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Every job running on the i5/OS operating system has a library list, which tells the operating system

where
to locate system objects that the user is requesting.
The Elements of a Library List
Library lists on the i5/OS and OS/400 operating systems consist of the following four components that, when grouped
together, define a job's library list.
1. The job's System Library list, which lists all the libraries that contain base system objects that i5/OS needs to run a job. By default,
system library list entries are designated in the System part of the library list system value (QSYSLIBL). When i5/OS is building a
user's library list, it always puts the system libraries at the top of the list, and system libraries are the first libraries that the operating
system searches when looking for a job object. Although you can insert additional library names into QSYSLIBL, you should only list
IBM-supplied libraries in QSYSLIBL to avoid any problems with accidentally invoking earlier or incorrect versions of operating
system programs. The system library list will usually contain the QSYS and QSYS2 libraries for system programs and objects; the
QHLPSYS library, which contains help text information for the operating system; and the QUSRSYS library, which is IBM's system
library for user objects.
2. The job's Product Library list entries designate additional IBM libraries that the system uses to support languages and program objects
that are not contained in the QSYS library. Users cannot add Product Library list entries to a library list; only the operating system can
insert up to two Product Library list entries into the library list when it needs to reference various system program libraries. For
example, when you use the Start PDM command (STRPDM), the operating system will insert the QPDA library into your library list
as a Product Library list entry. When i5/OS is looking for an object, the Product Libraries list (if any entries are included) is always
searched second after the System Library list.
3. The job's Current Library is the first user library in the library list. The default current library value is defined in the Current Library
parameter (CURLIB) of the signed on user's profile description. The current library value is also used as the default library for
accessed objects that designate *CURLIB as their library value. If no current library is specified for a user, the system will use the
QGPL library as its default. The system searches the Current Library third if it doesn't find the target object in either the System
Library list or in the Product Library list.
4. The User Library list contains all of your application, data, test, and personal libraries that you want users to access on your system.
By default, it is maintained by an i5 administrator in the User part of the library list system value (QUSRLIBL). The User library list
is the last set of libraries searched on library list calls. As of OS/400 V5R1, IBM increased the size of the User Library List so that you
can designate up to 250 library names in the list. On pre-V5R1 systems, the User Library list could only contain a maximum of 25
libraries.
Taken together, these four components make up the default library list for any job on the system. If you are not
overriding these values with custom values for the user, any job that signs on will automatically be assigned the default
library list values shown above.

A library specified as part of the library list cannot be deleted or renamed when the system is fully operational.
Changes take effect at the start of the next job

QUSRLIBL-25(or 250)-QGPL, QTEMP
QSYSLIBL-15-QSYS, QSYS2, QHLPSYS, QUSRSYS

1. Define library?
A Library is a collection of objects.
Type *LIB that is used to group related object and to find objects by name.
A library is a directory to a group of objects.
The number of objects contained in a library and the number of libraries on
the system are limited only by the amount of storage available.
All libraries are placed in the system library QSYS.
Libraries provide a method for organizing objects.
A library is an open-ended directory.
A library can never become FULL as it has no finite size.
Libraries themselves are objects.
A library contain the object name, type, and the address
Library list
System library- 15 (QSYSLIB)
QSYS
QHLPSYS
QUSRSYS
Product library 2
Current library 1
User library - 25 (QUSRLIB)
QGPL
QTEMP
MYLIB
When you logon the first library to be load is QSYS. The system library is
loaded at the first time.

2. Define object?
Every thing that can be stored or retrieved on the system is known as an
OBJECT.
Objects exit to make users independent of the implementation used in the
machine.
The create object instruction establish the objects name and its type.
All objects are structured with a common object header, and a type dependent
functional portion.
A user is not concerned with the space his object occupies.
The system allocate space automatically
WRKOBJPDM is used to display all object in such a library
The library the object name and its type is Unique.

3. Define source physical file?
Source physical file is also a file, which has one, or more files included in
it. It is just like a directory and it contains many members. The members are
like a various programs residing in the directory CRTSRCPF is used to create
source physical file.

4. Define physical file?
It is a file, which physically occupies the portion of memory. A physical
file contains one record format and one or more members. Its type PF. By
using CRTPF command to create PF. Maximum number of fields included in a
PF is 8000. Maximum no of key fields included is 120.

5. Define logical file?
Logical file does not occupies any memory space and logical file be
derived from physical file. One or more logical file can be derived from a
single physical file. A logical file can contain up to 32 record formats. It selects
records dynamically. It cannot exist with out a physical file. We can filter the
data with criteria by using select and omit command. CRTLF command is
used to create a LF. It accesses the data by creating access path.
A logical file does not contain any data but provides the VIEWS of the data to
satisfy end-users needs.
There are two types
Non join logical file
Join logical file
6. Difference between physical file and logical file?

Physical file Logical file
1. Occupies the portion of
memory. Its containing data.
Does not occupy any memory
space. Does not contain any data.
2. A physical file contains one
record format
A logical file can contain up to
32 record formats.
3.Can be exist even with out
LF
Can not exist with out PF
4. If you delete a LF, the PF
can not be deleted
If you delete a LF, the PF can
not be deleted
5.CRTPF command is used
to create such object
CRTLF command is used to
create such type object
6.The object type is PF The object type is LF

7. What are the four levels of entries in physical file?
(i). File level entries (optional): File level entries give the system information of
the entire file. (UNIQUE, LIFO, FIFO, FCFO, REF)
UNIQUE: A record cannot be entered or copied into a file if its key value is
same as the key value of a record already existing in the file.
LIFO: Last in first out
FIFO: First in first out
FCFO: First change first out.
REF: This keyword is used to specify the name of the file from which the
field descriptions are retrieved.
Ex: you can specify whether the key is unique.
(ii). Record format level entries: Record format level entries give the system
information about specific record format in the file. For a PF the record
format name is specified along with an optional text description. (FORMAT,
TEXT)

(i) FORMAT:
This record-level keyword specifies that the record format being define is to
share the field specifications of a previously defined record format. The name
of the record format being defined must be the name of the previously defined
record format.
The format of this keyword is:
FORMAT (LIB-NAME / FILE-NAME)
(ii) TEXT:
This record level keyword is used to supply a text description of the record
format and it is used for documentation purposes only.
The format of this keyword is:
TEXT (description)
(iii) Field level entries: The field names and field lengths are specified along with
and optional text description for each field. (ALIAS, ALWNULL, CCSID,
CHECK, CHKMSGID, CMP, COLHDG, COMP, DATFMT, DATSEP, DFT,
EDTCDE, EDTWRD, REFFLD, REFSHIFT, TEXT, TIMEFMT, TIMESEP,
VALUES, VARLEN)
(iv) Key field level entries: The field names used as key fields are specified.
(DESCEND, SIGNED, ABSVAL, UNSIGNED, ZONE, NOALTSEQ,
DIGIT)

8. What are the six levels of entries in logical file?
(i) File level entries (optional): File level entries give the system information of
the entire file. You can specify whether the key is same as physical file.
(ii) Record format level entries: Record format level entries give the system
information about specific record format in the file. for examples ,for a logical
file when a record format is described we can specify the physical file it is
based on.
(iii) JOIN Level entries: Join level entries give the system information about PF
used in a JOIN LOGICAL FILE. (It is not applicable to NON JOIN
LOGICAL FILES).
(iv) Field level entries (optional): The field level entries give the system
information about individual fields in the record format.
(v) Key field level entries: The key field level entries give the system
information about the key fields of a file. The field names used as key fields
are specified.
(vi) Select / Omit level entries: These entire give the system information about
which records are to be returned to the program when processing the file.
These specifications apply to logical file only.

9. Explain JDUPSEQ and JDFTVAL.
JDUPSEQ:
This join level keyword is used to specify the order in which records with
duplicate join fields are presented when the JLF is read.
The format for this keyword is:
JDUPSEQ (Sequencing field-name [*DESCEND])

This keyword has no effect on the ordering of records with unique keys.
If *DESCEND is not specified then the default is sequencing in ascending
order.

JDFTVAL:
When this file-level keyword is used the system provides default values for all
for fields when a join to a secondary file does not produce any records.
If this keyword is not specified a record in the primary file for which there is
no corresponding record in the secondary file is skipped.

10. What are the different between non-join logical files and join logical files.

Non join logical file Join logical file
We can able to insert or delete
or update records using non-
logical file.
Insertion, updating or deletion
of records is not possible in join
logical files.
DFU can be used to display
non-join logical file.
DFU is not available
1-32 record format is specified Only one record format can be
specified
Commitment control is used Commitment control cannot be
used.

11. How many record formats can have physical & logical file.
The physical file only one record format can be specified.
The logical file 1-32 record format is specified

12. What is the advantage open query file?
Dynamic selection of records
It will sort the records based on the field values.
We can retrieve records based on Virtual fields.
Can create join logical files

13. Explain non-join logical file?
Non-join logical files can either be a simple logical file, which contains only one
record format or a multiple record format logical file, which contains more than one
record format.
Logical files can be derived from 1 to 32 physical files and so a logical file can have
a maximum of 32 record formats.
Single record format logical file:
If a logical file is derived from single physical file it is called simple logical fie.
Multiple record format logical file:
Multiple record non-join logical files will select records from 2 or more physical
files by referring to only one logical file.
Each record format is always associated with one or more physical file.
The same PF can be used in more than one record format.
Specify the entries in single or multiple format logical files:
1.File-level entries (optional): (REFACCPTH, DYNSLT)
REFACCPTH: The access path information for this logical file is to be copied from
another PF or LF.

Format of the keyword is:
REFACCPTH (LIB name / DATABASE name)
DYNSLT: This keyword is selection and omission tests in the file. This
keyword specifies dynamic select/omit.
2.Record level entries:(PFILE)
PFILE: The physical files containing the data to be accessed through the
record formats being defined.
Format of the keyword is:
PFILE (LIB name / PF name)
3.Field-level entries (optional)
4. Key field level entries (optional)
5.Select and Omit field level entries (optional)
REFACCPTHIt is applicable for non-join logical file only and meaning is
referring the access path from the PF or LF in the file level entries.
PFILE--- it is applicable only for non-join logical file in record level entries.

14. Explain join logical file?
A join-logical file is a logical file that combines two or more PF. In the record
format not all the fields need to exist in all the PF.
A PF cannot be changed through a JLF.
DFU cannot be used to display a JLF.
Only one record format can be specified in a JLF.
Commitment control cannot be used with a JLF.
Key fields must be fields defined in the join record format and must be fields
from the PRIMARY FILE.
Specify the entries in join logical file:
1.File-level entries (optional): (JDFTVAL)
2.Record-level entries: (JFILE)
3.join-level entries :(JOIN, JFLD, JDUPSEQ)
4.field level entries (optional): (JREF, ALL, CONCAT, DYNSLT,
RENAME, SST, TRNTBL)
5.Key field level entries (optional)
6.Select and Omit field level entries. (Optional)

JFILE----It is similar to indicate that this is a join logical field and it
must have more than 2 physical files.
JOIN: It is similar that this file level entries to be represent the
position of the files .There must one primary file and can have more
than I secondary files..
JFLD: Which feels we are going to join.
JREF: represents the primary file reference field
JDFTVAL: represents that it as a left outer join.

SELECT OMIT
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMIT
FMT PF.
*************** Beginning of data *******************
0001.00 R RECSEL
0002.00 EMPNO 5P 0
0003.00 EMPNAME 20A
0004.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data ************************
EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 10,001 SHYAM
000002 10,002 SANKA
000003 10,003 SHYAM
000004 10,004 SENTH
000005 10,005 SANKA
000006 10,006 SHYAM
000007 10,007 SANKA
000008 10,008 SENTH
000009 10,009 SHYAM
000010 10,010 SENTH
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF
FMT LF...
*************** Beginning of data *********************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT
10003)
0004.00 O EMPNAME CMP (EQ
'SHYAM')
****************** End of data
**************************
Display Report
EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 10,002 SANKA
000002 10,004 SENTH
000003 10,005 SANKA
000004 10,006 SHYAM
000005 10,007 SANKA
000006 10,008 SENTH
000007 10,009 SHYAM
000008 10,010 SENTH
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data
************************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 O EMPNAME CMP (EQ
'SHYAM')
0004.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT
10001)
****************** End of data ************************

EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 10,002 SANKA
000002 10,004 SENTH
000003 10,005 SANKA
000004 10,007 SANKA
000005 10,008 SENTH
000006 10,010 SENTH
****** ******** End of report ********

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMIT
FMT PF.
*************** Beginning of data *******************
0001.00 R RECSEL
0002.00 EMPNO 5P 0
0003.00 EMPNAME 20A
0004.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data ************************




EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 20 SHYAM
000002 30 RAM
000003 40 TOM
000004 50 RAMESH
000005 60 SHYAM
000006 70 SHYAM
000007 80 TOM
000008 90 TOM
000009 100 VASU
****** ******** End of report ********

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF1
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data
************************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT1)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT 50)
0004.00 S EMPNAME VALUES
('SHYAM')
****************** End of data
**************************

EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 20 SHYAM
000002 60 SHYAM
000003 70 SHYAM
000004 80 TOM
000005 90 TOM
000006 100 VASU
****** ******** End of report ********

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF1
FMT LF.
*************** Beginning of data
************************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT1)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT 50)
0004.00 O EMPNO RANGE (20
40)
****************** End of data
***************************






EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 50 RAMESH
000002 60 SHYAM
000003 70 SHYAM
000004 80 TOM
000005 90 TOM
000006 100 VASU
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF1
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data ****************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT1)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT 50)
0004.00 S EMPNAME VALUES
('SHYAM')
0005.00 O EMPNO RANGE (70
90)
****************** End of data ********************
EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 20 SHYAM
000002 30 RAM
000003 40 TOM
000004 50 RAMESH
000005 60 SHYAM
000006 70 SHYAM
000007 80 TOM
000008 90 TOM
000009 100 VASU
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELOMILF1
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data *****************
0001.00 R RECSEL PFILE
(SELOMIT1)
0002.00 K EMPNO
0003.00 S EMPNO CMP (GT 50)
0005.00 O EMPNO RANGE (70
90)
****************** End of data ************************

EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 20 SHYAM
000002 30 RAM
000003 40 TOM
000004 50 RAMESH
000005 60 SHYAM
000006 70 SHYAM
000007 80 TOM
000008 90 TOM
000009 100 VASU
****** ******** End of report ********

15. Explain self join?
Joining a file to it self is known as self-join.
(Or)
A physical file can be joined to itself to read records that are formed by combining
two or more records from the PF itself.

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SEJOIN
FMT PF
*************** Beginning of data ********************
0001.00 R EMP
0002.00 EMPID 5P 0
0003.00 EMPNAME 20A
0004.00 MGRID 5P 0
0005.00 K EMPID
****************** End of data
***************************

EMPID EMPNAME MGRID
000001 10,001 SEBI JOSEPH C. 50,001
000002 10,002 PURUSHOTTAM 50,002
000003 10,003 SAMEER DIGHE 50,003
000004 10,004 SHARATA 50,004
000005 10,005 PAUL 50,005
000006 50,001 SHIVARAM 90,001
000007 50,002 GAURAV 90,002
000008 50,003 KING 90,003
000009 50,004 SAM 90,004
000010 50,005 ANIL 90,005
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELJOIN
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data **************************
0001.00 R EMP JFILE (SEJOIN SEJOIN)
0002.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD (MGRID EMPID)
0004.00 EMPID JREF (1)
0005.00 EMPNAME JREF (1)
0006.00 MANAGER RENAME (EMPNAME) JREF (2)
0007.00 COLHDG ('MANAGER')
****************** End of data *****************************

EMPID EMPNAME MANAGER
000001 10,001 SEBI JOSEPH C. SHIVARAM
000002 10,002 PURUSHOTTAM GAURAV
000003 10,003 SAMEER DIGHE KING
000004 10,004 SHARATA SAM
000005 10,005 PAUL ANIL
****** ******** End of report ********

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELJOIN1
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data************************
0001.00 R EMP JFILE (SEJOIN SEJOIN)
0002.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD (MGRID EMPID)
0004.00 EMPID JREF (1)
0005.00 EMPNAME RENAME (EMPNAME)
0006.00 JREF (1)
0007.00 MGRID JREF (2)
****************** End of data *************************

EMPID EMPNAME MGRID
000001 10,001 SEBI JOSEPH C. 90,001
000002 10,002 PURUSHOTTAM 90,002
000003 10,003 SAMEER DIGHE 90,003
000004 10,004 SHARATA 90,004
000005 10,005 PAUL 90,005
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit
KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SELJOIN1
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of
data************************
0001.00 R EMP JFILE
(SEJOIN SEJOIN)
0002.00 J
JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD
(MGRID EMPID)
0004.00 EMPID JREF (1)
0005.00 MANAGER RENAME (EMPNAME)
0006.00
JREF (2) COLHDG ('MANAGER')
0007.00 MGRID JREF (2)
****************** End of data
****************************
EMPID MANAGER MGRID
000001 10,001 SHIVARAM 90,001
000002 10,002 GAURAV 90,002
000003 10,003 KING 90,003
000004 10,004 SAM 90,004
000005 10,005 ANIL 90,005
****** ******** End of report ********

16. Explain normalization?
It is the process of segregating and decomposing information held within a
system into logically grouped, related. Uniquely identifiable entities

17. How to create user define command?
By using the CRTCMD command process the command definition
statements to create the command definition object. The CRTCMD command
may be run interactively or in a batch job.

Steps for creating CRTCMD commands
1.Enter the command definition statements into the source file
Command type CMD
VRAMANA/CLP
CMD1
*************** Beginning of data ****************************
0001.00 CMD
****************** End of data *******************************
2. Enter source program in any language
VRAMANA/CLP
DLIB
TYPE :CLP
*************** Beginning of data
******************************
0001.00 PGM
0002.00 DSPLIBL
0003.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data
*********************************


3. Create the command by using CRTCMD take f4
Command . . . . . . . . . . . . > KS Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *CURLIB
Program to process command . . . > DLIB Name, *REXX
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Source file . . . . . . . . . . > CLP Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Source member . . . . . . . . . > CMD1 Name, *CMD
Threadsafe . . . . . . . . . . . *NO *YES, *NO, *COND
Multithreaded job action . . . . *SYSVAL *SYSVAL, *RUN, *MSG, *NORUN
Text 'description' . . . . . . . *SRCMBRTXT

18. How do copy a record in existing object to another object?
By using CPYF command if you want data one position to another position. We
can give the records coping position starting and ending of the records. We want
particular records means. We can give the command in sq position.
CPYF take F4
File name (source file) : PF01
Lib-name :VRAMANA
New file name :PF02
Lib-name :VRAMANA
:*FIRST
Replace :*ADD
:*NO
:*CHAR
Start position :1000
End position :2000
Sql command :
FILED EMPNO
CONDITION *GT
VALUE 40
Record format mapping :*MAP(add field)
+DROP (delete field)

19. Explain the command ADDPFCST?
ADDPFCST is a command that is used to define the Constraint on your
physical file. The constraint has several types. These are REFCST, UNQCST
and PRIKEY. By the by, this command is helps to define Update rules and
Delete rules.

20.How will be establishing REFERENTIAL INTEGTITY in as/400 system?
By using ADDPFCST command establish in as/400 system.
Referential integrity concepts
Referential constraint
Parent and dependent files
Unique key and primary keys
Parent and foreign keys
Delete rule
Propagate delete from parent file to dependent file
Restrict delete on parent file
Update rule
Restrict inconsistent updates
Insert operations on dependent file are checked
Referential constraint
A referential constraint is a relation between two files, the parent file and
the dependent file.
This relationship establishes that every record in the dependent file has to
have a matching record in the parent file.
The key value of any record in the dependent file must match a key value
in the parent file.
We call parent key the key of the parent file and foreign key the key in the
dependent file.
The parent key has to be unique and cannot contain null values.
The foreign key value has to match one (any only one) value of the parent
key. Otherwise the foreign key can contain a null value.
A record in the parent file may be related to multiple records in the
dependent files; each record in the dependent file has to have just one
parent or have a null foreign key.
Primary key we means a unique and ascending key, which is the primary,
access path for a PF and cannot contain null values.
Primary access path for a database file on the AS/400 in the access path
used to access the file by using OPNDBF command.

Delete rule
We can delete a record from parent file or dependent file first check for delete
rule.
CASCADE: If we want to delete a record from the parent file and its parent
key is matching records in a dependent file, the DBMS will delete all the
matching records of the dependent file.
SETNULL: If we delete a record from the parent file and parent key is
matching some records in a dependent file, the DBMS will set to null the
matching keys in the dependent file.
SETDEFAULT: This is like previous case, but matching occurrences in the
foreign key are set to their default values. The default value for the foreign
key has to match a record in the parent file.
RESTRICT: The DBMS will prevent any attempt to delete records in the
parent file if its key is matching some records in the dependent file.
NO ACTION: This has the same meaning as restrict, but different timing.
When we use *NOACTION and an invalid delete operation is about to take
place, DB2 /400 will delay any error message until the end of the operation
itself, allowing for instance the activation of a before trigger attached to the
PF.
If *restrict is in use, the exception message is sent immediately.
Deleting records in a dependent file is always permitted.
Update rule
RESTRICT: We cannot change the value in a parent key if the old values
are matching some records in the dependent file.
The remaining portion of the record can always be updated.
We cannot update a foreign key in a dependent file if the new value
for the key is not null and does not match any value of the parent key.
NO ACTION: This is same as * restrict but with different timing
considerations. Refer above; where we describe no action delete operations.
Inserts
There is no insert rule to be chosen, but referential integrity prevents any
insert in the dependent file if the new record has no match in the parent file
and its foreign key is not null.

21. How to create a trigger in AS/400?
The trigger is an event to be performing before or after any change to a database.
When a trigger is added to a physical file, three attributes need to be defined.
The first is the event that will cause the trigger to fire. A trigger event can
be an insert, an update, or a delete a record from the file.
The second attribute to define is when to fire the trigger-before or after the
event.
The third attribute to define is the identification of the trigger program to
by run.
We can infer that up to six triggers can be defined for each PF.
For each update, insert, and delete
Two triggers can be defined
One that runs before the event
One that runs after the event
These trigger are added using the ADDPFTRG
Can be removed with the remove PF trigger command (RMVPFTRG)

The command ADDPFTRG takes F4

PF PF001
LIB VRAMANA
TRIGGER TIME *AFTER *BEFORE *AFTER
TRIGGER EVEVT *UPDATE *UPDATE *INSERT *DELETE
PROGRAM PGM001 NAME
LIB VRAMANA
REPLACE TRIGGER *NO *NO *YES
ALLOW REPEATED *NO *NO *YES

22.What is the data area?
A data area is an object used to store data for access by any job running on the
system. it is permanent storage . A data area can be used whenever you need to store
information of limited size, independent of the existence of the programs or files.
Typical uses of data areas are:
To provide an area to pass information within job.
To provide a field that is easily and frequently changed to control
references within a job such as supplying the next check number.
To provide a constant field for use in several jobs, such as tax rate
To provide limited access to a large process that requires the data
area.
A data area can be locked to a single user, thus preventing other users
from processing at the same time.
To create a general data area use the command (CRTDTAARA)
To retrieve values from data area use (RTVDTAARA)
To change this value, use (CHGDTAARA)
To display the current value, use (DSPDTAARA)
To delete a data area use (DLTDTAARA)
Type of data area created by the system
Local data area
Group data area
Program initialization parameter (PIP) data area
VRAMANA/RPGILE
DAREA
*************** Beginning of data ******************************
0001.00 DS S 10A
0002.00 DG S 10A INZ ('I LIKE YOU')
0003.00 C *DTAARA DEFINE DATA1 S
0004.00 C *LOCK IN S
0005.00 C EVAL S=G
0006.00 C OUT S
0007.00 C S DSPLY
0008.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data ***********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY I LIKE YOU

AUTO NUMBER GENERATION
VRAMANA/TEST
TESTEX19
*************** Beginning of data *******************************
0001.00 DA S 4S 0
0002.00 C *DTAARA DEFINE DATA2 A
0003.00 C *LOCK IN A
0004.00 C EVAL A=A+1
0005.00 C OUT A
0006.00 C A DSPLY
0007.00 C SETON LR
0008.00 C
0009.00 C
0010.00 C
****************** End of data ***********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 5
DSPLY 6

23.Define LDA, GDA, and PIP?
LOCAL DATA AREA (LDA)
A local data area is created for each job in the system automatically, when
you submit a job.
Only one LDA can be created by submitting a job.
The system create a local data area, which is initially filled with blanks,
with a length of 1024 and type *CHAR.
When you submit a job using SBMJOB command, the value of the
submitting jobs local data area is copied into the submitted jobs local data
area.
You can refer to your jobs local data area by specifying *LDA for the
DTAARA keyword on the CHGDTAARA, RTVDTAARA, and
DSPDTAARA commands or *LDA for the substring built-in function
(%SST)
The following is true of a local data area:
The local data area cannot be refered to from any other job.
You cannot create, delete or allocate a local data area.
We can to change the contents of LDA by the by using
CHGDTAARA command.
No library is associated with the local data area.
ACCESSING LDA:
CHGVAR VAR (%SST (*LDA 3 5)) VALUE(123)
OR
CHGDTAARA DTAARA (*LDA (3 5)) VALUE(123)
CHGVAR VAR(&ROLNO) VALUE( %SST (*LDA 3 5))
OR
RTVDTAARA DTAARA (*LDA (3 5)) RTNVAR (&ROLNO)

GROUP DATA AREA (GDA)
The system creates a group data area when an interactive job becomes a
group job.
Only one group data area can exist for a group.
The group data area is deleted when the last job in the group is ended, or
when the job is no longer part of the group job.
A group data area, which is initially filled with blanks, has a length of 512
and type *CHAR.
The following is true for a group data area
You cannot use the group data area as a substitute for a character
variable on the substring built-in function.
A group data area cannot be refered by jobs outside the group.
You cannot create, delete, or allocate a group data area
No library is associated with a group data area.
Example
CHGDTAARA DTAARA (*GDA) VALUE (DECEMBER 1996)
RTVDTAARA DTAARA (*GDA) RTNVAR (&GRPARA)

PROGRAM INITIALIZATION PARAMETER (PIP) DATA AREA
A PIP data area is created for each pre-started job when the job is started.
The object sub-type of the PDA is different then a regular data area.
The PIP can only be refered to by the special value name *PDA.
The size of the PDA is 2000 bytes but the number of parameter contained
in it is not restricted.


24. What are various steps accessing data area in CL?
The first create a general data area use the command (CRTDTAARA)
To retrieve values from data area use (RTVDTAARA)
To change this value, use (CHGDTAARA)
To display the current value, use (DSPDTAARA)
To delete a data area use (DLTDTAARA)

25. Various types of message available in CL?
Message is the interface between operating system and the programs or user and
program. We can classify the message into two types namely
Immediate message
Predefined message

Immediate message
Which does the program or system user create when they are sent and are not
permanently stored in the system?
Control language
SNDUSRMSG
SNDPGMMSG
SNDMSG
SNDBRKMSG
Display files
ERRMSG
SFLMSG
INQUIRY and INFORMATIONAL message:
Using SNDUSRMSG command to send type of message
Predefined message
Which are created before they are used. These messages are placed in a message
file (queue) when they are created, and retrieved from the file when they are used.

Control language
SNDUSRMSG
SNDPGMMSG
RTVMSG

Display files
ERRMSGID
SFLMSGID
MSGCON
MSGID
COMPLETION and DIAGNOSTIC message
Using SNDPGMMSG command these of message can be sent to any
message queue.
DIAGNOSTIC message tell the calling program about errors detected
by the program. Completion message tell the result of work done by
the program.
STATUS messages
Using SNDPGMMSG command status message can be sent to its callers program
message queue or to the external message queue for the job. These message tell the
receiving program the status of the work performed by the sending program.

ESCAPE message
Using SNDPGMMSG command escape message from a CL program can be sent to
its calling program. An escape message tells the calling program ended abnormally
and why.

NOTTFY message
Notify message from a CL program can be sent to the message queue of calling
program or to the external message queue. A notify message tells the calling program
about a condition under which processing can continue.
Predefined message are stored in message file
To create a message file
CRTMSGF MSGF (MFILE) SIZE () AUT() TEXT ()
Create and maintain messages
ADDMSGD
CHGMSGD OR WRKMSGD
DSPMSGD
RMVMSGD
Message file QCPFMSG in library QSYS contain the system message

26. What will MONMSG command in do?
The monitor message (MONMSG) command monitors the message send to the
program message queue for the conditions specified in the command. If condition exists,
the CL command specified on the MONMSG command is run.
Types of monitor message
Escape Message
Status or Notify Message
Escape Message
Escape message are send to tell your program of am error condition that
forced the sender to end. By monitoring for escape message, you can take corrective
actions or clean up and end your program.
Status or Notify Message
Status and notify message are send to tell your program of an abnormal
condition that is not serious enough for sender to end. By monitoring for status
or notify message, your program can detect this condition and not allow the
function to continue.
Two levels of MONMSG command
Program level
Specific command level


Program level
The MONMSG is specified immediately following the last declare command
in your CL program. You can use as many as 100 program-level MONMSG
commands in a program.
Specific command level
Here the MONMSG command immediately follows a CL command. You can
use as many as 100 commands-level MONMSG commands for a single command.

Monitor message command syntax
MONMSG MSGID () CMPDTA () EXEC ()

MSGID-Required
Ex: MSGID (MCH1211)
CMPDTA (Optional)
Ex: MONMSG MSGID (MCH1211) CMPDTA (LIB)
EXEC - -(Optional)
CL command

27 What are the disadvantages of using CL over RPG?
We can able to read only records but we cannot able to write or update or delete
records.
We can have only one file to be used in a CL program
We cannot able to use printer files in CL
We cannot able to use subfile in a CL program

28 How you can read and write single command in CL?
By using SNDRCVF command.
Example
Type: CLP
VRAMANA/CLP
ADD

*************** Beginning of data
********************************
0000.01 /*ADDING TWO NUMBERS */
0001.00 PGM
0002.00 DCLF FILE(VRAMANA/CLPSCR)
RCDFMT(SECLP)
0003.00 SNDRCVF RCDFMT(SECLP)
0004.00 CHGVAR VAR(&RES) VALUE(&NUM1 + &NUM2)
0005.00 SNDRCVF RCDFMT(SECLP)
0006.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data
**********************************
OUTPUT
FIRST NUMBER: 12
SECOND NUMBER: 12
----------
RESULT= 0000024
----------
29 How to retrieve a date in CL?
By using RTVSYSVAL command we can get the system dates. For getting date
QDATE.
The various format of date are
*DMY, *MDY, *YMD, *YYMD, *JOL, *JOB

30 How to send the message to the screen SNDPGMMSG?
BY passing unique message ID message data and message file.
SNDPGMMSG syntax
SNDPGM MSG MSGID (MSG0001) MSGF (MSGSUB)

31 What is the open query file?
It is a dynamic record selection. The OPNQRYF command acts as a filter between
the processing program and the database records. The database file can be a PF or LF. It
will create open data pathway to access (retrieve) data file. The OPNQRYF command
creates only a temporary file for processing the data; it does not create a permanent file.
If you want to specify any SQL operation within a CL we have to use OPNQRYF
Functions supplied by OPNQRYF are:
Dynamic record selection.
Dynamic keyed sequence access path
Dynamic keyed sequence access path over a join
Dynamic join
Handling missing records in secondary join files
Unique-key processing
Mapped field definitions
Group processing
Final total-only processing
Improving performance
Open query identifier (ID)

32. What is the different between OPNQRYF and SQLRPG?

OPNQRYF SQLRPG
OPNQRYF will come along
with OS/400 system and no
need to have any additional
package needed to execute it
We need to have SQLRPG
installed in as/400 system
which involves additional cost
to the programmers
OPNQRYF is faster as
compared to SQLRPG
It is slower
OPNQRYF is nothing but a
dynamic logical files will be
created and the records
SQLRPG is imbedding SQL
statements directly within SQL
statement


33. What are the various steps in creating OPNQRYF?
Totally five steps involve in creating OPNQRYF
OVRDBF
FILE (file PF) TOFILE (LIB/ PF) SHARE (*Yes)
If a PF is having 100 records and if we want to override the PF so that
it continues only the specific number of records we are using
OVRDBF
OPNQRYF
FILE (LIB / PF) QRYSLT (EMPNO *EQ *BCAT &A)
If you want to perform any SQL operation we have to declare in
OPNQRYF command only.
In case of OPNQRYF we can perform expression only based on
characters but not on numeric.
*BCAT
If you want to perform any charter expression are using *BCAT
expression which will provide a blanks in between the 2 variables.
%WLDCRD
It is similar to %LIKE in SQL
QRYSLT (EMPNAME *EQ %WLDCRD (S* ))
It will fetch all the records whose empname starts from S.
*CT
It will fetch all the records, which conditions the particular charter.
QRYSLT (EMPNAME *CT S )

%RANGE
It will fetch the records within the specific range
QRYSLT (EMPNO *Eq %RANGE (100 110))
CALL PGM (LIB/NAME) PARM ()

DLTOVR
As we see early the main file logically overridden and after performing
the necessary operation, we have to delete the logical file so that the
main file contains the actual records for this DLTOVR will be used.
DLTOVR FILE (OPNPF)
CLOF
We have to close the file, which has been opened
CLOF OPNID (OPNPF)
You will copy overridden file records using CPYFRMQRYF
CPTFRMQRYF
Since OVRDBF is logical we cannot able to list the variables, which
satisfy the query condition. To see the records being selected we have to
copy from the source file to a temporary file for this CPYFRMQRYF
will be used
CPYFRMQRYF FROMOPNID (OPNPF) TOFILE (LIB/NAME) MBR
(*REPLACE) CRTFILE (*YES) FMTOPT (*NOCHK)
RUNQRY
We have copied the contents satisfy the query into a temporary file using
CPYFRMQRYF. If we run the destination file we got the actual records,
which satisfy the query.
RUNQRY QRYFILE (LIN/NAME)
Example:

Database PF
VRAMANA/CLP
OPENF

*************** Beginning of data ****************************
0000.01 C UNIQUE
0001.00 C R OPNQFILE
0002.00 C OEMPNO 5S 0
0003.00 C OEMPNAME 20A
0004.00 C OADDRESS 20A
0005.00 C ODOB 8S 0
0006.00 C K OEMPNO
****************** End of data ********************************
Data file
Display Report

OEMPNO OEMPNAME OADDRESS ODOB
000001 1,001 RAMANAV SALEM1 1,232,002
000002 1,002 KUMAR TRICHY 12,123,000
000003 1,003 SHYAM SALEM 12,345,000
000004 1,004 RAMESH SALEM 1,010,100
000005 1,005 BALU SALEM 222
000006 1,007 KUMAR JJ 32,938
****** ******** End of report ********
CL program
VRAMANA/CLP
OPNQFILE5
*************** Beginning of data
*********************************
0001.00 PGM
0002.00 DCL VAR(&A) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(5)
0003.00 DCLF FILE(VRAMANA/OPNQFILE3) RCDFMT(OPNF3)
0004.00 SNDRCVF RCDFMT(OPNF3)
0005.00 CHGVAR VAR(&A) VALUE(&OEMPNO)
0006.00 OVRDBF FILE(OPENF) SHARE(*YES)
0006.01 OPNQRYF FILE((VRAMANA/OPENF)) QRYSLT('OEMPNO *EQ' +
0006.02 *BCAT &A)
0006.03 CPYFRMQRYF FROMOPNID(OPENF) TOFILE(VRAMANA/TEMP) +
0006.04 MBROPT(*REPLACE) CRTFILE(*YES)
0009.00 DLTOVR FILE(OPENF)
0010.00 CLOF OPNID(OPENF)
0010.01 RUNQRY QRYFILE((VRAMANA/TEMP))
0011.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data*********************************
OUTPUT

EMPLOYEE NUMBER: 1001

OEMPNO OEMPNAME OADDRESS ODOB

000001 1,001 RAMANAV SALEM1 1,232,002
****** ******** End of report ********

34. How the records are accessed for using OPNQRYF?
By creating open data pathway to access (retrieve) data file.

35. What is the journal?
Any changes in PF will be recorded. A journal is an object of type *JRN which
detects and records that cause a PF to change.
The information recorded by the journal is stored in an object *JRNRCV called
journal receiver.

36. What are the various steps creating journal?
The steps to start journaling
Create a journal receiver - CRTJRNRCV
Create a journal - CRTJRN
Start journaling of a PF -STRJRNPF
Backup the PF -SAVOBJ
The steps to end journaling
End journaling a PF -ENDJRNPF
Delete a journal -DLTJRN
Delete the last journal receiver -DLTJRNRCV
Save journal receivers -SAVOBJ

The commands used for house keeping purposes
Change journal -CHGJRN
Save object -SAVOBJ
Delete a journal receiver -DLTJRNRCV
The commands used in case of a failure are
Display journal entries -DSPJRN
Apply journal changes -APYJRNCHG
Remove journal changes -RMVJRNCHG
Restore a saved object -RSTOBJ

37. How you can list all the LF of a PF?
By using DSPDBR command it is to list all the files, which are related to a PF. It
displays all the LF that is referring the PF and also lists the child table if it is having
a relation through ADDPFCST.

38. What is use of DSPFFD and DSPFD?
DSPFD (display file description)
It is used to display the details about the file when it is created.
DSPFFD (display file field description)
It is used for listing details about individual fields.
39. What is the data queue?
It is a temporary storage. We can able to store and retrieve the data, but
once data is retrieved the data is lost.
First create the data queue by using CRTDTAARA command
Sending a message to a data queue (QSNDDTAQ, QRCVDTAQ, And
CLRDTAQ)
Data query is nothing but a queue in which are program can send a data and other
program or the same program can receive the program. QSNDDTAQ is stored in
QSYS.


40. Explain QSNDDTAQ and QRCVDTAQ?
QSNDDTAQ
By using this command sent data same / another program.
QSNDDTAQ PARM (QUEUE NAME LIB &LEN &DAT)
QRCVDTAQ
By using this command receive data same /another program
QRCVDTAQ PARM (QUEUE NAME LIB &LEN &DAT &WAIT)

41. What are the mandatory parameters for declaring a Data queue?
QUEUE NAME
LIB NAME
LENGTH
DATA
WAIT

42. What will RUNSQLSTM will do?

If we want to execute set of SQL statement then we can write all the
SQL statement to be including with the source.
Type as SQL
Only insert, update and delete and no select is allowed.
Then use STRSQLSTM to execute the program
RUNSQLSTM SRCFILE (LIB/TEST) SRCMBR (SQL01) COMMIT
(*NONE)

43. What is a field reference file?

This is PF, which does not have any data and contains only the field
descriptions and these fields are referred in other PF by using REF and
REFFLD


44. What is the difference between OPM, EPM and RPGLE?

OPM EPM RPGLE
Original program
model is the old
RPG/400 system,
which will not
allow a program
type to call another
program type. Like
CL, RPG,
COBOL, PL/I,
BASIC only
Extended program
model will support
C, PASCAL,
FORTRAN and
another
programming
concepts.
It supports mixed
program support in
which you can
combine any
program with
another type of
program. it
supports
modularity, copy
book, better call
supported. performance.
Version is V1R2 Version is V2R3

45. Explain WRKOBJPDM and DSPOBJD?
WRKOBJPDM
If we want to list all the source PF or files of particular type the
WRKOBJPDM with file type as PF-SRC for source PF IOR *file for
listing all the files extra can be given
DSPOBJD
If we know library name and object name and we want to know the
source PF where it is residing then DSPOBJD with option as
*services instead of basic will give the source PF name

46. How to create RPG, RPGLE, CL, CLLE, PF, LF, PRN, and display
file?

RPG -by using CRTRPGPGM command
RPGLE -by using CRTBNDRPG Command (or) 14
RPGLE -by using CRTRPGMOD (or) 15 /CRTPGM command

CL -by using CRTCLPGM command
CLLE -by using CRTBNDCL
CLLE -by using CRTCLMOD/CRTPGM command
PF -by using CRTPF command
LF -by using CRTLF command
PRN - by using CRTPRTF command
DSPF -by using CRTDSPF command

47. It is possible to insert record to JOIN LF?
NO, insertion, updating or deleting of records is not possible in JOIN LF.

48. What are the advantages of using AS/400 system?
AS/400 is designed and build as a total system. This means that facilities
such as relational database and networking capability (and much more) are
fully integrated into the operating system and machine. The user
communication with all these functions through a single control language
Layered machine architecture
Object orientation
Single-level storage
Hierarchy of microprocessors
Security levels

Layered machine architecture
This insulates users from hardware characteristics. It enables
them to move to new hardware technology at any time, without
disrupting their application programs. We can able to change any
layer without affecting the other layer. If any problem occurs in OS,
then we can work with application program independently and this is
the major advantage of AS/400 system.
Object orientation
Every that can be stored or retrieved on the system is known as
an objects. Objects exist to make users independent of the internal
structure of the machine.
Single- level storage
It provides contiguous memory between main storage and disk
storage. It provides authority to add any disk space so that use. Can
access it without any problem. There is no need for the user to think
where to store the application program.
Hierarchy of microprocessors
Various types of microprocessors are used in AS/400. Each and
every microprocessor is allocated for specific purpose. If one chip is
for input operation and other for output then we can do both input
and output operation since both the microprocessor can perform
independently.
Security levels
It will list the various security provided by the system.
No security
Password security
Resource security
OS security
Certifiable security

49. What are the various types of Security in AS/400?

AS/400 is designed for business that requires levels of security
ranging from nothing at all to full government certifiable security. By
setting a system value, we can configure five increasing level of security.

No security
Password security
Resource security
OS security
Certifiable security
When as AS/400 is configured, three system values dealing with security
need to be specified. These values are QAUDJRL, QMAXSIGN &
QSECURITY.


QSECURITY:
This system value determines the level of security enforcement. S/38
and the original AS/400 only had three of system security. At VIR3 of
OS/400 the fourth level of security was added, and the fifth level of
security was added at V2R3. The valid values for QSECURITY are
10,20,30,40,50.
QMAXSIGN:
This system value determines the maximum number of signon
attempts allowed. If the number of unsuccessful attempts to signon to the
system exceeds this number, the terminal or device that attempted the
signon is varied off.

QAUDJRL:
AS/400 supports an optional security auditing function. If this
function is specified, certain security events are journal. The specific
events that are logged in the security audit journal are determined by the
value specified in the QAUDJRL system value and the level of system
security specified.

Level 10: No security
System is shipped with minimum-security level and doesnt
require any password to signon. If user profile doesnt exists with the
same name as the
Userid the system creates the user profile with that name.

Level 20:Password security
Minimum security is active and password is required to signon.
The user profile must already exist for the user before we can signon the
system

Level 30:Resource security
Password security is active and user must specify given
authority to resources. This level is recommended because the system
doesnt give the user authority to access the entire object on the system
after the user signon.





Level 40:Operating system security

Password security, resource security and OS integrity are active.
User must be especially given authority to resources this level providing
more security than level 30.
All attempts to access object using interfaces that are not supported
fail.
Programs that contains restricted instructions will not compile
Users submitting jobs using the job description containing the user
profile name, must have *USE authority to user profile.


Level 50: C2 level security
All the level 40 security attributes are included at level 50,and in
addition some of the interfaces are modified to meet the C2 standards.

50. Explain user profile and group profile?
User profiles are used to identify users to the systems and verify
authorities on the system (DSPUSRPRF, CHGUSRPRF,
EDTOBJAUT)
User profiles tell the system who can signon and what functions the
user can perform on the system on the system resources after signing
on.
The secutrity officer or security administrator can create it.
The user profile defines the following capabilities for a particular
user
User class
Object owned and authorized
Authorization of objects
Privileged instructions
Password
Current library
Initial program and menu
Delimited-capability user
Limit device session
Maximum storage allowed
Priority limit
Special environment

User class
When identifying a user on the system you can specify the user
class in the user profile. AS/400 has five user classes that determine the
level of systems access a user is permitted. The five user classes,
starting the highest level of access, are
Security officer (*SECOFR)
Security administrator (*SECADM)
Programmer (*PGMR)
System operator (*SYSOPR)
User (*USER)

Authorization of objects
Object authority, or the right to user to use or control an object comes
in two categories.
Object rights
Data rights
Object rights
Object rights are concerned with the object itself.
Object rights assign a user the following authority
Operational rights (*OPER)
Object management rights (*OBJMGT)
Object existence rights (*OBJEXT)
Operational right (*OPER)
The authority to use an object, looks at its description, and
restores it. A user must have operational rights to a program to
execute it.
Object management rights (*OBJMGT)
The authority to grant and revoke and user rights move and
rename object, and members to database file.
Object existence rights (*OBJEXT)
The authority to delete, free storage, save restore or transfer
ownership of an object.

Data rights
Data rights apply to the data contained within the object.
Types of data rights
Read (*READ)
The authority to retrieve the contents of an object entry.
Add (*ADD)
The authority to add entries to an object. For example adding
records to a database file requires ADD rights for the library.
Update (*UPD)
The authority to change the entries in an object requires UPD
rights for the file.
Delete (*DLT)
The authority to remove object in an object. For example
deleting a program from a library requires DLT rights for the library.
Deleting records for a database the requires DLT rights the database
file.

51. What are the various ways creating access path?
Access path means the records are to be retrieved from a file. The records
can be retrieved from a PF or a LF either ARRIVAL SEQUENCE or by
KETED SEQUENCE. For LF you can also select records using select or omit
keywords

Arrival sequence access path
Sequentially, where each record is taken from the next sequential
physical position in the file.
Directly by relative records number, where the record number is
identified by its position from the start of the file.


Keyed sequence access path
It is based on the contents of the key fields as defined in DDS. This
type of access path is updated in the contents of a key field is changed.

There are three ways of bounding the access path
Immediate
Rebuild
Delayed
Immediate
Access path is always maintained for every opening in a file.
Rebuild
Access path is maintained when the file is open and various updates
are recorded and the access path is rebuild every time when the access
path is closed.
Delayed
Access path is maintained when the file is opened and updates
recorded. When the file is closed all the updates to the records are closed
together but it is not rebuild. When the recorded update percentage
exceeds 25% then rebuild of records take place.
52.How many record formats PF, LF, DSPF and SFL?
PF- 1
LF- 32
DSPF-1024 SFL-512
53.What is the command to create menu?

CRTMNU
CRTMNU MENU(*CURLIB/MVRMENU) TYPE(*DSPF / *PGM / UIM)
After selection TYPE it changes the attributes.

54. What is the difference between CALL and Transfer Control
(TFRCTL)?












55. Explain ADDDUR, SUBDUR, EXTRCT and TEST?
ADDDUR:
It is a powerful opcode, which is used to add any date related function to
a particular date, time or timestamp.
Example:
VRAMANA/DATE
ADDDUR
CALL TFRCTL
1.Call will transfer the control according
with the CALL STACK
Transfer Control
(TFRCTL) will remove
the CALL STACK and
transfer the control to
the calling program.
2. The CALL is used to different types of
programs.
Ex:
RPGILE/400,CL/400,C/400,COBOL/400.
TFRCTL is only used in
CL programs.


*************** Beginning of data
********************************
0000.01 d*date function using the adddur
0001.00 DTIMESTE S Z
0001.01 DTIME5 S Z
0002.00 DDATE1 S D
0002.01 DDATE2 S D
0002.02 DDATE3 S D
0002.03 DDATE4 S D
0003.00 DTIME1 S T
0003.01 DTIME2 S T
0003.02 DTIME3 S T
0003.03 DTIME4 S T
0004.00 C MOVEL *DATE DATE1
0005.00 C DATE1 ADDDUR 02:*Y DATE2
0006.00 C DATE1 ADDDUR 05:*M DATE3
0007.00 C DATE1 ADDDUR 01:*D DATE4
0007.01 C TIME TIME1
0007.02 C TIME TIMESTE
0008.00 C TIME1 ADDDUR 10:*H TIME2
0009.00 C* TIME1 ADDDUR 10:*ML TIME3
0010.00 C TIME1 ADDDUR 10:*S TIME4
0011.00 C TIMESTE ADDDUR 10:*MS TIME5
0012.00 C DATE2 DSPLY
0013.00 C DATE3 DSPLY
0014.00 C DATE4 DSPLY
0014.01 C TIME1 DSPLY
0014.02 C TIME2 DSPLY
0014.03 C TIME3 DSPLY
0014.04 C TIME4 DSPLY
0014.05 C TIME5 DSPLY
0015.00 C SETON
LR
****************** End of data
*********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 2004-06-27
DSPLY 2002-11-27
DSPLY 2002-06-28
DSPLY 12.18.36
DSPLY 22.18.36
DSPLY 00.00.00
DSPLY 12.18.46
DSPLY 2002-06-27-12.18.36.953010

SUBDUR:
It is used to find the difference between two date (or) time (or) time stamp
Example
VRAMANA/DATE
SUBDUR
*************** Beginning of data
********************************
0000.01 d*date function using the SUBDUR
0001.00 DTIMESTE S Z
0001.01 DTIME5 S Z
0002.00 DDATE1 S D INZ (D'1977-06-
20')
0002.01 DDATE2 S D
0002.02 DDATE3 S D
0002.03 DDATE4 S D
0003.00 DTIME2 S T INZ (T'12. 50.10)
0003.01 DTIME1 S T
0003.02 DTIME3 S T
0003.03 DTIME4 S T
0005.00 C DATE1 SUBDUR 02:*D DATE2
0006.00 C DATE1 SUBDUR 05:*M DATE3
0007.00 C DATE1 SUBDUR 01:*Y DATE4
0007.01 C TIME TIME1
0008.00 C TIME2 SUBDUR 10:*H TIME1
0010.00 C TIME2 SUBDUR 10:*S TIME4
0012.00 C DATE2 DSPLY
0013.00 C DATE3 DSPLY
0014.00 C DATE4 DSPLY
0014.01 C TIME1 DSPLY
0014.02 C TIME2 DSPLY
0014.03 C TIME3 DSPLY
0014.04 C TIME4 DSPLY
0015.00 C SETON
LR
****************** End of data
***********************************
OUT PUT
DSPLY 1977-06-18
DSPLY 1977-01-20
DSPLY 1976-06-20
DSPLY 02.50.10
DSPLY 12.50.10
DSPLY 00.00.00
DSPLY 12.50.00
EXTRCT:
It is used to extract year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds, and
microseconds of a time stamp or date field.
Example:
VRAMANA/DATE
EXRCT
*************** Beginning of data
********************************
0000.01 d*FINT THE EXRCT DAY MONTH YEAR
0001.00 DTIMESTE S Z
0002.00 DDATE1 S D INZ (D'1977-06-
20')
0002.01 DDATE3 S D
0002.02 DDATE2 S 5P 0
0002.04 DDATE4 S 5P 0
0002.05 DDATE5 S 5P 0
0002.06 DDATE6 S 5P 0
0002.07 DDATE7 S 5P 0
0002.08 DDATE8 S 5P 0
0003.00 DTIME0 S T INZ (T'12. 50.10)
0003.01 DTIME1 S T
0003.02 DTIME2 S 5P 0
0003.03 DTIME4 S 5P 0
0003.04 DTIME5 S 5P 0
0003.05 DTIME6 S 5P 0
0003.06 DTIME3 S 26P 0
0004.00 C MOVEL *DATE DATE3
0004.01 C TIME TIME1
0004.02 C TIME TIMESTE
0005.00 C EXTRCT DATE1:*M DATE2
0006.00 C EXTRCT DATE3:*M DATE4
0007.00 C EXTRCT DATE1:*D DATE5
0007.01 C EXTRCT DATE3:*D DATE6
0007.02 C EXTRCT DATE1:*Y DATE7
0007.03 C EXTRCT DATE3:*Y DATE8
0007.04 C EXTRCT TIME1:*H TIME2
0007.05 C EXTRCT TIME1:*H TIME4
0007.06 C EXTRCT TIME0:*H TIME5
0007.07 C EXTRCT TIME0:*S TIME6
0011.00 C EXTRCT TIMESTE:*MS TIME3
0012.00 C DATE2 DSPLY
0013.00 C DATE8 DSPLY
0013.01 C DATE4 DSPLY
0013.02 C DATE5 DSPLY
0013.03 C DATE6 DSPLY
0014.00 C DATE7 DSPLY
0014.01 C TIME2 DSPLY
0014.02 C TIME4 DSPLY
0014.03 C TIME5 DSPLY
0014.04 C TIME6 DSPLY
0014.05 C TIME3 DSPLY
0015.00 C SETON
LR

OUTPUT
DSPLY 6
DSPLY 2002
DSPLY 6
DSPLY 20
DSPLY 27
DSPLY 1977
DSPLY 12
DSPLY 12
DSPLY 12
DSPLY 10
DSPLY 441000
TEST:
Test is the most powerful opcode, which will check a date is a valid, or not .The
low level indicator is set on if the date is not valid or set off if the date is a valid one.
Test will be given with extended factor like test (d), test (t), test (z) for date, time
and time stamp and if test without extended factor default to date (z).
Example
VRAMANA/DATE
TEST
*************** Beginning of data
*********************************
0000.01 C*TEST FOR VALID DATE THE DATE VALID SETOFF OR SETON
(NOTVALID)
0001.00 C MOVEL '13/03/1999 A
10
0002.00 C TEST (D) A
30
0003.00 C *IN30 DSPLY
0003.01 C IF *IN30=*ON
0003.02 C 'NOTVAILD' DSPLY
0003.03 C ELSE
0003.04 C 'VALID' DSPLY
0003.05 C ENDIF
0004.00 C SETON
LR
****************** End of data
***********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 1
DSPLY NOTVAILD

56. Explain Multi Dimensional Array?
The multi dimension data structure array will be implemented in occurs class.
The similar elements of same data type and same attributes size repeating
many times this time using OCCUR opcode.
Which can only be used with a multiple occurrence data structure, allow you to
specify which occurrence of data structure is used for subsequent operation
within the programs.
57.Explain about RTNCSRLOC?
Type Y (Yes) in the Select parameters prompt to define parameters for the
RTNCSRLOC keyword on the Define Return Cursor Location display.

58.Explain Assume and Overlay?
Assume
Type Y (Yes) to select the ASSUME keyword. It causes the AS/400 system
to assume that this record appears on the display when the file is opened. Use this
keyword to receive data that a previous program has left on the display.
Overlay
Type Y (Yes) to allow the overlaying of fields on this record without erasing
the entire display. Note: If you type anything other than Y or blank, your entry will
be ignored. You must specify the OVERLAY keyword to select the other
keywords on this display, with the exception of PUTOVR.

59.Explain Compile time array, lookup, sorta, xfoot, and Run time array?
Compile time array
The compile time array means the elements of the array will be loaded before
the execution of the programs.
The value will be static.
We must declare in keyword command DIM (), CTDTAT (), and PERRCD ().
We are giving the value in after the SETON LR.
Example
VRAMANA/ARRAY
COMILE
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0000.01 c*compile time array
0001.00 darr1 s 4 dim(3) ctdata perrcd(1)
0002.00 di s 2p 0 inz(1)
0003.00 c i do 3
0004.00 c arr1(i) dsply
0005.00 c add 1 i
0006.00 c enddo
0007.00 c seton
0008.00 **
0009.00 1001
0010.00 20
0011.00 1000
****************** End of data ********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 1001
DSPLY 20
DSPLY 1000
Run time array
The run time array means the value will be loaded during the runtime only.
The value will be dynamic.
VRAMANA/ARRAY
RUNTIME
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0000.01 c*runtime array
0001.00 darr1 s 10 dim(12)
0002.00 di s 2p 0 inz(1)
0002.01 da s 3p 0
0002.02 dj s 2p 0 inz(1)
0003.00 c i do 12
0003.01 c dsply arr1(i)
0003.02 c* eval arr1(i)=a
0003.03 c add 1 i
0003.04 c enddo
0003.05 c j do 12
0004.00 c arr1(j) dsply
0005.01 c add 1 j
0006.00 c enddo
0007.00 c seton lr
****************** End of data *********************************
lookup, sorta, xfoot :
VRAMANA/ARRAY
SORTARRAY

*************** Beginning of data *********************************
0000.01 c*lookup,xfoot&sorta examples
0001.00 darr1 s 4 0 dim(3) ctdata perrcd(1)
0002.00 di s 2p 0 inz(1)
0002.01 dj s 2p 0 inz(1)
0002.02 dd s 4p 0
0003.00 c i do 3
0004.00 c arr1(i) dsply
0005.00 c add 1 i
0006.00 c enddo
0006.01 c sorta arr1
0006.02 c xfoot arr1 d
0006.03 c 1000 lookup arr1 40
0006.04 c if *in40=*on
0006.05 c 'found' dsply
0006.06 c else
0006.07 c 'notfou' dsply
0006.08 c endif
0006.09 c d dsply
0006.10 c j do 3
0006.11 c arr1(j) dsply
0006.12 c add 1 j
0006.13 c enddo
0007.00 c seton lr
0008.00 **
0009.00 1001
0010.00 2000
0011.00 1000
****************** End of data ***********************************
DSPLY 1001
DSPLY 2000
DSPLY 1000
DSPLY found
DSPLY 4001
DSPLY 1000
DSPLY 1001
DSPLY 2000
Pre runtime array
Pre runtime array is in between these 2 conditions where the value are static and
the value will be retrieved from disk and loaded into the array.
As a result there is no need to retrieve the value every time from the disk and
usage of pre runtime array makes it fast.
We must declare in keyword command DIM (), FROMFILE (),and PERRCD ().
60.Define data structure and types of data structure?
The different types fields and sub field stored with in single area. This area
in storage is called data structure.
Data structure means program allows you to define an area in storage and
the layout of the fields, called sub fields, with the area. This area in storage is
called a data structure.
Data structure can be used for
Group non-contiguous data into contiguous internal storage locations
Define the same internal area multiple times using different data
formats.
Operate on a field and change its contents
Divide a field into sub fields without using the MOVE or MOVEL
Define a data structure and its sub fields in the same way a record is
defined.
Define multiple occurrences of a set of data
There are four different types of data structure commonly used.
General data structure
Data area data structure
File information data structure
Program status data structure
External Data Structure
Data structure can be specified in D spec
Type IPDS
Data structure name
I Globally initialized data structure
S--Program status data structure
U--Data area data structure
BlanksGeneral (or) File status data structure
Data area data structure
A data area data structure, identified by a U in position 18 of the data
structure statement, indicates to the RPGLE program that if should read in
and lock the data area of the same name at program at program initialization
and should write out and unlock the same data area at end of the program.
The data area and data area structure must have the same name unless
you rename the data within the program by using the *NAMVAR DEFINE
statement.
File information data structure
A file information data structure provides you with status information on
file exception /error occurs. This data structure name must be unique for each
file. It consists of pre defined sub fields that provide information on the file
exception/error that occurred.
Program status data structure
This data structure is identified by as S in position 18 of the data
structure statement, provides program exception/error information to the
program. The *ROUTINE, *STATUS, *PARM keywords mostly preferred
to determine the PS DS.

Example
VRAMANA/DATASTR
DUMP
*************** Beginning of data *************************
0001.00 HDEBUG(*YES)
0002.00 DPSSR SDS
0004.00 DSTATUS *status
0005.00 DROUTINE *routine
0005.01 DPARMS *parms
0005.02 DRES S 2S 0
0007.00 C Z-ADD 1 NUM1 2 0
0007.01 C Z-ADD 0 NUM2 2 0
0010.00 C EVAL RES=NUM1/NUM2
0011.00 C 'NOTCOM' DSPLY
0012.00 C A TAG
0013.00 C 'COMING' DSPLY
0014.00 C SETON LR
0015.00 C *PSSR BEGSR
0016.00 C STATUS DSPLY
0017.00 C ROUTINE DSPLY
0018.00 C PARMS DSPLY
0019.00 C DUMP
0020.00 C GOTO A
0021.00 C ENDSR
****************** End of data ******************************
Output
DSPLY 102
DSPLY *DETC
DSPLY 0
DSPLY COMING

61. What is Lock? How you achieve in AS/400?
To give the access permission for database file. The Locks are provided by
AS/400 system itself.
Type of lock
Share lock
The share lock only reading operation (PF file).
Exclusive lock
The exclusive lock to perform insert, update, and delete operations.

62. How you will release the lock?
By using RCLRSC [Reclaim Resource] command we can release the
resources only. UNLOCK or CHAIN (N) command also helps to release the
lock.
By using WRKOBJLCK command and take F4.

63. How you execute CL command in RPGLE?
By using QCMDEXC command we can execute CL command in RPGLE.
Two parameters will be called use in the CL command to be executed and
second is the length of the command.

64. Explain Commitment Control?
The AS/400 system has an integrated transaction recovery function called
commitment control. Commitment control is an extension of the journal
function on the system.
The records used during a complex transaction are locked from other user
and at the end of the transaction; the program issues the commit operation,
updating the records.
If the system fails before the commit operation is performed, all database
changes are rolled back to the previous commit operation and all the affected
records are unlocked.
COMMIT-The transactions are updated in the data file. Commit occurs
on COMMIT command
ROLLBACK- The transactions are NOT updated in the data file.
Rollback occurs if there are uncommitted transactions and on ROLLBACK
command

65. Explain about sub files in AS/400?
A subfile is a group of records READ from or WRITTEN to a display
device file in one single operation.
It is a display file facility
It is a group of records that can be stored in the main memory.
The program can store a group of records in the subfile one by one in a
sequence.
LODING SUBFILES:
Load all (Size >Page)
Load on demand (Size >Page)
Load on demand (Size =Page)
Load all (Size >Page)
All the records from the database file will be loaded in to the
subfile in one shot.
The subfile size should be greater than the page size at least by
one. (SFLSIZ =5, SFLPAG=4). The subfile size will dynamically
grow when the subfile size mentioned is less than the number of
records in the database file.
PAGEUP and PAGEDOWN are taken care of by the system.
The total subfile size 9999 records.
Load on demand (Size > Page)
The number of records as mentioned in SFLPAG will be loaded
initially.
Then the remaining records can be loaded by pressing
PAGEDOWN, which is taken care of by the programmer.
Same time PAGEUP is taken care of by the system.
The subfile size should be greater than the page size at least by
one. (SFLSIZ =5, SFLPAG=4). The subfile size will dynamically
grow when the subfile size mentioned is less than the number of
records in the database file.
All the records loaded will exist in the subfile.
The total subfile size 9999 recorde.
Load on demand (Size = Page)
The number of records that will be loaded into the subfile must
always be equal to the value mentioned in for SFLSIZ and
SFLPAG.
Every time the subfile should be cleared before paging up or
paging down.
PAGEUP and PAGEDOWN are taken care of the programmer.
The number of records that can be in the subfile at any instance
will be equal to SFLSIZ and SFLPAG values.
Subfile points:
Record formats:
One display -1024 records formats
One display file 512 subfile
Record formats are
1.subfile record format (SFL)
2.subfile control record format (SFLCTL)
subfile record format(SFL)
This record format will have the multiple record definitions
-Defining fields.
-Defining database fields.
Subfile Control record format (SFLCTL)
This record format will control the subfile record format.
-Defining texts
-Defining control fields.
Subfile Size (SFLSIZ)
This keyword can be used to specify the maximum number of records
that can be in the subfile (buffer)
Default ->2
Maximum ->9999


Subfile Page (SFLPAG)
This keyword can be used to specify the maximum number of records
than can be in one subfile page. That is the maximum number of records
that the system will display in the screen at a time.
-Default ->1
-Maximum-> depends upon the display record size.
If the subfile size is at least one greater than the subfile page then the
subfile size will grow dynamically up to 9999.
General keywords
SFLDSP -> subfile display
SFLDSPCTL -> subfile display control
SFLCLR -> subfile clear
SFLEND -> subfile end



Define General Keywords
Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . : SENWLT1
Type choices, press Enter. Keyword
Related subfile record . . . . . . . SFLCTL SENWND1 Name
Subfile cursor relative record . . . SFLCSRRRN Name
Subfile mode . . . . . . . . . . . . SFLMODE Name
Y=Yes Indicators/+
Display subfile records . . . . . . SFLDSP Y 25
Display control record . . . . . . . SFLDSPCTL Y 26
Initialize subfile fields . . . . . SFLINZ
Delete subfile area . . . . . . . . SFLDLT
Clear subfile records . . . . . . . SFLCLR 28
Indicate more records . . . . . . . SFLEND 30
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *MORE Y
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *SCRBAR *MORE ...
Record not active . . . . . . . . . SFLRNA
More...
F3=Exit F12=Cancel
Subfile Display (SFLDSP)
This keyword is used to insert the system that the subfile records
format has to be displayed. The subfile record format without any record
in it cannot be displayed.
Subfile Display control (SFLDSPCTL)
This keyword is used to instruct the system that the subfile control
record format has to be displayed.
0009.00 C N30 SETON 2526
Subfile Clear (SFLCLR)
This keyword is used to clear the records in the subfile records
format.
An indicator can control this keyword.
0005.00 C SETON 28
0006.00 C WRITE SENWLT1
0007.00 C SETOFF 28
Subfile End (SFLEND)
This keyword is used to get the display of + sign or a text more or
bottom in the bottom of the subfile.
+ or more indicates the existence of more records in the subfile
which can be displayed by pressing PAGEDOWN key .
Bottom indicates the end of the subfile.
Instead of Enter Key - Help Type a CF or CA key number to specify
that the operator is to use the Enter key as a Roll Up key. The
specified CF or CA key acts as the Enter key.

Mandatory keywords for subfile
SFL
SFLCTL
SFLSIZ
SFLPAG
SFLDSP
RRN (Relative record number)
RRN is the numeric value (1 to 9999) associated with each subfile
record for accessing
Each record should have a unique RRN value
This value has to be giving by the program.
This has to be associated with the subfile record format in the F spec
continuation line.
This has to be declared in the program as numeric variable of
maximum length 4 and decimal position 0.
F spec format in continuation line with SFILE option
0002.00 FSENDESFILECF E WORKSTN
0003.00 F SFILE (SFL01:RRN1 )

Where RRN1 -> RRN variable name
SFL01-> subfile record format name.

RPGLE Opcodes
EXFMT
If SFLDSP and SFLDSPCTL indicators are on, this opcode will
send the two subfile record formats to the display device and waits
for the users response.
WRITE (SFL)
This opcode is used to add a record to the subfile record
format
RRN value should be set with a non-existing value before
adding the record in the subfile record format.
WRITE (SFLCTL)
This keyword is used for clearing & display the subfile
SFLDROP (subfile drop)
This record level keyword is used to assign a CA (command
attention) or CF (command function) key. The program first displays the
subfile in truncated form; subfile records are truncated to fit on one
display line. When the user presses the specified key, the program displays
the records in the folded form.
Or
Subfile Initially Truncated - Help Type a command function (CF) or
command attention (CA) key number to assign a CF or CA key to specify
if a subfile control record requiring more than one display line should be
truncated to one line, or should be folded to display on two lines. When
this keyword is specified, the subfile is first displayed in truncated form.
The operator presses thespecified CF or CA key to switch from truncated
form to folded form, or from folded form to truncated form.

SFLFOLD (subfile fold)
This record level keyword is used to assign a CA (command
attention) or CF (command function) key. The program first displays the
subfile in folded form. When the user presses the specified key, the
program displays the records again in the truncated form.
Or
Subfile Initially Folded - Help Type a command function (CF) or command
attention (CA) key number to assign a CF or CA key to specify if a subfile control
record requiring more than one display line should be truncated to one line, or
should be folded to display on two lines. When this keyword is specified, the
subfile is firstdisplayed in folded form. The operator presses thespecified CF or CA
key to switch from folded form totruncated form, or from truncated form to folded
form.

SFLINZ (subfile initialize)
This record level keyword is used to specify that the programis to
initialize all records in the subfile on the output operation (read & updates)
to the subfile control record format.
The fields in each subfile record are initialized to
CHAR->BLANKS
NUME->ZEROS
FLOAT->NULLS
SFLNXTCHG (subfile next change)
This record level keyword is used on the subfile control record
format to force the user to correct program-detected keying error in the
subfile records that have been read by the program. It does this by causing
the record to be changed so that a get-next-changed operation must read
the record.
Or
Return Record - Help Type Y (Yes) to instruct the system to return
this subfile record to your program on a subsequent Get-Next-Changed
input operation to the subfile. This record is returned whether or not the
operator changes it. Note: You must type Y. If you do not, the entry
will not be used.You can specify condition indicators for the
SFLNXTCHG keyword.

SFLROLVAL (subfile roll value)
This field-level keyword is used to specify that the user can key a
value into this field to tell the program how many records to PAGEUP or
PAGEDOWN when the appropriate paging key is pressed.
SFLRCDNBR (subfile record number)
This field level keyword on the subfile control record format is used
to specify that the page of the subfile to be displayed is the page
containing the record whose relative record is in this field. If you do not
specify this keyword, the program displays the first page of the subfile by
default

Example for load all
VRAMANA/SUBFILE
NEWEMP
*************** Beginning of data *******************
0001.00 UNIQUE
0002.00 R EMPNEW
0003.00 EMPNOM 6P 0 TEXT('EMPLOYEE NUMBER')
0004.00 EMPNA 15A TEXT('EMPLOYEE NAME')
0005.00 SEX3 1A TEXT('EMPLOYEE SEX')
0006.00 AGE3 3P 0 TEXT('EMPLOYEE AGE')
0007.00 ADDRESS5 15A TEXT('ADDRESS')
0008.00 CITY5 10A TEXT('CITY')
0009.00 K EMPNOM
****************** End of data *********************************
DATA FILE
Display Report

EMPNOM EMPNA SEX3 AGE3 ADDRESS5 CITY5
000001 101 K.RAMANAVKUMAR M 25 ATTUR SALEM
000002 102 R.SHYAMSUNDAR M 27 TRICHY TRICHY
000003 103 B.MOHAN M 27 TCODE SALEM
000004 104 K.KUMAR M 25 SALEM SALEM
000005 105 A.ARUL M 25 SALEM NAMAKKAL
000006 106 BALU M 25 SALEM SALEM
000007 107 RAMANAV M 35 SALEM TRICHY
000008 108 RAJ M 22 TCODWE SALEM
000009 109 HEMA M 33 SALEM CHENNAI
000010 110 VEL M 67 SALEM SALEM
000011 111 RAMESH M 56 ATTUR SALEM
000012 122 SUDHA M 28 SALEM ATTUR
000013 123 KANDASAMY M 34 SALEM ATTUR
****** ******** End of report ********
VRAMANA/SUBFILE

SUB04
*************** Beginning of data ****************************
0002.00 FSENDESFILECF E WORKSTN
0015.00 C *IN03 DOWEQ *OFF
0016.00 C EXFMT MAIN1
0016.01 C IF *IN04=*ON AND EMPCUR='EMPNOM'
0016.02 C CALL 'SELOADALL3'
0016.03 C ENDIF
0017.00 C 03 LEAVE
0018.00 C ENDDO
0019.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data *******************************
VRAMANA/SUBFILE

SELOADALL3
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0001.00 FNEWEMP IF E DISK
0002.00 FSENDESFILECF E WORKSTN
0003.00 F SFILE(SENWND1:RRN1)
0004.00 C Z-ADD 1 RRN1 4 0
0005.00 C SETON 28
0006.00 C WRITE SENWLT1
0007.00 C SETOFF 28
0008.00 C READ EMPNEW 30
0009.00 C N30 SETON 2526
0010.00 C DOW *IN30=*OFF
0011.00 C WRITE SENWND1
0012.00 C ADD 1 RRN1
0013.00 C READ EMPNEW 30
0014.00 C 30 LEAVE
0015.00 C ENDDO
0016.00 C DOW *IN03=*OFF
0016.01 C 03 LEAVE
0016.02 C* WRITE HEATER
0016.03 C* WRITE FOOTER1
0016.04 C EXFMT SENWLT1
0020.00 C ENDDO
0021.00 C SETON LR

****************** End of data *****************************

window main1 take 8

Select Record Keywords
Record . . . : MAIN1
Type choices, press Enter.
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Indicator keywords . . . . . . . Y
Application help . . . . . . . .

Select General Keywords
Record . . . : MAIN1
Type choices, press Enter. Keyword Y=Yes
If this record is not on display, write it
to the display before issuing read . . . . . . . INZRCD
Keep record on display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KEEP
Assume record is on display . . . . . . . . . . . ASSUME Y
Allow rolling of lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALWROL
Retain CLEAR HELP HOME and ROLL keys . . . . . . . RETKEY
Retain command function (CFnn and CAnn) keys . . . RETCMDKEY
Change input defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHGINPDFT
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu-Bar display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MNUBARDSP
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entry field attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTFLDATR
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Return cursor location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RTNCSRLOC Y
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Return Cursor Location
Record . . . : MAIN1
Keyword number Roll
1 of 1 Y +/-
F4 for list
Type parameters, press Enter.
Keyword
Return cursor location . . . . . . . . . . RTNCSRLOC Y Y=Yes
Type indicator *RECNAME . . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Cursor record . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECSD Name
Cursor field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMPCUR Name
Cursor position . . . . . . . . . . . . Name
CF03 03
CF04 04

TAKE 12 AND F4
Work with Fields
Record . . . : MAIN1
Type information, press Enter.
Number of fields to roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Type options, change values, press Enter.
1=Select keywords 4=Delete field
Option Order Field Type Use Length Row/Col Ref Condition Overlap
70 AGE C 21 15 014
80 RECSD A H 10
90 EMPCUR A H 10
100 ---------- C 76 21 003
110 F3->EXIT C 37 22 005
120 EMPNOM S B 6,0 09 036 Y
More...
Add H Hidden
Add M Message
Add P Program-to-system

TEKE 12
SENWLT1
Select Window Keywords
Window record . . . . . . . . . . . . . : SENWLT1
Type choices, press Enter.
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Select record keywords . . . . . Y
General SFLCTL keywords . . . . . Y
Subfile display layout . . . . . Y
Subfile messages . . . . . . . . Y
Select General Keywords
Window record . . . . . . . . . . . . . : SENWLT1
Type choices, press Enter.
Keyword Y=Yes Indicators/+
Window parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . WINDOW Y
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . . Y
Window borders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WDWBORDER
Select parameters . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMVWDW
User Restore Display . . . . . . . . . . . USRRSTDSP
Define Window Parameters
Record . . . : SENWLT1
Keyword . . : WINDOW
Referenced window . . . . . . . . . . . . Name
-OR-
Window definition
Default start positioning . . . . . . . Y=Yes
-OR-
Start line
Program-to-system field . . . . . . . Name
Actual line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1-25
Start position
Program-to-system field . . . . . . . Name
Actual position . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1-128
Window lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1-25
Window position . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1-128
Message line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Restrict cursor to window . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Select Record Keywords
Record . . . : SENWLT1
Type choices, press Enter.
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Indicator keywords . . . . . . . Y
Application help . . . . . . . .
Help keywords . . . . . . . . . .
Output keywords . . . . . . . . .

CF12 12
CF03 03
Define General Keywords
Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . : SENWLT1
Type choices, press Enter. Keyword
Related subfile record . . . . . . . SFLCTL SENWND1 Name
Subfile cursor relative record . . . SFLCSRRRN Name
Subfile mode . . . . . . . . . . . . SFLMODE Name
Y=Yes Indicators/+
Display subfile records . . . . . . SFLDSP Y 25
Display control record . . . . . . . SFLDSPCTL Y 26
Initialize subfile fields . . . . . SFLINZ
Delete subfile area . . . . . . . . SFLDLT
Clear subfile records . . . . . . . SFLCLR 28
Indicate more records . . . . . . . SFLEND 30
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *MORE Y
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *SCRBAR *MORE ...
Record not active . . . . . . . . . SFLRNA
More...
F3=Exit F12=Cancel
Define Display Layout
Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . : SENWLT1
Type values, press Enter.
Keyword Number
Records in subfile . . . . . . . . . . SFLSIZ 6
Program-to-system field . . . . . .
Records per display . . . . . . . . . SFLPAG 5
Spaces between records . . . . . . . . SFLLIN
OUTPUT
EMPLOYEE DETAILS
1.SELECT
OPT EMPNUMBER NAME
000101 K.RAMANAVKUMAR
000102 R.SHYAMSUNDAR
000103 B.MOHAN
000104 K.KUMAR
000105 A.ARUL
More...

EMPLOYEE DETAILS:
1.SELECT

OPT EMPNUMBER NAME

000106 BALU
000107 RAMANAV
000108 RAJ
000109 HEMA
000110 VEL
More...

EMPLOYEE DETAILS
1.SELECT
OPT EMPNUMBER NAME
000111 RAMESH
000122 SUDHA
000123 KANDASAMY
66. ILE advantages over RPG?
Better call performance
Modularity
Multiple-language integration
Enhancements to the ILE compilers
Reusable components
Control over application run-time environment
Code optimization
Tool availability
Foundation for the future

67. What is a Module?
A module is a non-executable program and it contains one or more
procedures. If you have modules without procedure then it means that it is
having only one default procedure and in case we can use CALLB. We are
creating a RPGLE module by CRTRPGMOD and a CL module by
CRTCLMOD commands.

68.How to the create module?
A module is created as a separate object type (*MODULE). Using the
CRTRPGMOD command creates an RPGLE module. A module object cannot
be run directly. You must use the CRTPGM command to bind module object
into a program object. First option 15 or CRTRPGMOD command to create a
module. The CRTPGM command is used to cerate a program from one or more
module.
VRAMANA/RPGILE
MAIN
*************** Beginning of data *******************************
0001.00 C CALLB 'ADD'
0002.00 C CALLB 'SUB'
0003.00 C CALLB 'MUL'
0004.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data **********************************
VRAMANA/RPGILE
ADD
*************** Beginning of data *******************************
0002.00 C Z-ADD 4 A 4 0
0002.01 C Z-ADD 5 B 4 0
0004.00 C A ADD B C 4 0
0005.00 C C DSPLY
0006.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data *********************************
VRAMANA/RPGILE
SUB
*************** Beginning of data *******************************
002.00 C Z-ADD 10 A 4 0
002.01 C Z-ADD 5 B 4 0
004.00 C A SUB B C 4 0
005.00 C C DSPLY
006.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data *********************************
VRAMANA/RPGILE
MUL
*************** Beginning of data ******************************
0002.00 C Z-ADD 10 A 4 0
0002.01 C Z-ADD 5 B 4 0
0004.00 C A MULT B C 4 0
0005.00 C C DSPLY
0006.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data *********************************
CRTPGM Take F4
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . > MAIN Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *CURLIB
Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . > MAIN Name, generic*, *PGM, *ALL
(PEP)
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB...
> ADD
> VRAMANA
> SUB
> VRAMANA
+ for more values > MUL
> VRAMANA
Text 'description' . . . . . . . *ENTMODTXT

OUTPUT
DSPLY 9
DSPLY 5
DSPLY 50

69. What is the difference in between CALL, CALLB, and CALLP?
CALL is a dynamic call where the control will be transferred when the program is
executed. (Control will be transfer the another program (run time) so it is dynamic call).
Where as CALLB and CALLP are static calls. A module is a non-executable
program and it contains one or more procedures. If you have modules without procedure
then it means that it is having only one default procedure and in case we can use
CALLB.
A module is having more than one procedure then we can give explicitly the
procedure name to be called in case of CALLP out of these three CALLP is the most
efficient one. (Using the CALLB, CALLP a program or module is bind in the program so
it is static.)

70. What is the difference between Bind by value and Bind by reference?
Bind by value Bind by Reference
Here the entire modules to be
bounded are physically copied
into the main program object.
In this case we are binding the
programs by using service
programs, which contain a
reference to the module that
has been called, and the
modules are not physically
copied into the program
object.
The program will be executed
even when you delete the entire
module that has been called.
The program will not executed
when the bind modules are
deleted.

Bind by value is faster than
bind by reference. (All the
modules to be bind in the main
program, so it is fast)
It is not as faster as bind by
value. (All the modules cant
bind the main program it is
refer the pointer)

71. Define pass by value and pass by reference?
Pass by reference:
Pass by reference we are passing the address of the parameters and not the
actual value and so the changes in the called procedure will affect the value in the
calling programs. In OPM programs we are using only call by reference.
Pass by value:
Pass by value we are passing the value of the parameter, changes made to the
formal arguments in the called function have no effect on the values of the actual
arguments in the calling function it is used in c program.
In RPGLE we have the option to pass the parameter by value by giving the
keyword VALUE.

72. What are Program Entry Procedure (PEP) and User Entry Procedure (UEP)?
If we are binding many modules together to form a program then we have to specify
which module has to take control first when it has been called and that module is called
as PEP for that program.
User entry procedure (UEP) is the first statement that takes the control when a
program has been called. For example in C programs main () will be executed first when
it has been called and like wise in RPG the statement coded in C Spe will take the control
first.

73. Define Copybook in RPGLE?
It will copy a Subroutine (or) any group of codes physically into the program,
which is copying it.
VRAMANA/RPGILE
COP
*************** Beginning of data ******************************
0002.00 C DSPLY A 5 0
0002.01 C EXSR ADD
0004.00 C SETON LR
0005.00 C/COPY RPGILE, COPY
****************** End of data ********************************
VRAMANA/RPGILE
COPY
*************** Beginning of data ******************************
0000.01
0001.00 C ADD BEGSR
0002.00 C ADD 5 A
0003.00 C A DSPLY
0004.00 C ENDSR
****************** End of data *******************************
OUTPUT
13
DSPLY 18

74.What will FOR opcode will do?
VRAMANA/DOLOOP
FOR
*************** Beginning of data
*****************************
0001.00 di s 5p 0 inz(1)
0002.00 dn s 5p 0 inz(10)
0003.00 c for i=1 to n
0004.00 c i dsply
0005.00 c endfor
0006.00 c for i=n downto 1
0007.00 c i dsply
0008.00 c endfor
0008.01 * for(I=5;I<40;i=i+10)
0009.00 c for i=5 by n to 40
0010.00 c i dsply
0011.00 c endfor
0012.00 c for i=5 to 40 by n
0013.00 c i dsply
0014.00 c endfor
0015.00 c seton
lr
****************** End of data
*****************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 1 DSPLY 10
DSPLY 2 DSPLY 9
DSPLY 3 DSPLY 8
DSPLY 4 DSPLY 7
DSPLY 5 DSPLY 6
DSPLY 6 DSPLY 5
DSPLY 7 DSPLY 4
DSPLY 8 DSPLY 3
DSPLY 9 DSPLY 2
DSPLY 10 DSPLY 1
DSPLY 5 DSPLY 5
DSPLY 15 DSPLY 15
DSPLY 25 DSPLY 25
DSPLY 35 DSPLY 35

75. What are the various stages for a job after it is submitted?
Job queue, Active job, ant OUTQ is the three stages after the job has been
submitted.
76. What is the equivalent command to setll *loval in CL?
POSDBF with file position as *start will set the file to the beginning (or) using
OVRDBF and specify the key field value by RRN value (or) by giving *start.

77. How to create a service program and what are the steps involved in this?
The service program means most commonly used modules are grouped
(binding) together to form it is called service program.
A service program is not bound to its caller until activation time
While creating service program we can create a binder program where we can refer
the modules (or) procedures (or) even data types to be used by the program. Which is
using service program.
Advantages of service programs
They do not take up auxiliary storage space. There is only one copy for all users.
There is only a single copy of the read-only code in main storage for all users in
this service programs is the same as a program that you call dynamically.
Each user of the service program has an independent work area.
You can pass parameters to a service programs by using the traditional parameter
list (or) by importing and exporting variables.
Service programs can be maintained independently of the programs that use the
functions. In most cases, changing a service programs does not cause a program
using the function to be changed or re-created.
Disadvantages of service programs
Service programs are less desirable for a function you may or may not need. The
reason is that it is slower to call a main program that refer to a service program
78. What is an activation group?
Activation group is the boundary set for similar programs. Activation group is also
a storage space in memory.

CLP has a OVRDBF command and calls a RPGLE program
RPGLE program performs a read operation and the pointer is now in the second
program and now call the program 3
RPGLE program that also do a read operation which will read the second record
Since the pointer is in the second position and then return to 2
nd
program in the
above situation when the control transfer from 3
rd
record since the 2
rd
record is
already read in program 3. But we need to need the 2
nd
record according to the
logic but this is not possible in any OPM programs. But in RPGLE there is a
solution for this problem by giving a common activation group for 1
st
and 2
nd

program and have a separate activation group for the 3
rd
program while creating
the program itself and this will avoid all the problem we faced before.
In some situation we want to share between 2 program then we can give the
activation group in *job level in which the changes in one program will be
affected in another program.
Types of activation group levels:
*New: In this case every time you call the program an new activation
group will be created which this case will not be used mostly.
*caller: If we dont know the type of the program that is calling then we
can specify *caller where the activation group will be the same of the
program that is calling.
Named activation group: We can give our own named for different
activation group.
79.What are the statements that are affected by activation group?
OVRDBF
OPNDBF
OPNQRYF
STRCMTCTL
DLTOVR
80. What are the statements, which is not used in CLLE that is used in CLP?
RCLRSC which is replaced by RCLACTGRP
TFRCTL
81. What is the difference between FMTDTA and OPNARYF?





FMTDTA OPNQRY
It will sort the records
sequentially based on the
position of the record
It will sort the records based o
the field values.
If any change in the attribute
size of a PF then we have to
change the program
specification also
If there is any change in the
attribute size it will not affect
the program specification also.
FMTDTA is bit faster in
process than OPNQRYF.
OPNQRYF is slower as
compare to FMTDTA if we are
processing millions of records.

82.What is the new name for AS/400?
I series 400 is the new name given to AS/400 by IBM now.
83.How to see source of copybooks include in a program while compiling or debugging?

While compiling the program give *list instead of *source which will
expand all the copybooks.

84. Explain inner join or natural join and left outer join?
Inner join
Inner join means the matching records in between the joining file will be
selected.
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JPF01
FMT PF
*************** Beginning of data ****************************
0001.00 R JP1REC
0002.00 EMPNO 5S 0
0003.00 EMPNAME 20A
0004.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data *****************************
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JPF02
FMT PF.
*************** Beginning of data ***************************
0001.00 R JP2REC
0002.00 EMPNO 5S 0
0003.00 EMPSAL 10P 2
0004.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data ********************************
Display Report
EMPNO EMPNAME
000001 1,001 SHYAMBABU
000002 1,002 RAMANAVKUMAR
000003 1,003 RAMESH
****** ******** End of report ********
EMPNO EMPSAL
000001 1,001 100.00
000002 1,002 20.00
000003 1,004 300.00
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JOFILE
FMT LF.
*************** Beginning of data ************************
0001.00 R JREC1 JFILE (JPF01 JPF02)
0002.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD (EMPNO EMPNO)
0004.00 EMPNO JREF (JPF01)
0005.00 EMPNAME
0006.00 EMPSAL
0007.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data*********************

EMPNO EMPNAME EMPSAL
000001 1,001 SHYAMBABU 100.00
000002 1,002 RAMANAVKUMAR 20.00
****** ******** End of report ********

Left outer join
Left outer join all the records from primary file and matching records
from the secondary file will be selected.
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JOOUT
FMT LF.
*************** Beginning of data*********************
0001.00 JDFTVAL
0002.00 R JREC1 JFILE (JPF01 JPF02)
0003.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0004.00 JFLD (EMPNO EMPNO)
0005.00 EMPNO JREF (JPF01)
0006.00 EMPNAME
0007.00 EMPSAL
0008.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data********************


EMPNO EMPNAME EMPSAL
000001 1,001 SHYAMBABU 100.00
000002 1,002 RAMANAVKUMAR 20.00
000003 1,003 RAMESH .00
****** ******** End of report ********

SEQUENCING DUPLICATE RECORDS

Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SEQ1
FMT PF.
*************** Beginning of data ***********************
0001.00 R SEQREC1
0002.00 EMPNO 5P 0
0003.00 EMPNAME1 20A
0004.00 ADDRESS 20A
0005.00 K EMPNO
****************** End of data **************************
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> SEQ2
FMT PF
*************** Beginning of data****************
0001.00 R SEQREC2
0002.00 EMPNO 5P 0
0003.00 EMPNAME 20A
0004.00 TEL 10P 0
****************** End of data ******************

EMPNO EMPNAME1 ADDRESS
000001 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA
000002 10,002 DANNY 50,LONG ISLAND
000003 10,003 PRINC 90,ATTUR
****** ******** End of report ********

EMPNO EMPNAME TEL
000001 10,001 BOB 825,777
000002 10,001 BOB 825,999
000003 10,001 BOB 825,888
000004 10,002 DANNY 4,222,600
****** ******** End of report ********
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JDFTSEQ
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data ******************
0001.00 R RECSEQ JFILE (SEQ1 SEQ2)
0002.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD (EMPNAME1 EMPNAME)
0004.00 JDUPSEQ (TEL)
0005.00 EMPNO JREF (2)
0006.00 EMPNAME1
0007.00 ADDRESS
0008.00 TEL
****************** End of data************************
EMPNO EMPNAME1 ADDRESS TEL
000001 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,777
000002 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,888
000003 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,999
000004 10,002 DANNY 50,LONG ISLAND 4,222,600
****** ******** End of report ********





JOIN DESCEND
Columns . . . 1 71 Edit KRAMANAVS/EXAMPLE
SEU==> JDFTSEQ
FMT LF
*************** Beginning of data ***********************
0001.00 R RECSEQ JFILE (SEQ1 SEQ2)
0002.00 J JOIN (1 2)
0003.00 JFLD (EMPNAME1 EMPNAME)
0004.00 JDUPSEQ (TEL *DESCEND)
0005.00 EMPNO JREF (2)
0006.00 EMPNAME1
0007.00 ADDRESS
0008.00 TEL
****************** End of data *************************
EMPNO EMPNAME1 ADDRESS TEL
000001 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,999
000002 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,888
000003 10,001 BOB 23,OLD MADIWALA 825,777
000004 10,002 DANNY 50,LONG ISLAND 4,222,600
****** ******** End of report ********

85. Explain Build in function in ILE?
%SUBST (String name: String position: length)
%ABS (Absolute value by omitting sign)
%EDITC (string: X)
In a application if we want to concatenate a string with a numeric then
we can use this %EDITC
Example:
VRAMANA/BULID
EDITC
*************** Beginning of data *******************************
0001.00 da s 10a inz('shyam')
0002.00 db s 10p 0 inz(20)
0003.00 dc s 10a inz('sundar')
0004.00 dd s 10s 0 inz(12)
0005.00 de s 10a inz('rambabu')
0006.00 dout s 50a
0007.00 c eval out=a+%editc(b:'X')+c+%editc(d:'X')+e
0009.00 c out dsply
0010.00 c seton lr
0011.00
****************** End of data ***********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY shyam 0000000020sundar 0000000012rambabu
%REPLACE (Replacing string, actual string, starting position, offset)
Here we are replacing RAMANAVkumar from position 4 to 3 by kum. The
output will be Ramkumvkumar.
VRAMANA/BULID
REPLACE
*************** Beginning of data ****************************
0000.01 d*replace the string using keyword %replace
0001.00 dc s 16a inz('RAMANAVRaman')
0002.00 db s 20a
0003.00 c eval b=%replace('Ram':c:4:3)
0004.00 c b dsply
0005.00 c seton lr
****************** End of data *****************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY RamRamvRaman



%TRIM (%TRIML, %TRIMR)
The use of the TRIM functions is very limited, in that they support
only the use of character variables and data structures. Numeric fields,
and zero-fill values are not supported. They do, however, provide some
useful function for string handling. For example, in RPG IV, one line
of code is all that's needed to left-adjust a value within a field. For
example:
CCRn01Factor1+++++++OpCode(ex)Factor2+++++++Result++++++++Len++DcHiL
oEq
C ExFmtCustMaint
C Eval CustName=%TrimL(CustName)
Typically, the %TRIM function is the only one of the three that get
used. The other two, however, do have their place.
%TRIM removes trailing and leading blanks from a field, and
returns the remaining value, in place, within the expression. The
returned value is treated similar to a constant value with leading or
trailing blanks.
%TRIML removes leading blanks (trim-left) from a field, and
returns the value in place, within the expression.
%TRIMR removes trailing blanks (trim-right) from a field, and
returns the value in place, within the expression.
%FOUND, %EOF, %EQUAL,%OPEN
OS/400 Version 4, Release 2 RPG IV supports the elimination of
the Resulting Indicators. In their place, several new built-in functions
have been introduced. Most of these new built-in function provide
information about the result of File operations similar to the Result
indicators. But instead of coding Resulting indicator 3, for example, to
check for the end-of-file condition, you simply check the value of the
%EOF built-in function.
The built-in functions that replace the Resulting Indicators include:
%FOUND, %EOF, %EQUAL. In addition, there are %OPEN,
%STATUS, and %ERROR. Mysteriously missing is %LOCK to check
for a record lock condition.
%FOUND returns an *ON or *OFF condition if the previous File
operation returns a record-found condition. This is particularly useful
on the CHAIN operation. Realize, however, that when CHAIN sets on
Resulting indicator 1, a not-found condition is signaled. Whereas,
without coding Resulting Indicator 1, the %FOUND built-in function
returns the found condition.
%EOF can be used to check for end-of file, beginning of file, or
subfile full conditions. A READ and READE return %EOF=*ON if the
end of file is reached. READP and READPE return %EOF=*ON if the
beginning of file is reached. The WRITE operation returns
%EOF=*ON if the WRITE operation to a subfile detail record returned
a subfile-full condition.
%EQUAL is used by the SETLL operation to indicate that it
detected a record in the file with a key equal to that of the value
specified in Factor 1. Since SETLL does not read the record, does not
lock the record, and does not copy the data into the input buffer,
SETLL is much faster and less of an impact on the performance of the
application than other operations, such as CHAIN. Use CHAIN when
you need to retrieve the record, use SETLL and %EQUAL when you
need to only check for the existence of a record.
%OPEN is used to check to see if a file has already been opened.
The built-in function returns *ON if the file is opened, otherwise it
returns *OFF.
%ELEM
%ELEM will display the array dimension
ELEM
*************** Beginning of data ******************************
0001.00 darr1 s 3s 0 dim(100)
0002.00 dc s 3s 0
0003.00 c eval c=%elem(arr1)
0004.00 c c dsply
0005.00 c seton lr
****************** End of data **********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 100
%SIZE
%SIZE will display the size of the variable
VRAMANA/BULID
SIZE
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0000.01 D*BY USING THIS COMMAND FIND SIZE OF DATA VALUE
0001.00 darr1 s 10p 0 dim(10)
0002.00 dds1 s 10p 0 dim(20)
0003.00 dnum s 20p 0
0004.00 c z-add 2 a 20 0
0005.00 c movel 'RAMANAV' b 10
0006.00 c eval num=%size(a)
0007.00 c
0008.00 c num dsply
0009.00 c eval num=%size(b)
0010.00 c num dsply
0011.00 c eval num=%size(arr1)
0012.00 c num dsply
0013.00 c eval num=%size(arr1:*all)
0014.00 c num dsply
0015.00 c eval num=%size(ds1)
0016.00 c num dsply
0017.00 c eval num=%size(ds1:*all)
0018.00 c num dsply
0019.00 c seton lr
****************** End of data **********************************
OUTPUT
DSPLY 6
DSPLY 11
DSPLY 10
DSPLY 6
DSPLY 60
DSPLY 6
DSPLY 120
%EDITW

86.Explain keyword in ILE?
Overlay
Rename
Prefix
Options
Const
87.How you can schedule a job to run periodically?
We have to create a job scheduler for running a job periodically. Here we can
make a job to run once or periodically at a given date and time. We can create a job
scheduler by using ADDJOBSCDE command.
We can list all the job scheduler running by using the command
WRKJOBSCDE command and we can delete a job scheduler by using
RMVJOBSCDE or we can reschedule the job by using CHGJOBSCDE.

88.How to debug a batch job?
Hold the batch job to be debugged by using WRKACTJOB command and
having option 3. Set the pointer in the batch program to be debugged by using
STRDBG and call the STRSRVJOB command and start the service program, which
will enter into the debug mode. After entering into debug mode release the job that
is hold before.

89.Define KLIST?
KLIST operation is a declarative operation that gives a name to list of KFLD.
This KLIST can be used as a search argument to retrieve records from files that
have a composite key.

90.Define PLIST?
The declarative PLIST operation defines symbolic name for a parameter list to
be specified in a CALL operation.

91.Define composite key?
It is a key for a file, which is composed of more than one field.

92.Explain procedure used in RPGLE?
A procedure is a non-executable program. If a module is having more than
one procedure then we can give explicitly the procedure name to be called in case of
CALLP.
Defining the prototype:
Prototype will specify the following things
Parameter type
Sequence of the parameter
Return variable and its type
It tells the name of the procedure and also the type of the call.
It will avoid all the run time problems like parameter mismatch by
specifying the prototype.
Prototype interface
It is like *entry parameter where we will specify the parameters that
are received in this program.
Import and export
If you want to specify the procedures to be the external programs then
we can specify EXPORT in your procedure.


Global and local variables
If you declare a variable in main procedure then it will be accessible in
all sub procedure and this is global declaration and if you specify the
declaration in the sub procedures then it will not be accessed in other
procedures or in the main procedure.
Return
If we specify return in the sub procedure then it means that we are
returning something to the calling program. We can return a maximum of
only one variable to the calling program.
Recursion
A procedure calling to it self is known as recursion.
Pass by value/pass by reference
In case of pass by reference we are passing the address of the
parameters and not the actual value and so the changes in the called
procedure will affect the value in the calling program. In OPM program we
are using only call by reference and in RPGLE we have the option to pass
the parameter by giving the keyword VALUE.
CALLP/Expression
We can call the procedure by using CALLP command if it is not
having any return type and by an expression if it returns any value.

93.How you can import and export a data type between 2 programs?
If you are using an export statement when declaring a variable then the data
type can be imported in any modules that is bind either by value or by reference. So
in this case we can pass values in between modules instead of using PLIST and
*ENTRY.
94. Message subfile record format keywords?
SFLMSGRCD (subfile message record)
This keyword is used to give the line number to get the first message in
the display.
SFLMSGKEY (subfile message key)
This keyword is used to specify that the program message queue is
built one at a time.
SFLPGMQ (subfile program queue)
It is a message queue created for every program active in the call
stack.
This keyword is used to specify the field that can have the name of
the program message queue.
95. How to create Message subfile?
Create message subfile
CRTMSGF MKSFILE/LIB
WRKMSGF FILE/ANME
OPTION 12
Add Message Description (ADDMSGD)
Type choices, press Enter.
Message identifier . . . . . . . MKS0001 Name
Message file . . . . . . . . . . > MKSFILE Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
First-level message text . . . . EMPLOYEE NUMBER &1 CANNOT BE ZEROS
PAGE DOWN
Message data fields formats:
Data type . . . . . . . . . . *CHAR *NONE, *QTDCHAR, *CHAR...
Length . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Number, *VARY

WRKMSGF
MKS0001 0 EMPLOYEE NUMBER CANNOT BE ZEROS
MKS0002 0 EMPLOYEE &1 NUMBER AIREADY EXIST
MKS0003 0 EMPLOYEE NAME CANNOT BE BLANKS
MKS0004 0 ADDRESS(1) CANNOT BE BLANKS
MKS0005 0 CITY CANNOT BE BLANKS
MKS0006 0 MARITAL STATUS WILL BE WITH (M/S)
MKS0007 0 EMPLOYEE NUMBER &1 ADDED SUCCESFULLY
MKS0008 0 EMPLOYEE NUMBER DOES NOT EXISTS
MKS0009 0 EMPLOYEE UPDATED SUCCESSFULLY
MKS0010 0 EMPLOYEE NUMBERDELETE SUCCESFULLY
Create message subfile
10 MSGREC1 SFLMSG 06/27/02
20 MSGCTL1 SFLCTL MSGREC1 06/27/02
USING 8 SELETION
Select Subfile Keywords
Subfile record . . . . . . . : MSGREC1
Type choices, press Enter
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Indicator keywords . . . . . . . Y
Message record . . . . . . . . . Y
TEXT keyword . . . . . . . . . .
Define Message Record
Subfile record . . . . . . . : MSGREC1
Type choices, press Enter.
Keyword
Line number for first message . . . . SFLMSGRCD 24 1-27
Message ID field . . . . . . . . . . SFLMSGKEY DUMMY Name
(if program message queue is built
one message at a time)
Program message queue field . . . . . SFLPGMQ QUEUE Name
Generate a 276 byte field . . . . . Y=Yes
MESSAGE SUBFILE (SFTCTL)
Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . : MSGCTL1
Type choices, press Enter.
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Subfile display layout . . . . . Y
Subfile messages . . . . . . . . Y
Select record keywords . . . . . Y
TEXT keyword . . . . . . . . . .
Define General Keywords
Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . : MSGCTL1
Type choices, press Enter. Keyword
Related subfile record . . . . . . . SFLCTL MSGREC1 Name
Subfile cursor relative record . . . SFLCSRRRN Name
Subfile mode . . . . . . . . . . . . SFLMODE Name
Program message queue field . . . . SFLPGMQ QUEUE Name
Generate a 276 byte field . . . . Y=Yes
Y=Yes Indicators/+
Display subfile records . . . . . . SFLDSP Y
Display control record . . . . . . . SFLDSPCTL Y
Initialize subfile fields . . . . . SFLINZ Y
Delete subfile area . . . . . . . . SFLDLT
Clear subfile records . . . . . . . SFLCLR
Indicate more records . . . . . . . SFLEND
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *MORE
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *SCRBAR *MORE ...
Record not active . . . . . . . . . SFLRNA
More...
F3=Exit F12=Cancel
Select Record Keywords
Record . . . : MSGCTL1
Type choices, press Enter.
Y=Yes
General keywords . . . . . . . . Y
Indicator keywords . . . . . . . Y
Overlay keywords . . . . . . . . Y

Select Overlay Keywords
Record . . . : MSGCTL1
Type choices, press Enter.
Keyword Y=Yes Indicators/+ Roll
Overlay without erasing . . . . . . OVERLAY Y
Create CL program for SNDPGMMSG
VRAMANA/EMPCUSTOR
MSG
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0001.00 PGM PARM(&MSGID &MSGFI &MSGDTA)
0002.00 DCL VAR(&MSGID) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(7)
0003.00 DCL VAR(&MSGFI) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(7)
0004.00 DCL VAR(&MSGDTA) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(10)
0005.00 SNDPGMMSG MSGID(&MSGID) MSGF(&MSGFI) MSGDTA(&MSGDTA)
0006.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data******************************
Create CL program for RMVMSG
VRAMANA/EMPCUSTOR
RMO
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0001.00 RMVMSG PGMQ(*PRV) CLEAR(*ALL)
****************** End of data *******************************
Design the screen
Generate RPG program
0000.01 FMESSTAB IF A E K DISK
0001.00 FMKSSCR CF E WORKSTN
0001.01 C MOVEL MSTATUS S 1
0002.02 C MOVEL '*' QUEUE
0003.00 C MOVEL 'MKSFILE' MSGFI
0004.00 C PL01 PLIST
0005.00 C PARM MSGID 7
0006.00 C PARM MSGFI 10
0007.00 C PARM MSGDTA 10
0008.00 C DOW *IN03=*OFF
0008.01 C MOVEL 0 ERROR 1 0
0008.02 C MOVEL 0 ERROREMP 1 0
0012.00 C WRITE MSGCTL1
0013.00 C EXFMT MKSSEN
0013.01 C CALL 'RMO'
0014.00 C IF EMPNUMB=*ZEROS
0014.01 C MOVEL 1 ERROR
0014.02 C MOVEL 1 ERROREMP
0015.00 C MOVEL 'MKS0001' MSGID
0016.00 C MOVEL *ZEROS MSGDTA
0017.00 C CALL 'MSG' PL01
0017.01 C ENDIF

96.What is active subfile?
Subfile, which are in the main memory, are called as active subfiles.
A maximum of 24 subfile can be active at a time.
97. Navigation between two screens?
VRAMANA/TABLES
EX21
*************** Beginning of data *****************************
0001.00 FEXDSPF CF E WORKSTN
0002.00 C Z-ADD 1 SCR1 2 0
0003.00 C *IN03 DOWEQ *OFF
0004.00 C SCR1 DOWEQ 1
0005.00 C EXFMT DSPF1
0006.00 C 03 LEAVE
0007.00 C IF *IN08=*ON
0008.00 C Z-ADD 2 SCR1
0009.00 C LEAVE
0010.00 C ENDIF
0011.00 C ENDDO
0012.00 C SCR1 DOWEQ 2
0013.00 C EXFMT DSPF2
0014.00 C 03 LEAVE
0015.00 C IF *IN07=*ON
0016.00 C Z-ADD 1 SCR1
0017.00 C LEAVE
0018.00 C ENDIF
0019.00 C ENDDO
0020.00 C 03 LEAVE
0021.00 C ENDDO
0022.00 C SETON LR
****************** End of data *******************************

98. What is the different between READE and CHAIN opcodes?

READE CHAIN
1.The matching records for table The first matching records only
2. We are using the looping
concept
Looping is not necessary
3.The indicator setin the EQ The indicator setin the HI
4. We are most using in SETGT
or SERLL
It is not necessary

99. Define indicator & MOVEA?
It is a 1-bit flag where value will be either 0 or 1 AS/400 provider 99 indicator for
the business user.
1-24 ->assigned functions keys
25-99 ->our own purpose

100. Define ITER / LEAVE?
ITER-> Transfer the control before do loop.
LEAVE-> Transfer the control after do loop.
101.CL commands?
1. WRKMBRPDM
2. CRTSRCPF
By using this command to create source physical file. Default PF size is 92.
3.DSPFD
It is used to display the details about the file when it is created.
4. DSPFFD
It is used for listing details about Individual Fields
5.STRDFU
It is used to add Data into the records
6.STRSDA
It is used to go into screen Designing or Menu Designing
7.CRTMSGF
For creating the Message file
8.WRKMSGF
If you want to create or change or delete any message we can use this
command.
9.CRTDTAARA
For creating The Data Area
10.DSPDTAARA
For listing the content of Data area.
11.CHGDATARA
For changing the content of Data area.

12.DSPLIBL
For listing the contents of library
13.ADDLIBLE
For Adding a library into the current library.
14.RMVLIBLE
For Removing a library into the current library.
15.CHGCURLIB
For changing the Current Library to a new library
16.EDTLIBL
It is used to the edit of the library file. (Change library file it is temporary
delete the library file)
For Adding or Removing library lists.
17.SNDBRKMSG
Used for sending message to all user.


18.CRTPF
It is used to create a PF. Using this command we can set the maximum
number of records, whether delete or update operation is allowed or not, maximum
storage allocation, waiting time etc can be determined
19.CRTLF
To create the logical files.
20.STRRLU
To go into the RLU we are using this command. Default length of RLU is 132
if you give it and creating it very first time else it set the page width value of last
edited RLU. We can give the page width value from 1 to 378 in page width option.
21.DSPSBS
It is used to list the various subsystems running under AS/400 environment.
Various subsystems running are QINTER, QACTIVE, and QBATCH etc.
22.CRTRPGPGM
It is used to create an RPG program. We can determine what sort of source
file is generated. For example when we need the entire source compile as it is since
source is default. If we give *NOSOURCE only syntax errors is generated
NOSECLVL will not allows secondary message where as other setting is allowed it
and so on
23.CRTCLPGM
To create CL program
24.EDTOBJAUT
It is used to give authority to a particular source PF. For giving authority to
other user we must give authority to library, user profile and the source PF.
25.DSPOBJD
If we know library name and object name and we want to know the source PF
where it is residing then DSPOBJD with option as services instant of basic will give
the source PF name.
It describes various object descriptions like created Date, Created by, Source
Physical file, which it is being created, and so on.
26.STRSQL
To start into SQL.
27.WRKSPLF
To work with Spool file
28.DLTSPLF
To delete the spool file
29.CRTDUPOBJ
By using this command to create duplicate object. If you want to compile a PF
having 1000 of records and when we compile it all the data will be lost else if you
want to add or delete a attribute data for other fields will have to copied. For that we
a duplicate object.
30.CPYF
Records are being copied from PF to temporary file and after compiling it we
have to again copy back from temporary file to the original file. If we Add a
attribute we have to give *map and if we want to delete a attribute we have to give
*drop in the map entry field.


31.DLTF
After copying into the original file we have to delete the temporary file or if
you want to delete any file we are using this command. DLTF will only remove the
object
32.RMVM
It is used to delete the member as well as the object.
33.RUNQRY
To display all the records in a PF.
34.CRTCMD
It is the powerful command used to create user define commands.
35.CMPPFM
It is used to compare two programs or files. It can be coded by taking option
54 in Subfile screen.
36.MRGSRC
It is used to merge a file with another file. We have to mention three files one
is the root file, which is just a root and does not contain any code even. The second
file is target file where we can have the ready-made we can copy the target source.
37.RTVCLSRC
If you delete a CL Source then we can retain the source if you are having the
object by using this command.
38.SBMJOB
If you want to submit the job in certain interval i.e. on a specified date and
time we can use this command
39.DSPJOB
It will display all the jobs.
40.DSPUSRPRF
It will display all the entries regarding the particular user profile. It displays
information like what is the user. Profile name; date previously, user class, printing
and all.

41.CPYSRCF
If we want to copy all the members in a source PF to another source PF.

42.WRKACTJOB
To display the active jobs running in AS/400 systems.
43.DSPJOBLOG
By using this command display the output console.
44.SNDMSG
This command is to send the message to an user.
45.DSPMSG
This command is display all the message.
46.CHGCURLIB
Change the current library file.
47.ADDLIBLE
It is used to add the library. It is fully administrator authority.
48.RMVLIBLE
This command is to remove a library from the list.
49.CRTUSRPRF
It is used to display the rights given to a user. The system administrator can
change authority he can give the authority as a system administrator.
50.DSPDBR (data base relation)
This is used to list all the files, which are related to a PF. It displays all the LF
that is referring the PF and also lists the child table if it is having a relation through
ADDPFCST.
51.DSPJOB
It will display all the jobs submitted within the specific interval and display
the entire user who worked on the system at that time
52.WRKMSGQ
It will list all the messages of different user in the job queue.


53.CPYSRCF
If we want to copy all the members in a source PF to another source PF we
can use this command.
54.CPYTODKT
If we want to copy from source PF to a diskette file
55.CPYTOTAP
If we want to copy source PF to a tape then we can use this command.
56.STRDBG
If we want to debug a ILE program then we can use this command .We have
to create a ILE program by compiling with 15 which is CRTRPGMOD command
and take F10 give debugging values as *Source. This will create a module. Then we
have the create the program by giving program name and module name as the same
and if we are calling any other modules also in that include that in the CRTPGM
command
Ex: CRTPGM PGM (LIB/PNAME) MODULE (LIB/PNAME)
(LIB/SPNAME)
Now the program as well as the module is created. Then we have to start the debug
by using the command.
STRDBG PGM (LIB/PNAME) UPDPROD (*YES)
It will shoe the source code of the program and we have to press F6 set the break
point and press F10 key and call the program
CALL PNAME
F11-> display the variable
Shift + F11 -> go to module
102. Data types in CL?
TYPE ()
LEN () VALUE ()
*DEC
Default (15 5)
Max (15 9)
Default (0)
*CHAR Default (32) Default (b)
*LGL 1 Default (0)


103. String operation in CL?
*CAT ->Concatenate without editing.
*BCAT->Trailing blanks in the first character string are truncated. One blanks is
inserted, then the two character strings are concatenated. Any leading blanks of the
second operand are not truncated
*TCAT->All trailing blanks in the first character string are truncated, and then the
two character strings are concatenated. Any leading blanks of the second operand
are not truncated.
VRAMANA/CLP
STRING
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0000.01 /*STRING *CAT *BCAT *TCAT FUNCTION */
0001.00 PGM PARM(&STR &STR1 &STR2 &STR3 &STR4)
0001.02 DCL VAR(&STR) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(15)
0001.03 DCL VAR(&STR1) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(15)
0001.04 DCL VAR(&STR2) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(15)
0001.05 DCL VAR(&STR3) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(15)
0001.06 DCL VAR(&STR4) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(40)
0001.07 CHGVAR VAR(&STR2) VALUE(&STR *CAT &STR1)
0001.08 CHGVAR VAR(&STR3) VALUE(&STR *BCAT &STR1)
0001.09 CHGVAR VAR(&STR4) VALUE(&STR *TCAT &STR1)
0001.10 SNDMSG MSG(&STR3) TOUSR(SKANDASAMY)
0001.11 SNDMSG MSG(&STR4) TOUSR(SKANDASAMY)
0001.12 SNDMSG MSG(&STR2) TOUSR(SKANDASAMY)
0006.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data **********************************
run
call program name (string) f4
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . > STRING Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > VRAMANA Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . > VENKATA
> RAMANA
> ''
> ''
+ for more values > ''
DSPMSG
104. How to set the cursor position in particular field in particular position?
Using the curpos
105. How will retrieve the data in data area?
In retrieve a data area
Out-write a data area
106.Built in function in CL?
%SUBSTRING or %SST
The sub string built-in function produces a character string that is a
subset of an existing character string and can only be used with a CL program.
%SUBSTRING (Character-variable-name Starting-position length)
Or
%SST (Character-variable-name Starting-position length)
%SWITCH

106. Define indicator in CL?
We can set on or setoff the indicator by the command.
CHGVAR (&IN30) VALUE (0) ->setoff
CHGVAR (&IN30) VALUE (1)->seton

107. Message subfile in CL?
Subfile cannot be used in CL but we can use message subfiles in CL.
108. CL processing commands & program control commands?
PROCESSING -> CHGVAR, SNDPGMMSG, OVRDBF, AND DLTF.
PROGRAM CONTROL ->CALL, RETURN, TFRCTL
109. How to CL code has to change to use a call procedure?
By using CALLPRC command. This is the bound call in CL that calls a
procedure within a module.
110. Figurative constants in RPGLE?

*HIVAL, *LOVAL, *ZERO, *ZEROS, *BLANKS, SETLL, SETGT.
111. Rename of fields and prefix?
112. How you will avoid multiple users updating the same records?
The displaying the records in the screen we will be getting the timestamp
along with the actual data. Store this in output data structure and while updating check
weather the previous time stamp is the same timestamp before updating. If the record
is updated by another user than the time stamp will be changed and if it does not
matches then throw the error message Record is already updated by another user else
update the records with current time stamp.
Program 1
Store the time stamp and this time stamp will come as a input to the second program
Program2
Here wstmst1 contains the input time stamp and check this matches with the
database. If matches Update else send error message.
113.Define binder program?
The binder program means binding the procedure it is called binder program.

When you implement a program-level message monitor, I recommend that you use the message identifier CPF9999
instead of the widely used CPF0000. Using CPF9999 provides two important functions over CPF0000. First, CPF9999
catches some messages that CPF0000 will not catch because CPF9999 is the "Function Check" error, which occurs
only after some other program error, including errors triggered by CPFxxxx escape messages, MCHxxxx escape
messages (machine errors), and escape messages from other message identifier groups. CPF0000 only monitors for
actual CPFxxxx messages. Second, the CPF9999 "Function Check" message provides the actual failing statement
number, which is not available from the CPFxxxx error message. Specifying the CPF9999 message ID as the program-
level message monitor makes this additional information available.

114.question details?
DEFAULT CL MSGID?
CPF0000
Dspf windows type?
WINDOW
How many key define in logical file?
All the PF fields are create in key.
What is the level check error?
The level check error means RPGLE program is compiled and PF
or LF are compile suppose the PF or LF compile after the compiling the
RPGLE program this type of error is called level check error.
If you want to copy a PF without making any modification to it then
FORMAT keyword is used.
Default access path maintenance is *IMMED
Maximum no of printer files included in a RPGLE program is 8
Maximum no of files declared in RPGLE is 50 and CL is l
Maximum no of key fields included is 120
Maximum no of fields included in a PF is 8000
Maximum no of arrays included is a RPG is 200
Maximum no of parameter passed in a RPG is 255 and CL 40
Total no of system library is 15 and user library is 25
While logging on the first library to be included is QSYS
QGPL and QTEMP are user library
Printer file default length is 132.
Default size of a member is CRTSRCPF command for ordinary files is
92.

115. What's the difference between CHAIN and SETLL? Is there a
performance advantage?
There are two important differences between CHAIN and SETLL.
1. The CHAIN operation applies a record lock to files that are open or update. The
SETLL operation does not apply the lock.
2. The CHAIN operation copies the record's data to the input buffer for the program.
The SETLL operation does not.
More Details
The CHAIN operation performs a random GET operation to the
database file. If the operation is successful, the data in the record is
copied to the input buffer. If the CHAIN operation fails, a record-not-
found condition is signaled, typically via Resulting Indicator 1. If the
database file has been opened for UPDATE, the CHAIN operation
places a record lock on the retrieved record. No other application can
access this record for update while this lock is applied. Furthermore, if
another program has issued a lock to the record being accessed, the
CHAIN operation will wait for the database time-out period. If the
record is released during that period, the CHAIN operation continues.
If the other program does not release the record, the CHAIN operation
fails with an exception.
CHAIN with NO LOCK
The CHAIN operation supports the NO LOCK operation extender
(the old "half-adjust" column). In RPG III you specify an N in the
operation extender column, in RPG IV, you specify CHAIN (n) for the
operation code. Using NO LOCK allows you to access a record without
a record lock being applied, regardless of the way in which the file is
open. The record's data, however, is still copied to the input buffer
when NO LOCK is specified.
The SETLL operation performs a quasi READ LESS THAN OR
EQUAL operation. If the operation is successful, a READ PRIOR is
performed. The database record's data, however, is not copied to the
input buffer, nor is there a record lock applied to the accessed record.
Hence, SETLL is probably the operation code to use for testing the
existence of a record. However, if the record needs to be retrieved,
CHAIN more effective.
Performance
If your requirement is to check for the existence of a record,
traditionally the CHAIN operation is used. However, since CHAIN
copies the record's data to your program's input buffer, there is
additional overhead required for the CHAIN operation. The SETLL can
be used to effectively accomplish the same task as the CHAIN test. Use
SETLL with resulting indicator 3 (equal). If this indicator is set on, a
record exists whose key matches they value specified in Factor 1. If
your requirement is that the record eventually be updated, subsequent
to the existents test, you should consider using of CHAIN.
116. How do I debug a remote (i.e. "batch") job from an
interactive job?
The ability to debug another job has been a long-standing
requirement for AS/400, now iSeries programmers. It isn't as difficult
as it may seem. Whether you need to debug a batch job, another
interactive job, or an HTTP server job (browser/CGI program), the
following steps can get you started.
Starting Debug for a Remote Job
1. Determine the job name of number for the job you need to debug.
Use WRKACTJOB and note the Job name, number and user profile ID.
If debugging a CGI program, look in the job log of the job for CPF message
HTP2001.
2. Run the Start Service Job (STRSRVJOB) command specifying the job to be
debugged
E.g., STRSRVJOB JOB (012345/usrid/jobname)
3. Run Start Debug (STRDBG) on the program to be debugged
E.g., STRDBG PGM (libnam/pgmname) UPDPROD(*YES | *NO)
4. At this point the program in the remote job is under debug control from your job
You can now set break points (if you're debugging an RPG IV program, the
source will have already been displayed).
Press F12 from within the debugger to return to CMD entry after setting your
break points.
5. Evoke the program in the remote job. If you you're doing a web browser session, hit
the SUBMIT button.
6. You interactive job will "break" at the debug break points and you can debug
application normally.
Ending Debug for a Remote Job
Ending the debug session should be done in the following sequence.
1. From your debugging session, run the End Debug (ENDDBG) command
2. Then run the (End Service Job) ENDSRVJOB command
Your session is no longer controlling the remote job. The remote job
continues normally.
Special Considerations when Debugging a Web Browser/CGI
Program
To debug a CGI program that is evoked from a Web Browser session
running from the standard IBM HTTP Web Server, you need to do the
following in addition to the above.
Before Starting Debug for a Web Browser/CGI Session/Program
End the HTTP Server using the following CL command:
ENDTCPSVR *HTTP
WARNING!!! -- You MUST include *HTTP as the parameter for
ENDTCPSVR otherwise all TCP/IP server jobs (including telnet, ftp, smtp,
etc.) will be ended. And this is a bad thing. IBM sucks for making *ALL the
default for ENDTCPSVR.
Restart the HTTP Server using the following CL command:
STRTCPSVR *HTTP HTTPSVR(DEFAULT '-minat 1 -maxat 1')
This restarts the HTTP server with once instance of each job type (one for
CGI, one for Java, etc.)
Using WRKACTJOB in the QHTTPSVR subsystem location the jobs
running.
The job whose joblog contains the CPF message HTP2001 is the one to be
debugged.
After Finishing the Debug Session
End the HTTP server using the following CL command:
ENDTCPSVR *HTTP
Restart the HTTP server using the following CL command, unless your shop has
another process for starting the HTTP server:
STRTCPSVR *HTTP
Your system should be back to normal.
117. What is the new E operation extender used for?
The new (E) operation extender is used to cause the %ERROR and
%STATUS built-in functions to be initialized after an operation is
performed. That is, these built-in functions and the E operation
extender are used in place of Resulting Indicator 2 on all operation
codes that currently support Resulting Indicator 2 as an error condition.
For example, to check to see if a record is locked, you would code the
following:
.....CSRn01Factor1+++++++OpCode(ex)Factor2+++++++Result++++++++Len++
DcHiLoEq
C CustNO Chain(E) CustMast
C if %ERROR = *ON
C Select
C When %STATUS = 1221
C exsr UpdateNoRead
C When %STATUS = 1218
C exsr RecdLocked
C endSL
C ELSE
C if %FOUND( CustMast )
C exsr whatever...
C endif
C endif
The concept is to first check %ERROR for a generalized error
condition, and then check %STATUS for the specific error. Note that
no resulting indicators are used in the previous example. The normal
not-found condition is checked using the %FOUND built-in function
rather than testing Resulting Indicator 1.
118. Why doesn't the %CHAR built-in function work with numeric
values?
Under the initial release of OS/400 Version 4, Release 2, the
%CHAR built-in function was introduced. However, the function, as
designed, only converted DATE values to character values. This proved
to be too restrictive a use for this function. In the next release of
OS/400 (V4R4) IBM will add function to %CHAR allowing it to
convert all forms of non-character data to character. In that release
%CHAR will function with numeric values.
D Amount 7P 2 Inz(123.45)
C Eval text = 'The amount is: ' + %Char(
amount )

The TEXT field would contain the following after the EVAL
operation is performed:
'The amount is: 123.45'
Unlike %EDITC, the %CHAR built-in function trims off leading
blanks. However, %EDITC provides much more editing power than
%CHAR. Use %CHAR for basic number to character conversion.
119. What's new in V4R4 and RPG IV?
There are a few significant enhancements in RPG IV in OS/400
Version 4, Release 4.
The %CHAR built-in function has be fixed. It now functions like it was
supposed to in the first place. You can wrap a numeric value in %CHAR and a
nicely edited character form of the number is returned. The edited form includes the
decimal, trimmed off leading blanks, and a negative sign.
The FOR loop provides a free-format version of the DO operation code. With
the FOR operation, you can begin a loop operation and continue iterating through
the loop until a variable equals a limit value. The syntax for the FOR operation is
enhanced with the TO, BY and DOWNTO keywords. The TO operation indicators
the upper limit for the looping, while the BY keyword identifies the increment
value for the loop counter. Alternatively, you can specify the DOWNTO keyword
to loop backwards from a large value to a small value.
The OPENOPT keyword is added to the Header specification. This keyword
can be used along with its one and only keyword *INZOFL to cause overflow
indicators to be set off when their corresponding printer file is closed and then re-
opened during the program.
In subroutines, the LEAVESR operation can now be used to exit a subroutine
immediately. Effectively this is a "glorified goto" operation that branches to the
ENDSR statement of a subroutine.
120. How does the CONST keyword work with Procedure
parameters?
If you are certain that the called procedure will NOT modify a
parameter, the CONST keyword can provide several benefits.
1. It automatically converts a field of a similar data type, to the length and type
required by the parameter.
What this means, is say a parameter is a 15 position pack
field, with 5 decimals. Normally, you'd have to specify a
Pdk(15,5) field for the parameter. However, if the parameter is
read-only, you can specify CONST on the Prototype and
Procedure Interface for the parameter. When you do this, the
compiler automatically converts the value (say it's a literal of 27)
to the size and type required by the parameter. This works really
cool with DATE fields. A date for any format can be passed as a
parameter value when that parameter value is CONST.
2. Performance is improved because the compiler can generate more optimized code
for the CONST parameter.
CONST can be used on calls to procedures or programs. We use
it all the time when calling QCMDEXC from within RPG IV. All
three parameters of the QCMDEXC program are CONST values.
The example code below can be used as the PROTOTYPE to call
QCMDEXC from within RPG IV. To call it using this prototype,
specify something like: CALLP run('addlible myLib' 14) in your
calculation specs.
.....DName+++++++++++EUDS.......Length+TDc.Functions++++++++++++++
D Run PR ExtPgm('QCMDEXC')
D cmdstr 3000A Const Options(*VarSize)
D cmdlen 15P 5 Const
D cmdDbcs 3A Const Options(*NOPASS)
Note: if you're using CodeStudio or IBM's Code/400 as your RPG IV
editor under Windows, you could simply highlight the above source
code within your Internet Browser, and copy it to the Windows
clipboard. Then activate CodeStudio (or Code/400) and use the Paste
function to insert the code directly into the editor. Pretty cool, huh? <g>
121. Can you clear up the confusion in the different releases of
RPG IV and OS/400 and ILE?
RPG IV is the next generation of the RPG language. RPG III is the
original version of AS/400 RPG/400. The name "AS/400 RPG/400" is
that given to the IBM compiler package for distribution on the AS/400.
This compiler package compiles various versions of RPG, including
RPGII and at least two releases of RPGIII.
As of OS/400 Version 3 release 1, IBM changed the name of this
compiler package to "AS/400 ILE RPG/400". The reason for this name
change was to identify that fact that the compile now includes a version
of RPG that targets the Integrated Language Environment (ILE), that is
RPG IV.
ILE was first shipped in OS/400 Version 2, Release 3. However,
only the C language compiler produced code that targeted this
environment. First, a word about ILE.
ILE is the new, "native" runtime environment for Programs, on the
AS/400. Under OS/400 Version 2 Release 3, IBM introduced a new
program model. This basically means that new features and interfaces
became available. However, IBM did not just port some runtime
environment to the OS/400 operating system, it actually re-wrote code,
and wrote new code that, essentially, changed the way OS/400 works.
This new code provides support for a mixed set of high-level
languages.
Previously, RPG and CL had their own little runtime environment,
COBOL had it's own, C had it's own, and so on. Under ILE, all
programming languages run in ILE. The same "environment" is used
for COBOL, C, RPG and CL.
However, to take advantage of ILE, new compilers needed to be
created. As for RPG, rather than convert the existing RPGII and RPGIII
compilers, IBM, who was designing a new version of RPG anyway,
decided to target ILE with the new compiler. This would
simultaneously provide a new version of RPG and an ILE targeted
compiler.
Names Are Important
A good friend of mine once said, "names are important" in the
programming world. If a field is called "Rhinoceros", does it represent
its use or purpose? Okay, so perhaps in traditional RPG "Iguana" is a
better choice for this example. (Shorter name.)
During the development of RPG IV, two distinct issues arose.
First, the internal name for RPG IV, was "ILE RPG". This was not a
code name, but rather the name IBM used to refer to the new compiler.
After all, it was targeting ILE, why not refer to it as "ILE RPG"?
Second, the re-architecture of RPG came into question.
Unfortunately, the internal name "ILE RPG" began to be leaked
out to the public. Several magazine writers and IBMers not involved in
the development of RPG IV continued to use the term "ILE RPG"
when referring to RPG IV. I suppose these people still refer to the
AS/400 as SilverLake or perhaps even Olympic.
Then when IBM announced the compiler package or product name
as "AS/400 ILE RPG/400" it only added to the confusion. IBM
dropped the ball when promoting the RPG IV name. They are, after all,
set up to market their products with their product names. The name of
one programming language included in a product that contains nearly
seven full compilers isn't high priority.
RPG IV is the version of RPG that targets ILE. OS/400 V3R1
compatible RPG IV can also target what is now called "the original
program model" or simply OPM. OPM is just a name that has been
given to the original runtime environment of RPG and CL under
OS/400. This is the environment in which RPGIII and CL run. Under
ILE, however, the original native environment is emulated, that is, ILE
isn't an environment at all, it is native OS/400, whereas, OPM is now
an environment under ILE. Some very clever programming and design
went into this, don't you think? Not very many other operating systems,
if any, provide this kind of continuity.
RPG IV -- Release what?
RPG IV was first shipped with OS/400 Version 3, Release 1. This
is now referred to as RPG IV release 1. But don't worry about
remembering releases of RPG IV.
Under OS/400 Version 3, Release 6, IBM enhanced RPG with
procedures, many more built-in functions, and several new data types.
This is referred to as RPG IV release 2.
Then, OS/400 Version 3, Release 2 was announced. It brought the
original release of RPG IV (on the CISC boxes) up to the same level as
RPG IV under V3R6. Are you confused yet? Me too!
Under OS/400 Version 3, Release 7, IBM added a couple of
enhancements, most notably they increased the length of a field name
to a number so large not even magazine authors that don't write real-
world code could complain about it anymore. They also added one or
two new data types, rounding out RPG IV so that it supports all AS/400
data types, except variable length fields. This version of RPG IV is
known as RPG IV Release 3.
The following table identifies the current releases of RPG IV. Note
that RPG IV releases do not necessarily coincide with releases of the
operating system.
RPG IV
Release
OS/400
Version/Release
CISC or
RISC
1 V3 R1 CISC
2 V3 R6 RISC
2 V3 R2 CISC
3 V3 R7 RISC
4 V4 R2 RISC
4 V3 R5 (speculation)
See note 1
CISC
5 V4 R3 RISC
5 V4 R4 (February
1999)
RISC
6 V4 R5 (Summer RISC
2000)
NOTE 1: It is speculated that IBM may ship a final "clean up" release
of OS/400 for CISC that would included a large level of compatibility
with OS/400 V4 R5.
The release levels of RPG IV are only important if you want to
keep track of that kind of thing. One disappointing issue is that unless
you stay on the most current release of OS/400, you don't get all the
cool new features in RPG IV. Even if you stay current, you can't target
prior releases if you use any of the new features. In fact, even if you use
a new feature that doesn't depend on an operating system enhancement,
it can't be used for back releases. This is because of the way the
TGTRLS (target release) feature has been implemented. Basically, if
you're on V4 R2 and you do a TGTRLS(V3R2M0) the compiler calls
the actual compiler for V3 R2. It doesn't have a built-in syntax checker
that says "This feature requires an OS/400 upgrade so don't allow it, or
this one is okay so accept it." It iscalling the same "binary" compiler
code that is on any old V3 R2 system. Which means, for example, that
if you want to take advantage of the new compiler directives, but you
often have to target a prior release, you can't use those directives. For
example, /IF DEFINED does nothing for the executable code that's
generated, but is not supported when TGTRLS(V3R2M0) is specified.
;( Bummer!)
So now we know about RPG IV release levels and how the term
"ILE RPG" got into our vocabulary. So let's clear up another term, the
name of the RPG language. The big one is the term "RPG/400". There
is not programming language called "RPG/400". The language most
often called "RPG/400" is RPGIII. However, back in the System/38
days, the System/38 RPG language was called RPGIII. When the
AS/400 was announced, programmers wanted to give themselves an
advantage on their rsum. So they began calling AS/400 RPGIII,
"RPG/400". Then to make matter worse, when RPG IV was announced,
programmers thought that the number "IV" in "RPG IV" was less than
the "400" in "RPG/400". So they decided to call RPG IV, "ILE RPG".
Well let's set the record straight. The table below lists the RPG
language names, their incorrect name, and the proper name.
Commonly
used
Wrong
Name
Formal Name Proper
(correct)
Name
RPG/36 System/36-compatible
RPGII
RPGII
RPG/38 System/38-compatible
RPGIII
RPGIII
RPG/400 RPGIII RPGIII
ILE RPG RPG IV RPG IV
122. How do I declare an array with a dynamic number of
elements?
In RPG IV, the new (V3 R7) ALLOC, REALLOC and DEALLOC
operation codes can be used to allocate memory. This means that at run
time, you can go out to the system and ask it to assign storage to the
program that was not allocated to the program when it was evoked.
These operation codes can be used to allocate memory up to 16MB.
The allocation can be assigned to a pointer variable. In RPG IV,
pointers have the data-type of asterisk (*). All that is needed is to
allocate memory to a pointer that is used with the BASED keyword of
the desired dynamic array. The example that follows illustrates this
technique:
.....DName+++++++++++EUDS.......Length+TDc.Functions++++++++++++++++++
D DynoArr S 7P 0 Dim(10000) based( pDynoArr)
D nSize S 10i 0

.....CSRn01..............OpCode(ex)Extended-factor2++++++++++++++++++
C Eval nsize = %size(DinoArr) * 64
.....CSRn01Factor1+++++++OpCode(ex)Factor2+++++++Result++++++++Len++DcHiLoEq
C Alloc nSize pDynoArr
** We now have enough storage allocated for 64 elements.
C Eval nsize = %size(DinoArr) * 70
C ReAlloc nSize pDynoArr
** We have changed the allocation to enough storage for 70 elements
C* ... code to use the array goes here...
C Dealloc(N) pDynoArr
** We have just returned the storage to the system.
To increase or decrease the number of elements in the dynamic
array, use the REALLOC operation code. Simply change the number of
bytes that need to be allocated, and call REALLOC with the new size
in Factor 2 and the original pointer variable in the Result field.
REALLOC allocates new storage of the size specified, and copies the
original data to that new location. Then it frees ("deallocates") the
original storage.
IMPORTANT: Always remember to DEALLOC anything you
ALLOC. That is always free up memory that you have allocated
otherwise memory leaks will be created.
If you are not on V3 R7, you can still use dynamic memory by
calling one of the system APIs or linking into the QC2LE binding
directory and calling the C runtime MALLOC and DEALLOC
functions.
123. RPG IV - Built-in Functions
The original release of RPG IV included a set of built-in functions.
These built-in functions were:
%ADDR, %PADDR, %SIZE, %ELEM, %SUBST, %TRIM,
%TRIML, %TRIMR
In addition, under OS/400 V3R2 and V3R7 the %PARMS built-in
function was introduced. Since then, several built-in functions have
been added to RPG IV. The following table provides the OS/400
Version and Release that the specific built-in functions were introduced
and/or enhanced.
NOTE: IBM Seems to skip-ship the RPG IV compiler. So RPG IV in
V4R1, V4R3 and V4R5 have no new functionality. The next scheduled
upgrade is OS/400 V5R1 in Spring 2001.

Version
Release
Built-in
Function
Parameters
Return Value
Description
V3R7 %ABS numeric expression Absolute value of
expression
%ADDR variable name Address of
variable
V5R1 %ALLOC memory size Pointer to the
allocated storage.
V4R2
V4R4
%CHAR graphic, date, time,
timestamp, or
numeric expression
Value in
character data
type
V5R1 %CHECK compare-value :
data-to-search { :
start-position }
First position in
the searched-data
that contains a
character not in
the list of the
characters in the
compare value.
V5R1 %CHECKR compare-value :
data-to-search { :
start-position }
Last position in
the searched-data
that contains a
character not in
the list of the
characters in the
compare value.
(Search begins
with the right-
most character
and proceeds to
the left.
V5R1 %DATE { value { : date-
format-code }
A date data-type
value after
converting the
"value" to the
specified date
format. If no
value is
specified, the
current system
date is returned.
V5R1 %DAYS days A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of days to a date
value.
V3R7 %DEC numeric expression
{:digits : decpos}
Value in packed
numeric format.
If digits and
decpos are
specified the
result value is
formatted to fit in
a variable of the
number of digits
specified.
V3R7 %DECH numeric expression
: digits : decpos
Half-adjusted
value in packed
numeric format.
The length and
decimal positions
V3R7 %DECPOS numeric expression Number of
decimal digits.
V5R1 %DIFF start-date : end-date
: duration-code
Calculates the
difference
between two date
fields. The type
of difference
returned is
specified by the
duration-code.
V4R4 %DIV Numerator :
Denominator
Performs integer
division and
returns the
quotient (result)
of that division
operation.
V3R7 %EDITC non-float numeric
expression : edit
code {:*CURSYM
| *ASTFILL |
currency symbol}
String
representing
edited value.
V3R7 %EDITFLT
numeric
expression
Character
external display
representation of
float.
V3R7 %EDITW non-float numeric
expression : edit
word
String
representing
edited value
%ELEM array, table, or
multiple occurrence
data structure name
Number of
elements or
occurrences
V4R2 %EOF {file name} '1' if the most
recent file input
operation or write
to a subfile (for a
particular file, if
specified) | ended
in an end-of-file
or | beginning-of-
file condition '0'
otherwise.
V4R2 %EQUAL {file name} '1' if the most
recent SETLL
(for a particular
file, if specified)
or LOOKUP
operation found
an exact match '0'
otherwise.
V4R2 %ERROR '1' if the most
recent operation
code with
extender 'E'
specified resulted
in an error '0'
otherwise.
V3R7 %FLOAT numeric expression Value in float
format.
V4R2 %FOUND {file name} '1' if the most
recent relevant
operation (for a
particular file, if
specified) found
a record
(CHAIN,
DELETE,
SETGT,
SETLL), an
element
(LOOKUP), or a
match (CHECK,
CHECKR,
SCAN) '0'
otherwise.
V4R4 %GRAPHIC Any character
value
Converts
character data to
double-byte
character set
value.
V5R1 %HOURS hours A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of hours to a time
value.
V3R7 %INT numeric expression Value in integer
format
V3R7 %INTH numeric expression Half-adjusted
value in integer
format
V3R7 %LEN any expression
1. Returns the
length of a
variable or
literal
value, or
the current
length of a
varying
length field.
2. When used
on the left
side of the
equal sign,
sets the
length of a
varying
length field.
V5R1 %LOOKUPxx search-data : array
{ : start-index { :
elements to search
}}
An array index of
the element in the
array where the
search-data is
located.
V5R1 %TLOOKUPxx search-data :
searched-table { :
alternate-table }
*ON if the search
is successful,
otherwise *OFF.
(NOTE: The
indexes of the
searched-table
and alternate-
table are set to
the index of the
search-data if
*ON is returned.)
V5R1 %MINUTES minutes A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of minutes to a
time value.
V5R1 %MONTHS months A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of months to a
date value.
V5R1 %MSECONDS milliseconds A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of milliseconds to
a time value.
V3R7 %NULLIND null-capable field
name
Value in
indicator format
representing the
null indicator
setting for the
null-capable
field.
V5R1 %OCCUR data-structure The current
occurrence of the
data structure, or
sets the current
occurrence of the
data structure
V4R2 %OPEN file name '1' if the specified
file is open '0' if
the specified file
is closed.
Consider this
built-in to be an
'Is this file
open?" operation.
%PADDR procedure name Address of
procedure
V3R2
V3R6
%PARMS Number of
parameters
passed to
procedure
V5R1 %REALLOC pointer : new-size Pointer to the
allocated storage.
V4R4 %REM Numerator :
Denominator
Performs integer
division and
returns the
remainder from
the division
operation.
V4R2 %REPLACE replacement string:
source string {:start
position {:source
length to replace}}
String produced
by inserting
replacement
string into source
string, starting at
start position and
replacing the
specified number
of characters.
V3R7 %SCAN search argument :
string to be
searched {:start
position}
First position of
search argument
in string or zero,
if not found.
V5R1 %SECONDS Seconds A duration value
that can be used
in an expression
to add a number
of seconds to a
time value.
V5R1 %SHTDN *ON if the job is
being shut down
(e.g., when the
PWRDWNSYS
command is
issued) otherwise
*OFF is returned.
%SIZE Variable, data
structure, array, or
literal {: *ALL}
Number of bytes
used by variable
or literal. *ALL
returns the
number of bytes
used by all the
elements of the
array, or all the
occurrences of
the data structure.
V5R1 %SQRT expression or value
The square
root of the
expression or
value.
V4R2 %STATUS {file name} 0 if no program
or file error
occurred since
the most recent
operation code
with extender 'E'
specified most
recent value set
for any program
or file status, if
an error occurred
if a file is
specified, the
value returned is
the most recent
status for that
file.
V3R7 %STR pointer{:maximum
length}
Characters
addressed by
pointer argument
up to but not
including the first
x'00'.
V5R1 %SUBDT date : duration-code The extracted
component of the
date value. (The
functional
equivalent of the
EXTRCT
operation code.)
%SUBST string:start{:length} Substring value.
If length is not
specified, the
substring begins
with start and
continues
through the end
of the string.
V5R1 %THIS Used for Java
integration.
Returns an
Object reference.
V5R1 %TIME { value { : time-
format-code }
A time data-type
value after
converting the
"value" to the
specified time
format. If no
value is
specified, the
current system
time is returned.
V5R1 %TIMESTAMP {value { : *ISO |
*ISO0 }
A timestamp
data-type value
with or without
separators.
%TRIM string String with left
and right blanks
trimmed
(removed)
%TRIML string String with left
blanks trimmed
%TRIMR string String with right
blanks trimmed
V4R4 %UCS2 Any character
value
Returns a varying
length value.
V4R2 %UNS numeric expression Value in
unsigned format
V4R2 %UNSH numeric expression Half-adjusted
value in unsigned
format
V5R1 %XLATE from-table : to-
table : string-to-
convert { : starting-
position }
The converted
string is returned.
V4R4 %XFOOT Array name Cross foots
(totals) all the
elements in an
array.

Define General Keywords

Subfile control record . . . . . . . . . :
SCREENC1

Type choices, press Enter. Keyword
Related subfile record . . . . . . . SFLCTL
SCREENS1 Name
Subfile cursor relative record . . . SFLCSRRRN
Name
Subfile mode . . . . . . . . . . . . SFLMODE
Name



Y=Yes Indicators/+
Display subfile records . . . . . . SFLDSP
Y 40
Display control record . . . . . . . SFLDSPCTL
Y 40
Initialize subfile fields . . . . . SFLINZ
Y N40
Delete subfile area . . . . . . . . SFLDLT
Clear subfile records . . . . . . . SFLCLR
N40
Indicate more records . . . . . . . SFLEND
40
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *MORE
SFLEND parameter . . . . . . . . *SCRBAR
*MORE ...
Record not active . . . . . . . . . SFLRNA
Y

Keyword
CFnn/CAnn Indicators/+
Subfile initially truncated . . . . SFLDROP
Subfile initially folded . . . . . . SFLFOLD
Use instead of Enter key . . . . . . SFLENTER

More...
F3=Exit F12=Cancel

CL/400 Quiz (15 Marks)

1. The maximum no. of objects that can be declared in a CL program are __One__.
2. The command used to trap errors in a CL program is ___MONMSG_____.
3. ___PARM____ is the keyword used to pass parameters in a CL program.
4. How many datatypes are available in CL/400? What are they? 2 marks
Three - *CHAR, *DEC, *LGL
5. The command analogous to DSPLY opcode is __ SNDPGMMSG MSG(xxxxxx)__.
6. Write the code to move a decimal value into a character variable.
CHGVAR VAR(&C) VALUE(&D) where &A is character variable and &D is decimal value.
7. How will you execute the format of a display file in CL/400?
SNDRCVF
8. What is the length of a CL variable name?
11 characters including &
9. What is a data area? How many types of data area are there? 2 marks
A Data Area is an Object on AS/400 of the type *DTAARA. This stores a single value of data in a
flat format and can be used by one or many programs. The different types are:
a) *LDA local data area b) General Data area
c) Group Data Area d) Program initialized parameter data area
10. Write the command to get the system date and display it? 2 marks
RTVSYSVAL SYSVAL(QDATE) RTNVAR(&M)
SNDPGMMSG MSG(DATE IS *CAT &M) where &M is a character variable of length 6
11. What is the syntax to convert the date from one format to the other? 2 marks
CVTDAT DATE(&D1) TOVAR(&D2) FROMFMT(*EUR) +
TOFMT(*JIS) TOSEP(/)

Common Questions

1. How many files can be used in a CL.
2. How many files can be used in RPG (3).
3. What is the difference between RPG3 AND RPG4.
4. What is static binding and dynamic binding?
5. How do you check for error in CL?
6. What is the use of Ovrdbf?
7. What is the use of open query (OPNQRY)?
8. How do you use the Open Query file in the RPG?
9. How do you submit a job?
10. What is the difference between Move and Movel?
11. What is the difference between Move and Eval?
12. What does Seton LR do?
13. What is the difference between Seton LR and Seton RT?
14. How do you check for error in RPG?
15. Can we execute a statement after Seton LR?
16. How do we control the opening of the files and Closing of the files in RPG?
17. What are the various kinds of Subfiles?
18. When do we use a load all Subfile?
19. What are the basic keywords required for a subfile?
20. Can we use SFLRCDNBR for a Page = Size Subfile. Will it compile (DDS)
21. Why a LF is required? What are the benefits and Overhead?
22. How many formats can a PF/LF/JLF contain?
23. What is the use of multiple member file?
24. What happens if the RRN is Zero in a Subfile and Display Subfile Indicator is Seton
and Exfmted?
25. How do I change the PF without losing the data?
26. What are the implications of the same?
27. How the same can be overcome?
28. I do change the PF with the CHGPF command and use one of its logical in a PGM
what happens to the PGM?
29. How many kinds of Arrays are available?
30. How many kinds of Data Areas are available?
31. I have a Select statement and When clause/s there are cases where the When
clause satisfies, how many clauses gets executed.
32. What is the difference between DOW and DOUNTIL?
33. What is the data type of the Indicator?
34. How can I retrieve the value of a particular element in an Array?
35. How do you journal a file?
36. What is the use of commitment control?
37. What happens if I have a file under commitment control and I have done a Read on
the same and Updated the file, again I am trying to update the same record or Read the
record? Will there be any error? IF so why? How to fix the same?
38. What are the uses of procedures?
39. How to invoke the procedure?
40. How do we write a procedure? (Steps)
41. How do we execute a CL command from a RPG?
42. Some keywords that can be used in Printer file/ Display file.
43. How do we monitor for the end of file in CL? CPF0864
44. How do you handle for end of file in RPG (Built ins for Chain/ Read / Reade)
45. What are the I/O operations that can be done on the Subfile?
46. If we modify a value of Subfile record, how do we retrieve the same?
47. What if the changed value in the Subile is erroneous? How can we check it and ask
the user to rectify the same?
48. What is the use of SFLNXTCHG? Explain what is MDT.
49. What is the accpth?


RPG

1) Three types of subfiles.
Single page / Load All / Expanding

2) What are the keywords that distinguish between the three types of subfiles
Single Page SFLSIZ = SFLPAG
Expanding subfile SFLSIZ > SFLPAG
Expanding subfile SFLSIZ > SFLPAG

What are the opt codes that are used to read subfile records.
READC, CHAIN

3) How can I read a changed record in the second cycle of read of a subfile
Keyword- SFLNXTCHG

4) In a Selec /When/ Endsl sequence if all the WHEns evaluate to true which statements
execute.

5) Evaluate this statement
MOVE 1 FLD1
FLD1 IFNE 1
FLD2 ORNE 1
Y DSPLY
ELSE
N DSPLY
ENDIF

6) Evaluate this statement
Z-ADD 0 FLD1 10,3
MOVE 103.25 FLD1
FLD1 DSPLY

FLD1 = 10.325

7) Evaluate this statement
KEYVAL SETLL FILE1 XXXX01
*IN01 DSPLY

Value = 1

8) Evaluate this statement
KEYVAL READE FILE1 XXXX01
*IN01 DSPLY

Value = 0

9) Format level identifier and its use. Follow it with Can I change a structure of a file and
then not compile the RPG program.

If you have ever modified a physical file (e.g., added a new field or changed the length of an existing field) and you
didn't recompile the programs that use that file, you probably found out the hard way about file level-checking. If level-
checking is active for that file (which is the default), any program that has not be recompiled will receive an escape
message when called. The process of level-checking for a file is to ensure that programs using that file always use the
current definition of the file, hence ensuring data integrity.
How file level-checking works
There are five steps to the file level-checking process:
1. Creation of the record format level-identifiers. When you create a file (physical, logical, display, printer and communications file
types), the system generates a level-identifier for each record format in the file. The system uses a sophisticated hashing algorithm to
generate a unique identifier based on the record name, the number of fields, the field names, the field types and the field lengths.
2. Creation of the file level-identifier. The system also creates a single level-identifier for the file itself. This is simply the timestamp of
when the file was created.
3. Compiler copies the file level-identifier and the record format level-identifier(s) into the program. When you create a program
that uses a file, the level-identifiers are copied into the program. The compiler stores, in the program, copies of the file level-identifier
and the record format level-identifiers for each record format used by the program. You can use the Display Program References
command (DSPPGMREF) to view the files used by a program and the associated level-identifiers.
4. File level-identifier check at program run-time. When a file is opened by a program the system checks the file level-identifier
stored in the program against the current file level-identifier in the file (recall, this is the timestamp of when the file was created). This
check determines if the file has been recreated since the program was compiled. If the level-identifiers match, the process is done and
the program runs as normal.
5. Record format level identifier check at program run-time. If the file level-identifiers did not match (in step 4), then the system
checks the record format level-identifiers. Each one stored in the program is checked against the corresponding level-identifier in the
file. If a mismatch is found, the program gets a "record format level check" escape message. To correct the problem you need to
recompile the program.
How to turn off level checking
You can turn level checking off for a file when you create the file. For example, the Create Physical File
(CRTPF) command and the Create Logical File (CRTLF) command both have a Level check parameter
(LVLCHK) that allows you to control level checking. When you use the default *YES, the system will go
through the level checking process describe above. Specify *NO and the system will completely bypass the run-
time level checks whenever the file is opened.
You can also control level checking at run time using the Override Database File (OVRDBF) command. It,
too, has a Level check parameter that allows you to turn level checking off temporarily. Do this by specifying
*NO for this parameter. Note, however, that you cannot specify *YES for this parameter, so you cannot turn on
level checking at run time for a file created with LVLCHK(*NO).



10) Describe exception handling


CLP

11) How to read a database file in a CL program

12) How to check for end of file

Ans:- CPF0864

13) Can I use an override to position in a database file

14) Display a record format in CL program

15) How to submit a program in batch

16) How do you debug an RPG program.

17) Three ways of copying a file.

CRTDUPOBJ

CPYF

INSERT INTO


I have a program object I need to identify the location of the source
DSPOBJD OBJ (XXXX) (*SERVICE)
How to check an object exists on the system in a CL program.
How to display record locks

1) Where do system libraries reside?
2) How to get the length of data in a variable? Not the length of variable.
3) How to use TEST opcode for a alphanumeric variable?
4) Why use LF with key and not PF with key if no maintenance considerations.
5) Whats FIFO?
6) Can u have a PF with fields derived from 2 field reference files?
7) Can u have an LF defined on all the members of a PF at once? If so how?
8) How do u know when a Batch Job has ended?
9) How will u use a pgm to change current library list?
10) How will u use a pgm to change library list for an interactive job after a batch
job?
11) What are job
12) Difference between activation group and job ?
13) What are the types of activation group and their significance?
14) What are modules, service programs, can u see the code of service pgms if u
browse through them?
15) How is ILE different from other HLLs?
16) What is difference between *SRVPGM and a normal RPGLE pgm both can
have modules. Why prefer *SRVPGM?
17) Service programs are mare by pass by reference?
18) What are the types of access path maintenance? Explain each of them.
Specify the current access path maintenance (MAINT) parameter
The MAINT parameter specifies how access paths are maintained for closed files. While a file is open, the system
maintains the access paths as changes are made to the data in the file. However, because more than one access path can
exist for the same data, changing data in one file might cause changes to be made in access paths for other files that are
not currently open (in use). The three ways of maintaining access paths of closed files are:
Immediate maintenance of an access path means that the access path is maintained as changes are made to its associated data,
regardless if the file is open. Access paths used by referential constraints will always be in immediate maintenance.
Rebuild maintenance of an access path means that the access path is only maintained while the file is open, not when the file is closed;
the access path is rebuilt when the file is opened the next time. When a file with rebuild maintenance is closed, the system stops
maintaining the access path. When the file is opened again, the access path is totally rebuilt. If one or more programs has opened a
specific file member with rebuild maintenance specified, the system maintains the access path for that member until the last user
closes the file member.
Delayed maintenance of an access path means that any maintenance for the access path is done after the file member is opened the
next time and while it remains open. However, the access path is not rebuilt as it is with rebuild maintenance. Updates to the access
path are collected from the time the member is closed until it is opened again. When it is opened, only the collected changes are
merged into the access path.
If you do not specify the type of maintenance for a file, the default is immediate maintenance.
MAINT parameter comparison
Table 2 compares immediate, rebuild, and delayed maintenance as they affect opening and processing files.
Table 2. MAINT Values
Function Immediate Maintenance Rebuild Maintenance Delayed Maintenance
Open Fast open because the access path
is current.
Slow open because access path
must be rebuilt.
Moderately fast open because the
access path does not have to be
rebuilt, but it must still be
changed. Slow open if extensive
changes are needed.
Process Slower update/output operations
when many access paths with
immediate maintenance are built
over changing data (the system
must maintain the access paths).
Faster update/output operations
when many access paths with
rebuild maintenance are built over
changing data and are not open
(the system does not have to
maintain the access paths).
Moderately fast update/output
operations when many access
paths with delayed maintenance
are built over changing data and
are not open, (the system records
the changes, but the access path
itself is not maintained).
Note:
1. Delayed or rebuild maintenance cannot be specified for a file that has unique keys.
2. Rebuild maintenance cannot be specified for a file if its access path is being journaled.
MAINT parameter tips
The type of access path maintenance to specify depends on the number of records and the frequency of additions,
deletions, and updates to a file while the file is closed.
You should use delayed maintenance for files that have relatively few changes to the access path while the file
members are closed. Delayed maintenance reduces system overhead by reducing the number of access paths that are
maintained immediately. It may also result in faster open processing, because the access paths do not have to be rebuilt.
You may want to specify immediate maintenance for access paths that are used frequently, or when you cannot wait for
an access path to be rebuilt when the file is opened. You may want to specify delayed maintenance for access paths that
are not used frequently, if infrequent changes are made to the record keys that make up the access path.
In general, for files used interactively, immediate maintenance results in good response time. For files used in batch
jobs, either immediate, delayed, or rebuild maintenance is adequate, depending on the size of the members and the
frequency of changes.

19) How to copy 1000 record from 10000 records using CPYF, tell the keywords.
20) Whats the difference between CALL, CALLB, CALLP when are they used?
21) What are the different ways of transferring control from one pgm to another?
22) DataQs, what happens to the dataq after the data has been sent?
23) What is an access path?
24) CL variable types, max length, default length
25) Why is SFLNXTCHG used?
26) If I use a field reference file and a COLHDG is defined in that and while using
them in a PF I again specify a COLHDG, which takes precedence?
27) Difference between ODP and Access path?
28) What is an ODP does it exist if so where?
29) RPGILE is faster than RPG why?
30) How many overflow indicators can u have in a pgm?
31) What are the different kinds of indicators in RPGLE?
32) What is primary file, secondary file, fully procedural file.
33) How many secondary files/printer files can be there in a pgm?
34) Can I specify a update for a primary/secondary file/fully procedural file?
35) What happens if I specify UC (user controlled) for a primary/secondary/fully
procedural file?
36) What is level check (LVLCHK)?
37) What is *Namvar DEFINE?
38) What are the error handling subroutines?
39) What are the different kind of MONMSGs
40) Can u se a subfile in a CL pgm? Message Subfile ?
41) What is the difference between CALL and Transfer Control (TFRCTL) ?
42) Explain Multi Dimensional Array?
43) Explain Commitment Control?
44) How can u send data from a production environment to a development
environment?
45) READC why n when used?
46) How do you send a Packed decimal value from a CL program to a RPGILE
program as parameter?
47) How does CL pgm end if no ENDPGM, is PGM mandatory?
48) Can data be copied from an LDA into a SBMJOB?

RPG/400 Quiz (25 Marks)

1. The maximum no. of files that can be declared in an RPG/400 program is __50
___.
2. Write the syntax to define a data area in an RPG/400 program.
*NAMVAR DEFN MYAREA 20 where MYAREA is a data area.
3. What are the two programming styles in RPG/400?
RPG Logic Cycle and User Logic
4. Justify why only 8 printer files can be used in an RPG/400 program.
Only 8 overflow indicators are available in RPG/400 OA-OG, OV which can be
used to handle only 8 printer files at the most.
5. What are the data types supported by RPG/400?
Character and Numeric and exceptionally Binary
6. What are the uses of I-specs? 2 marks
I specs can be used to define Data Structures, Named Constants, and Program
Described file definition
7. How many types of arrays are there in RPG/400? Define them. 2 marks
Pre-run time array The array gets loaded into the memory before the execution of the
program. Values to this array are loaded by the system from a predefined table.
Run time array Gets populated during the run-time by the user.
Compile time array Gets values during the compile time specified in IP** prompt
after the code.
8. The maximum no. of arrays in one RPG/400 program are ___256____.
9. The maximum no. of sub-routines in RPG/400 program are __256__.
10. The sub-routine which is automatically called by the RPG/400 program is
__*INZSR or initialization subroutine __.
11. What is INFDS?
INFDS File information data structure
12. What are the set of keywords in their order to define a subfile? 2 marks
SFLDSP subfile display, SFLDSPCTL - subfile control display, SFLCLR subfile
clear, SFLSIZ subfile size, SFLPAG subfile page
13. How many sub-files can be defined in a display file?
512
14. Differentiate ITER and LEAVE.
Iter - This Opcode will make the loop to continue. Leave This Opcode will make the
loop to terminate
15. How many times are the printing operations performed in a RPG Logic cycle? What
are they? 2 marks
4 a) Heading time b) Detail Time c) Total Time d) Exception Time
16. Define XFOOT.
Opcode to add all the array elements and store in a result.
17. What is the maximum no. of records in a subfile?
9999
18. Name the various read operations in RPG/400 & explain. 2 marks
READ, READP, READE, REDPE, CHAIN, READC
19. The opcode which replaces SETLL and READ is _____CHAIN_____.
20. Differentiate DOU and DOWxx.
DOU executed atleast once and then condition is checked for.
DOW executed only if condition is satisfied.

DB2/400 Quiz (25 Marks)

1. What are the files that you can create in DB2/400?
Physical Files and Logical Files (PFs and LFs)
2. What are the essential parts of a PF? Explain pictorially. 2 marks
There are three essential parts of a PF, viz., Record Format, Access Path, Data
Members.
3. What is the maximum no. of key fields?
120
4. Name the possible methods to feed data into a PF.
DFU, IDDU, Programmatically, Interactive SQL
5. What is the maximum no. of records a PF can have by default?
10000 + 3*1000
6. Keywords can be specified at ___4___ different levels in a PF.
7. _ DESCEND _ is the keyword used to sort the duplicate record in descending order.
8. The ___ REF ___ keyword is used at the file level to obtain a reference of a field
from some other PF.
9. By using what keywords and at what levels can we obtain reference of fields from
multiple files. Give the syntax. 2 marks
REF at file level
REFFLD at field level
REF(LIB/FILE)
REFFLD(FIELD FILE)
10. What are the different constraints that can be applied on a PF? 2 marks
PRIKEY Primary Key Constraint
UNQCST Unique Key Constraint
REFCST Referential Integrity
CHKCST Check Constraint
11. Write the syntax to make a field not null?
Field Name CHECK(ME)
12. What are the data types supported by DB2/400? 2 marks
13. A alphanumeric
P packed decimal
S zoned decimal
L Long date
Z Time stamp
T Time
F Floating point
H Hexadecimal
14. What are the essential keywords in their order to define a Join Logical File?
JFILE, JOIN, JFLD
15. How many record formats can a non-join logical file contain?
32
16. How do you join two files in a join logical file?
JOIN keyword
17. What are the types of join logical files?
Left outer Join, Inner Join, Intersection (Any two may be considered)
18. _____ DYNSLT at the file level _____ keyword is used to specify select and omit
criteria.
19. How can you refer to the access path of a PF in an LF?
ACCPTH keyword
20. How do you define a left outer join?
JDFTVAL keyword
21. How do you handle duplicate record occurrence in a Join Logical File?
JDUPSEQ keyword
22. Logical Files cannot have data members. (T/F)
False


Questions:

Section 1 CL Command use

1) Use of mon-message. A piece of code was given with the MONMSG at procedure
level and it was asked where will the control go if an error happened in the
processing of a command defined somewhere in the procedure.

2) Command to write and read a file in CL.

3) A call to a program is to submitted in batch and a customized library list is to be
sent along with it.

4) How to retrieve the job date/job name. Available options had RTVJOBA,
RTVJOBD etc.

5) CHGDTAARA command was given with a complex VALUE parameter which
contained %SST. Was asked to mark the option, which gives the right value in the
Data area.

6) How can the current library list be changed. Was asked to mark 2 correct answers.

7) How to debug a program running in batch.

8) A file with key A is to be accessed randomly on the basis of a field B. Available
options Create a new logical, Opnqry with STRSEQ parameter having B, Sorting
the file etc.

9) How to see the logical files created over a file by using CL command.

Section 2 RPG Command use

1) Where is the *INZSR subroutine coded.
2) A field was defined with the like keyword. Was asked about its length and initial
value.
3) A DATFMT was defines at control spec. There were date definations at D spec.
Was asked to recognize incorrect format.
4) How is the format of a date defined at control specification level.
5) %ELEM was used to define an array in the DIM keyword. Was asked how many
records the array will have.
6) Complex %subst using %scan with addition and subtraction done in the return
value of SCAN.
7) If DIV used with factor 2 zero what will happen. Options available Result indicator
will be set on, *PSSR code will be executed, Result factor will have zero etc.
8) A piece of code was given using DIV opcode where factor 2 was zero and *PSSR
subroutine was coded. Was asked to detect what will happen.
9) A data area DS was given and IN OUT operations performed. Among five different
samples of code was asked to find out in which case the Data area will be locked
and unlocked.
10) How to find the Program name and some related information. Options had
SDS etc.
11) An expression using op-codes was to be converted using built in functions -
%Dec and %DECH.
12) What is the correct syntax for Op-code Test(D)
13) When does a indicator defined in 73-74 position seton while chaining a
record.
14) Except keyword. A file defined in F spec as O type and a DS defined in D
spec. How can the file be updated using the DS.

Section 3 Advanced RPG Programming

1) Complex Logical expression using Indicators and a variable. Analyzing and
determine the result of the variable.
2) Setting the indicator value by using logical expressions.
*IN50 = (A = B)
what will be the indicator value.
3) With the same condition as above a complex piece of code was given and the result
was to be determined.
4) A complex logic in words using and either, or, neither to be written in expression.
5) A complex piece of code with a variable using ITER and LEAVE was given and
analyzing that code the value of that variable was to be determined.
6) How to include a service program in your program.
7) While creating the program if *OWNER is given to the usrprf parameter what is its
significance.
8) A program A compiled with activation grp. *New calls a program B compiled in
activation grp. QILE. Program B has the following code: -

Count = count + 1
Seton RT

After the program has been invoked 3 times. What will be the value of count?
9) A Question on the same lines as above but not in different activation group. What
will be the value of count?
10) Where is a prototype defined.
11) Select the right prototype definition. Extpgm definition was used?
12) A piece of code for sub procedures was given. What is the length of the value
returned?
13) API for ovrdbf.

Section 4 Subfiles

1) There are some 200 records to be loaded. The roll up/down keys should be very
fast. Which loading technique to be used.
2) What does the keyword SFLNXTCHG do.
3) What does the keyword SFLRCDNBR do.
4) A piece of code was given using SFLRCDNBR. At what position the cursor will
be?
5) There was a piece of code having different keywords along with there indicators.
What will be the indicator positions to initialize the sub file.
6) If a record has been deleted and you dont want do display it on the subfile
anymore. What is the best possible way to do it?


Section 5 RPG Performance and Exception/Error Handling

1) There was some question where some data movement was done and then finally
asked what will be the result. Available option Data truncation etc.

Section 6 RPG Data Handling

1) A multiple occurrence data structure was defined. How to set the occurrence using
the OCCUR opcode.
2) An EDS was defined using prefix but the fields were not renamed using EXTFLD.
What will be the name of the fields used in the program.

Data Types: CL/400 has only 3 data types.
1. Character
2. Numeric
3. Logical


1) CL PROGRAMMING TO ADD TWO NUMBERS

Columns: 1 71 Edit STDLIB/SAMMAN
SEU==>
FMT** +12+3+4+5+6+7
***********Beginning of data*********************
01.0 PGM
* Starting of the program is done by PGM
0002.00 DCL VAR(&A) TYPE(*DEC)LEN(3 0) VALUE(100)
* Any variable declaration is done by DCL
0003.00 DCL VAR(&B) TYPE(*DEC)LEN(3 0)
VALUE(150)
0004.00 DCL VAR(&C) TYPE(*DEC)LEN(3 0)
VALUE(0)
0005.00 DCL VAR(&D)TYPE(*CHAR)LEN(3)
0006.00 CHGVAR VAR(&C)VALUE(&A+&B)
* CHGVAR is used to replace the value of a variable with some other value.
0007.00 CHGVAR VAR(&D)VALUE(&C)
0008.00 SNDPGMMSG MSG(THE SUM IS: *CAT&D)
* This will send a message on the console.
0009.00 ENDPGM
* ENDPGM ends the program
**************End of data********************


2) DECIDE VOTING STATUS DEPENDING ON AGE

0001.00 PGM PARM(&NM&AGE &NA)
0002.00 DCL &NM *CHAR 15
0003.00 DCL &AGE *CHAR 3
0004.00 DCL &NA *CHAR10
0005.00 DCL &NAGE *DEC(3 0)0
0006.00 CHGVAR&NAGE &AGE
0007.00 IF(&NAGE>=18*AND&NA=INDIAN)
0008.00 THEN(DO)
0009.00 SNDPGMMSG MSG(&NM*CAT CAN VOTE)
0010.00 ENDDO
0011.00 ELSE (SNDPGMMSG MSG(&NM*CAT CANNOT VOTE))
0012.00 ENDPGM
**************End of data********************

3) Work with system values:
**************Beginning of data******************
0001.00 PGM
0002.00 DCL &M*CHAR 4
0003.00 DCL &S*CHAR 8
0004.00 RTVSYSVAL SYSVAL(QMODEL) RTNVAR(&M)
* RTVSYSVAL retrieve system value
0005.00 RTVSYSVAL QSRLNBR &S
0006.00 SNDPGMMSG MSG(YOUR AS/400MODEL IS: *CAT &M*CAT +
0007.00 AND SR. NO. IS: *CAT &S)
0008.00 ENDPGM
**************End of data********************

4) CL PGM FOR CONVERSION OF DATE FORMAT

Columns: 1 71 Edit STDLIB/SAMMAN
SEU==> CLFRTH
FMT** ...+.1+2+3+4+5+6+7

****************Beginning of data********************
0001.00*CL PGM FOR CONVERSION OF DATE FORMAT*
0002.00 PGM
0003.00 DCL &D1*CHAR 1015/08/1947
0004.00 DCL&D2 *CHAR
0005.00 CVTDAT DATE(&D1) TOVAR(&D2) FROMFMT(*EUR)+
0006.00 TOFMT(*JIS) TOSEP(/)
* CVTDAT convert dat
0007.00 SNDPGMMSG MSG(DATE *CAT &D2)
0008.00 ENDPGM
**************End of data********************


5) CL PGM FOR REVERTING A STRING:

Columns. . .: 1 71 Edit STDLIB/SAMMAN
SEU==> CLFIFITH
FMT** +1+2+3+4+5+6+7
**************Beginning of data******************
0001.00 PGM PARM(&NM)
0002.00 DCL &NM *CHAR 15
0003.00 DCL &C *CHAR 15
0004.00 DCL &E *DEC (2 0) 16
0005.00 LABEL:
0006.00 CHGVAR &e(&E - 1)
0007.00 CHGVAR &C (&C *TCAT%SST(&NM &E 1))
0008.00 IF (&E>1) GOTO LABEL
0009.00 SNDPGMMSG MSG(REVERTED NAME: *CAT &C)
0010.00 ENDPGM
**************End of data********************


6) CL PROGRAM DEMONSTRATING DYNAMIC OVERRIDE OF SOME DATABASE ATTRIBUTES

Columns. . .: 1 71 Edit STDLIB/SAMMAN
SEU==> CLSEVEN
FMT** +1+2+3+4+5+6+7
**************Beginning of data******************
0001.00 PGM
0002.00 OVRDBF FILE(KIRAN3) TOFILE(STDLIB/KIRAN3) SHARE(*YES)
0003.00 OPNQRYF FILE(STDLIB/KIRAN3) QRYSLT(BASIC *GT 5000 *AND DEPT *GT 10) +
KEYFLD ((EMPCD *ASCEND))
0004.00 CALL PGM(STDLIB/HLLPGM12)
0005.00 DLTOVR FILE(KIRAN4)
0006.00 CLOF OPNID(KIRAN3)
0007.00 ENDPGM
**************End of data********************


Columns. . .: 1 71 Edit STDLIB/SAMMAN
SEU==> HLLPGM12
0001.00 FKIRAN3 IF E K DISK
0002.00 C READ EMPREC 55
0003.00 C *IN55 DOWEQ*OFF
0004.00 C BASICDSPLY
0005.00 C DEPT DSPLY
0006.00 C READ EMPREC 55
0007.00 C ENDDO
0008.00 C SETON LR


TEST ON CL Programming

Total Time: 1 hr
Tot. Marks: 50

Tick one or more correct choice/s (1 Mark each)

1. Which of the following is not a valid CL datatype?

(a) *dec
(b) *char
(c) *log
(d) *lgl
Ans-(c)

2. Predict which programs will be executed in the following code when &Opt = 1:
IF COND(&Opt *EQ 1)
THEN ( Call Pgm4)
ELSE
CMD(Call Pgm3)
CALL Pgm(Pgm2)
CALL Pgm(Pgm1)

Pgm4 , pgm2, pgm1

3. Which of the following files can be used in the TOFILE parameter of CPYF?
a) Logical file
b) Join Logical file
c) Tape file
d) None of the above
(c)

4. Which of the following commands cannot be used on the command line?
a) RTVDTAARA
b) CRTDTAARA
c) CHGDTAARA
d) All the above

(A)

5. What is the command used to find all logical files based on one physical file?
a) DSPDBR
b) DSPOBJD
c) DSPPFM
d) a and b
(a)

6. Which is the command used to find the access path of a file?
a) DSPFFD
b) DSPFD
c) DSPOBJD
d) All the above
(b)

7. Which of the following combination of files can be declared in CLP?
a) Printer file, Database file
b) Display subfile, Message subfile
c) Message subfile, Database file
d) Database file, Display subfile
c)

Two types of files are supported in CL procedures and programs: display files and database files.
You can send a display to a workstation and receive input from the workstation for use in the procedure or
program, or you can read data from a database file for use in the procedure or program. Subfiles (except for
message subfiles) are not supported by CL procedures and programs.

Up to five display or database files can be referred to in a CL procedure.
The following statements apply only to database files used with CL procedures and programs:
Only database files with a single record format may be used by a CL procedure or program.
The files may be either physical or logical files, and a logical file may be defined over multiple
physical file members.
Only input operations, with the RCVF command, are allowed. The WAIT and DEV parameters on the
Receive File (RCVF) command are not allowed for database files. In addition, the SNDF, SNDRCVF,
and ENDRCV commands are not allowed for database files.
DDS is not required to create a physical file which is referred to in a CL procedure or program. If DDS
is not used to create a physical file, the file has a record format with the same name as the file, and there
is one field in the record format with the same name as the file, and with the same length as the record
length of the file (RCDLEN parameter of the CRTPF command).
The file need not have a member when it is created for the module or program. It must, however, have
a member when the file is processed by the program.
The file is opened for input only when the first Receive File (RCVF) command is processed. The file
must exist and have a member at that time.
The file remains open until the procedure or OPM program returns or when the end of file is reached.
When end of file is reached, message CPF0864 is sent to the CL procedure or program, and additional
operations are not allowed for the file. The procedure or program should monitor for this message and
take appropriate action when end of file is reached.

The following statements apply only to display files used with CL procedures and programs: Display files may have
up to 99 record formats.
All data manipulation commands (SNDF, SNDRCVF, RCVF, ENDRCV and WAIT) are allowed for
display files.
The display file must be defined with the DDS.
The display file is opened for both input and output when the first SNDF, SNDRCVF, or RCVF
command is processed. The file remains open until the procedure or OPM program returns.

Note: The open does not occur for both types of files until the first send or receive occurs. Because of this,
the file to be used can be created during the procedure or program and an override can be performed
before the first send or receive. However, the file must exist before the module or program is compiled.

Override with Display File (OVRDSPF) Allows a run-time override of a file used by a procedure or program with a display file.
Override with Database File (OVRDBF) Allows a run-time override of a file used by a procedure or program with a database file.

Indicator variables are declared in your CL procedure or program in the form of logical variables with names &IN01
through &IN99 for each indicator that appears in the device file record formats referred to on the Declare File (DCLF)
command.

When you use CL support, the file referred to is implicitly opened when you do your first send, receive, or send/receive
operation. An opened display file remains open until the procedure or OPM program in which it was opened returns or transfers
control. An opened database file is closed when end of file is reached, or when the procedure or OPM program in which it was
opened returns or transfers control. Once a database file has been closed, it cannot be opened again during the same call of the
procedure or OPM program.

Do not specify LVL(*CALLER) on the Reclaim Resources (RCLRSC) command in CL procedures and programs using files. If you
specified LVL(*CALLER), all files opened by the procedure or OPM program would be immediately closed, and any attempt to
access the file would end abnormally.

You use the open file identifier (OPNID) parameter to uniquely identify an instance of a declared file so that multiple files can be
declared. If you use the OPNID parameter, then for a field, the CL variable name is the field name preceded by an ampersand (&),
the OPNID value, and an underscore (_). For an option indicator, the CL variable name is the indicator preceded by an ampersand
(&), the OPNID value, an underscore, and IN.

You cannot use record formats that contain floating point data in a CL procedure or program.

Except for message subfiles, any attempt to send or receive subfile records causes run-time errors.


8. Max no. of files that can be declared in a CL program
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 50
(d) 9999
(b)
9. How many files can be updated through CL
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 20

(a) We cant update a database file through a CL program

10. What is the function of DSPPGMREF?
a) Displays list of all files referred in the program
b) Displays the list of all objects used in the program
c) Displays all copy books used in the program
d) Displays list of all call programs used in the program

(b)



Use Short Answers: (2 Marks each)

1. What is the difference between program level and command level MONMSG?

2. What is the difference between TFRCTL command and CALL command?

3. How can the data be shared across different jobs?

4. Differentiate between data base files and data areas

5. How do you compile RPG program having compile time override?

6. What is wrong in the following program:
PGM
MONMSG CPF0000
DCLF FILE (INPUT)
ENDPGM
Program level MONMSG should be specified only after all DCL statements
7. How do you know the keys used in a physical file without using SEU?

8. How to extract a word hello from the string hello world?

9. Which has the highest priority if you give both program level MONMSG and command level MONMSG?

10. How to use multiple files in CLP?

Mention True/False: (1 Mark each)

1. Two objects with same name and type cannot exist in different libraries FALSE

2. The built-in menu called MAJOR organizes all the AS/400 commands TRUE

3. SNDF writes a record to a display or a data base file. FALSE

4. The value of a CL variable can be changed using CHGVAR. TRUE

5. The current library cannot be a duplicate of any library in the library list FALSE

6. The RETURN command in a program removes that program from the program stack TRUE

7. A data area is an object used to hold data for access by any job running on the system. TRUE

8. Library list is an object TRUE

9. LDA can be used to pass information to a subprogram without the use of a parameter list TRUE

10. SNDPGMMSG command allows us to send messages to a work station user or the system operator. FALSE

Answer the following questions: (2 marks each)

1. Not all CL commands can be used in a CL program (TRUE/FALSE) TRUE

2. Declare commands must precede all other commands except the PGM command. (TRUE/FALSE) TRUE

3. ENDPGM command is a mandatory command in a CL program. (TRUE/FALSE) FALSE

4. ___MONMSG_____ Monitors for escape, status, and notify messages sent to a program's message queue

6. __________________ identifies a command in a CL program and is used for branching purposes


1. In the same library there can be objects of the same name of different object types.
This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
a)
2. Types of jobs on OS/400 are
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5
Job types
The iSeries server processes several different job types. You can select one of the following job types to learn more
about that job type.
Server jobs are jobs that have set the server type using the Change Job (QWTCHGJB) API, and they will have an
additional classification of Server with one of the following job types:
Autostart
An autostart job is started automatically when the subsystem it is associated with starts.
Batch
A batch job is a predefined group of processing actions that is submitted to the system.
Communications
A communications job is a batch job that was started by a program start request from a remote system.
Interactive
An interactive job requires input from a signed-on user and an iSeries server.
Prestart
A prestart job is a batch job that starts before a work request is received. The two types of prestart jobs:
Prestart communications - The job is a communications batch job that starts running before a remote system sends a
program start request.
Prestart batch - The job is a batch job that starts before a work request is received.
Reader and writer
A reader job is a spooled input job, and a writer job is a spooled output job.
Subsystem
The subsystem job provides control over an active subsystem.
System
System jobs are created by the operating system to control system resources and perform system
functions.

3. Save file is an object and it is used for the backup. This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
a)
4. In join logical file you can have multiple files and multiple record formats. This
statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
b)
5. To show the physical file member, its attribute and its logical files commands used is
a) DSPDBR
b) DSPFFD
c) DSPFD
d) DSPPFM
a) and d)
6. To look at the job correct ser of command used is
a) WRKACTJON, WRKSBMJOB, DSPJOB, WRKUSRJOB
b) WRKSBMJON, WRKSBSJOB, WRKUSRJOB
c) WRKACTJOB, WRKSBSJOB, DSPJOB, WRKUSRJOB

Ans : - c)

7. DYNSLT keyword is used in
a) Physical file
b) Logical file
c) Both
d) None of the above
b)
8. Command function and command attention Key performs the same function and have
same concept. . This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
b)
9. OPNQRY FILE AND LOGICAL FILE both are used to access the database file only.
This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
a)
10. Which statement is false
a) QUERY400, OPNQRYF, LOGICAL FILE all are objects.
b) Logical file is an object
c) QUERY400 is a system supplied utility
d) OPNQRY is not an object
a)
11. There are 2 physical files. File(a) is having 3 logical file and other File(b) is having
2 logical file. Which can be easily complied with out deleting its dependent logical file
a) File(a)
b) File(b)
c) None of the above

Ans : - c)

12. In join Logical File Min. files required are
a) 1
b) 6
c) 32
d) None of the above

Ans : - a)

13. In join logical file Max files required are
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 32

Ans : - d)

14. To find a string CL command used is
a) FNDSTRPDM
b) ALCOBJ
c) DSPFD
d) None of the above
Ans : - a)

15. Please read the following CL statements

Program A
CALL PGM (B)
OPEN FILE X
OPEN FILE A

Program B
OVRDBF FILE (X) FILE (Y)
OVRDBF FILE (A) TOFILE (B) OVERSCOPE (*JOB)
RETURN

The file opened in the program A is
a) File A,X
b) File B.Y
c) File X,B
d) File Y,A
c)
16. Please read the following CL statements.
Program A
OVRDBF FILE(B) TOFILE(C)
OVRDBF FILE(A) TOFILE(B)

OPEN FILEA.
File opened will be
a) A.
b) B
c) C
d) None of the above
c)
16. Read the following statements

Program A
OVRDKTF FILE(A) ToFILE(B)
ENDPGM

Program B
OPEN FILEA
File Opened will be
a) A.
b) B
c) None of the above
A)
17. You can send a message in the program through subfile. . This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above

Ans : True

18. QCMDEXC is a system supplied API. This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
Ans : - True

19. You can display a error message only on 24
th
Line in a display file. . This statement
is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above
Ans : - b)

20. You can define (a) Only one file in CL program .(b) & update the database file
through CL program .In this statement
a) A is true B is false
b) B is true A is false
c) A & B are true
d) A & B are false
Ans:- a)
21. You can get the user information in the CL program by using command
a) RTVJOBA
b) RTVUSRPRF
c) DSPJOBA
d) RTVSYSVAL
e) None of the above
b)

22. (A ) call in the CL program will pass control to the next program. (B) while
RETURN command remove the procedure from the call stack .In This statement
a) A is true B is false
b) B is true A is false
c) A & B are true
d) A & B are false
b)
23. (A) Call in the CL program will pass control to the next program and again back to
the calling program.(B) while TFRCTL command removes the calling program from
the call stack. In this statement
a) A is true B is false
b) B is true A is false
c) A & B are true
d) A & B are false
Ans : - c

24. Wait command is used in CL program only. This statement is
a) True
b) False
c) None of the above

Ans : - a)


QUESTIONS : simple
####################

1. Give examples of DCL, DDL, DML SQL commands.
A. DATA CONTROL LANGUAGE(DCL)- grant , revoke.
DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE(DDL)- create, alter , drop.
DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE(DML)- select, insert, update, delete.

2.What are data types? What is meant by null? Give examples of operators.
A. Data types are attributes of columns, literals and host variables. They are SMALLINT,
INTEGER, FLOAT, DECIMAL, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP,
GRAPHIC, VARGRAPHIC. NULL is a special value that indicates the absence of data
in a column. Operators: - , + , * , / , :: concatenation, date, day, year, days, substr , current
date, current time, user.

3. What are the column or aggregate functions available in SQL?
A. AVG for average, COUNT for counting the number of rows in the result table, MAX
which returns the maximum value in the column , MIN which returns the minimum
value, SUM which gives the sum total of the column.

4. Explain the usage of the terms GROUP BY, HAVING, ORDER BY.
A. GROUP BY - the column function will calculate its result based on the individual
groups created by GROUP BY specification creating one result for each group.
HAVING - is used to specify the conditions each row of each returned group must
satisfy.
ORDER BY - used to sort the output of a query using the column names or position of
column in the list of columns named in the select expression.

5. What does the LIKE and IN and BETWEEN search operators allow you to do?
A. They search for rows where the column specified satisfies one among a number of
values.
LIKE - to select rows based on a similarity of partial strings.
( - for a single unknown char and % for 0 to any no. of unknown char)
IN - to select rows where the column values are one among a specific list of values.
BETWEEN - to select rows having column values within the given limits.

6. What are the DB2 objects that can be created using CREATE statement?
What are the DB2 objects you require before creating a Table?
A. TABLE, INDEX, VIEW, SYNONYM, ALIAS, STOGROUP, DATABASE,
TABLESPACE.
Tablespace and Database are required before creating a table.


QUESTIONS : medium difficulty
##########################

1. What is a CURSOR and how is it operated for read, update, delete?
A. A cursor is a named control structure used to make a selected set of rows available to a
program one row at a time for read or update.
DECLARE CURSOR, OPEN CURSOR, FETCH CURSOR, CLOSE CURSOR
are used to operate the cursor. The results table will be created during the execution of
the
OPEN CURSOR statement. The values are fetched from the table row into the host
variables and the cursor position remains on the row until the next FETCH or CURSOR
CLOSE statement. During this time ,the cursor position could be used to update or delete
this row from the table using the WHERE CURRENT OF clause.

2. What is the difference between Dynamic SQL and Embedded SQL?
A. Dynamic SQL statements are prepared and executed within a program while a
program is being executed. The SQL source is contained in the host variables rather than
being hard coded into the program and may change from execution to execution.
Embedded SQL statements are hard coded within the application program and are
prepared during the program preparation process before the program is executed.

3. What is the difference between cascade and restrict with ref. to DELETE
statement? What is a primary key and a foreign key?
A. Cascade and Restrict are part of the delete rule when specifying the referential
constraints between two tables. Cascade on Delete - deletes all dependent rows from the
dependent table while deleting a row in the parent table. The Restrict rule fails the delete
request if a dependent row exists.
A primary key is the unique identifier of the rows in a table.
A foreign key is a column or combination of columns in a table whose values are
required to match with those of the primary key in some other table.

4. What is the difference between a base table, view, synonym, alias, index?
Base table - table that physically exists and has physical stored records ,can be updated.
View - an alternative representation of data contained in one or more tables
including all or some of the columns from the constituent tables , cannot be
updated, automatically dropped when source tables are dropped.
Synonym - alternate name for a table or view, accessible only by creator of synonym,
cannot be updated unless authorized to update base table.
Alias - similar to synonym , but accessible by all users who have access to the source
tables represented by the alias, can be defined for local or remote objects before they
exist, remains intact after the object it represents has been dropped.
Index - set of row identifiers or pointers that are logically ordered by the values of a
column that has been specified as being an index, provides faster access to data and can
enforce uniqueness on the row in a table.


5. What is the difference between JOIN and UNION?
A. JOIN - relational operation that allows retrieval of data from two or more tables based
on
matching column values, results in addition of columns of the different
constituent tables
with the same key values.
UNION - used to combine the results of two or more Select statements into a single
results
table, results in the addition of rows of the different tables.

6. What are Subqueries ? What is SQLCA , where is it given in a COBOL pgm. ?
A. A Subquery is a query that is written as a part of another querys WHERE clause.
SQLCA ( SQL Communication Area ) is made up of a series of variables that are
updated after each SQL statement is executed and contains the sqlcode ,
it is given in the working-storage section using an SQL INCLUDE statement.

QUESTIONS : difficult
###################

1. What are the different types of locks that can be held? What is meant by locking
and concurrency ?
What does COMMIT accomplish and what does ROLLBACK accomplish?
A. Locks- Exclusive, Shared , Update.
Locking - used to ensure the integrity of data and prevents concurrent users from
accessing
inconsistent data. The data is locked until a commit is executed to release
the updated data.
Concurrency - allows more than one DB2 application process to access the same data
at
essentially the same time.
COMMIT - allows data changes to be made permanent, frees all locks so that other
applications can access the data, closes any open cursors being processed.
The recoverable processing is that done between two commits.
ROLLBACK - allows data changes (updates) made by pgm. since the previous
commit to
be undone, locks are released, cursors are closed.

2. What is cursor stability and repeatable read? What are the AQUIRE &
RELEASE parameters?
A. Cursor stability - tells DB2 that database values read by its application are protected
only while being used. Changed values are protected until the application reaches a
commit point.
Repeatable read - rows referenced by the program cannot be changed by other pgms.
until the program reaches a
commit point.
AQUIRE, RELEASE parameters on the BIND command specify when tablespace-
level
locks are to be acquired and released. The parameters are:
Aquire- USE : locks are required on first use.
ALLOCATE: locks are required when the PLAN is allocated.
Release- COMMIT: all Tablespace-level locks are released at each synchpoint.
DEALLOCATE: locks are held until the PLAN is deallocated.

3. What is a PLAN? What is DBRM? Where are PLANs stored? What does FREE
command do?
A. PLAN- a DB2 object produced during the bind process that associates one or more
DBRMs.
DBRM- (data base request module) is a DB2 component created by DB2 precompiler
containing the SQL source statements extracted from the application
program
and is used as input to BIND process.
BIND- process that builds access paths to DB2 tables, uses the DBRMs and produces
an application plan. It also checks the users authorization level and validates
the
SQL statements in the DBRMs.
PLANs are stored in sysibm.sysplan.
FREE - will drop the existing PLAN.

4. When do the following SQL codes occur?
A. +000 successful execution.
-904 unavailable resource
-811 embedded SQL returning more than one rows
-100 row not found
-925 commit not valid

5. What is meant by attachment facility? What command is used by TSO users to
invoke DB2 ?
What does DSNDB07 database do?
A. The attachment facility is an interface between DB2 and TSO, IMS/VS, CICS, or
batch address
spaces. It allows application programs to access DB2.
DSN RUN command is used.
DSNDB07 is where the DB2 does its sorting, it includes DB2s sort work area and
external storage.

6. What do the following contain?
A. sysibm.sysdatabase - one row for each database.
sysibm.sysdbrm - one row for each dbrm.
sysibm.sysplan - one row for each plan.
sysibm.sysdbauth - shows which authids have privileges on which databases.
sysibm.sysplanauth- shows which authids have privileges on which plans.
sysibm.sysrels- one row for each referential constraint.


Printed
1.) What is needed in an RPG program to receive parameters?
An *ENTRY parameter list.

2.) What is KLIST used for?
To define a composite key.

3.) What is CASxx used for?
To execute subroutines based upon the result of a logical comparison.

4.) What is the advantage of using *LIKE DEFN?
It automatically updates attributes of the work field, when attributes
of the base field change and the program is recompiled.

5.) What is the difference between just exiting a program with retrn or by setting on indicator
LR, first?
Open files are closed when exiting with LR equal to ON.
Open files remain open when using RETRN with LR equal to OFF, and the program is still
resident (potentially active.)

6.) What RPG operation codes are associated with data areas?
IN, OUT, UNLCK and DEFN.

7.) How are the following RPG operation codes used?
a.) CAT
To concatenate fields and /or constants.
b.) SCAN
To search fields/arrays/data structures for the occurrence and
start position of a string.
c.) CLEAR
To initialize fields, record arrays, data structures to blanks
or zeros.

8.) What operation code should be used to check for the existence of a specific record in a
keyed file?
SETLL should be used. CHAIN should be used only if data from the file
is needed.

9.) How are parameters accepted in an RPG program?
*ENTRY PLIST

10.) How are parameters passed in RPG?
CALL ----
PARM xxx

11.) How do you define a subfile in RPG?
IPFC(prompt) ---- RRN KSFILE rcdfmt-name.

12.) What is a compile-time table?
A table whose information is hard coded in the program source.

13.) What is a pre-execution table?
A table whose data comes from an external file.

14.) How is data accessed from a table?
A LOKUP operation.

15.) How can a subroutine be executed?
EXSR

16.) How can indenting be utilized to make it easier to read a compiled RPG program?
By overriding the indent parameter in the CRTRPGPGM command with a
character.

17.) What is the use of the MOVEA operation?
To transfer data to an array or transfer an array to another
storage location.

18.) What is the difference between the MOVE and the MOVEL?
MOVE transfer is a right justified move, MOVEL is a left justified move.

19.) How does the READP work?
It reads data from a physical file in reverse order.

20.) What is the operation SELEC used for?
For CASE structure handling.

21.) What is an externally described file?
Any DDS file that has its layout automatically defined as part of the RPG program.

22.) What is a level checking error?
When a HLL object isnt linked with the current DDS object.

23.) What does the phrase subscript out of range mean?
It means you are trying to access an area outside of the defined table range.

24.) What is an Output queue (such as *OUTQ?)
An area, which stores all spooled files waiting to be printed.

25.) What is an Job queue (such as *JOBQ?)
An area that stores all jobs waiting to be compiled.

26.) What does IPL stand for?
Initial Program Load, which is used for start-up.

27.) What is PWRDWNSYS?
The command to power down the AS/400.

28.) What is the purpose of the EDTOBJAUT command?
To permit or exclude user access to specific objects.


Subfiles:

29.) What DDS keywords are required when defining a control record format?
SFLCTL, SFLDSPCTL, SFLPAG, SFLSIZ.

30.) What operation codes can be used to retrieve subfile record?
READC and CHAIN.
Ans:- READC

31.) Explain 2 ways of handling the roll-up/roll-down keys in an RPG subfile program.
If SFLSIZ > SFLPAG, OS/400 will handle scrolling.
If SFLSIZ = SFLPAG, the programmer must handle scrolling by
checking roll-up or roll-down indicators and filling subfile
appropriately.


32.) Explain the following DDS keywords:
a.) SFLEND
Controls the display of plus sign.
b.) SFLNXTCHG
Controls modified data tag on subfile records.
c.) SFLRCDNBR
Controls what subfile page is displayed and where cursor goes.
d.) SFLDROP
Controls when a subfile fold area is displayed.


33.) How do you clear a subfile?
Set the indicator associated with the SFLCLR keyword to ON and WRITE the subfile
control format.

34.) What are the 3 types of subfiles?
Single page, expandable and load-all.


35.) Which type of subfile has the better performance?
Single page.

36.) What is a subfile control record?
The record that controls the display of the record format and text information.

37.) What is a subfile record number?
The internal value associated with the each subfile record.

38.) How are roll keys handled by the program and in the system?
a.) Using ROLLUP and ROLLDOWN keyword indicators, or
b.) Automatically, if SFLSIZ > SFLPAG.

39.) What is a subfile record format?
The record that contains the displayable data.

40.) What must follow the SFLCTL keyword in the subfile control record?
The name of the Subfile Record Format.

41.) What does the SFLNXTCHG keyword mean?
To activate the READC operation and allow all records to be modified as changed
records.

42.) How do you utilize the subfile message control?
By using SFLMSG and MSGLOC keywords.

43.) How does a subfile handle displaying multiple lines of subfile data?
Use the SFLDROP keyword at record level in the control record and assign a command
key to the keyword. Ex: SFLDROP(CF11).

44.) Define the following keywords: SFLPAG and SFLSIZ?
a.) Number of records displayed per page.
b.) Number of total records displayable in the subfile.


CL:

45.) If the field is defined in DDS, how is it referenced in a CL program?
By declaring the field(DCL) and placing an ampersand in front of the variable name.

46.) What is the main use of MONMSG?
Error trapping.

47.) What is the purpose of the DCL statement in a CL program?
To define variables.

48.) How do you read a specific record in a keyed database file in a CL program?
OVRDRF FILE(filename) POSITION(*KEYx a b c) and RCVF

49.) How do you access the local data area in a CL program?
RTVDTAARA DTAARA (*LDA) RTNVAR (&var)

50.) What CL command is used to read a file?
RCVF - Receive File

51.) What CL command is equivalent to write a display file in RPG?
SNDF - Send File

52.) What CL command is equivalent to write/read a display file in RPG?
SNDRCVF - Send/Recieve File

53.) What CL command is used to determine the logical files associated with a particular
physical file?
DSPDBR - Display Database Relations

54.) Explain the use of DSPFFD.
To display a physical files record layout structure.

55.) Why would a programmer use the OVRDBF command?
To override default values set for the physical file; i.e., to utilize a specific member in a
physical file.

56.) What CL command is used to debug a program on-line?
STRISDB - Start Interactive Debugger

57.) What is the CPYF command used for?
a.) To print all records in a physical file,
b.) To transfer records from one PF object to another PF object.

58.) What is the purpose of the *MAP and *NOCHK in the CPYF command?
a.) To transfer data byte by byte.
b.) To transfer data field by field regardless of field names.

59.) What is the purpose of the CHGVAR command?
To change the value associated with a CL variable.

60.) How does a programmer create a new variable within a CL program?
By using the DCL command.

61.) What is a command label?
An area of transfer within a CL program from which to continue processing directed by a
GOTO command.

62.) Explain parameter passing.
To pass variables from a CL or RPG program to another CL or RPG program.

63.) How can a programmer exit out of a CL program?
By using a RETURN command.

64.) Why would the PGM line contain a PARM?
The CL program is using a value passed from another processing program.

65.) How can a programmer send a message from a CL program?
Using the SNDPGMMSG command - Send Program Message.

66.) What does the DSPPFM command do?
Displays a list of records on the CRT from the physical file.

67.) What is the purpose of the DSPLIBL command?
Displays a list of all libraries whose objects are available to the interactive job.

68.) Explain the STRSEU command.
To create a new program or put the last used program in edit mode


DDS:

69.) In the DDS keyword WINDOW(___), what belongs inside of the
parentheses?
Either the coordinates of the window or the name of the record
format.

70.) What is the difference between CA and CF command keys?
CA means that screen validity checking is bypassed and no screen
data is passed to the program. CF means that screen validity
checking is performed and screen data is passed to the program.

71.) What is the DDS keyword UNIQUE used for?
To prohibit duplicate keys in a keyed database file.

72.) Does a logical file contain data?
No, it contains access path information only.

73.) Name three types of access path maintenance.
Immediate delayed and rebuild.

74.) What are two methods of creating a record that consists of fields from two or more files?
Join, LF and OPNQRYF.

75.) What keyword is used to reference the same field in another file?
REF - Reference

76.) What keyword is used to join several physical files into one logical file?
JFILE - Join File

77.) What does DDS stand for?
Data Description Specifications.

78.) What command can be used to clear a physical file?
CLRPFM - Clear Physical File Member


79.) What is the difference between a physical file and a logical file?
Physical files contain the data, a logical file us an access path to the physical data.

80.) Can you copy data from a physical file to a logical file?
No.

81.) What is a display file?
A displayable screen file.

82.) What is a printer file?
A print layout for a report that can be used by any program.

83.) Can a physical file contain more than one member, and how is it accessed?
Yes, by using OVRDBF(___) MBR(___)

84.) What does the Open Query file do?
Creates an open data path to physical file data.

85.) When a PF is compiled and default values used how many members does it have?
1

86.) What is the keyword VALUES used for?
To set records from a PF based on field values in storage.

87.) What is the keyword COMP used for?
To set records from a PF using a comparison between two field values.

88.) What is the keyword RANGE used for?
To set records from a PF based on a min/max value of a field.

89.) Why would a DSPF program use a DSPSIZ keyword?
To select the screen display size used.


90.) What is the INDARA keyword used for?
To store all program indicators into a useable array.

91.) What is the purpose of the OVERLAY keyword?
To allow multiple screen records to display at one time.

92.) How can a programmer control how data on a screen will display?
By using the DSPATR keyword.

Miscellaneous:

93.) What is QTEMP?
A unique temporary library associated with each job. It is deleted at the end of a job.

94.) What is the purpose of level checking?
To ensure that the version of a file used by a program has not changed since the
program was compiled.

95.) What two CL commands are usually used to debug a program?
STRDBG and ADDBKP - Start Dedub abd Add Breakpoint.

96.) What is QCMDEXC?
A program that can be called from an RPG program to execute most CL commands.

97.) What is the purpose of the CHKOBJ command?
To test for the existence of and object and to check for object authorization for the user.


CLP Question Bank

Choose correct answer:

1. What is the maximum number of files which can be declared in CLP?
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) No limit

2. Which of the following commands cannot be used on the command line? (a)
a) RTVDTAARA
b) CRTDTAARA
c) CHGDTAARA
d) All the above

3. What is the command used to find all logical files based on one physical file? (a)
a) DSPDBR
b) DSPOBJD
c) DSPPFM
d) a and b

4. What does the command FNDSTRPDM do? (b)
a) Searches for the member in source physical file
b) Searches for particular string in a member or file
c) Searches for objects in a library
d) None

5. Which is the command used to find the access path of a file? (b)
a) DSPFFD
b) DSPFD
c) DSPOBJD
d) All the above

6. Which of the following combination of files can be declared in CLP?
a) Printer file, Database file
b) Display subfile, Message subfile
c) Message subfile, Database file
d) Database file, Display subfile

7. What is the function of DSPPGMREF? (b)
a) Displays list of all files referred in the program
b) Displays the list of all objects used in the program
c) Displays all copy books used in the program
d) Displays list of all call programs used in the program

8. What is the command used to delete program object? (b)
a) DLTOBJ
b) DLTPGM
c) DLTF
d) All the above


9. Which is the command to retrieve system date? (a)
a) RTVSYSVAL
b) RTVJOBA
c) RTVJOBD
d) a and b

10. Which of the following files can be used in the TOFILE parameter of CPYF?
a) Logical file
b) Join Logical file
c) Tape file
d) None of the above

11. Following method is used to load the messages in Message subfile (a)
a) Load All
b) Expanding
c) Single Page(Equal subfile)
d) None

12. What is the command used to see the messages in message file?
a) CRTMSGF
b) DSPMSGF
c) WRKMSGF
d) None

13. To which queue will you send messages? (a)
a) PGMQ
b) MSGQ
c) External MSGQ
d) None

14. Which of the following is not true for CL programming?
a) CL programs are flexible
b) CL programs can be tested and debugged
c) Cannot add or update records in data base files
d) All the above

15. What is the command used to change the value of a data area?
a) DSPDTAARA
b) RTVDTAARA
c) CHGDTAARA
d) None

Answer the following briefly:

1. Name three CL commands which cannot be used on the command line.
2. What is the difference between program level and command level MONMSG?
3. What is the use of TFRCTL command?
4. What is the use of CALL command?
5. What is the difference between TFRCTL and CALL commands?
6. Can you create a Local Data Area? Is Local Data Area (*LDA) specific to a JOB?
7. How can the data be shared across different jobs?
8. Differentiate between data base files and data areas.
9. List out the advantages of data areas.
10. What are the different types of data areas?
11. What are the different Override commands?
12. How do you access all the members on a PF?
13. What is the function of RCLRSC command?
14. What is the CL command to display the record of display file?
15. What is the command used in CLP to read records from the database file?
16. What is DDMF? How do you create, change and display DDMF?(4marks)
17. How do you use a numeric database field in OPNQRYF?
18. How do you compile RPG program having compile time override?
19. Write program to find the number of members in a source file and store the names of members in
the source file through a physical file?
20. Write a program to add records in physical file from first member to second member without using
CPYF statement and find the record number difference if any.
21. Can a CL use Subfile?(MSGSFL)
22. How many record formats can you specify for a display file in a CL program?
DCLF command description:
Record format (RCDFMT)
Specifies the names of one or more record formats contained in the file. These record formats are used by the Send File
(SNDF), Receive File (RCVF), and Send/Receive File (SNDRCVF) commands in the CL procedure. Database files can
be processed only by RCVF. CL variable names cannot be specified in RCDFMT; only names of record formats can be
used. For every field and indicator in each record format specified in RCDFMT, one CL variable is automatically
declared in the program.
Note: A physical file can contain only one record format. A logical file which has multiple record formats defined in
DDS may be used if it is defined over only one physical file member. If the physical file contains more than one record
format, an error message is sent and the compile procedure fails.
Single values
*ALL
Every record format in the file, up to a maximum of 99, is to have its fields declared in the CL program as variables. If there are more
than 99 record formats in the file, only the first 99 are used.
Other values (up to 50 repetitions)
name
Specify the name of the file record format whose fields are to be declared as variables in the CL procedure. CL variables cannot be
used to specify the names.

23. How many number of files can you declare in a CL program? 1
For a CLLE program, its 5
24. What is wrong in the following program:
PGM
MONMSG CPF0000
DCLF FILE(INPUT)
ENDPGM
Monmsg should be after DCLF statement
25. How to extract a word hello from the string hello world?
26. What is the command used to add members to a physical file? ADDPFM
27. What is the command used to read a record from the database or display file? RCVF
28. How do you know the keys used in a physical file without using SEU? DSPFD
29. How do you know the field attributes used in database file without using SEU? DSPFFD
30. How do you know the logical files based on a particular physical file? DSPDBR
31. What is the function of DSPPGMREF?
32. How to find the number of records in a physical file? DSPFD
33. How to copy a spool file to a database file? CPYSPLF
34. How do you execute system/38 commands?
35. Which has the highest priority if you give both program level MONMSG and command level
MONMSG? Program Level
36. How to find the system date in CLP? Rtvsysval qdate
37. How can you compress objects? Why? Cprobj (dcpobj)
38. How to use multiple files in CLP? Thru overrides
39. How to view overrides present on a file? dspovr
40. What is the function of SHARE parameter in OVRDBF command? To share open data path
41. Describe how to handle error exceptions in a CLP. monmsg
42. Explain the function of SNDRCVF. Equivalent to EXFMT in RPG for display files
43. What is the function of ENDRQS command?
The End Request (ENDRQS) command ends (cancels) a previously requested operation (command). One common use of the End Request
(ENDRQS) command is to cancel a request that is currently stopped at a breakpoint. This command function is also available as an option on
the System Request menu.
44. What is a library list?
45. List the components of a library list. System, production, current, user
46. If &var1 = ---hello---- &var2 = world
result of the following operations (Interpret - as blank in the above variable)
&var1 *cat &var2 ---hello----world
&var1 *tcat &var2 ---helloworld
&var1 *bcat &var2 ---hello world
47. What is the command to delete a display file and a printer file? DLTF
48. Suppose FILEA contains two fields: NUM(numeric) and NAME(character). Write an OPNQRYF
command to sort the FILEA on NAME and take the records which have NUM greater than 10.
49. How to create a physical file with records generated in the above OPNQRYF? CPYFRMQRYF
50. How to find the member name, source file and library from which an object is created? DSPOBJD
*SERVICE
51. Explain the difference between ordinary subfile and message subfile.
52. What are the mandatory keywords used for DDS coding of a message subfile?
SFLMSGKEY
SFLPGMQ
SFLMSGRCD
53. We will give SFLPGMQ value as 10 or 276. Explain in which cases these values will be used.
SFLPGMQ (Subfile Program Message Queue) keyword for display files
Use this field-level keyword on the second (and last) field in the subfile record format for a message subfile. This field
contains the name of the program message queue used by the OS/400 program to build a message subfile. In addition,
SFLPGMQ can be specified on the subfile control record format when the SFLINZ keyword is specified on the subfile
control record format.
The format of the keyword is:
SFLPGMQ([10] | [276])
When 10 is specified, SFLPGMQ generates a 10-byte field. 10 is the default.
When 276 is specified, SFLPGMQ generates a 276-byte field.
This field is predefined as a character data type, hidden field. The following rules apply:
The field name and the SFLPGMQ keyword and parameters are the only DDS you can specify for this field.
If the name of the program message queue placed in this field at processing time is less than the field length (10 or 276 bytes), it must
be left-adjusted and padded with blanks.
For Integrated Language Environment* (ILE*) programs using the 276-byte parameter value, the format of the field
data must be as follows:
The first 256 bytes contains the ILE call message queue name. The call message queue name is the same as the ILE procedure name.
The name must be left-adjusted and padded with blanks.
Bytes 257 through 266 will optionally contain the ILE module name. The name, when specified, must be left-adjusted and padded
with blanks. If no module name is provided, these bytes must be set to blanks.
Bytes 267 through 276 will optionally contain the name of the ILE bound program name. The name, when specified, must be left-
adjusted and padded with blanks. If no bound program name is provided, these bytes must be set to blanks.
Notes:
1. If a parameter value of 10 is used on SFLPGMQ and an ILE procedure name longer than 10 bytes is placed into this field at
processing time, the procedure name is truncated to 10 bytes. The results will be unpredictable.
2. If a parameter value of 276 is used on SFLPGMQ and a program message queue name is placed into this field at processing
time, bytes 257 through 276 must be set to blanks. If these bytes are not blank, the system assumes that a call message queue
name has been given and will not find the specified program message queue.
If the SFLPGMQ keyword is specified on both the subfile and subfile control record, the SFLPGMQ parameter values must match.
However, different subfiles within the same file can use different SFLPGMQ parameter values.
This field is required on the subfile record format (identified by the SFL keyword) to build the subfile one message at a
time through multiple output operations to the subfile record format.
You can also specify this field on the subfile control record format (identified by the SFLCTL keyword) to build the
subfile all at once through a single output operation to the subfile control record. Specify option indicators with the
SFLINZ keyword to control the way the subfile is built.
Multiple output operation:
If you specify the field name and SFLPGMQ on the subfile record, you build the subfile one message at a time with
separate output operations to the subfile record format. For each output operation, the message reference key must be in
the first field of the record (SFLMSGKEY keyword), and the name of the program message queue must be in the
second field. At the time of the output operation, the OS/400 program retrieves the identified message from the queue
and places it in the subfile as a record.
Note:
A CL program cannot be used for a multiple output operation. The relative record number required each time a message is built is not
supported for CL.
Single output operation:
If you specify SFLPGMQ (with its named field) and the SFLINZ keyword on the subfile control record format, you
build the entire subfile with one output operation directed to the subfile control record format. On the output operation,
the OS/400 program initializes the subfile with all messages that are on the program message queue whose name is in
the SFLPGMQ field. If necessary, the OS/400 program extends the subfile to contain all messages on the queue. For
this function, the SFLMSGRCD, SFLMSGKEY, and SFLPGMQ keywords must be specified with the subfile record
format (SFL keyword). The SFLPGMQ and SFLMSGKEY keywords are ignored for this function and your program
need not set the values of their fields.
Special value:
The SFLPGMQ field can contain a special value, * (asterisk), instead of a program message queue name. If the
program moves an asterisk to the SFLPGMQ field, the OS/400 program uses the message queue of the program issuing
the output operation. You cannot use an asterisk if your program is a CL program.
Both multiple and single output operations:
If you specify SFLPGMQ with both the subfile record format and subfile control record format, you can use the single
operation function one time and the multiple operation function some other time. Do this by setting indicators before
issuing the output operation; however, all operations to a particular subfile must be consistent (multiple or single, but
not intermixed) when preparing for a single display of the subfile.
Option indicators and display size condition names are not valid for this keyword

54. Which Function key is used to do step by step debugging? F10 (for STRDBG)
55. How you will find particular string/word ?
56. Which function key is used to add break points? F6
57. Which function key is used to remove break points?
58. How to display the value of a variable? F11
59. What is the command used to start the debug? STRDBG
60. How to run the program up to a particular point skipping in between statements? F12
61. How to change the value of a variable?
62. How to enter a system command?
63. How do you start source debugger?
64. Which keyword will effect the messages to come at particular line on the screen?
65. To which queue will you send messages?
66. How will you clear the messages from message queue?
67. In DDS coding for Message subfile, will you need SFLCLR keyword?
68. What is the default value for SFLPAG in Message subfile?
69. Is controlling indicators necessary for mandatory keywords(Except for SFLEND Keyword)
that will be given in DDS coding.
70. Which API is used to send the messages?
71. Which API is used to clear the messages from program Q?
72. How do you start source debugger?
73. How can we rename an object?
74. What are data queues?
75. What are message queues?
76. What is an Open Data Path (ODP)?
77. Compare and contrast Open Query File and Logical Files.
78. List out the various steps involved in a typical Open Query File.
79. What are the types of joins supported by OPNRYF?
80. What is the function of the POSDBF command?
81. What is the function of CPYFRMQRYF?
82. How can we find the number of records present in a file without using SEU?
83. What is a break point?
84. Change the value of data area MYDAT using a CL program.

State whether true or false:

1. Two objects with same name and type cannot exist in different libraries. (F)
2. Not all commands typed on command line are CL commands . (F)
3. A CL command can be an IBM or user defined command. (T)
4. DCLF is used to declare a display or database file in CL. (T)
5. All variables in the file being declared gets implicitly defined in the CL program. (T)
6. CL command is a statement that requests the system to perform a function. (T)
7. The built-in menu called MAJOR organizes all the AS/400 commands. (T)
8. RCVF reads a record from a display or data base file. (T)
9. SNDF writes a record to a display or a data base file. (F)
10. OVRDBF is used to qualify the library where the file is located. (T)
11. The submit job command is used to submit a job to a job queue for interactive processing. (F)
12. A message subfile is a repository of all the predefined messages. (F)
13. A library is an object used to group related objects. (T)
14. The declare commands (DCL & DCLF) must precede all other CL statements. (T)
15. A CL program can contain only CL commands. (T)
16. Program variables are stored in libraries. (F)
17. The value of a CL variable can be changed using CHGVAR. (T)
18. The CHGVAR command can be used to retrieve and to change the LDA. (T)
19. The current library cannot be a duplicate of any library in the library list. (F)
20. We should not create a library with a name that begins with Q. (T)
21. *CHANGE (change authority) allows the user to access the objects in the library. (T)
22. The two types of files that are supported in CL programs are display and data base files. (T)
23. The GOTO command processes a conditional branch. (F)
24. The DO command repeats a group of commands. (F)
25. Embedded IF commands are permitted up to 12 levels, in CL programming. (F)
26. The MONMSG command is used to monitor for escape, notify, or status messages sent to its
program queue. (T)
27. CVTDAT command is used to change the format of the date in a CL program. (T)
28. The name of the user who called the program can be retrieved using RTVUSRPRF command. (T)
29. When the TFRCTL command is used, control returns to the program containing the TFRCTL
command. (F)
30. The RETURN command in a program removes that program from the program stack. (T)
31. Using CALL command, a maximum of 40 parameters can be passed to the called program. (T)
32. The TFRCTL command cannot be used to pass parameters to the program being called. (F)
33. Data queues are similar to message queues. (T)
34. A data area is an object used to hold data for access by any job running on the system. (T)
35. The Local Data Area cannot be referred to from any other job. (T)
36. The data area cannot be locked for a single user. (F)
37. You can create, delete, or allocate a local data area. (F)
38. Library list is an object. (F)
39. No library is associated with the local data area. (T)
40. LDA can be used to pass information to a subprogram without the use of a parameter list. (T)
41. The system creates a group data area when an interactive job becomes a group job. (T)
42. Only one group data area can exist for a group. (T)
43. A group data area can be referred to by jobs outside the group. (F)
44. The group data area is deleted when the last job in the group is ended. (T)
45. You cannot create, delete, or allocate a group data area. (T)
46. QTEMP is associated with the group data area. (F)
47. A PIP data area is created for each prestart job when the job is started. (T)
48. The CRTDTAARA command uses *SHRUPD (shared for update) lock on the data area during the
command processing. (F)
49. The CHGDTAARA does not change the attributes other than its value, for a data area. (T)
50. For a running job, you cannot add entries nor remove entries from the library list. (F)
51. The current library for a job can be changed using CHGCURLIB or CHGLIBL commands. (T)
52. The libraries in a library list may not be existing on the system. (F)
53. If no library is specified while creating an object, it is placed in QGPL. (F)
54. Only display files with a single record format can be used by a CL program. (F)
55. Display files can have a maximum of 99 record formats. (T)
56. Communication on AS/400 system occurs through messages. (T)
57. System messages are stored in the file QCPFMSG in the library QSYS. (T)
58. SNDPGMMSG command allows us to send messages to a workstation user or the system operator.
(F)
59. RMVMSGQ command removes a message from a message queue. (F)
60. MONMSG monitors for escape, notify, and status messages that are sent to a programs message
queue. (T)
61. The MRGMSGF command can be used to copy message descriptions from one message file to
another. (T)
62. User profile message queues are used for communication between users. (T)
63. A break-handling program is called whenever a message of high severity arrives on the message
queue. (T)
64. Program message queues are used to send messages between program calls of a job. (T)
65. A program message queue for a program is no longer available for use when the program ends. (T)
66. CHKOBJ checks the object authority. (F)
67. The duplicate object created using CRTDUPOBJ has the same object type as the original object.
(T)
68. Any object can be renamed if we have the object management authority for the object and update
and read authority for the library containing the object. (T)
69. CHGDTAARA command changes only a part of the value of a specified data area. (F)
70. CPROBJ command compresses selected objects in order to save disk space on the system. (T)
71. Display and print files only can be compressed using CPROBJ. (T)
72. The user part of the library list contains those libraries referred to by the systems users and
applications. (T)
73. OPNQRYF acts as a filter between a high-level language program and display files. (F)
74. A high-level language program must share the open data path created by the OPNQRYF. (T)
75. The KEYFLD parameter causes OPNQRYF to create the open data path in an ordered sequence.
(T)
76. A maximum of 50 key fields can be specified in KEYFLD parameter of OPNQRYF. (T)
77. The QRYSLT parameter of OPNQRYF is used to restrict the records to which a high-level
language program has access. (T)
78. OPNQRYF supports relational, logical, arithmetic and string operators. (T)
79. A FORMAT file is a physical file that contains no data, but exists only for the benefit of
OPNQRYF. (T)
80. OVRDBF command can dynamically join files. (F)
81. Random processing is not supported for unique key or group processing using OPNQRYF. (T)
82. The POSDBF command positions the file pointer of an open query file to the beginning or end of a file.
(F)
83. The CL command RTVMBRD retrieves the description of a specific object. (F)
84. The DSPPGM command displays the attributes of a program. (T)
85. RTVCLSRC recreates the CL source of a CL program, whose source has been deleted. (T)
86. PARM parameter is used to pass parameters using either CALL or TFRCTL commands. (T)
87. To start debug mode, STRDBG command cannot be used. (F)
88. DSPDBG command is used to display the debugging program. (F)

IBMS DB2
Introduction

DB2 is the relational database system that runs in an MVS environment. It was developed
by IBM and interfaces with SQL. With the use of SQL, DB2, databases can be accessed
by wide range of host languages. SQL is the relational database application language
that interfaces with DB2. Because of its capabilities, SQL and , in turn, DB2 have gained
considerable acceptance. Thus, a working knowledge of DB2 increases ones
marketability. The questions and answers that follow are intended for those with working
knowledge of DB2 as a self-test. If you need to brush up, the nearest book store is your
next step.

Questions and Answers

Q: What is DB2 (IBM Database 2)?
A: DB2 is a subsystem of MVS operating system. It is a database Management system
(DBMS) for that operating system.

Q: What is an access path?
A: The path that is used to get to data specified in SQL statements.

Q: What is an alias?
A: It is an alternate name that can be used in SQL statements to refer to a table or
view in the same or a remote DB2 subsystem.

Q: Explain what a plan is.
A: A plan is a DB2 object (produced during the bind process) that associates one or
more database request modules with a plan name.

Q: What is meant by concurrency?
A: Concurrency is what allows more than one DB2 application process to access the
same data at essentially the same time. Problems may occur, such as lost updates, access
to uncommitted data and unrepeatable reads.

Q: What is cursor stability?
A: It is cursor stability that tells DB2 that database value read by this application are
protected only while they are being used. (Changed values are protected until this
application reaches a commit point) .As soon as a program moves from one row to
another, other programs may read or change the first row.

Q: What is the function of the Data Manager?
A: The Data Manager is a DB2 component that manages the physical database(s). It
invokes other system components, as necessary, to perform detailed functions such as
locking, logging and physical I/O operations (such as search, retrieval, update and index
maintenance).

Q: What is a Database Request Module (DBRM)?
A: A DBRM is a DB2 component created by the DB2 precompiler containing the
SQL source statements extracted from the application program. DBRMs are input to the
bind process.

Q: What is data page?
A: A data page is a unit of retrievable data either 4k or 32k (depending on how the
table is defined), containing user or catalog information.

Q: What are data types?
A: They are attributes of columns, literals and host variables. The data types are
SMALLINT, INTEGER, FLOAT, DECIMAL, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE and TIME.

Q: What is a Declarations Generator (DCLGEN)?
A: DCLGEN is a facility that is used to generate SQL statements that describe a table
or view. These table or view descriptions are then used to check the validity of other SQL
statements at pre compile time. The table or view declares are used by the DB2 pre
compiler to verify that correct column names and data types have been specified in the
SQL statement.

Q: What does DSNDB07 database do?
A: DSNDB07 IS WHERE db2 does its sorting. It includes DB2s sort workarea and
external storage.

Q: What is meant by dynamic SQL?
A: Dynamic SQL are SQL statements that are prepared and executed within a
program while the program is executing. The SQL source is contained in host variables
rather than being hard coded into the program. The SQL statement may change from
execution to execution.

Q: What is DB2 bind?
A: A bind is a process that builds access paths to DB2 tables. A bind uses the
Database Request Module(s) (DBRMS) from the DB2 precompile step as input and
produces an application plan. It also checks the users authority and validates the SQL
statements n the DBRMS.

Q: What information is used as input to the bind process?
A: 1. The database request model produced during the precompile
2. The SYSIBM.SYSTEM table of the DB2 catalog.

Q: What is meant by AUTO COMMIT?
A: AUTO COMMIT is a SPUFI option that commits the effects of SQL statements
automatically if they are successfully executed.


Q: What is a base table?
A: A base table is a real table a table that physically exist in that there are physical
stored records.

Q: What is the function of Buffer Manager?
A: The Buffer Manager is the DB2 component responsible for physically transferring
data between an external medium and (virtual) storage (performs the actual I/O
operations). It minimizes the amount of physical I/O actually performed with
sophisticated buffering techniques (i.e., read-ahead buffering and look-aside buffering)

Q: What is a buffer pool?
A: A buffer pool is main storage that is reserved to satisfy the buffering requirements
for one or more tablespaces or indexes and is made up of either 4k or 32k pages.

Q: How many buffer pools are there in DB2?
A: There are four buffer pools BP0,BP1,BP2 and BP32.

Q: On the create tablespace, what does the CLOSE parameter do.
A: CLOSE physically closes the tablespace when no one is working on the object.
DB2 (release 2.3) will logically close tablespaces.

Q: What is a clustering index?
A: It is a type index that (1) locates table rows and (2) determines how rows are grouped
together in the tablespace.

Q: What will the COMMIT accomplish?
A: COMMIT will allow data changes to be permanent. This then permits the data to
be accessed by other units of work. When a COMMIT occurs, locks are freed so other
applications can reference the just-committed data.

Q: What is meant by embedded SQL?
A: They are SQL statements that are embedded within an application program and are
prepared during the program preparation process before the program is executed. After it
is prepared the statement itself does not change (although values of the host variables
specified within the statement might change).

Q: What is meant by entity integrity?
A: Entity integrity is when the primary key is in fact unique and not null.





Q: What will the EXPLAIN do?
A: EXPLAIN obtains information (which indexes are used, whether sorting is
necessary, which level of locking is applied) about how SQL statements in the DBRM
will be executed, inserting this information into the X PLAN TABLE where X is the
authorization id of the owner of the plan.

Q: What is a foreign key?
A: A foreign key is a column for combination of columns in a table whose values are
required to match those of the primary key in some other table.

Q: What will the FREE command do to a plan?
A: It will drop (delete) the existing plan.

Q: What will the GRANT option do?
A: It will grant privileges to a list of one or more users. If the GRANT options is used in
conjunction with the PUBLIC option, then all users will be granted privileges. Also,
you can grant privileges by objects and types.

Q: What does the term Grant Privileges mean?
A: Grant Privileges means giving access/authority to DB2 users.

Q: What is a host variable?
A: This is a data item that is used in an SQL statement to receive a value or to supply
a value. It must be preceded by a colon(:) to tell DB2 that the variable is not a column
name.

Q: What is an image copy?
A: It is an exact reproduction of all or part of the tablespace. DB2 provides utility
programs to make full-image copies (to copy the entire tablespace) or incremental image
copies to copy only those pages that have been modified since the last image copy.

Q: What is meant by an index?
A: An index is a set of row identifiers (RIDs) or pointers that are logically ordered by
the values of a column that has been specified as being an index. Indexes provide faster
access to data and can enforce uniqueness on the row in the table.

Q: What is an index key?
A: It is a column or set of columns in a table used to determine the order of index
entries.




Q: What is meant by an index scan?
A: When an entire index (or a portion thereof) is scanned to locate rows, we call this
an index scan. This type of access can be used, for example, to select all rows of a table
in some order and avoid a sort for a query.

Q: What is meant by indicator variable?
A: An indicator variable is an integer variable used to show whether its associated
host variable has been assigned a null value.

Q: What is a join?
A: A join is a relational operation that allows retrieval of data from two or more tables
based on matching column values.

Q: What is meant by locking?
A: Locking is a process that is used to ensure the integrity of data. It also prevents
concurrent users from accessing inconsistent data. The data (row) is locked until a
commit is executed to release the updated data.

Q: What is a nonleaf page?
A: This is a page that contains keys and page numbers of other pages in the index.
Nonleaf pages never point to actual data.

Q: What is meant by null?
A: This is a special value that indicates the absence of data in a column. This value is
indicated by a negative value, usually 1.

Q: What is an object?
A: An object is anything that is managed by DB2 (that is, databases, tablespaces,
tables, views, indexes or synonyms), but not the data itself.


Q: What will the DB2 optimizer do?
A: The optimizer is a DB2 component that processes SQL statements and selects the
access paths.

Q: What is a page?
A: This is the unit of storage within a tablespace or index space that is accessed by
DB2.

Q: what is a pagespace?
A: Pagespace refers either to an unpartitioned table, to an index space or to a single
partition of a partitioned table of index space.




Q: What is a predicate?
A: A predicate is an element of a search condition that expresses or implies a
comparison operation.

Q: Describe a primary key?
A: A primary key is a key that is unique, non null and is part of the definition of a
table. A table must have a primary key to be defined as a parent.

Q: What is recovery log?
A: A recovery log is a collection of records that describes the sequence of events that occur
in DB2. The information is needed for recovery in the event of a failure during execution.

Q: What is a Resource Control Table (RCT)? Describe its characteristics.
A: The RCT is a table that is defined to a DB2/CICS region. It contains control
characteristics which are assembled via the DSNCRCT macros. The RCT matches the
CICS transaction ID to its associated DB2 authorization ID and plan ID (CICS
attachment facility).

Q: Where are plans stored?
A: Each plan is defined uniquely in the SYSIBM.SYSPLAN table to correspond to
the transaction(s) that are to execute that plan.

Q: Describe referential integrity.
A: Referential integrity refers to a feature in DB2 that is used to ensure consistency of
the data in the database.

Q: What is meant by repeatable read?
A: When an application program executes with repeatable read protection, rows referenced by the
program cannot be changed by other program until the program reaches a commit point.

Q: What is a row?
A: A row is a single occurrence of the columns(of data) described by the table definition.

Q: Describe what a storage group (STOGROUP) is.
A: STOGROUP is a named collection of DASD volumes to be used by tablespaces
and index spaces of databases. The volumes of a STOGROUP must be of the same
device type.

Q: What is meant by synonym?
A: A synonym is an alternate name for a table or view which is stored in the
SYSIBM.SYSSYNONYMS table.

Q: Describe what a table is
A: A table is a DB2 structure in which column names are used to specify the
information that is being stored by row.

Q: What is a tablespace?
A: A tablespace is a VSAM dataset, which is used to store one or more tables. The physical
page can consist of 4k or 32k pages.

Q: How would you move a tablespace (using STOGROUP) to a different DASD volume
allocated to that tablespace?
A: 1. If the tablespace used is only allocated to the STOGROUP:
ALTER STOGROUP add volume (new) delete volume(old)
REORG TABLESPACE or RECOVER TABLESPACE
2. Create a new stogroup that points to the new volume. ALTER the tablespace and
REORG or RECOVER the tablespace.

Q: What is the format (internal layout) of TIMESTAMP?
A: This is a seven-part value that consists of a date (yymmdd) and time (hhmmss and
microseconds).

Q: What is a unique index?
A: An index specified as unique is an index for which no duplicates are allowed.

Q: What is meant by a unit of recovery?
A: This is a sequence of operations within a unit of work (i.e., work done between
commit points).

Q: What is a view?
A: A view is an alternative representation of data contained in one or more tables. A
view can include all or some of the columns contained in the table or tables.

Q: What does a view do?
A: A view restricts access to specific columns and rows.

Q: What is a data model?
A: A data model is a way of representing entities, attributes and relationships.

Q: When a transaction issues a commit, to what is the commit writing?
A: A commit triggers a write to a log record.

Q: Can DASD types assigned to storage groups to be intermixed (i.e., 330s and
3380s)?
A: NO.

Q: What type of information is contained on the BSDS?
A: The BSDS contains information about active and archive logs, their dataset names
and the volumes on which they reside.

Q: What are the three types of page locks that can be held?
A: Exclusive, update, and share.

Q: Can TSO users access DB2? If yes, which command is used to invoke DB2.
A: TSO users can invoke DB2 by using the DSN RUN command.

Q: What are the names of the different types of DB2 tablespaces?
A: Simple, Segmented and partitioned.

Q: What is the maximum number of partition allowed in a partitioned tablespace?
A: The maximum is 64.

Q: How are write I/Os from the buffer pool executed?
A: Asynchronously.

Q: After a table is recovered, which flag is turned on?
A: The Copy Pending Flag is turned on.


Catalogs


Q: What is the DB2 catalog?
A: The DB2 catalog is a set of tables that contain information about all of the DB2
objects (tables, views, plans, etc).

Q: In which column of which DB2 catalog would you find the length of the rows for all
tables?
A: In the RECLENGTH column of SYSIBM.SYSTABLES.

Q: What information is held in SYSIBM.SYSCOPY?
A: The SYSIBM.SYSCOPY table contains information about image copies made of
the tablespace.

Q: What information is contained in a SYSCOPY entry?
A: Included is the name of the database, the tablespace name, and the image copy type
(full, incremental, etc.,) as well as the date and time each copy was made.



Q: What information can you find in SYSIBM.SYSLINKS table?
A: The SYSIBM.SYSLINKS table contains information about the links between
tables created by referential constraints.

Q: Where would you find information about the type of database authority held by a
user?
A: SYSIBM.SYSDBAUTH.

Q: Where could you look if you had a question about whether a column has been
defined as an index?
A: This information can be found in SYSIBM.SYSINDEXES.

Q: Once you create a view, where would information about the view be stored?
A: When a view is created, system information about the view is stored in
SYSIBM.SYSVIEWS.

UTILITIES

Q: What will the copy utility do?
A: The copy utility will create an image copy of a tablespace or a dataset within a
tablespace. There are two types of image copies : full and incremental. A full image copy
copies all pages in a tablespace or dataset. An incremental image copy copies only pages
that have been modified since the last use of the COPY utility.

Q: What will the load utility do?
A: The LOAD utility will load data into one or more tables in a tablespace or
partition. The LOAD can also replace the contents of a single partition or of an entire
tablespace.

Q: What can the MERGECOPY utility do?
A: It can merge several incremental copies of a tablespace to make a single
incremental copy and it can merge incremental copies with a full-image copy to make a
new full-image copy.

Q: What will the RECOVER utility do?
A: This utility recovers data to the current state or a previous state. The largest unit of
data recovery is the tablespace; the smallest is a page. Data is recovered from image
copies of a tablespace and database log change records.



Q: What will REORG utility do?
A: It will reorganize a tablespace to improve access performance and reorganize
indexes so that they are more efficiently clustered.

Q: What will the REPAIR utility do?
A: It will repair invalid data with valid data and / or reset status conditions. The data
may be your own data or data you would not normally access; space amp pages and index
entries.

Q: What will the RUNSTATS utility do?
A: RUNSTATS will scan tablespaces and indexes gathering information about
utilization of space and efficiency of indexes. The information is stored in the DB2
catalog and is used by the SQL optimizer to select access paths to data during the bind.

Q: What will the STOSPACE utility do?
A: This utility updates DB2 catalog columns that tell how much space is allocated for
storage groups ,related tablespace and indexes.
Q: While the copy pending flag is on, is the tablespace that was just recovered
available for use?
A: No, it is not available.


Question Bank

1. How many Types of jobs there are present on as/400.
Ans: - 5 jobs
1. Prestart
2. Interactive
3. Batch
4. Auto start
5. Communication

2. How many sub-files can be declared in an RPG.
Ans :- 24

3. How many data-structure can be declared in an RPG.
Ans :- 32763

4. At What specs we define the data area, data structures etc in case of RPG. Is it E specs or I
specs.
Ans:- I

5. What is the function of these keywords in an Sub file Program SFLFOLD & SFLDROP, are
they totally opposite.
Ans:-

6. Which OPCODE to use in RPG for showing compilers to go to O specs
Ans:-

7. DOW & DOU (Difference).
Ans:-

8. OVRDBF for what purpose.
Ans:-

9. Return & TFRCTL (main usage).
Ans:-

10. Sub file option for what purpose.
Ans:-

11. How many parameters can be used in a CL program
Ans:- 99 parameters in CLP parm command

12. In DCL, Only one DCLF allowed in program DB only for input processing (RCVF for database
file) to receive data from a display device
Ans:-

13. By parm only 75 parameters.
Ans:-

14. OPNQRYF
Ans:-

15. ADDPFCST
Ans:-

16. ADDPFTRG
Ans:-

17. SQL if ve will cause an error if + ve > 0 then unsuccessful if 0 then successful,100 no rows
found.
Ans:-

18. To get a message 7 char message 132 char
Ans:-

19. SSFLDSPCTL
Ans:-

20. SFLINZ
Ans:-

21. SFLCLR
Ans:-

22. SFCTL
Ans:-

23. SFLSIZ
Ans:-

24. SFLPAG
Ans:-

25. Who can grant authority?
Object Right Data Right
*OBJOPR *READ
*OBJMGT *ADD
*OBJEXIST *UPD
*AUTLMGT *DLT
*OBJALTER *EXECUT
*OBJREF *

26. Can we generate the error message at any other place rather than on 24
th
line.
Ans :- MSGLOC keyword is used to define where we want to show the message line

27. TYPE of Array.
Ans: - Three types of Arrays are there
1. Run-time array.
2. Compile time Array.
3. Pre-run time array
28. How to retrieve the user information in case of a RPGLE Program.
Ans:-

29. Which command to be used for backup purpose
Ans:-

30. How to search an element from an array (which OPCODE to use).
Ans:-

31. At which position we should define the indicator In different cases, e.g., what will happen if we
define an indicator at LO position in case of a SETLL OPCODE.
Ans:-

32. If we will not use the index with the array variable, what would happen
Ans:-

33. How to define a table in an RPG.
Ans:-

34. How many user classes are there
Ans: - There are five user classes
*SECOFR *SECADM
*PGMR *SYSOPR
*USER
35. About group-profile, can we define one group profile in another group profile
Ans:-

36. What would happen if we use two OVRDBF Command in CLP?
Ans:-

37. The usage of indicators with difference OPCODE (VVP).
Ans:-

38. How to declare SQL statement in RPG/400.
Ans:-

39. Where is the statement Used. (PREPARED) I mean to say in which type of Program
Ans:-

40. DYSLT where to used in Logical or in Physical or in Both of these
Ans:-

41. Function of OPNQRY, LF, is they all objects.
Ans:-

42. Are LF and OPNQRY only used for physical files?
Ans:-

43. In how many categories we can break the system securities.
Ans:- we can break the system securities in four categories
I) General System Values II) Others System values related to security.
III) System values that control password IV) system values that control audit map
44. Difference between DOW & DOU.
Ans :-

45. Difference between Physical file & Source Physical File.
Ans :-

46. I have deleted the source of a CL program. Is it possible for me to retrieve the source of the
same.
Ans :-

47. Usage of journal, why is it necessary & incase we dont journal a Phy. File what will happen.
Ans:-

48. How many files could be used in Query 400 at a time.
Ans :-

49. Usage of PGM & ENDPGM. Are they necessary command in CL Program.
Ans:-

50. While compiling a program we get some compilation error and error message, where does their
message exits, which message file, is used at the compilation time.
Ans :-

51. Difference between LF & Open Query which one is dynamic & which one static.
Ans :-

52. What do you mean by PEP.
Ans :-

53. Type of Data Structures.
Ans:-

54. Can we retrieve the name of user from RPG
Ans:-

55. How to call a program in batch mode from another program.
Ans:-

56. Multi-member files.
1. How many members can a file have?
2. How to generate a report based on all the member of a file.
3. If we created a logical file how many members can a logical file have?
4. On join operation in logical file (How many files can be joined).
Ans:- 1. depending upon the user, if he has mentioned *maxval at the time of compiling then no
limit.

57. If we will use two OVRDBF command in CL program what will happen.
Ans:- nothing, it will rename the previous file with a new name.

58. Function of MONMSG where we have to use these commands can we use this command
anywhere in a program.
Ans:- yes.

59. If you change any of your program on my particular date after some date you want to view how
many changes & what changes you have made to your source program how can you find it.
Ans:-

60. Different method by which you can pass parameters from a program to another.
Ans:-

61. Question related to sub files & there usages of different key words like SFLDSP, SFLCTL,
SFLDLT, SFLCLR SFLENDD SFLNVTCHG
Ans:-

62. At what position on a screen can generate a message line.
Ans:-


63. Type of Message.
Ans:-

64. What do you means by service program.
Ans:-

65. What is the main difference between RPG/400, RPG IV & RPGILE
Ans:-

66. Type of Sub file & define each one of them.
Ans:- 3 types of subfiles are there.

In Brief:
Single-Page Subfile
- Large set of data
- Highly random selection
- Forward and backward roll
- Programmer provides roll logic

Multi-Page Subfile, Single-Page Load
- Random access to large file
- Forward roll from selected point
- System-provided roll logic

Multi-Page Subfile, Multi-Page Load
- Maximum rolling through small file
- Complete system-provided roll logic
- Performance drag at program initialization

Descriptive
Multi-Page Subfile with Multi-Page Load
The multi-page subfile with multi-page load method is most suitable to an application that
almost never displays a data set greater than five pages. With this method, the user can
have all of the data available at one time and will be able to roll forward and backward. This
might be appropriate, for example, to review a small transaction file.

Multi-Page Subfile with Single-Page Load
The multi-page subfile with single-page load method is recommended for inquiry into a larger
file, such as a master file. Some type of file positioning will be provided, and the data you are
searching for will usually be found within the first five pages displayed. After several pages
have been added, it will be possible to roll backward and forward. If, however, the data you
need occurred before the first display page, you will have to enter a new search value.

Single Page Subfile
The single-page subfile method is most suitable for displaying a large set of data
where you need both random access and the capacity to roll forward and backward
from the selected beginning point. Remember that your program must provide all
rolling function. Use single-page subfiles for highly random selection of data or
where field-level selection of subfile fields is a requirement.

67. Can we use multi-dimensional array if yes then how.
Ans:-

68. Can we change the sign on screen for any one subsystem, if yes how?
Ans:-

69. What is the usage of QTEMP library can we store any of our Physical file on QTEMP library.
Ans:-

70. Type of System values
Ans:-

71. How many files can be declared in one CL Program.
Ans:- 1 file only

72. How Many files can be declared in one RPG/400 program.
Ans:- 50 files only, no limit in RPGILE

73. How many libraries can be added in a job?
Ans:- In V5R2 it is 251.

74. What RPG operation codes are associated with data areas?
75. What operation code should be used to check for the existence of a
specific record in a keyed file?
76. What is a compile-time table?
77. What is a pre-execution table?
78. How is data accessed from a table?
79. How can indenting be utilized to make it easier to read a compiled
RPG program?
Ans :- By overriding the indent parameter in the CRTRPGPGM command
with a
character.
80. What is a level checking error?
Ans :- When a HLL object isnt linked with the current DDS object.

81. Explain the severity 10, 20 , 30 and 40 errors.
82. Why is %Switch is used in CL
83. What is MONMSG in CL. What is CPF9000 for?
84. DLCOBJ can be used to remove record lock or not?
85. Using UNLOCK opcode, record lock is removed or not?
86. Four ways of defining help on AS/400
87. Benefits of using Externally described files in RPGLE programs
88. Message subfile gets all the records from Message file. True or False?
89. Explain Activation group
90. What is ODP?
91. Explain access paths in database file.
92. What is the difference between Production Library and Test Library
93. How wiil you declare a variable having the same tpye and length of a file field in
RPGLE.
94. Explain the difference between packed and zoned data types
95. HOw do you pass variables to a called program and in which way we'll receive
them in the program
96. Different types of string manipulation function provided in CL
97. Why is %Switch is used in CL
98. How will you convert a Text in Lower case to upper case
99. How will you find a 'AB' in 'ERWETWETABQEQE' in RPGLE?
100. Describe all data and object authorities
101. What is the difference between the spool file and physical file?
102. Difference B/w Chain and Read.
103. Difference B/w Read and Iter.
104. How to sum all the elements of an array?
105. How to find out the number of elements in an array
106. Which command should we use to see the attributes of a Physical file and its fields?
107. Which command to be used to find out how many logical files a physical files have on it?
108. How to Prompt during run time for any command.
109. I have deleted some records from Physical file and now want that the deleted space
should be utilized ? which command should we use
110. What would happen to indicator use in HIGH in case of TESTN is successful
111. How to use MONGMSG to Trap all errors.
112. Where to Use the PR and Where to use the PI
113. How to retrieve data from Data Area in an RPGILE program
114. What is the difference b/w STRDBG and STRISDB.
115. Command is used to read a file in CL program.
116. How to call a Procedure?
117. How to call a Module?
118. Which type of file should be used in a Program a simple logical file or a join Logical
File?
119. How many times we can Open a file in a Program.
120. About Journal and Commitment Control
121. How to find out the attributes of a job?
122. A file with key A is to be accessed randomly on the basis of a field B. Available options
Create a new logical, Opnqry with STRSEQ parameter having B, Sorting the file etc.
123. Where is the *INZSR subroutine coded.
124. When does a indicator defined in 73-74 position seton while chaining a record.
125. Except keyword. A file defined in F spec as O type and a DS defined in D spec. How can
the file be updated using the DS.
126. How to include a service program in your program.
127. While creating the program if *OWNER is given to the usrprf parameter what is its
significance.
128. Where is a prototype defined.
129. API for ovrdbf.
130. Difference b/w seton LR and Seton RT.
131. What is a Job ? What are the attributes Of a job ?
Ans :- A job is the basic unit of work on AS/400
The attributes are :
Job Number : Unique system generated sequential number
Job Name : Any user defined name (Max. 10 char)
User Name : Who initiated the job

132. What is the difference b/w CPF 0000 and CPF9999.
ppp0000:- Monitors for every message with a generic message identifier that begins with a specific
licensed program (ppp). For example, CPF0000 indicates that all notify, status, and escape
messages beginning with CPF are monitored.
Note: Do not use MONMSG CPF0000 when doing system function, such as install or saving or
restoring your entire system, since you may lose important information.
CPF9999 Monitors for function check messages for all generic message identifiers. If an error
message is not monitored, it becomes a CPF9999 (function check).


Metamor Global Solutions Academy
Hyderabad

Test on Introduction to AS/400 concepts

Batch : Total Marks : 50
Date : Duration : 1 Hr.
Name :

Topics :
1. Architecture
2. Source Entry Utility
3. Physical Files
4. Logical Files
5. Display Files

Scheme of the Test paper.

Section Tot
al
no.
of
Qns
.
Questions
from Topic
1 2 3 4 5
1. True/False 10 1 1 3 3 2
2. Multiple
Choice
5 1 1 1 1 1
3. Fill-in the
blanks
15 2 2 4 4 3
4. Subjective 10 1 - 4 4 1

























Fill in the Blanks :

1.1 Type of AS/400 Architecture is ____________. (Layered)
1.2 Any thing which occupies space in the memory is ___________. (Object)
1.3 Single-level storage means _____________.
1.4 The Library which contains all libraries is _____________.
1.5 ____________ library contains OS/400 and all other libraries.
1.6 The Library which is created for each job is _____________. (QTEMP)
1.7 _______________ is not one library , but many. (QTEMP)
1.8 What are system security levels _______________. (10,20,30,40,50)
1.9 QGPL stands for ______________. (General Purpose library)
1.10 Product Libraries contains _________.
1.11 The library list can have a maximum of ___names and is always scanned from ______ to
_____
1.12 The Library list consists of 4 parts: ____ ____ _____ and ____

2.1 _____________ line command is used to copy a block of records to the targets and retain
this
command.
2.2 _____________ line command is used to copy a record n times immediately below this
record.
2.3 TABS is a ____________command .
2.4 Line command to shift the data in a block of records to left by n positions is ______________
2.5 Line command to shift the data in a block of records to right by n positions is _____________
2.6 HIDE is a ____________command.
2.7 Command line command to exit the edit session without saving the changes is _____________.
2.8 Command line command to save the changes and exit the edit session is ________________.
2.9 Command line command to save the changes and remain in the edit session is
_______________.
2.10 Command line command to shift data over when replacing a string during change operations
___.
2.11 Command line command to tailor the session defaults is ________________.
2.12 Line command to move 5 lines to the left by 10 positions __________________

3.1 Physical file contain ___________ no. of record formats.
3.2 Field reference file is used for _____________________
3.3 Keywords used for validity checking are _________________
3.4 ____________________ keyword is used for mandatory fill of the field.
3.5 ____________ keyword is used to provide a default value for the field.
3.6 _______ is the default usage mode in a Physical File if a blank is specified in usage column.

4.1 Logical file may contain ____________ no. of record formats.
4.2 ____________ key word is mandatory for creation of Logical file.
4.3 Select/Omit key words may be defined in __________________ files.
4.4 ______________ is a record level key word to identify physical files containing the data to be
accessed through the join logical file.
4.5 Neither (usage) field can be defined in _________________ files.

5.1 The default usage of fields in display file is ______________
5.2 __________________ , ________________ are sizes of display screens.
5.3 _________ Function key is used for selecting database fields in SDA.
5.4 _____________,_______________ characters are used for copying a field from one place to
another place in SDA.
5.5 A numeric output field of length (5+2) is defined in SDA by specifying
____________________
5.6 In SDA immediately preceding space of the field is called ________________
5.7 Shifting of fields is done by ____________ or __________________ in SDA.
5.8 To delete a block in SDA ______________ is to be given in attribute position .
5.9 To center a field in SDA _______________ is to be given in attribute position.
5.10 Cursor location can be specified by using the Keyword _____________
5.11 __________________ Edit code is used to remove the leading zeros.

True/False :

1.1 OS/400 has got built-in database.
1.2 A Library cannot contain other Libraries with exception to QSYS.
1.3 All IBM-supplied libraries have names beginning with the letter Q.
1.4 All libraries with names beginning with the letter Q are IBM-supplied libraries.

2.1 SEU can syntax-check HLL and CL source statements
2.2 SEU provides predefined prompts and format lines for HLL and CL.

3.1 A Physical File cannot be deleted if Logical Files are defined on it.
3.2 Data in a Physical File can be updated through a Logical File.
3.3 RANGE (5 10) allows only to have values from 5 to 10 excluding the both.


4.1 Join logical file may contain more than one record format.
4.2 Logical file contains Data.
4.3 CONCAT and SUBST keywords are valid for Logical Files only.
4.4 Key fields are required if UNIQUE key word is specified.
4.5 Logical file should have all the fields that are there in parent Physical File.
4.6 Physical Files cannot be updated through Join Logical File defined on them.
4.7 In Multiple Format Logical File separate PFILE keywords are required for each record.

5.1 C is used for Combined use of input and output of field in Display Files.
5.2 ERRMSG keyword in Display Files is used to display the system messages.
5.3 If COLOR keyword is given at record level it applies to the entire record.
5.4 DSPATR(MDT) will become *ON if Data moves from field
5.5 OVERLAY keyword is used to display the record format over the previous display.

Multiple-choice :

1.1 No. of layers in AS/400 architecture

a. 1 b. 3 c. 5 d. None of the above

2.1 Command Line command to exclude the records in a member

a. X b. HIDE c. EXCL d. None of the above

3.1 The keyword used to ignore the sign of the field is

a. ALTSEQ b. ABSVAL c. NOSIGN d. None of the above

3.2 REF Keyword is not used with

a. Physical File b. Logical File c. Display File d. None of the above


4.1 Mandatory Keyword for creation of Join logical file.

a. PFILE b. JFILE c. JLFILE d. None of the above

4.2 RENAME is a ______ level keyword and used with ________ files.

a. File , Logical b. Record , Logical c. Field , PF d. Field , LF

5.1 Maximum no. of record formats in a Display File

a. 100 b. 2024 c. 1024 d. 1000

5.2 To protect a field from input keying the keyword used is

a. DSPATR(PC) b. DSPATR(PR) c. DSPPTR d. None of the above

5.3 The keywords that are used to specify the system name, date, time and user name are

a. SYSTEMNAME, DATE, TIME, USERNAME
b. SYSTEM, DATE, TIME, USER
c. SYSNAME, DATE, TIME, USER
d. SYSTEMNAM, DAT, TIME, USER

5.4 To change the attributes of a field ______ must be entered at attribute position.

a. * b. ? c. - d. None of the above.

5.5 To define a field as a Password field the keyword used is

a. DSPATR(PW) b. DSPATR(ND) c. DSPATR(PD) d. None of the above

Subjective :

1.1 How many layers are there in AS/400 Architecture. What are they.

3.1 Consider the following PF & LF

PF1:
A R RMT0
A FLD1 5P 0
A FLD2 5P 0

LF1:
A R RMT3 PFILE(PF1)
A FLD1
A FLD2
A K *NONE
A S FLD1 COMP(EQ 2)
A FLD2 COMP(EQ 3)

What is the output of the above LF.



3.1.1 Consider PF described in Question 3.1

LF2:
A R RMT4 PFILE(PF1)
A FLD1
A FLD2
A K *NONE
A S FLD1 COMP(EQ 2)
A S FLD2 COMP(EQ 3)

What is the output of the above LF.



3.1.2 Consider PF in Question 3.1.

LF3:
A R RMT5 PFILE(PF1)
A FLD1
A K *NONE
A S FLD1 VALUES(2)
A O ALL

What is the output of the LF.


3.2. Is the LF given below is correct. If not, What is wrong in it.

R REC1 PFILE(PF1)
NAME
EMPNO
DESG
SAL
S SAL COMP(GT 5000)
K EMPNO



















3.3 Consider the following PF and LF

PF : PFEMP Data in PF

R RECPF JAIN SE 12000
NAME 20A RAO SSE 15000
DESG 10A JAIN FACULTY 10000
SAL 7S 2 VIKAS SE 16000
RAMARAO SE 9000
SHARMA OB 5000

LF : LFEMP Write the output of LF

R RECLF PFILE( PFEMP)
NAME
DESG
SAL
K *NONE
S NAME COMP(EQ JAIN)
O SAL COMP(LE 12000)
S DESG COMP(EQ SE)


3.4 What is the difference between EDTCDE and EDTWRD.

3.5 Write down the various file level access path key words.

3.6 In how many ways a record format in a Physical File can be specified. Explain.

4.1 Write the situations where defining DYNSLT is a must.

4.2 Define the mandatory keywords for a join logical file.

4.3 Explain about different types of Logical Files.

4.4 What are the various Keywords used to define a Join Logical File. Explain.

5.1 What is the difference between CAnn key and CFnn key.



Metamor Global Solutions Academy
Hyderabad

Test on RPG

Batch : Total Marks : 50
Date : Duration : 1 Hr.
Name :

Topics :
1. RPG Fundamentals
2. RPG Programming
3. Subfiles
4. Printer Files

Scheme of the Test Paper.

Section Tot Question
al
no.
of
Qns
.
s from
Topic
1 2 3 4
1.
True/False
10 2 6 2 -
2. Multiple
Choice
5 1 3 - 1
3. Fill-in the
blanks
15 4 7 2 2
4.
Subjective
10 1 7 2 -























State True or False.

1.1 Control specification follows File description specification. (F)
1.2 Calculation specification is written after all specifications. (F)
1.3 Only one H spec is allowed in a program. (T)
1.4 Spooling is system function that puts data into a storage area to wait for processing.
(T)
1.5 A maximum of 50 files are allowed per program. (T)
1.6 Maximum 8 printer files are allowed per program. (T) .
1.7 File Type (position 15) U is valid for Work station files. (F)
1.8 *12ABC is a valid symbolic name. (F)
1.9 Any opcode can be used as symbolic name. (F)

2.1 SET ON LR is the last statement of any program. (F)
2.2 In Compile time array data must be given after SET ON LR statement. (F)
2.3 Pre-run time array is loaded before compilation. (F) loaded bfore calc op
2.4 AND operation is given higher precedence than the OR operation. (T)
2.5 CABxx opcode compares and branches to a subroutine. (F) branched to a label
2.6 CALL opcode is used to invoke a subroutine. (F) 4 a program
2.7 Parameters must be passed when CALL opcode is used. (F)
2.8 CHAIN opcode retrieves the record randomly and reads it. (T)
2.9 CHAIN opcode is used only with Full procedural files. (T)
2.10 DELET opcode deletes a file. (F) [only record Is deleted.]
2.11 EXFMT operation is a combination of a WRITE followed by READ to the same
record. (T) [for display files]
2.12 GOTO and TAG opcodes are associated to each other. (T)
2.13 MOVE opcode copies contents of Fact2 field to Result field. (T)
2.14 PARM opcode can be used only with PLIST opcode. (F) [parm can also be used
with call]
2.15 Equal indicator is set on if the READ operation is successful. (F) [for chain u use
hi, for read u always go 4 equal] set on is used for not found
2.16 SELEC and WHxx opcodes are related to each other. (T)
2.17 WRITE opcode writes a new record to a file. (T)

3.1 SFLDSP keyword must be activated only if there are records in the subfile. (T)
3.2 SFLRCDNBR is a mandatory keyword for Expand subfiles (T)
3.3 Subfiles are used just for displaying the records. (F)
3.4 Subfiles can also be used to input or update data. (T)
3.5 Subfiles enables the user to display more than one record at a time. (T)
3.6 The function of keywords SFLCLR and SFLINZ is same. (F)

Fill-in the blanks.

1.1 There are ________ kinds of specifications in RPG/400. (7)
1.2 Date format for the program is given in _____________ spec. (H) [debug also]
1.3 Array files are described in _____ spec. (E) [tables also]
1.4 __________ spec is used for defining data structures. (I)
1.5 For _________________files record description is given in the program. (Program-
described)
1.6 To rename a record-format name, use _______ option on ______ spec continuation
line. (RENAME,F)
1.7 Record description for Program-described files is given in _________ spec. (I)
1.8 __________ file allows a program to communicate interactively with the work-
station user. (WORKSTN) [display files]
1.9 The system process arithmetic calculations more efficiently if the data is in
______________ format.
(Packed-decimal).
1.10 Various options in File Type (position 15) of F-spec are ___________. (I, O, U, C)



1.11 Various options in File Designation (position 16) of F-spec are
________________. (Blank, P, S, R, T, F)[primary, sec, record add, tables, fully
procedural]
1.12 ____ and ____ are options in File Format (position 19). (F, E) [programe
described n externally described]
1.13 Input is controlled by calculation operations in _____________ file. (Full
procedural) [from where the i/p is to be taken]
1.14 Various options in Device (positions 40-46) of F-spec are
______________________. (Printer, Disk,
Workstn, Special, Seq)
1.15 C-specs indicate the ___________ to be done on the data in a program.
(Operations)

2.1 ____________ command is used to compile an RPG program. (CRTRPGPGM) [or
option 14]
2.2 ____________ is an area in storage which is defined into subfields. (Data
structure)
2.3 ____________ subroutine is automatically invoked in the program before 1P
output. (*INZSR)
2.4 __________ function provides a way to include source specifications from a
source-file member in a
program. (/COPY)
2.5 ____________ array is loaded before any operations are processed (Pre-run time)
2.6 ________ opcode does Addition operation. (ADD)
2.7 ________ opcode identifies the beginning of a subroutine. (BEGSR)
2.8 ________ opcode conditionally invokes the Subroutine. (CASxx)
2.9 ________ opcode retrieves a record from a full procedural file Based on Key value.
(CHAIN)
2.10 The High indicator of CHAIN opcode is set on when the record is found/not
found. (Not found)
2.11 The Low indicator of COMP opcode is set on if Fact1 ________than Fact2.
(Less than)
2.12 ________ opcode is used to define a field based on the attributes of another field.
(DEFN)
2.13 To display the contents of a field ______ opcode is used. (DSPLY)
2.14 _________ opcode defines the end of a subroutine. (ENDSR)
2.15 _________ opcode invokes a subroutine. (EXSR)
2.16 To form a composite key _______ and ________ opcodes are used. (KFLD,
KLIST)
2.17 MVR operation must immediately follow the ________ operation. (DIV)
2.18 ________ opcode is used to read the previous record. (READP)
2.19 ________ opcode is used to read the previous equal record. (REDPE)
2.20 To sort an array ________ opcode is used. (SORTA).
2.21 Use of SUBST opcode is _____________. (Return a substring)
2.22 ________ opcode adds the elements of an array. (XFOOT)
2.23 ENTRY is used in ______________(called/calling) program. (Called) [*entry to
pass some parameters ]
2.24 What is the maximum length of the op-code. (5)

3.1 Subfiles are essentially a two step process- __________ and ____________.
(Load,Display)
3.2 In _________ method of Subfiles roll keys are handled by Subfile itself. (Load-all)
3.3 A Subfile is made up of two formats- ___________ and ____________.
(Subfile,Subfile control)
3.4 In _________ method of Subfiles SFLSIZ=SFLPAG. (Single-page)
3.5 Keyword to specify subfile control format _________ (SFLCTL)

4.1 _________ is the file-level keyword to remove option indicators from buffer and to
place them in a
99-byte separate indicator area. (INDARA)
4.2 _________ is the field-level keyword to specify the location of an unnamed, 4-
digit, zoned decimal
field to contain the page number. (PAGNBR)
4.3 _________ is the keyword to specify the printer to skip to a specific line number
after it
prints one or more lines. (SKIPA)
4.4 _________ is the keyword to specify the printer to space some no of lines after it
prints one or more
lines. (SPACEA)
4.5 RLU stands for __________________ (Report Layout Utility)
4.6 The significance of Overflow indicator in printer files is ____________ (Page break)




Multiple choice questions.

1.1 Information about files is given in which spec. (b)

a. H-spec b. F-spec c. C-spec d. E-spec

1.2 Named constants are defined in ____ spec. (c)

a. F-spec b. C-spec c. I-spec d. E-spec

1.3 Currency symbol is specified in which spec. (a)

a. H-spec b. F-spec c. C-spec d. I-spec

1.4 ________ file is processed by Cycle. (a)

a. Primary b. Full procedural c. Array d. Output

1.5 Opcodes are given in which spec. (b)

a. F-spec b. C-spec c. I-spec d. Control


2.1 For which array, data is given in the program. (a)

a. Compile-time b. Pre-run time c. Run time d. Compile-run

2.2 A maximum of _____ arrays are allowed in a program. (d)

a. 100 b. 50 c. 1024 d. 200

2.3 Which Opcode is used to pass control to the specified program. (a)

a. CALL b. EXSR c. EXEC d. None

2.4 Which Opcode is used to Concatenate Two Character Strings (a)

a. CAT b. CONCAT (in LF) c. CATCON d. None

2.5 _____Opcode verifies that each character in the given string is from the given set of
characters. (a)

a. CHECK b. VERFY c. CHRCH d. None

2.6 Which opcode is used for division operation. (a)

a. DIV b. DIVDE c. DIVD d. None

2.7 Opcode to remove a program from the list of activated programs is (a)

a. FREE b. CALL c. FRECAL d. None



2.8 To search for a particular element in an array or table _______ opcode is used (d)

a. LOOKP b. LUKUP c. LKUP d. LOKUP

2.9 To find the product of 2 fields _________ opcode is used (c)

a. MULTI b. MUPLY c. MULT d. None

2.10 OCUR opcode is associated with (b)

a. Arrays b. Data structures c. Tables d. None

2.11 Which of the below mentioned opcodes is associated with Subfiles (c)

a. READE b. READP c. READC d. None

2.12 Which opcode is used to find the Square root (a)

a. SQRT b. SQR c. SQTR d. None

2.13 To find the difference between the values of two fields ______ opcode is used
(b)

a. SUBT b. SUB c. SUBTR d. None

`2.14 UPDAT opcode can be used only when the file type (position 15 of F-spec)
contains (c)

a.I b. O c. U d. C


4.1 In which subfiles SFLSIZ = SFLPAG. (d)

I. Load-all II. Expand III. Single-page

a. I b. II c. III d. I & II

4.2 The maximum number of record formats in a printer file is (a)

a. 1024 b. 1000 c. 2410 d. 2024

4.3 _________ is the keyword to specify that the printer device is to skip to a specific
line number
before it prints one or more lines. (c)

a. SKIP b. SPACEB c. SKIPB d. None

4.4 Maximum page with in RLU is (a)

a. 378 b. 132 c. 80 d. 738






Subjective questions.

1.1 How many kinds of specifications are there in RPG/400. What are they.
1.2 What is the purpose of various specifications of RPG/400.
1.3 Differentiate between Externally described files and Program-described files.

2.1 What are special data structures.
2.2 How many types of arrays are there. What are they. Differentiate.
2.3 What is the difference between the CLEAR and RESET opcodes.
2.4 What is the difference between the DO, DOUxx and DOWxx opcodes
2.5 What is the difference between ITER and LEAVE opcodes
2.6 What is the difference between MOVE, MOVEL and MOVEA. Explain with
examples.
2.7 How many types of READ operations are there. Explain about READ, READP,
READE.
2.8 Explain about READC, READP, REDPE
2.9 What is the difference between CHECK and SCAN opcodes
2.10 Differentiate SETGT and SETLL opcodes.
2.11 What is the difference between Z-ADD and Z-SUB. Expain with examples.
2.12 Which reserved words allow us to access the System date and portions of it, in the
program.
2.13 List 6 figurative constants. Explain the purpose of these.
2.14 What is the difference between CLOSE & FEOD opcode.
2.15 What is the use of exception records in O spec.
2.16 How can we open a program without using User Control.
2.17 How will you read the last record in a PF.
2.18 a. A |A| B |C | B |P |Q |R |S |
op-code fact2 result
After executing MOVE A B B contains | p | a | b | c
|

b. A |1 |2 |3 | B |1 |0|
op-code fact2 result
After executing DIV A B B contains | ` | |
2.19 If an indicator, say 99 is to be set on, in how many ways you can do it. (write C-
specs)
2.20 What is the out put of KEY1, KEY2 and KEY3 in the following program ?

0000.01 C MOVE 'CBMEDCLT KEY1 7
0000.02 C KEY1 DSPLY
0000.03 C MOVEL'CBMEDCL' KEY2 8
0000.04 C KEY2 DSPLY
0001.00 C MOVEL'CBMEDC' KEY3 8 P
0002.00 C KEY3 DSPLY
0003.0 0 C SETON LR

2.21 What is the output of A,B, C and D in the following program?

0001.00 C Z-ADD1000 A 40
0002.00 C Z-ADD2000 B 40
0003.00 C MOVE '3000' C 4
0004.00 C MOVE '4000' D 4
0006.00 C MOVE A C
0008.00 C MOVE D B
0009.00 C A DSPLY
0010.00 C B DSPLY
0011.00 C C DSPLY
0013.0 C SETON LR

2.22 What is the output of $TMP1 and $TMP2 in the following program?

0002.00 C MOVEL*BLANKS $TMP1 8
0003.00 C $TMP1 DSPLY
0004.00 C MOVEL*BLANKS $TMP2 5
0005.00 C MOVEL'I' $TMP2
0007.00 C 'RMTP' CAT $TMP2 $TMP2
0008.00 C $TMP2 DSPLY
0009.00 C SETON LR

2.23 What is the output of $PAY, $PAYC, $PAYD and $ARR,I in the following
program?

0001.01 E $ARR 3 8
0003.00 I DS
0004.00 I 1 10 $PAY
0005.00 I 1 8 $PAYD
0006.00 I 9 10 $PAYC
0006.01 C Z-ADD*ZEROS $VAL 80
0006.02 C MOVE 'ARRAY' $RSN 5
0007.00 C Z-ADD 0217199 $TEMP 82
0009.00 C MOVE $TEMP $PAY
0010.00 C $PAY DSPLY
0010.01 C $PAYD DSPLY
0010.02 C $PAYC DSPLY
0011.00 C MOVE *BLANKS $ARR
0012.01 C Z-ADD1 I 20
0012.02 C MOVE $RSN $ARR,I
0012.03 C $ARR,I DSPLY
0013.0 3 C SETON LR

2.24 What is the output of SUM in the following program?

0001.0 C Z-ADD5 A 30
0001.1 C Z-ADD0 SUM 50
0001.2 C I DOWLE 100
0001.3 C ADD I SUM
0001.4 C ADD 15 I
0001.5 C ENDDO
0001.6 C SUM DSPLY

3.1 How many types of Subfiles are there. What are they. Differentiate.
3.2 Explain about the keywords SFLCTL, SFLDSPCTL, SFLDSP.
3.3 What is the difference between the keywords SFLPAG and SFLSIZ.
3.4 What is the difference between the keywords SFLCLR and SFLINZ.
3.5 What is the advantage of SFLRCDNBR and SFLNXTCHG keywords.