<2. 9a@H was added to produce a
pH of 1& to 1? and <urexide was used as indicator. "itration is stopped when
there is color change.

6alculation+
mg CaL =
A X B X 4uu.8
ml sample


6alcium hardness as mg 6a6@
?
;D
=
A X B X 1uuu
ml sample


1here 8 ml titrant for sample
= 8 mg 6a6@
?
equivalent to 1 mD 5%" titrant


<g
&:
concentration
It can be detected by calculation method as
mg <g;D 8 E"otal hardness /as mg 6a6@
?
;D2 B
calcium hardness /as mg 6a6@
?
;D2F G ).&(?

"otal hardness of the sample is calculated by titrating it with standard 5%"
solution, using 5richrome =lack " as indicator and mmonia buffer to bring pH to
11.).

"otal hardness as mg 6a6@
?
;D
=
A X B X 1uuu
ml sample


1here 8 ml titrant for sample
= 8 mg 6a6@
?
equivalent to 1 mD 5%" titrant



,

6@
?
&-
and H6@
?
-
concentration
Standard procedure for measurement of lkalinity is used for measurement of
6@
?
&-
and H6@
?
&-
concentration. 9;3) sulphuric acid is used as titrant.
$henolphthalein and <ethyl @range are used as indicators. *irst add ?-( drops of
phenolphthalein to sample. If no color appears, phenolphthalein alkalinity is
absent. If color changes to pink, titrate it till it disappears. 4ecord the ml used /as
$2.
dd one drop of <ethyl @range to titrated mixture and retitrate it until color
changes from yellow to orangish-red. 4ecord the ml used /as "2.

$henolphthalein alkalinity
=
! X 000
ml sample


"otal alkalinity
=
" X 000
ml sample



If $8), total alkalinity due to bicarbonates
If $H8 I, alkalinity due to carbonates 8 &$
lkalinity due to bicarbonates 8 " B &$
If $8 I, total alkalinity due to carbonates

5lectrical 6onductivity /562
56 can be measured by 6onductivity meter. If it does not displays conductance, it
can also be measured by 4esistance.
#81;4
1here
4 8 4esistance /ohm2
# 8 6onductance /ohm
-1
or mho2


"his formula is also used for converting mg into m5q
m5q 8 /mg G >alence2 ; atomic weight




J



6alculations

lkalinity
$henolphthalein alkalinity was absent, therefore total alkalinity is due to
bicarbonates only.

Docation "otal lkalinity /mean2 H6@
?
-
/mg;D2 H6@
?
-
/meq;D2
1. 1(J.? 1(J.? &.(1
&. 131.) 131 &.(J


"otal hardness

Docation "otal hardness /mean2 as mg 6a6@
?
;D
1. 1'.
&. 1''.?


6a
&:
concentration

Docation mg 6a;D s mg 6a6@
?
;D

meq 6a;D
1. (?.) 1)J.? &.13
&. (?.& 1)..) &.1,


<g
&:
concentration

Docation mg <g;D

meq <g;D
1. (?.) &.13
&. (?.& &.1,

9a
:
concentration
9a
:
concentration value is taken from previous studies. It is J,.? mg;D, which
is equivalent to ?.? meq;D.



.

56 value
Since conductivity meter was not available, the 56 value is taken from
previous studies and is .)J.3& Kmhos;cm.

Sodium dsorption 4atio

Docation S4
1. &.?
&. &.?


4esidual Sodium 6arbonate

Docation 4S6
1. -1.3J
&. -1.3,



4. Results
*rom calculations it is observed that the S4 value is &.?, which shows that
the water is excellent for irrigation purposes.
"he value of 4S6 is -1.3,, which also indicates that water is excellent for
irrigation purposes.
"he value of 56 as taken from previous studies is .)J.3&, which is excellent
Hence, the overall quality of water is excellent and should be used for
irrigation purposes.


'

References
1. IS+ 11,&(-1'.,, #uidelines for the 0uality of Irrigation 1ater
&. Standard <ethods for 1ater and 1astewater treatment
?. Lundu Sukhdev, ssessment of Surface 1ater 0uality for %rinking and
Irrigation $urposes+ 6ase Study of #haggar 4iver System Surface 1aters,
=ulletin of 5nvironment, $harmacology M Dife Sciences >olume 1, Issue &,
Nanuary &)1&
(. Noshi, %.<., Lumar lok, grawal 9amita, ssessment of the irrigation water
quality of river #anga in haridwar district, 4asayan N.6hem, >ol &,9o & /&))'2.

List of Contents

Topic Page No.

1. Introduction .........................................................................1

2. Methodology...................................................................2

3. Eperi!ent Perfor!ed...................................."

#. $esults.............................................................................%

$eferences............................................................................&