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NON-FI NI TE PHRASES - PRACTI CAL CLASSES 9



I What is the structural difference between the nominal and verbal types of the gerund phrase?
Exemplify!
I I What function does the PP ('of') phrase perform in the following constructions?
- the crying of the baby - the smoking of cigarettes
I I I What are the verbal characteristics of the gerund phrase?
I V What time does the neutral form of the gerund indicate? Exemplify!
V What happens to the original subject after the derivation of the simple sentence into the gerund
phrase? Give at least two examples!
VI What is the structural difference between the following constructions:
o She doesnt like them interfering in our business.
o She doesnt like interfering in our business.

VI I I n which forms can the object of the gerund phrase appear? Exemplify each of them!
VI I I What happens to adverbs after the derivation of the gerund phrase from the simple sentence?
Exemplify.
I X I n which cases is the negative adjective no used instead of the adverb not in the gerund phrase?
Exemplify!
X Why is this sentence incorrect? John repairing the lamp was a surprise.
XI Complete the sentences, using gerunds:
Example: I wish youd do something to help, instead of...
I wish youd do something to help, instead of just STANDING there.
1. The Government was unable to make any promises about ...
2. There are many difficulties involved in ...
3. You must be tired of ...
4. The boy was severely reprimanded for ...
5. The public were warned of the dangers of ...
6. He doesnt take any interest in ...
7. You seem to be very fond of ...
8. The soldier was court-martialled for ...
9. Miners are always warned against ...
10. Who is responsible for ...
11. The answer to the housing problem seems to lie in ...
12. You ought to think about ..................................., instead of ...
13. This new scheme goes a long way towards ...
14. I would never think of ...
15. They saw no reason for not ...
16. Far from ............................., this agreement will help in ...

XI I Make a gerund or gerund phrase from the first sentence. Put that gerund in the second
sentence. The gerund replaces it, this, that, these, and those in the second sentence.
1. I watch airplanes take off. It is very relaxing.
2. John got hit by the ball. That sent John to the hospital.
3. You should brush your teeth twice daily. This is what all dentists recommend.
4. Franklin was warned about drinking and driving. It forced him to be much more careful on the
highway.
5. She wants to be a journalist. It is her dream.
6. You have to take the TOEFL. It is the only way to get into that college.
7. We have studied Spanish. This helped us on our trip to Barcelona.
8. Tom Lee took lots of biology classes. Those helped him in medical school.
9. The boys always get in trouble. That isn't any fun.
10. People cry. That can make your whole face red.
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XI I I For each of these sentences write another sentence as similar as possible in meaning, using the verb
in brackets together with a preposition and a gerund.
E.g. You should put most effort into improving your pronunciation. (concentrate)
You should concentrate on improving your pronunciation.
1. The customer said that the cashier had tried to overcharge her. (accuse)
2. Many people pass their driving test only at the second attempt. (succeed)
3. Concert-goers are asked not to smoke in the auditorium. (refrain)
4. The solicitor talked his client out of taking legal action. (dissuade)
5. If a customer gets poor service, you can't say it's wrong of him to make a fuss. (blame)
6. The hijackers wouldn't let the passengers leave the plane. (prevent)
7. The student said he was sorry that he had missed the previous lesson. (apologize)
8. Visitors to the zoo are not allowed to feed the animals. (prohibit)
9. Despite my obvious lack of interest, the party bore said he had to tell me the rest of his story. (insist)
10. The police think that the owner of the store started the fire himself. (suspect)

XI V Complete the sentences, using the gerund of a suitable verb. To functions as a preposition in
every case. Note that the perfect form is required in some sentences:

1. The Prime Minister said he was looking forward to ............................. the U.S. President.
2. He should be accustomed by now to .......................... English food.
3. The policemen couldnt swear to .................... the accused man at the scene of the crime.
4. Do you think your father would object to .......................... me some money.
5. He said he wasnt used to ...................... in public.
6. Having almost run out of money, we were reduced to ...................... in cheap hotel.
7. He tried to limit himself to ...................... ten cigarettes a day.
8. Manufacturers were asked to devote all their energies to ................... exports.
9. Theres one thing I dislike about him: he will never admit to ............. a mistake.
10. We shant be going. My wife doesnt feel up to ..................... so far.
11. The committee could see no alternative to ...................... the plan in its original form.
12. The Government set up a Prices and Incomes Board with a view to ................. both price rises and wage
demands.

XV Decide whether to is functioning as a preposition or as a part of an infinitive, and then complete the
sentences with the gerund or the infinitive of the verbs in brackets:

1. The speaker said he would confine himself to (try) ............ to (answer) .............. four questions.
2. By selling council houses, we were able to devote more money to (build) ............. fresh properties.
3. Restraining home demands is the key to (increase) .................. our exports.
4. The idea of a road pricing system a tax on road usage- is moving rapidly nearer to (become) ................
a reality.
5. Having suggested the scheme myself, I now feel committed to (try) ........... to (make) .................. it
work.
6. I think that is what he said, but I cant swear to (have) ................ heard him correctly.
7. He used to (dislike) .................. London, but he now seems resigned to (live) ........... there.
8. Jones came very close to (win) .................... a gold medal for Britain in the Olympics.
9. It might be better to (try) .............. to (discuss) ............... it in his own language, as he isnt used to
(speak) ............... English.
10. Most educationalists agree that no teachers duties should be limited solely to (teach) .................
11. Unreliable delivery dates are one of the most important obstacles to (increase) ..................... our exports.
12. Since the introduction of new services, many businessmen have taken to (travel) ....................... by train
for journeys between 100-200 miles.

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XVI Replace the words in italics by a gerund construction. The object or possessive form of a pronoun or
noun will be required before the gerund in some cases:


1. He didnt even acknowledge that he had received the invitation.
2. The witness reported that he had seen a dark saloon car parked outside the bank at the time of the
robbery.
3. The accused admitted that he had received the stolen goods.
4. The headmaster suggested that I should try the examination again the following year.
5. I dont recollect that I actually promised to help you.
6. A group of MPs has advocated that the Government should set up a special commission of inquiry.
7. Do you anticipate that there will be any real problem in getting support?
8. Surely he wont deny that he was there on that occasion?
9. No one doubted that he was sincere in his beliefs.
10. I cant imagine that he would ever agree to such a proposition.


XVI I I nsert gerund or infinitive:
1. For most people in the 21st Century, it's hard to imagine ______ without television. (live)
2. If you have difficulty ______ all the questions on this page, you need to revise gerunds and
infinitives again. (complete)
3. Because it was very cold in Classroom G, our teacher let us _____ coffee or hot chocolate into the
room. (bring)
4. I'm so forgetful. I keep leaving my house without _______ to lock the front door. (remember)
5. Our street isn't wide enough ______ a forty-seat bus along it. (drive)
6. We could go to the Indian restaurant tonight but I'd rather ____ in the Italian place on Park Street.
(eat)
7. The undercover police officer pretended __ to his MP3 player but really he was listening to the three
men's conversation. (listen)
8. Every time I saw the film Titanic, it made me ___ my eyes out. (cry)
9. It's no use ____ in your assignment after the deadline. It has to be submitted before noon on Friday.
(hand)
10. If a policeman stops you for driving on the wrong side of the road I suggest pretending _____ what
he is saying. (not/ understand)
11. You really should make an effort ____ to the Halloween Party next week. It could be your last
chance to hear the teacher singing. (come)
12. _____ on a mobile while you are driving a car is illegal and can result in you losing your driving
license. (speak)