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locally. This, however, is somewhat more difficult to measure. It would be sufficient to
specify that nne out of, say, every ten joists or angles should be supplied 18 inches more
than the ordered length, the extra piece cut off, and two strips cut from it (one from the
web, and one from the flange in the case of the joist) tested for tenacity and extension.
The limits fixed might be, according to circumstances, either 28 to 32 tons tenacity per
square inch, and 20 per cent, extension in 10 inches; or 38 to 42 tons tenacity and
12 per cent, extension. The tests are made by preference at the manufacturer's yard, in
the prest^nce of the inspector, doubtful or special cases being sent to some independent
testing machine. In cases of large orders not less than 2 per cent, of the number of
plates, &c., have to be tested in this way. {A. B. W. Kennedy.
2266c. To test a stanchion, or other cast iron work, especially if painted, it should be
examined carefully all over by a good-sized hammer, having a sharp point at one end, such
as a scaffolder's axe. Ply the point or edge of the hammer to any scaly-looking or white
spots, and follow iton. Some founders are clever at filling up faults with a soft metal, and
the deftcts are generally on the face that lies uppermost in the mould. One fault may be
found that would jeopardise the stability of a building. To test the same for strength can
only be done by a scientific apparatus now provided at many establishments for the purpose.
2266(f. Testing Stove. The weight necessary to crush a stone varies with the state of
cohesion and hardness of the particles composing it. (Pee par. 1600 et seq.) The full
particulars of the quarry and bed of each stone tested should be stated. It is almost
iisele.-s to experiment upon cubes of one inch, as was necessarily done before the powerful
machines of the present day were invented ; 4-inch or 6-ineh cubes are the least sizes,
especially where large shells appear. Mu-'h care and skill are also requisite in the manner
of testing. The cubes should all bo carefully dressed by rubbing down the faces, which
should be strictly parallel, perhaps made so in a steel frame. They should all be placed
on or against their natural bed. The Bath stones tested by Messrs Poole are stated to
have been placed between parallel iron plates, and the pressure communicated to the
cubes, having a sheet of lead at the top and bottom, and between the upper or movable
plate and the upper lead plate was a conic;il heap of fine sand, which was carefully pressed
by the upper plate, so as to ensure an equal pressure on every particle of the upper and
lower beds of the stone. Sometimes the stone is bedded with pieces of pine, from
|- to
inch thick. Leather has likewise been used {Builder, 1886, p.
/iOl); also mill-
board. Prof. Henry (of the American Association of Science, 1855) experimented on blocks
of l|-inch cube between thin plates of lead. It was found that while one of these C4ibes
would sustain 30,000 lbs., it would sustain 60,000 Us. without the lead plates. When
the blocks were rendered perfectly parallel by a machine, the marble chosen for the
Capitol, from a quarry at Lee, Massachusetts, would sustain about 25,000 lbs. to the
square inch. Barlow states ihat the crushing strength of Porthmd stone ranges from
about 1,384 lbs. to 4.000 lbs. per square inch; the Institute experiments give 2,576 lbs.
for 2-inch cubes, 4,099 lbs. for 4-inch cubes, and 4,300 lbs. for 6-inch cubes, pr >ving the
advantage of testing large sizes. Eennie gives 3,729 lbs., followed by Molesworth
while Hur.st gives 2,022 lbs.
2266e. Testing cement has been described in par. 1864e. The machines commonly used
are those by Mr. Adie and Mr. Michele {Builder, xlviii.
p. 283) ; by the former,
briquettes of
inch square can be tested. Reid and Bailey's is described in Builder,
1877, XXXV.
p. 1015; Arnold's in Builder for October 22, 1887, p.
2266/. The hydraulic press is generally used for testing. This is a closed vessel, with
its upper surface level, completely filled with water; two openings are made in it,
which are replaced by pistons of areas 1 and 10 square inches. If a weight of 1 lb. be
placed on the smaller piston, a pressure of 1 lb. will be felt everywhere in the interior of
the fluid, and the pressure on the larger piston will be 10 lbs. Thus a force of 1 lb. acting
on the area 1 square inch, produces a pressure of 10 lbs. on the area 10 square inches.
2266^. Messrs. W. H. Bailey & Co., of Salford, manufacture testing machines, as
Thurston's for torsion
Bramah's hydraulic, for cement, tensile, crushing and transverse,
and for yarn and oil ; testers for tensile, torsion, and compression, and other purposes,
as paper, wire, cloth, &c. ; also test pumps for steam boilers, kitchen boilers, high
pressure, gas fittings, water works, &c. ; Professor Tiiurston's patent testers for materials
of construction
; and Tangye's patent hydraulic boiler prover. There are many well-
known American testing machines.
The fallowing persons and institutions have set up testing machinery for public use or
for instruction :

2266A. B. Kirkaldy, established 1866, for testing and experimenting on the strength
of various kinds of metals and their alloys, stones, artificial stones, bricks, concretes,
cements, timbers, &c. The powerful machinery is adapted for any kind of strain

namely, pulling, crushing, thrusting, bending, twisting, shearing, punching, bulging, and
buckling, from 10 lbs. to 1,000,000 lbs. To entire manufactured articles, and timbers of
full size, any amount of proof strain desired can be applied, or their ultimate breaking