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Conclusion

CHAPETER 5

CONCLUSION
Inorganic nano particles were synthesized by matrix mediated growth technique,

which is also known as in-situ deposition technique. It is observed that with

increasing molar ratio of PEG, nano size reduces. XRD peaks become broader

which is major indication of reduction in nano size. The broadening of peak may

be due to vigorous mixing at molecular level.

PA nanocomposites of filled with different nano sizes of CaCO 3, CaSO4,

Ca3(PO4)2 and Mg(OH)2 were prepared on Twin Screw Extruder and specimen

preparation was done on Injection Molding Machine. Sizes of nano CaCO 3,

CaSO4, Ca3(PO4)2 and Mg(OH)2 were calculated by XRD and confirmed by TEM,

the particle size was calculated using Scherer’s formula. Amount of filler added is

very less in PA i. e. (1 to 4 wt %) shows drastic improvement in mechanical and

Thermal properties, than commercial inorganic filled PA. Reduction in nanosize

gives more enhancements in properties due to uniform dispersion of nano

particles into PA matrix that inter relates among the polymer chains and

increases degree of chain linking capacity of matrix during compounding, which

transfer the heat uniformly throughout the matrix.

The nanoparticles mixed in PA composites give higher intercalation with increase

in filler content. Intercalation was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer. Absence of

peak is major indication of exfoliation, while presence of peak shows intercalation

phenomenon. The DSC results showed that nano size addition leads to

increment in glass transition temperature of PA. This increment in Tg was due to

Ph.D Thesis, Mr. Shriram S. Sonawane, UDCT, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon Page 140
Conclusion

the confinement of the polymer chains within the nano particles with restriction in

the mobility of polymer chains. Also thermal stability of PA nanocomposites

increases with increase in filler content.

Substantial improvements in mechanical, thermal and physical properties are

observed by addition of smaller amount of nano nanofillers, which is having

variety of structures. This improvement is due to the uniform dispersion of nano

particles in PA, which gets intercalated and exfoliated within the polymer chains.

Intercalation and agglomeration phenomenon have been confirmed using XRD

grams, which the evidence for improvement in properties.

Addition of Mg(OH)2 in PA shows enhancement in mechanical, thermal and

physical properties. Moreover improvement in flame retarding properties of PA

nanocomposite was significant. The improvement in flame retarding property was

more compared to other two sizes with commercial Mg(OH)2. This improvement

in flame retarding properties was due to uniform transfer of heat with uniform

dispersion of nano particles into the matrix. Moreover, Mg(OH)2 is an inorganic

flame retardant. When Mg(OH)2 is heated it decomposes to MgO with release of

water, and at the same time process was absorb a great deal of heat to lessen

the temperature on the surface of material.

The extent of reinforcement has been correlated with concentration of filler in

polymer. The addition of a small amount of organo-montmorillonite (1–4mass%)

showed enhanced properties like mechanical parameters,flammability, hardness

and rheological behavior due to uniform dispersion of OMMT in the polyamide

matrix. However, OMMT also acted as lubricating agent, which reduced the

Ph.D Thesis, Mr. Shriram S. Sonawane, UDCT, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon Page 141
Conclusion

torque and decreased viscosity along with increased elongation at break. Due to

OMMT, the processing of polyamide is very easy and OMMT provides a good

processing aid along with the role of the filler.

Ph.D Thesis, Mr. Shriram S. Sonawane, UDCT, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon Page 142