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I.

MEANING,PURPOSE,ANDCREATIONOFPUBLICOFFICE
PublicOffice
theright,authority,anddutycreatedandconferredbylaw,bywhichforagivenperiod,eitherfixed
bylaworenduringatthepleasureoftheappointingpower,anindividualisinvestedwithsomeportionofthe
sovereignfunctionsofthegovernment,tobeexercisedbyhimforthebenefitofthepublic.
PurposesofPublicOffice:
Effectingtheendforwhichgovernmenthasbeeninstitutedwhichisthecommongoodandnotfor
theprofit,honor,orprivateinterestofanyperson,family,orclassofpersons.
Createdintheinterestandbenefitofthepeople,andbelongstothem.
Publicofficeisapublictrust.
Publicofficeisnotaproperty.
Publicofficeisnotacontract.
Enumeratetheelementsofapublicoffice.
ItiscreatedbytheConstiorbylaworbysomeagencytowhichthepowertocreateofficehas
beendelegated.
ItmustbeinvestedwithanauthoritytoexercisesomeportionofthesovereignpoweroftheStateto
beexercisedforpublicinterest.
ItspowersandfunctionsaredefinedbytheConsti,orbylaw,orthrulegislativeauthority
Dutiesareperformedindependentlywithoutcontrolofasuperiorpowerotherthanlaw
Itiscontinuingandpermanentinnatureandnotoccasionalorintermittent
Howispublicofficecreated?
1. Generally,bysomeconstiorstatutoryprovisionorbyauthorityconferredbyit.
2. ByCongress.Itscreationisprimarilyalegislativefunction.
3. BythePresident.
II.MEANINGOFOFFICER,PUBLICOFFICER,EMPLOYEE/PUBLICOFFICIAL
Officer
inseparablyconnectedwithanoffice
personwhosedutiesinvolvestheexerciseofdiscretionintheperformanceofthefunctionsofthe
government
anygovernmentemployee,agent,orbodyhavingauthoritytodotheactorexercisethatfunction
PublicOfficer
onewhoholdsapublicoffice.Anofficerisrequiredbylawtobeelectedorappointed,whohasa
designationortitlegiventohimbylaw,andwhoexercisesfunctionsconcerningthepublic,assignedtohim
bylaw
Employee
anypersonintheserviceofthegovtoranyofitsagencies,divisions,subdivisions,or
instrumentalities
PublicOfficial
anofficeroftheGovernmentitself,asdistinguishedfromtheofficersandemployeesof
instrumentalitiesoftheGovernment.
III.MEANINGOFELIGIBILITYANDQUALIFICATION
Eligibility
stateorqualityofbeinglegallyfittedorqualifiedtobechosen.Eligibilitytoapublicofficeisofa
continuingnatureandmustexistbothatthecommencementandduringtheoccupancyofanoffice.
Qualification
endowmentoraccomplishmentthatfitsoneforoffice
theactwhichaperson,beforeenteringupontheperformanceofhisduties,isbylaw,requiredto
do.
Natureofrighttoholdpublicoffice
1. Notanaturalright.Itexistsonlybecauseandbyvirtueofsomelawexpresslyorimpliedlycreating
andconferringit.
Toholdapublicoffice,onemustbeeligibleandpossessthequalificationsprescribedbytheConsti
andbylaw.
2. Notaconstitutionalright.Thereisnoconstitutionalrighttorunforofficeorholdelectedoffice.
Rather,itisapoliticalprivilegewhichdependsuponthefavorofthepeople.
PowerofCongresstoPRESCRIBEQUALIFICATIONSandDISQUALIFICATIONS
Congressisgenerallyempoweredtoprescribethequalificationsforholdingpublicofficeprovideditdoes
notexceedtherebyitsconstipowersorimposeconditionsofeligibilityinconsistentwithconstiprovisions.
OfficecreatedbyCongressandthatbodycandealwiththesubjectofqualificationanddisqualification.
OfficecreatedbytheConsti.Theconsticriteriaareexclusive.
QualificationsprescribedbytheConsti.Suchisnotinconsistentwiththeexecpowerofappointmentto
office.

Absentconstiinhibition,Congresshasthesamerighttoprovidedisqualifications,Congresshasthesame
righttoprovidedisqualificationsthatithastoprovidequalificationsforoffice.
BUT
CongressmaynotadddisqualificationswheretheConstihasprovidedtheminsuchawaytoindicatean
intentionthatthedisqualificationsprovidedshallembraceallthataretobepermitted.
IV.MODESOFCOMMENCINGOFFICIALRELATIONS
Themannerofselectingpersonsforpublicofficeisgenerallybyelectionorappointment.
Appointment
actofdesignationbytheexecofficer,board,orbodytowhomthatpowerhasbeendelegated,of
theindividualwhoistoexercisethepowersandfunctionsofagivenoffice.
equivalenttofillingavacancyinanoffice
*Powerofappointmentmaybeabsoluteorconditional.
*Appointmenttoapublicofficenecessarilyprecedesacceptancebytheappointeeandisaccordingly
distinctfromit.
*Formofacceptancemaybeexpress(verballyorwriting)orimplied.
*Anappointmenttoofficeisfinalandcompletewhenthelastactofappointingauthorityhasbeen
accomplished.Atthisstageofcompletion,theappointmentcannotbereconsideredandrevoked.
AppointmentsbythePresident
ThePresidentisauthorizedtoappointthefollowing:
Headsofexecdepts,ambassadorsandotherpublicministersandconsuls,
officersofthearmedforces
Allotherofficerswhoseappointmentsarenototherwiseprovidedbylaw
HeadsofGOCCs,undersecretaries,headsofbureausandoffices,otherofficials
Otherofficerslowerinrank
KindsofPresidentialAppointments
regularthosemadewhileCongressisinsession
adinterimCongressisnotinsession
permanentlastsuntillawfullyterminated
temporaryoractinglastsuntilapermanentappointmentisissued
AppointmentsintheCivilService
TheCivilServiceundertheConstiembracesallbranches,subdivisions,instrumentalities,andagenciesof
theGovernment,includingGOCCswithoriginalcharter.
ClassificationofpositionsintheCivilService
CareerService
NonCareerService
WhatarethethreemajorlevelsintheCareerService?
1. Firstlevel:clerical,trades,crafts,custodialservicepositions
2. Secondlevel:professional,technical,scientificpositions
3. Thirdlevel:positionsintheCareerExecutiveService
ConstitutionalClassification:
COMPETITIVE:appointmentsaremadeaccordingtomeritandfitnesstobedetermined
NONCOMPETITIVE:positionsaspolicydetermining,primarilyconfidential,orhighlytechnicalin
nature
Vacancy
officeisemptyandwithoutalegallyqualifiedincumbentappointedorelectedtoitwithalawful
righttoexerciseitspowersandperformitsduties.
*Therecanbenoappointmenttoanonvacantposition.
Enumerateclassificationofvacancy.
Original.Officeiscreatedandnoonehasbeenappointedtofillit.
Constructive.Incumbenthasnolegalrightorclaimtocontinueinoffice
Accidental.Incumbenthavingdied,resigned,orremoved,nooneisinessedischargingtheoffice
Absolute.Termofanincumbenthavingexpired.
QualifyingtoOffice.
Qualificationconsistsofthetaking,andoftenofsubscribingandfilingofanofficialoath,andinsomecases,
ofthegivingofanofficialbond,ifany,requiredbylaw.
Failureorneglecttoqualifyatall=evidenceofarefusaloftheoffice
DeFactoDoctrine
Principlewhichholdsthatapersonwhobytheproperauthorityisadmittedandswornintoofficeisdeemed
toberightfullyinsuchofficeuntil,byjudicialdeclarationinaproperproceeding,heisoustedtherefromor
hisadmissiontheretoisdeclaredvoid.
DeFactoOfficer
Onewhohasthereputationofbeingtheofficerheassumedtobeandyetisnotagoodofficerinpointof
law.
Heiswithoutaknownappointmentorelection.Heisundercolorofaknownandvalidappointmentor
electionbutfailedtoconformtosomerequirements.Heisundercolorofaknownelectionorappointment,
voidbecausetheofficerwanoteligible.Heisundercolorofanelectionoranappointmentbyorpursuantto
apublic,unconstitutionallaw.
DeJureOfficer
Onewhohasthelawfulrighttotheofficeinallrespectsbutwhohaseitherbeenoustedfromit,orwhohas
neveractuallytakenpossessionofit.
Requirementstobecomeofficerdejure
Possesslegalqualificationsfortheofficeinquestions
Lawfullychosentosuchoffice
Havequalifiedhimselftoperformtheduties
DEJURE DEFACTO
Restsontheright Restsonreputation
Haslawfulrightortitletotheoffice Hasthepossessionandperformsthedutiesunder
colorofright
Cannotberemovedinadirectproceeding Maybeoustedinadirectproceedingagainsthim
V.POWERS,DUTIES,ANDNORMSOFCONDUCT
Authorityofpublicofficerisnotpresumed.
Scopeofpowerofapublicofficer:
1. Expresslyconferreduponhimbythelawunderwhichhehasbeenappointedorelected
2. Expresslyannexedtotheofficebythelawwhichcreateditorsomeotherlawreferringtoit
3. Attachedtotheofficeasincidentstoit
Classificationofpowersandduties:MINISTERIALANDDISCRETIONARY
Ministerial
Itisabsolute,certain,andimperativeinvolvingmerelyexecutionofaspecificdutyarisingfromfixed
anddesignatedfacts.
Onewhichapersonperformsonagivenstatementoffactsandinaprescribedmannerin
obediencetothemandateoflegalauthoritywithoutregardtoortheexerciseofhisownjudgmentuponthe
proprietyorimproprietyoftheactdone.
Discretionary
Orjudicialdutiesrequiretheexerciseofreasonintheadaptationofmeanstoanendanddiscretion
indetermininghoworwhethertheactshallbedoneofthecoursepursued.
Ariseswhentheactmaybeperformedinoneortwoormoreways,eitherofwhichwouldbelawful
andwhereitislefttothewillofjudgmentoftheperformertodetermineinwhichwayitwillbeperformed.
*Anactisnotdiscretionaryifitinvolvesenforcementoradministrationofamandatorydutyatthe
operationallevel,evenifprofessionalexpertevaluationisrequired.
*Aministerialactisoneastowhichnothingislefttothediscretionofthepersonwhomustperform.
Judicialreviewofofficialacts
Whereactinvolvesexerciseofdiscretionarypower.Judiciarywillnotinterferewiththeexecutive
officersintheperformanceofdutieswhicharediscretionaryintheirnature.
Whereactinvolvesperformanceofpurelyministerialduty.
Whereactrevieweddonewithoutjurisdiction.
Normsofconductofpublicofficialsandemployees
1. Publicofficeisapublictrust
2. Standardsofpersonalconduct.TheCodeofConductandEthicalStandardsforPublicOfficialsand
EmployeesdeclaresthepolicyoftheStatetopromoteahighstandardofethicsinthepublic
service.
GeneralDutiesofpublicofficersastrusteesforthepublic
Obeythelaw
Acceptandcontinueintheoffice
Acceptburdenofoffice
Dutyastodiligenceandcare
Dutiesinchoiceandsupervisionofsubordinate
EthicalDutiesofpublicofficersastrusteesforthepublic
Refrainfromoutsideactivities
Maynotusehisofficialpowertofurtherhisowninterest
*Apublicofficeralsohasthedutytomakefinancialdisclosure.
SpecificDutiesofpublicofficialsandemployees:
Actpromptlyonlettersandrequests
Submitannualperformancereports
Processdocumentsandpapersexpeditiously
Actimmediatelyonthepublicspersonaltransactions
Makedocumentsaccessibletothepublic
VI.RIGHTSANDPRIVILEGESOFPUBLICOFFICERS
Maternity,Paternity,VacationandSickLeaves
Deathanddisabilitybenefitsforpoliceforcesandagencies
Compensationvs.Salaryvs.PerDiem
COMPENSATION SALARY PERDIEM
Payfordoingallthatmaybe
requiredoftheofficial
Personalcompensationtobe
paidtohimforhisservices
generallyafixedannualor
periodicalpaymentdependingon
thetimeandnotontheamount
ofserviceshemayrender
Merelyoneformofcompensation
grantedtopublicofficers,which
isfixednotasordinarilybyyear
orbythemonthbutbytheday
Giventoofficersofhigherdegree
ofemployment
OtherRights:
RightsundertheConstitution
RightsundertheCivilServiceDecreeandtheNewAdministrativeCode
RightsundertheRevisedGSIAct
RightsUndertheConstitution
Righttoselforganization.Therighttoformunions.
Righttoprotectionoftemporaryemployees.Thisistopreventindiscriminatedismissalsof
temporaryemployees.
FreedomofCongressfromarrestandfrombeingquestioned
Therightnottoberemovedorsuspendedexceptforcauseprovidedbylaw
RightsundertheCivilServiceDecreeandthenewAdministrativeCode
Righttopreferenceinpromotion.Nextinrankrulenotamandatoryrequirement.Buttheperson
nextinrankisentitledtopreferenceinappointment.
Righttopresentcomplaintsandgrievances.
Rightnottobesuspendedordismissedexceptforcauseasprovidedbylawandafterdueprocess
Righttoorganize
RightsundertheRevisedGovernmentServiceInsuranceAct
RetirementBenefits
SeparationBenefits
Unemploymentorinvoluntaryseparationbenefits
Disabilitybenefits
SurvivorshipBenefits
FuneralBenefits
LifeInsuranceBenefits
*Pensionregularallowancespaidtoanindividualorgroupofindividualsbythegovernmentinconsideration
ofservicesrendered,orinrecognitionofmerit,civil,ormilitary.
*GratuityadonationandanactofpureliberalityonthepartoftheState.
VII.DISABILITIESANDINHIBITIONS
UndertheConstitution:
DisabilitiesofPresident,VP,MembersoftheCabinet,theirDeputiesandAssistants:
Shallnothold,unlessotherwiseprovided,anyotherofficeoremployment
Shallnotpracticeanyotherprofession
Shallnotparticipate,directlyorindirectly,inanybusiness
Shallnotbefinanciallyinterestedinanycontractwithorinanyfranchiseorspecialprivilegegranted
bythegovtoranysubdivisionetc.
Shallstrictlyavoidconflictofinterestintheconductoftheiroffice
DisabilitiesofMembersofCongress
NoonemayholdanyotherofficeoremploymentintheGovernment,etcduringhistermwithout
forfeitinghisseat
Nooneshallbeappointedtoanyofficewhichmayhavebeencreatedortheemolumentsthereof
increasedduringthetermforwhichhewaselected
NoonemaypersonallyappearascounselbeforeanycourtofjusticeorbeforetheElectoral
Tribunalsorquasijudicialandotheradminbodies
Nooneshallbeinterestedfinanciallyinanycontractwithorinanyfranchiseorspecialprivilege
grantedbytheGovernment,etc
Nooneshallinterveneinanycauseormatterbeforeanyofficeofthegovtforhispecuniarybenefit
orwherehemaybecalledupontoactonaccountofhisofficeortogivehisvoteasamemberof
Congress
Disqualificationstoholdanyotherofficeoremploymentinthegovernment
1. IncompatibleOffice
includesanykindofofficeoremploymentinthegovernmentduringhisterm.
includesanypositionintheGovernmentoutsideofCongress
2. ForbiddenOffice
referstoanyofficecreatedortheemolumentsofwhichhavebeenincreasedduringthe
termforwhichhewaselected,notmerelyduringhistenureorperiodofactualincumbency.
DisabilitiesofmembersofConstitutionalCommissions
Nomembershallduringhistenureholdanyotherofficeoremployment
Nomembershallengageinthepracticeofanyprofessionorintheactivemanagementorcontrolof
anybusinesswhichinanywaymaybeaffectedbythefunctionsofhisoffice
Nomembershallbefinanciallyinterestedinanycontractwithorinanyfranchiseorprivilege
grantedbytheGovernment
Prohibitionagainstengaginginpartisanpoliticalactivities
Noofficeroremployeeinthecivilserviceshallengageinanyelectioneeringorpartisanpolitical
campaign
Armedforcesshallbeinsulatedfrompartisanpolitics
Nomemberofthemilitaryshallengageinanypartisanpoliticalactivityexcepttovote
Prohibitionagainstappointmentofelectiveofficials
Noelectiveofficialshallbeeligibleforappointmentordesignationinanycapacitytoanypublic
officeorpositionduringhistenure.
UnderCivilServiceDecree
Politicalactivity.Noofficeroremployeeshallengageinanypartisanpoliticalactivityortakepartinany
electionexcepttovotenorshallheusehisofficialauthorityorinfluencetocoercethepoliticalactivityofany
otherpersonorbody.
Additionalordoublecompensation.Noelectiveorappointivepublicofficeroremployeesshallreceive
additionalordoublecompensationunlessspecificallyauthorizedbylawnoracceptwithouttheconsentof
thePresidentanypresent,emolument,officeortitleofanykindfromanyforeignstate.
Detailorreassignment.Nodetailorreassignmentshallbemadewithin3monthsbeforeanyelection.
Nepotism.Allappointmentsmadeinfavorofarelativeoftheappointingorrecommendingauthorityare
prohibited.
UnderLocalGovernmentCode
Prohibitedbusinessandpecuniaryinterest.Itshallbeunlawfulforanylocalgovtofficialoremployeeto
engageinanybusinesswiththelguinwhichheisanofficialoremployeeoroverwhichhehasthe
powerofsupervision
holdsuchinterestsinanycockpitorothergameslicensedbyalgu
purchaseanyrealestateorotherpropertyforfeitedinfavorofsuchlguforunpaidtaxesor
assessment
beasuretyforanypersoncontractingordoingbusinesswiththelguforwhichasuretyisrequired
allotherprohibitionsgoverningtheconductofnationalpublicofficersrelatingtoprohibitedbusiness
andpecuniaryinterest
PracticeofProfession
Allgovernors,cityandmunicipalmayorsareprohibitedfrompracticingtheirprofessionsorengaging
inanyoccupationotherthantheexerciseoftheirfunctionsaslocalchiefexecutives
Sanggunianmembersmaypracticetheirprofessionorteachinschoolsexceptduringsession
hours.ButSMwhoarealsomembersofthebarshallnotappearascounselbeforeanycourtinany
civilcasewhereinalguistheadversepartyappearascounselinanycriminalcasewhereinan
officeroremployeeofthenationalorlgisaccusedofanoffensecommittedinrelationtohisoffice
collectanyfeefortheirappearanceinadministrativeproceedingsinvolvingthelguwhichheisan
official,andusepropertyandpersonneloftheGovtexceptwhenthesmconcernedisdefendingthe
interestofthegovernment.
Doctorsofmedicinemaypracticetheirprofessionevenduringofficialhoursofworkonlyon
occasionsofemergency,providedthereisnomonetarycompensation
PartisanPoliticalActivity
NolocalofficialoremployeeshallengageinanyPPAortakeartinanyelection,initiative,
referendum,plebiscite,orrecallexcepttovote.
AntiGraftandCorruptPracticesAct
Theff.constitutecorruptpracticesofanypublicofficerandallaredeclaredtobeunlawful:
InfluenceanotherPOtoperformanactconstitutingaviolationofthelawfulrulesorregulationsoran
offenseinconnectionwiththeofficialdutiesorallowinghimselftobeinfluencedtocommitsuch
violationoroffense
Requestorreceiveanygiftorbenefitinconnectionwithanycontractortransactionbet.thegovt
andanyotherpartywherethePOinhisofficialcapacityhastointerveneunderthelaw
Causeanyundueinjurytoanypartyinthedischargeofhisofficialfunctions
Enteronbehalfofthegovtintoanycontractortransactionmanifestlyandgrosslydisadvantageous
tothesame
Havingfinancialorpecuniaryinterestinanybusiness,contractortransactioninwhichheis
prohibitedbytheConstiorlawfromhavinganyinterest
Becominginterestedforpersonalgainorhavingmaterialinterestinanytransactionrequiringthe
approvalofaboardorcommitteeofwhichheisamember
Approvingorgrantinganylicense,permit,privilege,orbenefitinfavorofanypersonknowntohimto
benotqualifiedfororlegallyentitledtosuchlicense
VIII.LIABILITIESOFPUBLICOFFICERS
DOCTRINEOFOFFICIALIMMUNITYFROM
LIABILITIES
STATEOFIMMUNITY
Protectsthepublicofficialintheperformanceofhis
governmentfunction
Protectsthesovereign
Servesasaprotectiveaegisforpublicofficialfrom Servestoprotecttheimpersonalbodypoliticor
tortliabilityfordamagesarisingfromdiscretionary
actsorfunctionsintheperformanceoftheirofficial
duties
governmentitselffromtortliability
*Intheperformanceofgovernmentalfunction,theStateisnotboundbythemistake,neglect,or
wrongdoingofitsagentsandofficers.
*Officialimmunityisnotabsolute.
Threefoldresponsibilityofpublicofficers
APOisundera3foldresponsibilityforviolationofdutyforwrongfulactoromission.
1. Iftheindividualisdamagedbysuchviolation,theofficialshallbeheldliablecivillytoreimburse
theinjuredparty.
2. Ifthelawhasattachedapenalaction,theofficermaybepunishedcriminally.
3. Iftheadministrationsdisciplinarypowerisstrong,suchviolationmayleadtoimpositionoffine,
reprimand,suspension,orremovalfromofficeasthecasemaybe.
Thus,theliabilityofaPOmaybecivil,criminal,and/oradministrative.
ADMINISTRATIVELIABILITY CRIMINALLIABILITY
Purposeistoprotectthepublicservicesbasedon
thetimehonoredprinciplethatapublicofficeisa
publictrust.
Purposeisthepunishmentofcrime
TheactsoromissionsofaPOmayconstituteoneandatthesametimeaviolationofthecriminallaw
andanadministrativeoffense.
Aprosecutioninoneisnotabartotheother.
ThefacttheaPOhasalreadybeenpenalizedforhiswrongfulactoromissionwillnotbarhis
convictionunderthegeneralpenallaws.
Dismissalofacriminalcaseonthegroundofinsufficiencyofevidencedoesnotforecloseadminaction
againstanerringPO.
Dismissalofanadmincomplaintdoesnotbarthefilingofacriminalinfoforthesameacts.No
doublejeopoardy.
Findingofguiltinthecriminalcasenotnecessarilyresultinfindingliabilityintheadmincase.
Findingofcivilliabilitywillnotnecessarilyleadtoasimilarfindingintheadminaction.
Conceptofprejudicialquestiononlyinvolvesacivilandcriminalcase,notadministrativeandtheother
iscivilorcriminal.
LiabilityofSuperiorOfficerforActsofSubordinates
GeneralRule:
Publicofficersofthegovernmentintheirperformanceoftheirpublicfunctionsarenotcivillyliabletothird
persons.
Exceptions:
Wherebeingchargedwithdutyofemployingorretaininghissubordinates,henegligentlyorwillfully
employsorretainsunfitorimproperpersons
Henegligentlyorwillfullyfailstorequiresubordinatestorequirethemthedueconformitytothe
prescribedregulations
Hesocarelesslyornegligentlyoversees,conducts,orcarriesonthebusinessofhisofficeto
furnishtheopportunityforthedefault
Hehasdirected,authorized,orcooperatedinthewrong
Liabilityisexpresslyprovidedinthestatute
OtherExceptions:
Misconductiswithinthescopeoftheemploymentofthoseemployed
UndertheAdminCodeof1987,aPOshallbecivillyliableforactsdoneintheperformanceofhis
officialdutieswherethereisbadfaith,malice,grossnegligence,orneglect
LiabilityforTortiousActs
Actswithinscopeofofficialauthority.APOisnotpersonallyliabletooneinjured.
Actsdonewithoutorinexcessofofficialauthority.POsandemployeesofastatearenotimmune
fromsuitfortheirowntortiousconductevencommittedinthecourseoftheiremployment.
LiabilitiesUndertheCivilCode
Failureorneglecttoperformofficialduty
Violatingrightsandlibertiesofprivateindividuals
Failuretorenderaidorprotectiontoaperson
LiabilityonContractsexecutedinbehalfofthegovernment
GeneralRule:
POactingwithinthescopeofhisauthorityandinhisofficialcapacityisnotpersonallyliable
Exception:
Whenonewhoexecutesanunambiguouspersonalundertakingwhichmakesnomentionofthepublic
agencyheservesordoesnotindicatethatitisexecutedinanofficialcapacity
Liabilityofaccountableofficerstothegovernment
1. Bondrequirement
2. Primaryandsecondaryresponsibility
3. Generalliabilityforunlawfulexpenditures
4. Measureofliabilityofaccountableofficers
CriminalLiabilityofaPublicOfficer
NoPOisabovethelawallmaybepunishedforcriminalacts
ButPOsmaynotbeheldcriminallyliableforfailuretoperformadutycommandedbylaw
when,forcausesbeyondtheircontrol,performanceisimpossible.
Themereexpirationofhistermorofficewillnotpreventtheprosecutionandpunishmentof
aPOformisdemeanorcommittedinofficenorthereelectionofaPOextinguishesthecriminalliability
incurredbyhimduringhisprevioustermofoffice.
IX.TERMINATIONOFOFFICIALRELATIONS
ModesofTermination:NATURALCAUSES
1. ExpirationofTermortenureofoffice
2. Agelimit(Retirement)
3. Deathorpermanentdisability
ModesofTermination:ACTSORNEGLECT
1. Resignationformalrenunciationorrelinquishmentofapublicoffice
2. Acceptanceofanincompatibleoffice
3. Abandonmentofoffice
4. Prescriptionofrighttooffice
ModesofTermination:ACTSOFTHEGOVERNMENTORTHEPEOPLE
1. Removal
2. Impeachment
3. AbolitionofOffice
4. ConvictionofaCrime
5. Recall
Resignation:FORM
Whenrequiredtobeinanyparticularform,thatformmustbesubstantiallycompliedwith.
Whennosuchformisprescribed,resignationmaybemadebyanymethod.Itneednotbein
writingunlessrequiredbylaw.Itmaybeoralorimpliedbyconduct.
Resignation:NecessityofAcceptance
AnyPOwhobeforetheacceptanceofhisresignationshallabandonhisofficetothedetrimentof
thepublicserviceshallsufferthepenaltyofarrestomayor.
APOCANNOTABANDONHISOFFICEBEFOREHISRESIGNATIONISACCEPTED.
Withoutacceptancebytheproperauthority,thetenderoroffertoresignisrevocableunless
otherwiseprovided.
Resignation:FORMofACCEPTANCE
Eitherbyaformaldeclarationorbytheappointmentofasuccessor
Resignation:Withdrawal
Animmediatelyeffectiveresignationmaybewithdrawnbeforeitisactedupon,butnotafter
acceptance.
Effectiveatafuturedate,maynotbewithdrawnaftertheresignationhasbeenaccepted
ButaPOmaywithdrawsuchifhedoessobeforeitseffectivedateandbeforeacceptedandbefore
theappointingpoweractsinrelianceontheresignation.
Resignation:Repudiation
Noteffectivealthoughasuccessorhasalreadybeenappointedifsaidresignationhasbeen
transmittedw/otheofficersconsent
ResignationofaPOprocuredbyfraudorbyduressisvoidableandmayberepudiated
ResignationgivenasanalternativetohavechargesfiledagainstthePOmayberepudiated
AcceptanceofanincompatibleorprohibitedofficeExceptions:
Theofficercannotvacatethefirstofficebyhisownact
Thefirstofficeisheldunderadifferentgovernmentfromthatwhichconferredthesecond
Officerisexpresslyauthorizedbylawtoacceptanotheroffice
Secondofficeistemporary
ABANDONMENT RESIGNATION
Relinquishmentthroughnonuse Formalrelinquishment
Thereisabandonmentofofficewhen:
Clearintentiontoabandonit
Acceptanceofanotheroffice
Concurrenceofovertactsandintention
Failuretodischargedutiesofofficeortoclaimorresumeit
Acquiescencebytheofficer
Removal
ousterofanincumbentbeforetheexpirationofhisterm
dismissal
Whatconstitutesremoval
Appointmentofanotherofficer
Transfertoanotheroffice
Demotion
Reassignment