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NON-FI NI TE PHRASES - PRACTI CAL CLASSES 7


I Underline (or bracket) the prepositional phrases and the subordinate clauses in the
following sentences. Then, determine the function of PPs and types of subordinate clauses.
1. While hunting in Africa, I shot an elephant in my pyjamas. How an elephant got into my
pyjamas I'll never know.
2. He taught me not to think about where I had been and what I had done.
3. Freddy is stiff from yesterday's long football practice.
4. Neither of these cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew.
5. I worry over why we cover this story.
6. The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza.
7. The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam.
8. The reporter consulted a number of published accounts before interviewing the senator.
9. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.
10. I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising.
11. When she was a young woman, she earned her meagre living as a coal miner.
12. During the winter the smell of wood smoke drifts through the neighbourhood.
13. She was aware of the dire consequences.
I I Underline the subordinate clauses in the following sentences, stating what the indicators
of the subordination are. Then, determine the type and function of subordinate clauses.
1. The only certainty was that the aircraft had exploded at a high altitude.
2. Investigators said lightning and pilot error had been ruled out.
3. Officials would not say if any of the bodies had injuries consistent with a bomb blast.
4. The investigation committee will decide today about where the black box flight recorder
will go for examination.
5. Accident investigators are examining the possibility that a wing came off the Boeing 767
before the aircraft crashed on Sunday.
6. I don't know where to go on holiday.
7. Not wanting to wake her, Steve left the house silently.
8. We found the book that our teacher told us to buy very useful.
9. Were she alive, she would be pleased with your work.

I I I Correct the following sentences and give reasons for their ungrammaticality:
1. We buy a lot of books and of magazines. (Compare to: We published a review of books and
of CDs.)
2. ?Peter sang the song yesterday evening happily in the bathroom.
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3. ?He was able to describe the exact details of the house he had been kept in as a hostage
accurately.
4. In the park were the boys playing cricket, despite the muddy conditions. (Locative
inversion!)
5. Through the revolving door swept he. (What if we insert Tom Lopez instead)
6. ?Seldom she missed one of his concerts.

IV

V Underline the adjuncts and state how they are syntactically realized:
1. For Marie to pass her driving test, she will need to take many more lessons.
2. When he was young, Pete liked to go to the movies.
3. She hates to go to the beach.
4. She will resign the following month.
5. They lived happily ever after.
6. You will need to travel to the United States, to hear him lecture.
7. Sally stared out of the window, her thoughts drifting away dreamily.
8. Gus got off the train, buttoning up his coat.
9. She died in her car, suffocated by exhaust fumes.
10. She went back to her homeland, her mind free of hate.

VI These sentences are syntactically __________ and pragmatically ___________:
A: I would like a chocolate cookie.
B: Sorry, I didn't catch it. You want some chocolate or a cookie?
A: I want A CHOCOLATE COOKIE!
B: What a pity! There's none. Would you like something else?