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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla


9971245238 or 8750558444
Sect i on 1 Lect ure Not es - 1 ( A) REAL ANALYSI S

Al gebrai c propert i es of - On t he set of real number s t here
are t wo bi nar y operat i ons denot ed by + and are cal l ed
addi t i on and mul t i pl i cat i on, respect i vel y. These operat i ons
sat i sf y t he f ol l owi ng pr opert i es.
1. a + b = b + a, a, b (Commut at i vi t i w. r. t addi t i on)
2. ( a + b) + c=a+( b + c) a , b , c ( Associ at i vi t y of
addi t i on)
3. There exi st s an el ement 0 i n Such t hat 0+a = a = a+0
a ( Exi st ence of zer o el ement )
4. a - a : a+( - a) = 0 and ( - a) + a = 0
5. a b = b a a, b ( commut at i ve of mul t i pl i cat i on)
6. ( a b) c = a ( b c) a, b, c ( Associ at i ve of
mul t i pl i cat i on)
7. ( Exi st ence of uni t el ement ) 0 1 : a 1 =1 a =a
a
8. ( Exi st ence of r eci pr ocal s) 0 a

: a

=1=

a
9. a ( b + c) = ( a b) +( a c)
and ( b + c) a = ( b a) + ( c a) a, b, c . ( Di st r i but i ve
pr opert y of mul t i pl i cat i on over addi t on) .

Theorem
1. I f z and a are el ement s i n Wi t h z + a = a, t hen z = 0
2. I f u and b 0 are el ement s i n Wi t h u b = b, t hen u = 1
3. I f a , t hen a 0 = 0.

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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Proof
1. z = z + 0 ( Exi st ence of zero el ement )
= z + ( a + ( - a) ) = ( z + a) + ( - a)
= a + ( - a) = 0.
2. I f u and b 0 are el ement s i n and u b = b
To Show t hat - u = 1
Consi der u = u 1 ( Exi st ence of uni t )
= u ( b

) ( Exi st ence of reci pr ocal s)


= ( u b)

( usi ng associ at i on of mul t i pl i cat i on


= b

( u b= bi s guven)
u = b

= 1
u = 1
3. I f a , t hen a 0 = 0
a + a 0 = a 1 + a 0 ( Exi st ence of uni t )
= a ( 1 + 0) = a 1 ( Di st ri but i vi t y)
= a ( Exi st ence of uni t )
a 0 = 0 ( By ( a) )

Theorem
1. I f 0 a are such t hat a b = 1 b =


2. I f a b = 0 t hen ei t her a = 0 or b = 0
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Proof
( 1) . b = b 1 ( Exi st ence of uni t )
= b ( a

) ( a0, Exi st ence of r eci pr ocal )


= ( ba)

( Associ at i vi t y)
= ( ab)

( Commut at i vi t y of mul t i pl i cat i on)


= ( 1

) ( ab = 1)
b =

( Exi st ence of uni t el ement )


( 2) . l et a b = 0, I f a = 0 we ar e done , i f a 0 , 1/a exi st s.
Now , b = b 1 = b ) ( Exi st ence of reci procal s)
= b( a

) = ( ba)

= ( ab)

=0

= 0
b = 0
Not at i on
1. a + ( - b) = a b a, b
2. a (

) =

i f b 0
3. a
( n + 1 )
= ( a
n
) a n
4. a
1
= a
5. I f a 0 t hen a
0
= 1 and a
- 1
=

, Al so i f n , we wi l l
wri t e a
( - n )
= (

)
n



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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Rat i onal number
Any number t hat can be wri t t en as

where a, b and b 0,
i s cal l ed a rat i onal number. The set of al l rat i onal number s i s
denot ed by .
I rrat i onal number
Any number whi ch i s not rat i onal i s cal l ed i rrat i onal .
OR
A number X i s cal l ed i rrat i onal i f f a and b( 0) i n such t hat
X =


Theorem There does not exi st s a rat i onal number
r such t hat r
2
= 2.

Proof Let i f possi bl e r at i onal number
r =

( q 0, p, q ) :
(

= 2.
Not e - wi t hout t he l oss of gener al i t y we can assume t hat
t here i s no common Fact or b/w p and q, and p and q bot h are
posi t i ve , Now (

=2 p
2
= 2q

p
2
i s even
( p i s odd p = 2n- 1 , n
Then p
2
= ( 2n- 1)
2

= 2( 2n
2
- 2n+1) - 1, i s odd)
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Al so p and q do not have 2 as a common f act or
q i s odd . . ( 1)
Now as p i s even p = 2m
Where m :
4m
2
= 2q
2
q
2
= 2m
2

q
2
i s even q i s even ( 2)
From ( 1) and ( 2) we have a cont r adi ct i on.
And hence t here i s no p and q i n such t hat
(

)
2
= 2 any r : r
2
= 2.
ORDER PROPERTY OF -
There i s a non empt y subset P of , cal l ed
The set of posi t i ve real numbers ,
That sat i sf y t he f ol l owi ng pr opert i es.
1. I f a, b bel ong t o P , t hen a + b P.
2. I f a, b P t hen a b P
3. I f a t hen exact l y one of t he f ol l owi ng i s t rue. .
a P , a= 0 , - a P.
3
rd
property is called trichotomy property
Negat i ve Set
Def i ne a set { - a : a P} , t hen t hi s set i s cal l ed set of negat i ve
number s.

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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Not at i ons
1. I f a P we wr i t e , a > 0
2. I f a P U { 0} , we wr i t e a 0
3. I f - a P we wr i t e a < 0
4. I f - a P U { 0} , we wr i t e a 0

a > 0 , a i s posi t i ve real number
a 0 , a i s non- negat i ve real number
a < 0 , a i s negat i ve real number
a 0 , a i s non- posi t i ve r eal number

Def i ni t i on - Let a , b be t he el ement s i n
( a) . I f a- b P, we wri t e a > b or b < a
( b) . I f a- b PU{ 0} , we wri t e a b or b a
Theorem - Let a, b, c be any el ement s of
( a) . I f a > b and b > c , t hen a > c
( b) . I f a > b t hen a + c > b +c
( c) . I f a > b and c > 0 , t hen ca > cb
( d) . I f a > b and c < 0, t hen ca < cb
Not e - ( b) i s cal l ed monot oni c l aw of addi t i on.
( c) i s cal l ed monot oni c l aw of mul t i pl i cat i on.

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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Proof -
( a) . Gi ven - a > b and b > c
a b P and b c P
To Show t hat - a > c i . e a c P
As a b P and b c P
( By pr opert y 1. of P ) we have ( a - b) + ( b - c) P
a + ( - b + b) - c P
a - c P a > c.
( b) . I f a > b, t hen a + c > b + c
Proof - Gi ven - a > b a - b P
Now ( a + c) - ( b + c) = a + c - b - c
= a + c - c - b
= a - b P
( a + c) - ( b + c) P a + c > b + c.

( c) . Gi ven - a > b a - b P
and c > 0 c P , by pr opert y 2
n d
of P
c( a - b) P ca - cb P
ca > cb.

( d) . Gi ven - a > b a - b P
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
And c < 0 - c P
agai n by pr opert y ( 2) of +ve set P
( - c) ( a - b) P
- ca + cb P
cb - ca P
( cb > ca) .


Theorem -
( a) I f a and a 0 a
2
> 0
( b) 1 > 0
( c) . I f n

Proof -
( a) . Gi ven - a and a 0
To show - a
2
> 0
As a and a 0
a P or a P
Now i f a P t hen a
2
= a a P
a
2
P or a
2
> 0
Now i f - a P
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
a
2
= ( - a) ( - a) P ( - a P ( - a) ( - a) P)
a
2
P a
2
> 0
( b) . Now as 0 1
by ( a) 1
2
> 0
1 = 1
2
> 0 1 > 0
( c) . We l l show usi ng mat hemat i cal i nduct i on
For n = 1 ; 1 > 0
Now assume resul t i s t r ue f or n = k k P
Now we l l show t hat resul t i s al so t rue f or n = k +1
Now k P and 1 P
k +1 P ( usi ng 1
s t
pr opert y of P)
r esul t i s t rue f or n = k +1 r esul t i s t rue f or al l
n n > 0 n .
Absol ut e val ue
Let a be any real number t hen absol ut e val ue of a i s
denot ed by | a| and i s def i ned as.
| a| = {








z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Theorem
( a) . | ab| = | a| | b| a, b
( b) . | a|
2
= a
2
a
( c) . i f c 0, t hen | a| c i f f - c a c
( d) . - | a| a | a| a
Proof -
( a) . i f a = 0 or b = 0 | ab| = | a| | b|
So assume a 0 , b 0 .
Case 1 a > 0, b > 0 ab > 0 | ab| = ab
Now | ab| = ab = | a| | b|
( a > 0 | a| = a & b > 0 | b| = b )
Case 2 a < 0, b < 0 ab > 0 | ab| = ab
Now | ab| = ab = ( - a) ( - b) = | a|
| b| ( b < 0 | b| = - b, a < 0 | a| = - a )
Case 3 a < 0, b > 0 ab < 0 | ab| = - ab
| ab| = ( - a) b = | a| | b|
( a < 0 | a| = - a, b > 0 | b| = b )
Case 4 a > 0, b < 0 ab < 0 | ab| = - ab
| ab| = a( - b) = | a| | b|
( a > 0 | a| = a, b < 0 | b| = - b )
i n possi bl e cases we have
| ab| = | a| | b|
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( b) . a : a
2
0
a
2
= | a|
2
= | a a| = | a| | a| = | a|
2

| a|
2
= a
2
( c) . c 0, t hen | a| c i f f - c a c

Not e - To prove t hi s we l l pr ove t he f ol l owi ng
Max { a, - a} = | a|
When a = 0 t he resul t i s t rue assume a 0.
Case 1 a > 0 | a| = a . . ( 1)
a > 0 - a < 0 a > - a max { a, - a} = a
max { a, - a} = a = | a| ( By ( 1) )
max { a, - a} = | a|
Case 2 a < 0 | a| > - a ( 2)
a < 0 - a > 0 - a > a max { a, - a} = - a
max { a, - a} = - a = | a| ( By ( 2) )
max { a, - a} = | a|
Now we l l show t hat | a| c - c a c
| a| c max { a, - a} c
a c & - a c
a c & a - c
- c a c
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
( d) . Now | a| 0
Do your sel f -

Tri angul ar I nequal i t y
I f a, b t hen | a + b| | a| + | b|
Proof -
Case - 1 a + b > 0
| a + b| = a + b . . ( 1)
and we know t hat a | a| , b | b|
a + b | a| + | b| . . ( 2)
Usi ng ( 2) i n ( 1) we get | a + b| | a| + | b| .
Case - 2 a + b < 0
| a + b| = - ( a + b)
= - ( a) + - ( b) . ( 3)
Now we know t hat
- ( a) | a| , - ( b) | b|
- ( a) + - ( b) | a| + | b| ( 4)
Usi ng ( 4) i n ( 3) we get | a + b| | a| + | b| .
Case - 3 a + b = 0 a = - b and | a + b| = 0
| a| = | - b| = | b|
| a| + | b| = 2| a|
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
| a + b| = 0 | a| + | b|
| a + b| | a| + | b|
Corol l ory - I f a, b t hen
( a) . | | a| - | b| | | a - b| ,
( b) . | a - b| | a| + | b| .

Proof - | a| = | a - b + b|
| a - b| + | b| ( usi ng t r i angl e i nequal i t y)
| a| - | b| | a - b| . . ( 1)
Now | b| = | b a + a| | b - a| + | a|
| b| - | a| | b - a| = | a - b| . . ( 2)
max { | a| - | b| , | b| - | a| } | a - b|
max { | a| - | b| , - ( | a| - | b| ) } | a - b|
| | a| - | b| | | a - b| .
Def i ni t i on- Let a and > 0. Then t he
nei ghborhood of a i s t he set v ( a) def i ned as
v ( a) = { x : | x a| <} .



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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof - Si nce 0 | x a| < > 0
| x a| = 0 ( i f 0 a < > 0 t hen a = 0 )
x = a.

Q1: I f a, b and b 0 show t hat
( a) . | a| =

( b) . |

| =



Sol : ( a) . Case 1 a > 0 | a| = a
| a|
2
= a
2
| a| =


Case 2 a < 0 | a| = - a
| a|
2
= - ( a)
2
= a
2
| a| =


Case - 3 a = 0 | a| = 0
| a|
2
= 0
2

| a| =



( b) . |

| =


Thoerem - Let a . I f x bel ongs t o t he nei ghborhood
v ( a) > 0, t hen x = a.
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Case - 1 a > 0, b > 0

> 0 |

| =


( a = | a| , b = | b| )
Case - 2 a < 0, b < 0

> 0 |

| =


( | a| = - a, | b| = - b| , a <0, b < 0)
Case - 3 a < 0, b > 0

< 0 |

| = (

) =


( | a| = - a, | b| =b , a <0, b> 0)
Case - 4 a > 0, b > 0. Do your sel f .
nei ghborhood
Let a be any real number and l et > 0 be any number t hen
nei ghborhood of a i s def i ne d as t he set
v ( a) = { x : | x a| < } = ( a , a + ) .

Nei ghborhood
Let a be any real number t hena non empt y set V i s cal l ed
nei ghborhood of a i f f > 0 :
v ( a) V i . e ( a , a + ) V.
Not e - Ever y nei ghborhood of a i s nei ghbor hood of a
Let V = v ( a)
We l l show t hat V i s a nbhd of a.
As v ( a) i s an nbhd of a al so v ( a) v ( a) = V
v ( a) V V i s a nbhd of a
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Open Set - A set G i s sai d t o be an open set i f f or each x G
a nbhd V of x such t hat V G.
Cl osed Set A set F i s sai d t o be cl oset set i f i t s compl ement
F
c
= - F i s an open set .

Theorem -
Let A be subset of t hen A i s open i f f x A x > 0 :
] X - x , X+ x [ A

Proof - Fi r st assume A i s open t hen x A nbhd of V
of x : V A . . ( 1)
Now V i s nbhd of x x > 0 : ] X - x , X+ x [ V ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) we have ] X - x , X+ x [ A
Conver sel y Assume t hat x A x > 0 : ] X - x , X+ x [ A
To show t hat - A i s open I . e To show t hat nbhd of V of x
x A
Let x A ( be any el ement )
By our assumpt i on x > 0 : ] X - x , X+ x [ A
Let V = ] X - x , X+ x [ A t hen V i s a nbhd of x
V A A i s an open set .


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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Not e - From now onwards whenever we need t o show A i s
open we l l show t hat
x A x > 0 : ] X - x , X+ x [ A .
Remark - G i s open i f f x G > 0 :
v ( x) G G i s nei ghborhood of x
G i s open i f f i t i s nei ghborhood of each of i t s poi nt s.
Exampl e Ever y open i nt er val of t he t ype ] a, b[ i s an open set .
Proof - Consi der ] a, b[ Let x ] a, b[ be any poi nt , we shal l
show ] a, b[ i s nbhd of x.
Let x = mi n { x a , b - x } t h e n ] x - x , x + x [ ] a , b [
( x = mi n { x a , b - x } x x a , x b - x )
a x - x & x + x b )
] x - x , x + x [ ] a, b[
And hence ] a, b [ i s open set .

Exampl e , The Set of real s i s an open set .
Proof - Let x , t hen > 0
] x - x , x + x [ i s open set .
Exampl e Set of rat i onal s Q i s not open set .
Proof - Let x Q, t hen x Q and > 0 ] x - x , x + x [ Q
( ] x - x , x + x [ cont ai ns i nf i ni t e no. of rat i onal s whi ch can
be i n Q) Q can t be open.
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Quest i on - Empt y set i s an open set .
Sol ut i on - Si nce i s a set wi t h no el ement s i n i t t here
i s no el ement i n of whi ch i t i s not a nbhd
i s nbhd of each of i t s poi nt s
i s open set .
Quest i on Any f i ni t e set i s not open.
Sol ut i on - Let S be any f i ni t e set we l l show S i s not nbhd of
any of i t s poi nt s. Let x S be any
Then > 0
] x - x , x + x [ S ( ] x - x , x + x [ i s i nf i ni t e
set whi l e s i s f i ni t e set )
S i s not open.
Quest i on Ever y open i nt erval of t he t ype ] - , a[ i s open.
Proof
- Let x ] - , a[ be any number x + < a
- < x + < a - < x - < x + < a
] x - , x + [ ] - , a[
] - , a[ i s open.



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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Open Set Propert i es -
1. The uni on of an ar bi t rar y col l ect i on of open subset s i n i s
open.
2. I nt er sect i on of f i ni t e col l ect i on of open set s i s an open set .

Proof
( a) Let { G : } be an ar bi t r ary f ami l y of open set .
Let G =

we have t o prove t hat G i s open set .
Let x G ( be any el ement )
x G =


x G f or
As each G i s open set x > 0 :
] x - x , x + x [ G


] x - x , x + x [

= G G i s open set .
( b) . Let G1 , G2 , G3 . Gn be open set s
To show t hat

i s an open set .
Let x

( be any el ement )
x Gi i = 1, 2, 3. . n
As each Gi i s an open set i > 0 , i = 1, 2, 3 . n :
] x - i , x+i [ Gi i = 1, 2, 3 . n
Let = mi n { 1 , 2 , . n }
Then ] x - , x + [ ] x - i , x+i [ Gi i = 1, 2, 3 . n
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

] x - , x + [ Gi i = 1, 2, 3 . n
] x - , x + [

i s an open set .
Def i ni t i on (Cl osed set ) -
A set G i s cl osed i f f i t s compl ement i s open.
Propert i es of Cl osed set s
( a) . Arbi t rar y i nt ersect i on of cl osed set s i s a cl osed set .
( b) . Fi ni t e uni on of cl osed set s i s a cl osed set .
Proof - Let { G } be a f ami l y of cl osed set s.
To show t hat

i s cl osed set .
i . e To show t hat (

)
c
i s open set
we know


)

. ( 1)
Now as G i s cl osed ( G )
c
i s open

i s open set ( Arbi t rar y uni on of open


set s i s an open set ) .
By ( 1)


)

i s open


cl osed set .
( b) . Fi ni t e uni on of cl ose d set s i s a cl osed set .
Let G1 , G2 , . . Gn be f i ni t e number of cl osed set s.
Then we have t o show t hat

i s cl osed i . e To
show t hat

i s an open set .
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
We know t hat

( 1)
Now si nce Gi i s cl osed f or i = 1, 2, . n
( Gi )
c
i s open f or i = 1, 2, . N

i s open ( f i ni t e i nt er sect i on of open set s i s


open)

Not e - 1 Ar bi t rary i nt er sect i on of open set s may not be open.
Exampl e - Let F = { ( -

) | n } a f ami l y of open set s.


We l l show t hat (

)

i s not an open set
As (

)

= { 0} and { 0} i s not an open set ,
bei ng a f i ni t e set .
Not e - 2 Ar bi t rar y uni on of cl osed set s may not be cl osed.
Exampl e Let F = { [

] | n } t hen each member of F i s


cl osed set ( bei ng cl osed i nt er val s)
But *

+

= ( 0, 2] i s not cl osed.
Theorem Ever y cl osed i nt er val of t he t ype [ a, b] i s a cl osed set .

Proof - Let F = [ a, b] Then F
c
= [ a, b]
c
= ( - , a) U( b, ) whi ch
i s open set ( bei ng uni on of open set s)
F i s cl osed [ a, b] i s cl osed set .


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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Cl ust er poi nt - (l i mi t poi nt )
A real number x i s sai d t o be l i mi t poi nt or cl ust er poi nt of a set A
i f f ever y - nbhd of x cont ai ns a member of A ot her t han x .
i . e > 0

V ( x) ( A { x} )
] x - , x + [ ( A { x} ) > 0

Exampl e Consi der t he set S = ] a, b[ t hen > 0 ] a- , a+[
cont ai ns i nf i ni t el y many poi nt s of ] a, b[
a i s l i mi t poi nt of ] a, b[
Si mi l arl y > 0 ] b- , b +[ cont ai ns i nf i ni t el y many poi nt s
of ] a, b[ b i s l i mi t poi nt of ] a, b[
Theorem - A set A i s cl osed i f f i s cont ai ns al l of i t s l i mi t poi nt s.

Proof - Fi r st Let us assume t hat A i s cl osed set .
Let x be any l i mi t poi nt of A
To show t hat x A.
Let x A x ~ A
Now as A i s cl osed ~ A i s open.
~ A i s nei ghborhood of x
> 0 : ] x - , x + [ ~ A
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Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

] x - , x + [ A =
x i s not a l i mi t poi nt of A whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on as x
i s l i mi t poi nt of A
x A i s not possi bl e x A
A cont ai ns al l i t s l i mi t poi nt s.
Conversel y assume t hat A cont ai ns al l i t s l i mi t poi nt s.
To show t hat A i s cl osed f or t hat we need t o show t hat
~ A i s open.
Let x ~ A ( be any poi nt )
x A x i s not l i mi t poi nt of A
> 0 : V ( x) A =
V ( x) ~ A
~ A i s nbhd of x
Si nce x was any arbi t rar y poi nt of ~ A t hi s
f ol l ows t hat ~ A i s nbhd of each of i t s poi nt s
~ A i s open
A i s cl osed.



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Exampl es on Cl ust er poi nt .
(1) Ever y Real number i s cl ust er poi nt of Q.
Sol ut i on Let x be any real number t hen > 0
] x - , x + [ cont ai ns i nf i ni t el y many real number s
whi ch are rat i onal s.
] x - , x + [ ( Q { x} )
x i s l i mi t poi nt of Q.
Def i ni t i on ( Deri ved Set )
Let S be any subset of r eal number s t hen deri ved set of S i s
denot ed by S
l
and i s def i ned as
S
l
= { x : x i s l i mi t poi nt of S}
Not e i n vi ew of above resul t and def i ni t i on we can say
t hat Q
l
=
(2) Set of i nt eger s has no l i mi t poi nt .
Sol ut i on Let denot e t he set of i nt eger s, we l l show no r eal
number x can be l i mi t poi nt of
As x we have t wo cases.
( 1) x ( 2) x
Case 1 x t hen ] x -

[ i s a nei ghbor hood of


whi ch cont ai ns no i nt egers

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Ot her t han x ( bet ween any t wo i nt eger s t here
i s di st ance of at l east one uni t )
x i s not l i mi t poi nt of

Case 2 x t hen we can choose t wo i nt eger s n and
n+1 such t hat n< x < n+1
Then i f we choose = mi n { x- n, n+1- x}
] x- , x+[ wi l l cont ai n no i nt eger
x can t be l i mi t poi nt of
And hence no real number can be l i mi t poi nt of


l
=
Exampl e : ( ] a, b[ )
l
= [ a, b]
Sol ut i on:
i f x [ a, b] t hen f or ever y > 0 , ] x- , x+ [
cont ai n i nf i ni t el y many member s of ] a,
b[
And one member of ] a, b [ , ot her t han x
x i s a l i mi t poi nt of ] a, b[
Now l et x [ a, b]
Case 1 x < a t hen choose ( 0<<a- x)

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

x + <a and ] x- , x+[ does not cont ai n
any member of [ a, b]
x i s not a cl ust er poi nt of ] a, b[
Case 2 x > b, t hen choose 0<<x- b
x- > b
] x- , x+[ does not cont ai n any member
of ] a, b[
x i s not a l i mi t poi nt of ] a, b[
Hence ( ] a, b[ )
l
= [ a, b]
Exampl e Set of i nt eger s i s cl osed.
Sol ut i on: As
l
= and Z
l
Z
cont ai ns al l i t s l i mi t poi nt s
i s cl osed
Exampl e Set of nat ur al numbers has no l i mi t poi nt .
OR
( )
l
=
And ( )
l
= i s cl osed
Exampl e: Let S = {

}
Then S
l
= { 0}


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Sol ut i on: Let > 0 be any real number t hen by archi medi an
pr opert y n :
n >

or n <


Now

S and

] 0- , 0+[
> 0 ] 0- , 0+[ cont ai ns a member of S
0 i s cl ust er poi nt of S
To show - No real number ot her t han 0 can be l i mi t
poi nt of S
Let x 0 be any real number
Case 1 x < 0
Then choose 0<<- x ; x+ < 0
] x- , x+[ does not cont ai n a member of S
x can t be l i mi t poi nt of S
Case 2 x > 1
Then choose 0<<x- 1
] x- , x+[ doest not cont ai n any member of
S ( x- >1 ] x- , x+[ ] 1, [ )
Case 3 x = 1, t he f or = 1/3 ( x- , x+) = ( 2/3, 4/3)
and i t does not cont ai n any poi nt s of S
Ot her t han 1
1 i s not l i mi t poi nt of S
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Case 4 0<x<1 : x S
x = 1/n , n : n 2
Now n- 1 < n < n+1

>

>


Then (

) i s a nbhd of x = 1/n and i t


cont ai ns no poi nt of S ot her t han x = 1/n
x i s not l i mi t poi nt of S.
Case 5 Let 0<x<1, x S
Let m and m+1 be consecut i ve nat ural s such
t hat m <

< m+1

) i s a nbhd of x,
And cont ai ns no poi nt of S.
x i s not l i mi t poi nt of S
S
l
= { 0}
I nt eri or poi nt - A poi nt x i s sai d t o be an i nt er i or poi nt
of a set s i f a nbhd V of x such t hat v S
I sol at ed poi nt A poi nt x S i s sai d t o be an i sol at ed poi nt of
S i f x i s not an i nt eri or poi nt of S.
Boundary poi nt A r eal number x i s sai d t o be boundar y poi nt
of A i f each nbhd of x cont ai ns poi nt s of A
as wel l as poi nt s of A
c

Cl osure of a set Let A , t hen i nt er sect i on of al l cl osed
set s cont ai ni ng A i s cal l ed cl osure of A,
and denot ed as A

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Chapt er 11. 1 (Gui del i nes Quest i ons)
(Q1) I f x ( 0, 1) and x = mi n { x, 1- x} i f | u- x| < x , show
t hat u ( 0, 1)
Sol ut i on | u- x| < x x- x < u < x + x . . ( 1)
Now x = mi n { x, 1- x } x x and x + x 1 . ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) 0x - x <u< x + x 1
0<u<1 u ( 0, 1)
(Q2) show t hat t he i nt erval s ( a, ) and ( - , a) are open set s,
and t hat [ b, ) and ( - b] are cl osed set s
Sol ut i on:
1. Let x ( a, )
Let x < x a t hen a < x- x < x < x + x <
( x- x , x + x ) ( a, )
( a, ) i s open set
2. Let x ( - , a)
x < a, Let x < a- x
x + x < a
x- x < x < x + x < a
- < x - x < x < x + x < a
( x - x , x + x ) ( - , a)
( - , a ) i s open
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


3. [ b, )
c
= ( - , b) whi ch i s open set [ b, ) i s cl osed
( - , b ]
c
= ( b, ) whi ch i s open set
( - , b] i s cl osed set .
(Q3) See t he Pr oof of open set pr opert part ( b) on
page no. ( 5) &( 6)
(Q4) Show t hat ( 0, 1] = t hen 0 < x 1 < 1 + 1/n n
x ( 0, 1 + 1/n) n
x (


( 0, 1] (


Now we l l show t hat no ot her real s bel ong t o

( 0, 1+1/n)
i . e i f x < 0 t hen x

( 0, 1+1/n)
and i f x > 1 t hen x

( 0, 1+1/n)
Case - 1 i f x < 0, t hen x

( 0, 1+1/n) n
x

( 0, 1+1/n)
Case 2 i f x > 1, t hen x- 1 > 0

> 0
n : n >

< x- 1 1+

< x
x ( 0, 1+1/n) f or some n
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

x

( 0, 1+1/n)

( 0, 1+1/n) = ( 0, 1]
(Q5) See on page (22) Exampl e
(Q6) See page ( 22) Exampl e , S= {

} t hen S
l
= { 0}
Here A = S U { 0} A
l
= { 0} and { 0} A A
l
A
A i s cl osed

Chapt er - 2. 2 ( R. G Bart l e) Exerci ses cont i nued f rom page
14.
(Q2) i f a, b , t hen | a+b| = | a| + | b| ab 0
Sol ut i on: | a+b| = | a| + | b|
| a+b|
2
= ( | a| + | b| )
2

( a + b)
2
= | a|
2
+ | b|
2
+ 2| a| | b| ( | x|
2
= x
2
)
a
2
+ b
2
+2ab = a
2
+ b
2
+ 2| ab| ( | x|
2
= x
2
)
2ab = 2| ab| ( l ef t cancel l at i on l aw of
addi t i on)
ab = | ab| ( l ef t cancel l at i on l aw of
addi t i on)
ab 0
(Q4) | x- a| < - < x- a < a- < x < a+

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

(Q3) i f x, y, z x z , show t hat x y z | x- y| + | y- z| =
| x- z|
Sol ut i on: f i r st l et x y z ( we l l show | x - y| + | y- z| = | x- z| )
As x y x- y 0 | x- y| = y- x . . ( 1)
y z y- z 0 | y- z| = zy . ( 2)
x z x- z 0 | x- z| = z- x . ( 3)
f rom ( 1) and ( 2)
| x- y| + | y- z| = z - x = | x- z| ( by 3)
Conver sel y assume
| x- y| + | y- z| = z - x = | x- z| . ( *)
( We l l show x y z )
As x z i t i s enough t o show y x and y z
Let i f possi bl e y < x x y > 0 | x- y| = x- y
Al so y < x z y < z | y - z| = z y
| x - y| + | y - z| x + z 2y | x - z|
we have a cont radi ct i on t o ( *)
y x x y . ( a)
Si mi l arl y we can show t hat z y
y z . ( b)
From ( a) & ( b) x y z

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

(Q5) i f a < x < b and a < y < b t hen t hen | x - y| < | b- a|
Sol ut i on a < x < b a <x , y < b
a < y < b a <x , - b < - y
a b < x- y . . ( 1)
Al so a < y , x < b
- a > - y x < b - a > - y & b > x b a > x y
. ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) - ( b - a) < x y < b a
| x - y| < b a

(Q6) (a) | 4x - 5| 13
- 13 4x 5 13
- 13 + 5 4x 13 +5
- 8 4x 18 ( - 2 x 9/2)
(b) | x
2
- 1| 3
| x
2
- 1|
2
3
2

( x
2
- 1)
2
- 3
2
0
( x
2
1+3 ) ( x
2
1 - 3) 0
( x
2
+ 2 ) ( x
2
- 4) 0
as x
2
+ 2 > 0 x
2
- 4 0 | x|
2
4 | x| 2
- 2 x 2
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

(Q7) | x + 1| + | x - 2| = 7
We have f ol l owi ng cases ( 1) x < - 1, ( 2) - 1 < x <2, ( 3) x > 2
( 1) x < - 1 x < 2
x + 1 < 0 and x - 2 < 0
| x +1| = - ( x + 1) and | x - 2| = 2 x
| x +1| + | x - 2| = - x 1 + 2 x = - 2x +1
- 2x + 1 = 7 x = - 3
( 2) - 1 < x <2
| x + 1| + x + 1, | x - 2| = 2 x
x + 1 + 2- x = 7 3 = 7 ( an absurd)
( 3) x > 2 x > - 1
x + 1 + x - 2 = 7 2x = 8 x = 4
(Q8) ( a) | x - 1| > | x + 1| ( x- 1)
2
> ( x+1)
2

( x- 1)
2
- ( x+1)
2
> 0
( ( x - 1) +( x + 1) ) ( x 1- x - 1) > 0
2x ( - 2) > 0 - 4x > 0 x < 0
x ( - , 0)



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( b) | x| + | x +1| < 2
Case 1 ( x) < - 1 x < 0 | x| = - x
And | x + 1| = - x 1
- x x 1 < 2 x > - 3/2
Case - 2 0 < x
| x| = x, | x +1| = x + 1
2x + 1 < 2 x <
Case - 3 - 1 < x <0
- x + x + 1 < 2 ( 1 < 2)
- 3/2 < x <
(Q9) y = | x| - | x - 1|
x < 0
y = - x +x 1 y = - 1
0 < x < 1
y = x + x - 1 y = 2x - 1
x > 1 y = x x +1 y = 1
al so y( 0) = - 1 y( 1) = 1
(Q10) 4 < | x + 2| + | x - 1| < 5
Case 1 x < - 2 4 < - x - 2 x +1 < 5
4 < - 2x 1 < 5 5 < - 2x < 6 - 5/2 > x > - 3
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Case - 2 - 2 < x < 1
4 < x + 2 + x - 1 < 5 4 < 2x +1 < 5
3/2 < x < 2
x ( 3/2, 2) U ( - 3, - 5/2)
(Q12) (a) | x| = | y| x
2
= y
2
y = x
(b) | x| + | y| = 1
x 0, y 0 x + y =1
x < 0, y < 0 - x y = 1
x < 0, y > 0 - x + y = 1
x > 0, y < 0 x y = 1
(c) | xy| = 2 xy = 2
( d) Do your sel f
(Q13) Do your sel f
(Q15) as a b | a - b| > 0, Let =


Then U = V ( a) i s - nbhd of a
V = V ( b) i s - nbhd of b
( we l l show U V = )
Let i f possi bl e U V x U V
x U and x V
x V ( a) , x V ( b)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

| x - a| < , | x - b| < . ( 1)
Now | a- b| = | a x + x - b|
| a- b| | x- a| + | x- b|
| a- b| < + | a- b| < 2 | a- b| < 2


( 3 < 2) whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on
U V i s not possi bl e U V =
(Q16) ( a)
Case 1 a > b max { a, b } = a . ( 1)
Al so a > b | a - b| = a- b
{ a +b + | a- b| } = 1/2 { a+b+a - b} = a ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) max { a, b} = 1/2{ a +b +| a - b| }
Case - 2 a < b max { a, b} = b ( 3) and | a - b| = b a
Al so { a+b+| a- b| } = { a+b+b- a} = b ( 4)
From ( 3) & ( 4) max { a, b} = { a+b+| a - b| } ,
si mi l ar l y when a = b
max { a, b } = { a+b+| a - b| } a, b
And f or mi n { a, b} = { a + b - | a- b| }
Consi der case - 1 a > b mi n { a, b} = b ( 1)
Al so a > b | a- b| = a- b
{ a +b - | a- b| } = { a+b +b- a} = b ( 2)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

From ( 1) & ( 2) mi n { a, b} = { a + b - | a- b| }
Case 2 a < b mi n { a, b} = a ( 3)
Al so a < b | a - b| = b a
{ a+b- | a- b| } = { a+b+a b} = a ( 4)
From ( 3) and ( 4) mi n { a, b} = 1/2 { a+b - | a- b| }
Case 3 a = b mi n { a, b} = a ( 5) ( a = b)
{ a+b- | a- b| } = { a+a- | a- a| } ( a = b)
= { 2a} = a ( 6)
From ( 5) & ( 6) mi n { a, b} = { a+b- | a- b| }
(Q14) f or V ( a) V ( a) Let r = mi n { , } ( t hen we l l show
V ( a) V ( a) = Vr ( a) )
Let x V ( a) V ( a)
x V ( a) & x V ( a)
| x a| < And | x - a| < | x- a| < mi n { , } = r
| x- a| < r x Vr ( a)
V ( a) V ( a) Vr ( a) ( 1)
Let x Vr ( a) | x- a| < r = mi n { , }
| x a| < And | x - a| <
x V ( a) , x V ( a) x V ( a) V ( a)
Vr ( a) V ( a) V ( a) . ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) V ( a) V ( a) = Vr ( a)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

For V ( a) U V ( a) Let r = max{ , } ( t hen we l l show
V ( a) U V ( a) = Vr ( a) )
Let x V ( a) U V ( a) x V ( a) or x V ( a)
| x a| < And | x - a| < | x- a| < max { , } = r
x Vr ( a) V ( a) V ( a) Vr ( a) . ( 3)
Let x Vr ( a) | x- a| < r = max { , } | x a|
< or | x - a| <
x V ( a) or x V ( a)
x V ( a) U V ( a) Vr ( a) V ( a) V ( a) . ( 4)
From ( 3) & ( 4) V ( a) U V ( a) = Vr ( a) .
Sect i on 2. 3
Def i ni t i on - Let S be a non- empt y subset of
( a) The set S i s sai d t o be bounded above i f t here exi st s a
number u such t hat s u s S.
Each such number u i s cal l ed an upper bound of S.
( b) The set S i s sai d t o be bounded bel ow i f t here exi st s a
number w such t hat w s s S.
Each such number w i s cal l ed a l ower bound of S.
( c) A set i s bounded i f i t i s bot h bounded above and bounded
bel ow.


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Def i ni t i on Let S be a non - empt y subset of
( a) I f S i s bounded above t hen a number u i s sai d t o be a
supremum ( or a l east upper bound)
Of S i f i t sat i sf i es t he condi t i ons.
1. U i s an upper bound of S, and
2. I f V i s any upper bound of S, t hen u v.
( b) I f S i s bounded bel ow, t hen a number w i s sai d t o be
i nf i mum of S ( or great est l ower bound of S)
I f i s sat i sf i es t he condi t i ons.
1. W i s l ower bound of S, and
2. I f t i s any l ower bound of S, t hen t w.

Order Compl et eness propert y (Sect i on 2. 4)
Ever y non- empt y bounded above set has a supremum .
Archi medi an propert y
Let x , t hen nx : nx > x

Proof Let i f possi bl e n x n , f or some x ,
i s bounded above
By O. C. P has supremum say M
Then n m n n +1 m n
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

n m- 1 n
m- 1 i s an upper bound of
m m- 1 0 - 1 whi ch i s not possi bl e
nx : nx > x.

Chapt er (2. 3) & (2. 4) ( R. G Bart l e) ( Gui del i ne s Quest i ons)
(Q1) S1 = { x : x 0}
1. Cl earl y 0 x x S1 0 i s a l ower bound of S 1
2. We l l show t hat 0 i s i nf S 1 , f or t hat we onl y need t o
show t hat 0 i s gr eat est l ower bound of S 1
Let u be any l ower bound of S 1
To show t hat - u 0 , l et i f possi bl e , u > 0 t hen u S 1
al so 0 < u x : 0 < x < u
x S1 and x < u , whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on as u i s a
l ower bound of S 1
u > 0 i s not possi bl e u 0 I nf S 1 = 0
3. We l l now show t hat S1 i s not bounded above.
Let i f possi bl e S 1 i s bounded above t hen by or der
compl et eness pr opert y S1 has supremum. Let
Sup S1 = m , Now cl ear l y m > 0
m +1 > 0 m+1 S1
As Sup S1 = m m +1 < m
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
( 1< 0) ( whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on)
S1 i s not bounded above.
(Q2) Do yoursel f .

(Q3) S3 = { 1/n : n }
Sup S3 = 1 ; cl earl y x 1 x S 3
1 i s an upper bound of S3
Now l et u be any upper bound of S 3
We l l show 1 u ; l et i f possi bl e 1 > u ;
Now 1 S3 and 1 > u i s a cont radi ct i on As u i s upper bound of
S3
1 > u i s not possi bl e 1 u
Sup S3 = 1
(Q4) S4 = { 1- ( - 1)
n
/n | n } f i nd sup S4 and I nf S4
Sol ut i on S4 = { 1+1, 1 1/2, 1+1/3, 1- 1/4. }
= { 2, 0. 5, 1. 333, 0. 75, 1. 2, . . }
Sup S4 = 2 and I nf S4 = 0. 5





z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


(Q5) Let S be a non- empt y subset of t hat i s bounded bel ow,
show t hat
I nf S = - Sup{ - s : s S}
Proof Let T = { - s : s S } and SupT = m
To show t hat - I nf S = - m
Cl ai m 1 m i s a l ower bound of s
Let x S be any el ement t hen x T - x m ( m =
SupT)
x - m x S
- m i s a l ower bound of S
Cl ai m 2 m i s great est l ower bound of S
Let u be any l ower bound of S
u x x S
- u - x - x T
- u i s an upper bound of T, As m = supT
m - u - m u
- m i s great est l ower bound of S
i nS = - m = - SupT = - sup{ - s : s S}
Not e Si nce S i s bounded bel ow k : k x
x S
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Now y T , - y S
- y k y - k y T
T i s bounded above and hence by or der
compl et eness pr opert y T has a supremum, whi ch we
cal l ed
As m, i n above Proof .
(Q6) I f a set S cont ai ns one of i t s upper bounds, show
t hat t hi s upper bound i s t he supremum of S.
Sol ut i on: Let u be upbd of S : u S ( T. S. T Sup( S) = u)
As u i s al ready an upper bound
we onl y need t o show u i s l east upbd
Let v be any up bd of S
As V i s upbd of S ( T. S. T u v)
And u S u v ( By def i ni t i on of upbd)
Sup( S) = u
(Q7) ( ) Let u = upbd of S , Let t and t > u ( T. S. T t s)
Let i f possi bl e t s as u = upbd of S t u whi ch i s
a cont r adi ct i on as t u ( t > u)
t s
( ) Let u be :
I f t , t > u t han t s ( T. S. T u = upbd of S)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Let s S ( T. S. T s u)
Let i f possi bl e s u s > u now S s S
s > u and s by our hypot hesi s s S, whi ch i s
not possi bl e as s S
s u i s not possi bl e
s u s S u = upbd of S.
(Q9) A, B are bounded Subset s of , Show t hat A U B i s
bounded and
Sup( A U B) = Sup { SupA, SupB}
Sol ut i on A, B are bounded k, K and k
l
, K
l
:
K a K , k
l
b K
l
a A, b B
Now x A U B x A or B
k x K or k
l
x K
l
mi n { k, k
l
} x max { K, K
l
} x A U B
A U B i s bounded
Now x A U B x A or x B x sup( A) or x
Sup( B)
x Sup { Sup( A) , Sup( B) } . . ( 1)
Now Let u be any upper bound of A U B( We l l
show Sup{ Sup( A) , Sup( B) } u )
a A as A A U B a A U B a u a A
. ( 2)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

b B as B A U B b A U B b u b B
. ( 3)
From ( 2) & ( 3) u i s and upbd of A and u i s an
upbd of B
Sup( A) u and Sup( B) u
Sup { Sup( A) , Sup( B) } u ( 4)
From ( 1) & ( 4)
Sup( A U B) = Sup{ Sup( A) , Sup( B) }
(Q10) Let S be bounded set i n and S
Let S0 S and S0 t hen
I nf ( S) I nf ( S0 ) Sup( S0 ) Sup( S)
Sol ut i on - x S0 S
x S I nf ( S) x x S 0
I nf ( S) i s a l ower bound of S 0
I nf ( S) I nf ( S 0 ) . . ( 1)
Agai n, x S0 , x S
x Sup( S) x S0
Sup( S) i s an upbd of S 0
Sup( S0 ) Sup( S) . ( 2)
Now l et s 0 S0 ( be f i xed t hen)
I nf ( S0 ) s 0 Sup( S0 ) I nf ( S0 ) Sup( S0 ) . ( 3)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

From ( 1) , ( 2) and ( 3) I nf ( S) I nf ( S 0 ) Sup( S0 )
Sup( S)
(Q11) Let S and suppose s
*
= Sup( S) , s
*
S, I f u S ,
show t hat
Sup{ S U { u} } = Sup{ s
*
, u}
Sol ut i on
Case 1 s
*
< u , Sup{ s
*
, u} u
Cl ai m Sup{ S U { u} } = u
1. Let x S U { u} x S or x = u x s
*
or x =
u x < u or x = u x u
2. Let K be any upper bound of S U { u} ( T. S. T u K)
As K i s upbd of S U { u} x K x S U { u} as u
S U { u} u K
Sup { S U { u} } = u = Sup{ s
*
, u}
Case 2 I f s
*
> u t hen Sup{ s
*
, u } = s
*

We l l cl ai m Sup{ S U { u} } = s
*
= Sup{ s
*
, u}
Cl ai m 1 s
*
i s an upper bound of S U { u}
As s
*
= SupS and s
*
> u
x s
*
x S and u < s
*

x s
*
x S U { u}
s
*
i s an upper bound of S U { u}
Cl ai m 2 s
*
i s l east upper bound of S U { u}
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Let k be any upper bound of S U { u} , t hen x k x
S U { u} . ( 1)
Not e - we are gi ven t hat s
*
= SupS S
s
*
S S U { u}
Use t hi s f act i n ( 1) we get s
*
K s
*
i s l east
upper bound of S U { u}
Sup{ S U { u} } = s
*
Sup{ S U { u} } = Sup{ s
*
, u} .
(Q12) Show t hat a non - empt y subset whi ch i s f i ni t e, i n
cont ai ns i t s supremum.
Proof - Let S be any f i ni t e set cont ai ni ng n el ement s we l l
pr ove t he resukt by appl yi ng i nduct i on on
el ement s i n S.
when s cont ai ns a si ngl e el ement i . e n = 1
Let S = { a1 } t hen cl earl y Sup{ s} = a 1 S
Now when S cont ai ns t wo el ement s say a 1 & a2
( W. L. O. G) Assume , a1 > a2 t hen Sup{ a1 , a2 } = a1
S;
Now l et us assume t hat resul t i s t r ue f or al l set s
cont ai ni ng K el ement s; we l l show t hat resul t i s al so
t rue f or n = K + 1 i . e f or a set cont ai ni ng ( K + 1)
el ement s
Let S = { a1 , a2 , . . ak , ak + 1 }

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Then S = S
l
U { ak + 1 } , where S
l
= { a1 , a2 , . . ak ,
ak + 1 }
Not e si nce O( S) = k + 1 a i aj i j
Now as S
l
i s a set cont ai ni ng k el ement s by our
assumpt i on Sup S
l
S
l
, l et Sup S
l
= s
*

Now by t he Proof of above quest i on ( 2)
We see SupS = Sup{ s
*
, ak + 1 }
SupS = s
*
or SupS = ak + 1
Case - 1 i f SupS = s
*
S
l
S
SupS S,
Case 2 SupS = ak + 1 S ( S = S
l
U { ak + 1 } )
SupS S, i n bot h of t he cases .
SupS S
(Q15) Wr i t e down det ai l s i n Proof of t he f ol l owi ng
t heorem.
A number u i s t he supremum of a non- empt y subset S of
i f f u sat i sf i es condi t i ons
1. S u s S, 2. I f v < u , t hen t here exi st s s
*
S
such t hat v < s
*
.



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof Forward part Assume u = SupS
S u s S, i f v < u, as u i s SupS u i s l . u. b and
hence v i s not an upper bound
s
*
S : v < s
*

Conver sel y assume t hat 1 & 2 hol d
Then 1 u i s an upper bound of S al so i f v i s any upper
bound of S
T. S. T u v , l et i f possi bl e v < u, t hen by condi t i on 2 s
*

S : s
*
> v , whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on as v i s upper bound
of S.
v < u i s not possi bl e u v
SupS = u
Supremum and I nf i mum of real val ued f unct i ons def i ned
on any regi on.
Let D be any r egi on i n space ( Not e Space st ands f or ,

2
,
3
, . .
n
)
Let f : D , be any f unct i on t hen Supf , t he supremum of
t he set f ( D)
Def i ned as f ( D) = { f ( x) | xD}
i . e Supf = Supf ( D)
Compl et eness propert y of -
Ever y non- empt y bounded above subset of has a
supremum.
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Sol ved Quest i ons Exerci se 2. 4
(Q1) Show t hat Sup { 1- 1/n : n } = 1
Sol ut i on Let x { 1- 1/n | n } be any el ement
t hen cl earl y x = 1- 1/n < 1 , n
x < 1 x { 1- 1/n | n }
1 i s an upper bound of { 1- 1/n | n }
Now l et u be any upper bound of { 1- 1/n | n }
To show t hat - 1 u , Let i f possi bl e 1 > u 1- u > 0

> 0
By archi medi an pr opert y t here exi st s n : n >

1- u
> 1/n
1- 1/n > u
Let x = 1- 1/n; t hen x { 1- 1/n | n } and x > u ; whi ch i s a
cont radi ct i on as u i s an
Upper bound of { 1- 1/n | n } our assumpt i on t hat 1 > u i s
wrong 1 u
1 = Sup{ 1- 1/n | n }

(Q2) I f S= {

| m, n } , f i nd I nf S and SupS.
Sol ut i on Let S1 = {

| n } & S2 = {

| m }
Then S = S1 + S2 and Sup( S) = Sup( S1 ) + Sup( S2 ) . . ( A)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

I nf ( S) = I nf ( S1 ) + I nf ( S2 ) . ( B)
Now Sup( S1 ) = 1 , I nf ( S1 ) = 0
Sup( S2 ) = 0, I nf ( S2 ) = - 1
Sup( S) = 1, I nf ( S) = - 1
Not e We l l pr ove ( A) & ( B) l at er .
(Q3) Let S ne non- empt y. Pr ove t hat i f a number
u i n has t he pr opert i es ( i ) f or ever y n
t henumber u- 1/n i s not an upper bound of S, and
( i i ) f or ever y number n t he number u+1/n us an
upper bound of S, t hen u = Sup( S) , al so conver sel y.
Sol ut i on Cl ai m 1 u i s an upper bound.
Let s S be any el ement , To show t hat s
u, Let i f possi bl e s > u
s u > 0

> 0 n : n >


1/n < s u u + 1/n < s, s S
Whi ch i s a cont r adi ct i on as u +1/n i s an upper bound of S
and hence can t be l ess t han any el ement of S.
s u u i s upper bound of S.
Cl ai m 2 f or any upper bound v of S. u v
Let i f possi bl e u > v u v > 0

> 0, n : n >


1/n < u v v < u 1/n
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Now x S , x v < u- 1/n x < u- 1/n x S
u- 1/n i s an upper bound of S, whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on
as u- 1/n can t be an upper bound.
U > v i s not possi bl e u v
Sup( S) = u
Conver sel y Let Sup( S) = u
x u x S x u < u +1/n x s n
u +1/n i s an upper bound of S n
Al so n , u- 1/n i s not an upper bound ( u i s
l . u. b and u- 1/n < u n )
(Q4) Let S be any non empt y bounded set i n ;
( a) Let a > 0 and l et aS = { as | s S} . Pr ove t hat i nf ( aS)
= a i nf ( S) , Sup( aS) = a Sup( S) .
( b) Let b < 0, and l et bS = { bS | s S} . Pr ove t hat
i nf ( bS) = b Sup( S) , Sup( bS) = b I nf ( s) .
Sol ut i on - ( a) Cl ai m 1 a I nf ( S) i s a l ower bound of aS
Let x aS be any e l ement t hen x = as, s S.
Now I nf ( S) s s S aI nf ( S) as s S
aI nf ( S) x x aS
aI nf ( S) i s a l ower bound of aS.
Cl ai m 2 i f V i s any l ower bound of aS t hen v aI nf ( S) .
As v i s a l ower bound of aS, t heref ore v a s,
s S
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
v/a s s S v/a i s a l ower bound of S
v/a I nf ( S) v a I nf ( S)
f rom cl ai m 1 and cl ai m 2, we have
I nf ( aS) = a I nf ( S)
Now we l l pr ove t hat Sup( aS) = aSup( S)
Cl ai m 1 a Sup( S) i s an upper bound of aS.
Let x aS ( be any) t hen x = as, s S ( 1)
Al so s Sup( S) s S as aSup( S) , s S ( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) we have x aSup( S) .
aSup( S) i s an upper bound of aS.
Cl ai m 2 i f V i s any upper bound of aS, t hen aSup( S) v
As v i s an upper bound of aS
v as s S
v/a s s S
v/a i s an upper bound of S
And hence Sup( S) v/a
aSup( S) v
And hence Sup( aS) = aSup( S)
( b) we l l f i rst pr ove I nf ( bS) = bSup( S)
Cl ai m 1 bSup( S) i s a l ower bound of bS.
Let x bS x = bs, s S . ( 1)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Now s Sup( S) s S bs bSup( S) s S ( b < 0)
( 2)
From ( 1) & ( 2) x bSup( S) bSup( S) i s l ower bound
of bS.
Cl ai m 2 i f v i s any l ower bound of bS, t hen bSup( S) v
As v i s a l ower bound of bS
v bs s S v/b s s S
v/b i s an upper bound of S
Sup( S) v/b bSup( S) v
From cl ai m 1 & cl ai m - 2 , we have
I nf ( bS) = bSup( S)
Now we l l show t hat Sup( bS) = bI nf ( s) .
Cl ai m 1 we shal l show t hat
bI nf ( S) i s an upper bound of bS
Let x bS be any el ement t hen we have t hat , x= bs f r om
s S ( 1)
Now as by def i ni t i on of I nf ( S) , we have
I nf ( S) s s S
bI nf ( S) bs s S ( 2) ( b < 0)
From ( 1) & ( 2) we have
X bI nf ( S) x bS
x bI nf ( S) x bS
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Cl ai m 2 bI nf ( s) i s l east upper bound of bS.
Let v be any upper bound of bS
To show t hat ( bI nf ( S) v)
As v i s upper bound of bS v bs s S
v/b s s S v/b i s a l ower bound of S
v/b I nf ( s) v bI nf ( S)
Hence pr oved.

Gui del i ne Quest i ons f rom Chapt er 2. 4 (Bart l e)
(Q6) Let A and B be bounded non- empt y set s i n and
A + B = { a + b: a A, b B} .
Show t hat
( a) Sup( A + B) = sup( A) + Sup( B)
( b) i nf ( A + B) = I nf ( A) + I nf ( B)
Sol ut i on Let SupA = m1 & SupB = m2 .
( a) To show t hat Sup( A+B) = m1 + m2
Cl ai m 1 m1 + m2 i s an upper bound of A + B
Let x A + B ( be any el ement )
x = a1 + b1 , a1 A, b1 B
Now a1 m1 , b1 m2
x m1 + m2 m1 + m2 i s an upbd of A + B
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Cl ai m 2 m1 + m2 i s l east upper bound
Let v be any upbd of A + B ( T. S. T m1 + m2 v )
a + b v a A, b B
b v a b B, a A
v a i s na upbd of B a A
m2 v a a A
a v - m2 a A v - m2 i s an upbd of A
m1 v - m2
m1 + m2 v
m1 + m2 i s l . u. b of A + B
Sup( A + B) = m1 + m2 = sup( A) + Sup( B)

( b) Let i nf A = m1 and i nf B = m2 ( T. S. T i nf ( A+B) = m1 +
m2 )
( 1) t hen x A+B, x = a + b, a A, b B
x m1 + m2 ( a m1 , b m2 )
m1 + m2 i s a l ower bound of A + B
( 2) Let v be any l ower bound of A + B ( m1 + m2 v)
Then a + b v a A, b B a v b a A,
b B

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

m1 v b b B b v - m1 b B v - m1 i s
l ower bound of B m2 v - m1
m2 + m1 v i nf ( A+B) = m1 + m2
Q12 Gi ven any x , show t hat t here exi st s a uni que
n such t hat
n 1 x < n.
Q13 I f y > 0, show t hat t here exi st s n such t hat

< y
Q18 I f u > 0, i s any real number any x < y, show t hat
t here exi st s a rat i onal number r such t hat
x < ru < y.
Sol ut i on 12 x , Def i ne E = { m : m > x} ( t hen by A. P
E )
Al so E , E By W. O. P , E has a l east el ement
( uni que)
Say n E n > x ( I )
Al so n - 1 E ( n i s l east el ement i n E )
n 1 x . ( I I )
From ( I ) & ( I I ) n 1 x < n
Sol ut i on 13 As y > 0 1/y > 0 By A. P, n :
n > 1/y
n : 1/n < y ( I )
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Now we know n , n < 2
n
1/2
n
< 1/n ( I I )
From ( I ) & ( I I ) 1/2
n
< 1/n < y 1/2
n
< y , f or
some n
Sol ut i on 18 x < y and u > 0 1/u > 0 x/u < y/u
By densi t y t heor em r Q :
x/u < r < y/u x < ru < y
Q14 Show t hat t her e exi st s a +ve r eal number y : y
2
= 3
Q15 I f a > 0, t hen show t hat t here exi st s a +ve real
number z : z
2
= a
Q16 Show t hat t here exi st s a +ve r eal number u such t hat
u
3
= 2
Sol ut i on 14 Do as quest i on 15 be l ow ( repl ace, z by y and a
by 3)
Sol ut i on 15. Def i ne S = { S : s 0 and s
2
< a}
Case 1 0 < a < 1 Choose 0 < s < a , t hen s
2
< a
2
< a
( a < 1)
s
2
< a al so s > 0
s S s
Now we l l show t hat S i s bounded above Let s S ( be
any) t hen s
2
< a < 1 ( a < 1)
S i s bounded above by 1
Case 2 a > 1 , s S t hen s
2
< a and s > 0
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

As a > 1 1
2
= 1 < a al so 1 > 0 1 S S
And we l l show S i s bounded above by a.
Let i f possi bl e s S : s > a s
2
> a
2
> a ( a > 1)
s
2
> a ( I )
But s S s
2
< a . ( I I )
( I ) & ( I I ) cont radi ct each ot her S i s bdd above by a
i n each case S i s non empt y bdd above set By
compl et eness pr opert y S has supremum
Let Sup( S) = Z, Cl ai m - Z
2
= a
Cl ai m 1 Z
2
a , Let i f possi bl e Z
2
< a
( we l l f i nd m : z + 1/m S i . e ( Z+1/m)
2
< a, whi ch
i s cert ai nl y a cont radi ct i on as Sup( S) = Z )
Consi der - ( Z+1/m)
2
= Z
2
+ 1/m
2
+ 2z/m
= Z
2
+

( 2z + 1) ( 1/m
2
< 1/m)
Now ( Z+1/m)
2
< a i f Z
2
+

( 2z + 1) < a
i f

( 2z + 1) < a - Z
2
m > (


) ( a - Z
2
> 0 )
And such an m exi st s by A. P
m : ( Z+1/m)
2
< a z + 1/m S
As Sup( S) = Z z + 1/m < Z
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

1/m 0
( 1 0) not possi bl e Z
2
a
Cl ai m - 2 Z
2
a , Let i f possi bl e Z
2
> a
( we l l f i nd m : z - 1/m S i . e ( Z - 1/m)
2
< a )
Consi der - ( Z - 1/m)
2
= Z
2
+ 1/m
2
- 2z/m > Z
2
-
2z/m
Now ( Z - 1/m)
2
> a i f Z
2
- 2z/m > a i . e i f m > (


)
( Z
2
> a)
And such an m exi st s by A. P
m : ( Z - 1/m)
2
> a Now Let y S ( be any )
Then y
2
< a < ( Z - 1/m)
2
y < Z - 1/m y S
whi ch i s not possi bl e as Sup( S) = Z i s l east up. Bd of S
Z
2
a and hence Z = a
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Sol . 16
S = { s : s > 0, s
3
<2}
( 1) Cl earl y S
( 1 >0 and 1
3
=1<21 S)
( 2) S i s bounded above by 2
I f S i s not bounded above by 2
sS: s>2 s
3
>8 . . . . . . . . . . . . ( i )
Now sSs
3
<2 . . . . . . . . . . . . ( i i )
( i ) and ( i i ) cont radi ct each ot her
s i s bounded above by 2.
By compl et eness pr opert y S has a Supremum say u i . e
Sup( s) =u
Cl ai m u
3
=2
Cl ai m- 1 u
3
<2
Let i f possi bl e u
3
<2
( We l l f i nd m: (

< 2)
Consi der (

= u
3
+

< 2
< u
3
+

( u >1 u
1
>u)
= u
3
+

)
Now (

< 2 I f u
3
+

( 1+6u
2
) <2

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

m>(

) ( 2- u
3
> 0)
Such an m exi st s by A. P.
m : (

<2 u +

S
u+

u ( u=sup( s) )
10 whi ch i s not possi bl e u
3
2
Cl ai m- 2 u
3
2
Let i f possi bl e u
3
>2
( We l l cl ai m m : (

> 2)
Consi der (

= u
3


>u
3

> u
3


Now m
3
>m

<

>(

)
(

> u
3

> u
3

( 1+3u
2
)
(

> 2 I f u
3
-

( 1+3u
2
) >2
m >(

) ( u
3
- 20)
and such an m exi st s by A. P.
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

m : (

> 2
Let s S ( be any )
t hen s
3
< 2 <(

s < u -

s S
u -

i s an upper bound of S
As Sup( s) = u u u-


0 - 1 whi ch i s not possi bl e
u
3
2
and hence by cl ai m 1 and cl ai m 2 u
3
= 2



Sect i on 2. 4
Sol 6. I f A and B are bounded subset s of
Then ( 1) Sup ( A+B) : SupA + SupB
( 2) I nf ( A+B) : I nf A + I nf B
Where A+B : { a+b/aA, bB}
Proof . Let SupA = m1 and SupB=m2
To show t hat Sup( A+B) : m1 +m2
Cl ai m 1 : m1 +m2 i s an upper bound of A+B
Note : Q.E.D stand for quod erat demonstration ,
which is Latin for which was to be demonstrated.
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Let xA+B ( be any el ement )
xa1 +b1 ; a1 A , b1 B . ( 1)
Al so, M1 = Sup( A) am1 aA
M2 = Sup( B) bm2 bB
a1 m1 and b1 m2
a1 +b1 M1 +M2 . ( 2)
From ( 1) and ( 2) :
a1 +b1 M1 +M2 xA+B
xM1 +M2 xA+B
M1 +M2 are upper bound of A+B
Cl ai m 2 : I f v i s any upper bound os A+B t hen M1 +M2 v
As v = upper bound of A+B
a_ bv aA and bB
bv- a aA and bB
v- a i s an upper bound of B aA
M2 v a aA( sup( B) <M2 )
av- M2 aA
v- M2 i s an upper bound of A
M1 v- M2
M1 +M2 v
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Sup( A+B) : M1 +M2 = Sup( A) + Sup( B)
Sol 7. f , g : X
To pr ove :
(i ) Sup{ f ( x) +g( x) : xX} Sup{ f ( x) : xX} +
Sup{ g( x) : xX}
(i i ) I nf { f ( x) +g( x) : xX} I nf { f ( x) : xX} + I nf { g( x) : xX}
Sol ( i ) : Let Sup{ f ( x) : xX} = M1 and Sup{ g( x) : nX} =M2
Cl ai m : M1 +M2 i s an upper bound of { f ( x) +g( x) : xX}
As : M1 = Sup{ f ( x) : xX}
M2 =Sup{ g( x) : xX} g( x) M2 xX
f ( x) +g( x) M1 +M2 x
M1 +M2 i s and upper bound of f ( x) +g( x) : xX}
Sup{ ( f ( x) +g( x) } : xX}
M1 +M2
Sup{ f ( x) : xX} + Sup{ g( x) : x}
(i i ) : Let I nf { f ( x) : xX} = M1 and I nf { g( x) : nX} =M2
Cl ai m : M1 +M2 i s an l ower bound of { f ( x) +g( x) : xX}
As : M1 = I nf { f ( x) : xX} f ( x) M1 xX
M2 =I nf { g( x) : xX} g( x) M2 xX
f ( x) +g( x) M1 +M2 x
M1 +M2 i s and l ower bound of f ( x) +g( x) : xX}
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

I nf { ( f ( x) +g( x) } : xX}
M1 +M2
I nf { f ( x) : xX} + I nf { g( x) : x}
Sol 8 : X=( 0, 1)
Y=( 0, 1)
h: XXY
h( x, y) =2x+y
a) xX, f i nd
f ( x) =Sup{ h( x, y) : yY}
t hen f i nd I nf { f ( x) : xX}
b) yY, f i nd
g( y) =I nf { h( x, y) : xX}
t hen f i nd Sup{ g( y) : yY}
a) f ( x) = Sup{ h( x, y) : yY} =Sup{ 2x+y| yY}
=2x+Sup{ y: yY}
=2x+Sup( ( 0, 1) ) = 2x+1
f ( x) =2x+1 . ( 1)
I nf { f ( x) : xX} =I nf { 2x+1| xX} =I nf { 2x+1: o<x<1}
=I nf { 2x+1: 1<2x<1<3}
=I nf { 1, 3********************
b) f ( x) = I nf { h( x, y) : xX} =I nf { 2x+y: x( 0, 1) }
=y+I nf { 2x: x( 0, 1) }
= y+I nf { 0, 2) =y+0=y}
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

g( y) =y
Now Sup{ g( y) : yY} =Sup{ y: y( 0, 1) }
=Sup( 0, 1) =1
Sol 9 : X=( 0, 1) =Y
h: XXY
h( x, y) ={



f or any xX
a) f ( x) =Sup{ h( x, y) : yY}
=Sup( { h( x, y) : x<y} U{ h( x, y) : xy} )
=Sup( { 0} U{ 1} ) =1
I nf ( x) : xX} =I nf { 1: xX} =1
b) g( y) =I nf { h( x, y) : xX} =I nf ( { h( x, y) : xy} U{ h( x, y)
=I nf ( { 1} U{ 0} ) =I nf { 1, 0} =0
Sol 12 : x
pr ove t hat m ( Uni que)
n- 1xn
Def i ne E ={ m: m>x}
( t hen by A. P. E)
Al so, E, E
By W. O. P , E has a l east el ement of E
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

n>x( 1)
Now , n- 1E ( n i s l east el ement of E)
n- 1x. . ( 2)
Fr om ( 1) and ( 2)
n- 1x<n
Not e : Si nce l east el ement s of a set i s uni que , n i s uni que
m- 1 x<n
Sol 13 : As y>0

>0
By A. Ap n
n>

<y . . . . ( 1)
Now we know n ;
n<2
n

<

. ( 2)
Fr om ( 1) and ( 2)

<

<y

< y
Sol 15 :

<

< y
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


To show t hat z>0 :
z
2
=a , a>0
Def i ne:
S={ s: s0 and s
2
<a}
Case 1 : 0<a<1
Choose ; 0<s<a
Then , s
2
<a
2
<a ( a<1)
sS
s
Now we l l show t hat :
S i s Bounded above
Let sS be any el ement
s
2
<a<1
s
2
<1 s<1
S i s bounded above
By compl et eness pr opert y S has a supr emum
Let Sup( s) =z
Now, f or any sS
s
2
<a<(

( by ( 1) )
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

s
2
<(

sS
s <(

) sS
z-

i s and U. B. of S
zz- =

( Sup( s) = z)
0

0- 1 01
whi ch i s an cont radi ct i on
z2>a i s not possi bl e
z
2
a
By cl ai m 1 and cl ai m 2 we have
za and z
2
a
z
2
=a
Case 2: S={ S| S>0, S
2
a}
I f a>1, t hen, 1>0
And 1
2
= 1 a
1S
s
Now we l l show S i s bounded above by a
Let i d possi bl e spme sS:
s>a s
2
>a
2
. ( 1)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Now, sS
s
2
<a( 2)
From ( 1) and ( 2) :
a
2
<s
2
<a
a
2
<a whi ch i s not possi bl e
( a>1 a
2
>a)
sS : s>a
sa sS
S i s bounded above by a
By compl et eness pr opert y, S has a supremum say
Sup( s) =z
Cl ai m 1: z
2
a
Let i f possi bl e: z
2
<a
We l l f i nd m:
z+

S i . e. (

< a
CONS :
(

= z
2
+

< z
2
+

( 2z+1) (

<

)
Now, (

<a I f z
2
+

( 2z+1) <a

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


i . e. I f

)<a- z
2

m> ( ( 2z+1) / ( a- z
2
) ) ( a- z
2
>0)
Such an m exi st s by A. P.
m:
( z+

)
2
<a
z+

S
As, Sup( s) =z
z+

<0
10 whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on z
2
<a i s not possi bl e
z
2
a
Cl ai m 2 : z
2
a
Let i f possi bl e : z
2
> a
We l l f i nd m
( z+

)
2
>a
CONS. :
( z+

)
2
= z
2
+ 1/m
2
2z/m>z
2
-


Now, ( z+

)
2
>a I f z
2
-

>a
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

i . e. I f

< z
2
- a m > ( 2z/z
2
- a) ( z
2
- 1)
and such an m exi st s by A. Pa
m : ( z+

)
2
> a
Sol 16 : S={ s: s>0; s
3
<2}
( 1) Cl earl y, s
( 1>0 and 1
3
=1<2
1S)
Al so, S i s bounded above by 2
I f S i s not bounded above by 2
sSLs>2 s
3
>8. . . . ( 1)
Now, sS s
3
<2. . ( 2)
Thus ( 1) and ( 2) are cont rar y t o each ot her
sS : s>2 s2 sS
S i s bounded above
By compl et eness pr opert y, S has a supremum
Let Sup( S) = u
Cl ai m u
3
=2
Cl ai m 1: U
3
2
Let i f possi bl e U
3
<2
We l l cl ai m m, such t hat ( u+

)
3
<2
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Consi der ( u+

)
3
= u
3
+ 1/m
3
+ 3u
2
/m+ 3u/m
2
<2
< u
3
+ 1/m + 3u
2
/m+ 3u
2
/m ( u>1 u
2
>u)
= u
3
+ 1/m ( 1+3u
2
+3u
2
)
= u
3
+ 1/m ( 1+6u
2
)
Now, ( u+

)
3
<2 I f u
3
+

( 1+6u
2
) < 2

( 1+6u
2
) < 2- u
3

m > ( 1+6u
2
) / ( 2- u
3
) ( 2- u
3
>0)
Such an m exi st s by A. P.
m:
( u+

)
3
< z
( u+

) S
u+

u
u+

< 0 10 whi ch i s a cont radi ct i on


u
3
<2 i s not possi bl e
Cl ai m 2: u
2
2
Let i f possi bl e u
3
>2
We l l cl ai m m ( u-

)
3
2
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

CONS. ( u-

)
3
= u
3
- 1/m
3
- 3u
2
/m +3u/m
2

> u
3
- 1/m
3
- 3u
2
/m+ 3u/m
2

( u-

)
3
>u
3
1/m
3
( 3u
2
/m)
Now, m
3
>m
1/m
3
< 1/m
- 1/m
3
> - 1/m
( u-

)
3
> u
3
1/m - ( 3u
2
/m)
=u
3
1/m ( 1+3u
2
)
Now, ( u-

)
3
>2
I f u
3
-

( 1+3u
2
) >2

( 1+3u
2
) < u
3
- 2
m > ( 1+3u
2
) / ( u
3
- 2)
Sunch an m exi st s :
By A. P. : m
( u-

)
3 > 2
Let sS ( be any)
s
3
<2 < ( u-

)
3
( by ( 1) )
s<( u-

) sS
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


u -

i s an UB of S
uu-

0- 1 01 ( whi ch i s not possi bl e )


Sol 18 : Gi ven: x<y
And u>0

>0

<


By densi t y t heor em : r

<r<

x<r u<y
Theorem: Ever y conver gent sequence i s bounded
Proof : Let ( xn ) be cgt seq and l et l i m x n = x
Now f or = 1 > 0 m : | xn x| < 1 n
Now | xn | = | xn - x+x|
| xn | | xn - x| + | x|
| xn | 1+| x| nm( 1)
Let m=max { | x1 | , | x2 | , | x3 | . . | xn - 1 , 1+| x| }
Then c; ear ; y | xn | m n ( xn ) i s bounded
As l i m xn = z k1 : | xn z| < nk1

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Theorem : ( Sum Theorem0
Let X x and Yy ( i . e l i m xn = x , l i m yn =y)
Then X+Y x+y ( i . e l i m ( xn +yn ) = x+y)
Proof : Let >0 be gi ven
( t o f i nd m L | ( xn +yn ) = ( x+y) | < nm)
Consi der | ( xn +yn ) ( x+y) | = | ( xn - x) + ( yn - y) |
| ( xn +yn ) ( x+y) | | ( xn - x) | + | ( yn - y) | . ( 1)
Now l i m xn = x f or

> 0 m1 : | xn - x| <

nm1 . . ( 2)
Al so l i m yn = y f or

> 0 m2 : | yn - y| <

nm2 . . ( 3)
Let m = max{ m1 , m2 } t hen nm, | xn - x| <

; | yn - y| <

. . ( 5)
Use ( 5) i n( 1) we get
| ( xn +yn ) =- ( x+y) | <

nm
| ( xn +yn ) ( x+y) | < nm l i m ( xn +yn ) = x+y


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
DI FFERENCE THEOREM
Let Xx , Yy t hen X- Y x- y
( i . e i f l i m xn = x , l i m yn = y, t hen l i m( xn - yn =x- y)

Proof : Let > 0 be gi ven,
( t o f i nd m : | ( xn - yn ) - ( X- Y) | <nm)
Consi der | ( xn - yn ) ( x- y) | <nm
| ( xn - yn ) ( x- y) | = | ( xn - x) ( yn - y) |
| ( xn - yn ) ( x- y) | | ( xn - x) | + | ( yn - y) | . . ( 1)
Now pr oceed as i n sum t heorem



PRODUCT THOREM
Let Xx and Yy t hen XY xy
( i . e. I f l i m xn =x and l i m yn =y t hen l i m xn yn =xy

Proof :
Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd m : | xn yn xy | < nm)
Consi der | xn yn xy| = | xn yn xyn + xyn xy |
| xn yn xy| = | ( xn x) yn + x( yn y) |
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

| xn yn xy| | yn | | xn x| + | x| | yn y| . ( 1)
Now ( yn ) i s cgt . ( yn ) i s bounded M>0 : | yn | M
n. . ( 2)
Use ( 1) i n ( 2)
| xn yn xy| M| xn x| + | x| | yn y| . . ( 3)
Let M* = max{ M, | x| } t hen | x n yn xy| M* ( | xn x| +| yn y | )
. . ( 4)
Now as l i m xn = x f or

>0 m1 : | xn - x| <

nm1
. . . . . ( 5)
Al so l i m yn =y f or

>0 m2 : | yn - y| <


nm2 . ( 6)
Let m=max{ m1 , m2 | t hen nm we have


| xn - x| <

, | yn - y|

. . ( 7)
Use ( 7) i n ( 4) we obt ai n
| xn yn xy| <M* (

) nm
| xn yn xy| < nm l i m xn yn =xy
Lemma: Let l i m yn =y and y0, t hen k>0 and m1 :
| yn | >k nm1

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof : As y0 | y| >0 choose 0<<| y| . ( 1)
Then, as l i m yn =y f or >0 m1 :
| yn - y| < nm1 . ( 2)
Now | y| - | yn | | yn - y| < nm1 ( by ( 2) )
| y| - | yn | nm1
| y| - <| yn | nm1
Let k=| y| - >0 ( 0<<| y| <| y| | y| =>0)
| yn | >k n>m1





QUOTI ENT THEOREM
Let Xx and Yy wi t h Y0 and y0, Then


( i . e I f l i m xn =x , l i m yn =y, yn 0 n and y0
t hen l i m( xn /yn ) =x/y

Proof : We l l show l i m ( 1/yn ) = 1/y , t hen by pr oduct
t heorem
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

l i m( xn /yn ) =l i m( xn . 1/yn ) = l i m xn l i m ( 1/yn ) = x


Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd m : | 1/yn 1/y| nm)
Consi der : | 1/yn 1/y| = | y- yn / yyn | = | 1/y| | 1/yn | | yn -
y| ( 1)
By above l emma k>0 and m1 : | yn | >k nm1

1/| yn | <

nm1 , use t hi s i n ( 1) we l l get


| 1/yn 1/y |

| yn - y| nm1 . ( 2)
Let =k| y| >0 as l i m yn =y m2 :
| yn - y| < k| y| nm2
Now l et m=max{ m1 , m2 }
Then nm we have
| 1/yn 1/y | <

| yn - y| and | yn - y| < k| y|


| 1/yn 1/y | <

k| y| and nm
| 1/yn 1/y | < nm l i m ( 1/yn ) =



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof : Let >0 be gi ven
As l i m xn =l
m1 : l - <xn <l + nm1 . . ( 1)
Al so l i m yn =l m2 : l - <yn <l + nm2 . ( 2)
Let m=max| m1 , m2 | t hen nm we have
l - <xn l +
l - <yn l +
Now l - <xn <zn <yn < l + nm
l - <zn < l + nm l ; i m zn =l
SQUARE THEOREMLet ( xn ) be sequence of non- negat i ve t er ms subh
t hat l i m xn =x t hen l i m xn = x

Proof : Case 1 x=0 ( T. S. T l i m xn = 0)
Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd m : | xn - 0| < m)
As l i m xn =0 f or
2
>0 m : | xn - 0| <
2
nm

| xn | <
2
m
xn <
2
xn < nm
| xn 0| < nm
SQUEEZE THEOREM
Let l i m xn = l = l i m yn and l et xn zn <yn n Then l i m zn =l
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
l i m xn =0
Case 2: I f x0
Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i d m : | xn - x | < nm )
Consi der | xn - x | = | ( | xn - x | ) ( | xn + x | ) /
( xn + x )
| xn - x | = 1/( xn + x) | xn - x| . ( 1)
Now xn + x > x 1/( xn + x) 1/x( 2)
Fr om ( 1) and ( 2) we have
| xn - x |

| xn - x| ( 3)
Li m xn =x f or x >0 m:
| xn - x|

x nm
| xn - x| nm l i m xn = x
MODULUS THEOREM
Let l i m xn =x t hen l i m | xn | = | x|

Proof : Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd m : | | xn | - | x| | < nm
As l i m xn =x

m : | xn - x| < nm( 1)
Now | | xn | | x| | | xn - x| < nm ( by ( 1) )
| | xn | | x| | < nm l i m | xn | = | x|
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q4. Let x1 =1, xn + 1 =

n
Show t hat ( xn ) i s conver gent f i nd i t s l i mi t
Sol n: x1 =1, x2 = = 1. 732
x3 =

= = = .
We can see x1 <x2 <x3
So we obser ve t hat ( xn ) i s ( i ncreasi ng)
Now we l l pr ove ( xn ) i s i . e. xn xn + 1 n. ( 1)
The resul t i s t rue f or n=1 x2 =1. 732 > x1
Now l et us assume t hat resul t i s t r ue f or n=k
xk xk + 1 ( 2)
We l l show t hat r esul t i s t rue f or n=k+1 ( i . e. xk + 1 xk + 2 )
As xk xk + 1 by( 2)
2+xk 2+xk + 1


xk + 1 xk + 2
By P. M. I xn xn + 1 n
xn i s . . ( *)

Now we l l show t hat ( xn ) i s bounded above by 2
( i . e xn 2 n)
For n=1, x1 =1<2 resul t i s t rue
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Assume t hat resul t i s t rue f or k
xk 2( 3)
We l l show resul t i s t rue f or n=k+1 ( i . e xk + 1 2)
As xk 2 2+xk 4

= 2

2 xk + 1 2
resul t i s t rue n By P. M. I
xn 2 n ( xn ) i s bounded
By M. C. T ( xn ) i s conver gent
Let l i mi t = x as xn + 1 =


l i m xn + 1 =


x =
x
2
= 2+x x
2
- x- 2 = 0
x
2
2x+x- 2 = 0
( x- 2) ( x+1) = 0
x=2 , x=- 1
But xn 1 n
l i m xn 1 x=- 1 i s not possi bl e
x=2 l i m xn =2

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q5: Let y1 = , p>0, yn + 1 =

, n.
Show t hat ( yn ) i s conver gent . f i nd i t s l i mi t .
Sol ut i on:
y1 = , y2 =

= > = y1
y1 =
We l l show t hat ( yn ) i s ( i . e yn + 1 yn n)
For n=1 , as y2 y1 r esul t i s t r ue
Assume t hat resul t i s t rue f or n=k
yk + 1 yk . ( 1)
As yk + 1 yk
p+ yk + 1 p+ yk

yk + 2 yk + 1
resul t i s t rue f oe n+k+1 t oo and hence by P. M. I y n + 1 yn
n
( yn ) i s
Now we l l shoe ( yn ) i s bounded
As yn + 1 yn

yn
( p+yn ) yn
2

yn
2
yn p 0
( yn - ) ( yn -

) < 0
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

As yn y1 = yn >>0
yn

< 0 )
yn <

n ( yn ) i s bounded ( yn ) i s
conver gent
Now l et l i m yn = y
As yn + 1 =


l i m yn + 1 =


y= y
2
- y- p =0
y =


As yn > 0 n l i m yn 0 y0
Now y =

, y =

< 0 ( > 1 1- <


0)
y =

l i m yn =


Q6 : a+0 and z 1 >0 , Let zn + 1 =

n
Show t hat ( zn ) conver ges, f i nd i t s l i mi t
Sol : zn + 1 =


zn + 1
2
= a+zn
zn
2
= a+zn - 1
( zn + 1 )
2
- zn
2
= ( a+zn ) - ( a+ zn - 1 )
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( zn + 1 )
2
- zn
2 = z
n zn - 1 ( 1)
I f zn >zn - 1 ( zn + 1 )
2
zn
2
> 0 zn + 1 > zn
And zn < zn - 1 zn + 1 < zn
i . e zn + 1 > zn >zn - 1 n and n>1
or zn + 1 < zn <zn - 1 n and n>1
( zn ) i s or ( zn ) i s zn i s monot one
Now zn + 1 > zn or zn + 1 > zn

> zn or

< zn
a+zn > zn
2
or a+zn < zn
2
zn
2
zn a <0 or zn
2
zn a > 0
( zn -

) ( zn -

) < 0 or i t s >0
But ( zn -

) 0 (

<0 and zn > 0)


( zn -

) < 0 or ( zn -

) > 0
zn <

n or zn >

n
i . e. I f zn + 1 > zn n t hen zn <

n
( zn ) i s bounded and sequence ( z n ) i s cgt
Now i f zn + 1 < zn t hen zn >

n
( zn ) i s monot one and bounded ( z n ) i s cgt

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Let l i m zn =z , as zn + 1 =


l i m zn + 1 =


z =


z
2
= a+z z
2
- z- a =0 z =


( zn 0 n l i m zn 0 z0 )
Q7 : x1 = a>0 , xn + 1 = xn +

f or n;
Det ermi ne I f ( xn ) conver ges or di verges.
Sol : Cl earl y xn >0 n xn + 1 xn =

>0 n
xn + 1 xn >0 n xn + 1 >xn
( xn ) i s , I f ( xn ) i s cgt t hen i t has t o bounded
b>0 : xn b n
Now ( xn ) i s cgt l i m ( xn + 1 xn ) =0. . ( 1)
Al so i n t hat case xn < b xn + 1 xn =


l i m ( xn + 1 - xn )

>0( 2)
( 1) and ( 2) are cont rar y t o each ot her ( xn ) can be
conver gent ( xn ) i s di ver gent
Q11: Let yn =

+ . +

n
Sol : yn + 1 yn =

>0 n
yn + 1 yn > 0 n ( yn ) i s ( 1)

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Al so yn <

+ +

yn < 1 n( yn ) i s
bounded. . ( 2)
By ( 1) and ( 2) and usi ng M. C. T ( y n ) i s bgt
Q12: xn =

+ +

n
Cl earl y xn + 1 xn =

> 0 n
( xn ) i s . . ( 1)
Now obser ve t hat

)
k2

)
-

k2
xn 1+ ( 1-

) + (

) + (

) + . . +(

)
xn 2-

< 2 n
xn i s bounded xn i s cgt ( by M. C. T)
Q13:
(a) l i m (

= l i m ( (

) )
= l i m (

l i m

)
= e- 1 = e
(b) l i m (

= l i m ((


= ((

= e
2

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
(c) l i m (

=
(

)
=

= e
( d) l i m (

= (( (

))


= (( (

))

= e
- 1 - =


Exapml e : Let a>0 , Let S1 > 0 , and Sn + 1 =

( Sn +

) f or
n
Det ermi ne i f ( s n ) i s conver gent
Sol n: As Sn + 1 =

( Sn +

)
2Sn + 1 = ( Sn +

)
2Sn + 1 Sn = Sn
2
+ a
Sn
2
- 2Sn + 1 Sn + a = 0
Now t hi s eq
n
must have real r oot s
Di scremi nent 0
4 S
2
n + 1 4a > 0 S
2
n + 1 > a Sn + 1 > n
Sn > mi n { , S1 } n
( Sn ) i s bounded bel ow. . ( 1)
Now we l l show i t s decreasi ng
Sn Sn + 1 = Sn -

( Sn +

) =

) 0 2
( sn ) i s decreasi ng. ( 2)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

From ( 1) and ( 2) ( Sn ) i s conver gent ( By M. C. T) .
Let l i m Sn =a
S=

) S=

S
S=

S
2
= a s+
l i m Sn =
Def i ni t i on : ( SUBSEQUENCE)
Let X= ( xn ) be a sequence of real numbers and l et n 1 < n2 <
be a st ri ct l y i ncr easi ng sequence of nat ural
number s t hen t he seq. X
1
=

i s cal l ed subsequence i f ( x n )
Exampl es Let ( xn ) = ( x1 , x2 , x2 , ) t hen f ol l owi ng are
some subsequences of ( xn )
(1) ( x1 , x3 , x5 , x7 , . . )
(2) ( x2 , x3 , x4 )
More exampl es :
(1) X=( 1,

, . . )
Then X
1
= (

. . )
(2) Let X = ( 1,

, . )
X
1
= ( 1,

, . )
X
2
= (

, . )
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Theorem: I f a sequence X=( xn ) of real numbers conver ges t o a real
number x t hen any subsequence X
1
= (

) of X al so conver ges t ox.


Proof : Let >0 be gi ven, t o f i nd m:
|

| < Km
As l i m xn =x m:
| xn - x| < nm. ( 1)
Now we know nk K k
Km, nk m
|

| < Km
l i m

= x
Di vergence cri t eri a :
I f a sequence X=( xn ) of real numbers has ei t her of t he f ol l owi ng
pr opert i es, t hen X i s di ver gent
( i ) X has t wo conver gent subsequences X = (

) and
X =(

) whose l i mi t s ar e not equal


( i i ) X i s unbounded
Monot one Subsequence Theorem :
I f X = ( xn ) i s a sequence of real s t hen t here i s a
subsequence of X t hat i s monot one
NOTE : PROOF I S OMMI TED

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q8: Gi ven : ( 1) ( an ) i s ( bn ) i s sequence of real
( 2) an bn n
Show t hat : l i m an l i m bn and I f l i m an = and l i m bn =
t hem an bn
Sol : an b1 n
( an ) i s and bounded above by b1
( an ) i s cgt . ( By M. C. T)
Al so l i m ( an ) = Sup { an : n|
Let l i m an = ( 1)
Now ( bn ) al so a1 bn n
( bn ) i s monot one and bounded
( bn ) i s conver gent , and l i m bn = I nf { bn L n}
Let l i m bn = . ( 2)
We have t o show : .
As =Sup{ an : n} an n. ( 3)
= I nf { bn : n| bn . ( 4)
Now an bn n an - bn 0 l i m ( an - bn ) 0
= 0 . . ( 5)
Dr om ( 3) , ( 4) , and ( 5) we get
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

An bn n

Q9: A i s i nf i ni t e sunset of , t hat i s bounded above
Let u = Sup( A) ( T. S. T ( x n ) wi t h xn A and l i m xn =u)
Sol : As Sup ( A) =u u-

i s not an upper bound of A n


n xn A : xn >u-

( 1)
Al so xn A xn u n ( Sup( A) = u)
u-

xn u n , by squeeze t heorem l i m x n = u
Bl ozano wei erst rass t heorem
A bounded sequence of real numbers has a conver gent
subsequence
Proof : By monot one subsequence t heorem i f ( x n ) i s a
seq of real s t hen ( xn ) has a monot one subsequence
say X
1
al so ( xn ) i s bounded
X
1
i s bouonded
As X
1
i s monot one by M. C. T X
1
i s conver gent



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Theorem I f X=xn i s a sequence of real number s t hen X x i f f each of
i t s subsequences conver ges t o x.
Proof : i f ( xn ) x t hen we have pr oved ever y subsequence
of ( xn ) al so converges t o z.
Now l et ever y subsequence of X conver ges t o x t hen X
bei ng a subseq of i t sel f conver ges t o x

Exresi ce 3. 4
Q1: Let ( xn ) be a seq def i ned as
x2 n - 1 = 2n- 1 and x2 n =


( xn ) = ( 1,

, 3 ,

, 5 , . ) Cl earl y ( xn ) i s
unbounded, bur t he subseq X
1
= (

, . ) 0
X
1
i s conver gent
Q2: Show t hat i f 0<c <1, t hen

) = 1
0<c<1, t hen xn + 1 = )


>)

= xn
xn + 1 > xn n ( xn ) i s
Al so 0 < c < 1 xn = )

< 1 n
( xn ) i s bounded By M. C. T ( x n ) i s conver gent
Let l i m xn = x l i m x2 n = x
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


l i m

) = x
l i m

= x

= x

= x = x
x
2
= x x=0 , x=1
Now xn x1 = c l i m xn c 0
l i m xn = x0 x=1
l i m xn = 1 l i m )

= 1
Fi bonacci sequence :
F: = ( f n ) i s gi ven by t he I nduct i ve def i ni t i on
f 1 = 1 , f 2 =2 , f n + 1 = f n - 1 + f n n2

Q3: Gi ven ( 1) ( f n ) i s a Fi bonacci seq
( 2) xn =

and l i m xn = L , f i nd t he val ue of L
Sol : By def i ni t i on of ( f n ) ; xn 1 xn >0 or l i m xn 1
l i m xn > 0
l i m xn = 0
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Now xn =

= 1+


xn = 1+

xn = 1+

l i m xn = 1+


L = 1 +

L
2
- L- 1 = 0
L =

as L>0 L =


Q4: Show t hat f ol l owi ng sequences ar e di ver gent
( a) )

( b) (

))
Sol : ( a) Let X = (

) =

= ( )

)
X = (

) l i m

= l i m

=0
Let X = (

) =

= ( )

)
X = (

) l i m

= l i m

= 2
X has t wo convergent sequences wi t h di f f erent l i mi t s
and hence by di ver gence cr i t eri a X di ver ges
( b) Let X = (

) = (

) = ( si n 4k

) = ( si n k ) = ( 0)
l i m (

) = 0
Let X = (

) = (
)
) = ( si n 4( k- 3)

)
X = ( si n ( 2k -

) ) = ( - si n

) = ( 1)
l i m (

) = 1
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

X has t wo convergent sequences wi t h di f f erent
l i mi t s and hence by di ver gence cr i t eri a X di ver ges
Q5: f i r st Let l i m zn = z t hen ( xn ) and yn ) bei ng subsequences of
( zn ) al so conver ge t o z
Now conver sel y assume l i m x n = l i m yn = z
We l l show l i m z n =z, Let >0 be gi ven
As l i m xn = z k1 : | xn z| < nk1
And l i m yn = z k2 : | yn z| < nk2
( 1) | z2 n - 1 z| < 2n- 12k1 - 1
( 2) | z2 n =z| < 2n2k2
Let k=max{ 2k1 =1, 2k2 | t hen nk, | n =z| <

l i m zn =z
Chapt er 3. 2 Theorems
Bounded sequence :
Let ( xn ) be a sequence of real number s t hen ( x n ) i s sai d t o
be bounded i f M>0 such t hat | x n| M n
Exampl es:
( 1) Let ( xn ) = (
)

) = ( 1 ,

, . )
Then cl ear l y | xn | =

1 | xn | 1 n ( xn ) i s
bounded
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444



( 2) Let ( xn ) = ( 1 , 2 , 1 , - 1 , 1 , - 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2. )
Then | xn | 2 n ( xn ) i s bounded
( 3) Let ( xn ) = ( 1 , - 1 , 1 , - 1, 1 , . )
| xn | = 11 n | xn | 1 n ( xn ) i s bdd
Q5: Let xn =)

, n show t hat
( a) Xn + 1 < xn (

< n
( b) Show t hat ( xn ) i s ul t i mat el y decreasi ng and bounded
bel ow so t hat x=l i m xn exi st s use t he f act t hat t he
subsequence x2 n al so conver ges t o x , t o concl ude
t hat x=1
Sol : ( a) xn + 1 < xn (

< n ( we l l show )
)

<)


( n+1)
n
< n
n + 1

( n+1)
n
< n
2
n
( n+1)
n
< n
(

< n
xn + 1 < xn (

< n. . ( 1)
Now obser ve
(

= 1+n

+
)

+. . +
)


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


= 2 +

) +

) (

)+. +(

) (

). .
< 2 +

+ . +


< 2 +

+ . . +

( n
n - 1
n! )
(

< 2 +

< 3 -

< 3 n n3
(

< n n3
xn + 1 < xn 3 ( By ( 1) )
( xn ) i s ul t i mat el y decreasi ng al so x n 1 ( xn ) cgt
Let l i m xn = x
( c) l i m x2 n = x
l i m()

) = x
()

= x
l i m (

) l i m (

) = x
2

l i m xn = x
2
x=0 , x=1
But xn 1 l i m xn 1 x1 x=1
Q7: ( a) Let xn = (

t hen l i m xn
Al so

= .(

/ i s a subsequence of ( xn )
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


l i m

= l i m xn = e
( b) (

= ((

. . ( 1)
Now l et xn = (

= l i m xn = e
Al so x2 n = (

i s a subseq of xn
l i m x2 n = l i m xn = e
l i m (

= e
By ( 1) l i m (

= ((


( c) (

= .(

( 1)
Now as pr oved i n part ( a) l i m .(

/ = 2
By ( 1) l i m .(

/ = .(

= e
2

( d) (

= (

= (

= (


l i m (

= l i m (
(

)
(

) =

= e
2



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Q8: Det ermi ne t he l i mi t s of f ol l owi ng
( a) ()

) ( b) ((

)
Now l et xn = )

l i m xn = 1
Then x3 n = )

i s a subseq of xn
l i m x3 n = 1 l i m )

= 1
By ( 1) )

= ()

= 1
( b) ((

))

= ((

( wr i t e det ai l s )
Q9: Gi ven: Ever y subseq of ( x n ) has a subseq t hat converges t o
zer oq
Show t hat ( xn ) conver ges t o zer o
Sol : l et i f possi bl e ( x n ) does not converge t o 0
0 : m we can f i nd k : k>m
And | xn - 0| 0
m k : k>m
And | xn | 0
f or m1 n1 : n1 >m1
And |

| 0
f or m1 >n1 and m2 n2 : n2 >m2 >n1
And |

| 0
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Cont i nui ng l i ke t hi s we get a subseq conver gi nd t o zer o
( i f (

) has a subseq say(

) conver gi ng t o zer o t hen f or 0


m : |

<0 f or al l n k > m whi ch i s cont r adi ct i on t o ( 1)


Whi ch cont radi ct s t he f act t hat every subseq o f ( xn ) has a
subseq convergi ng t o zer o
l i m xn 0 i s not possi bl e l i m xn =0
( xn ) converges t o zer o
Q11: Gi ven ( 1) xn 0 n
( 2) Li m )

) exi st s
Show t hat l i m xn exi st s ( i . e ( xn ) i s cgt )
Sol : Let Li m )

) = x ( as t he gi ven l i mi t exi st s)
Now, x
n
= | x
n
| = )

( x
n
0)
l i m xn = | l i m )

| = | x|
l i m xn = | x| ( xn ) i s cgt
Now )

i s cgt
l i m )

= l i m )


l i m x2 k = - l i m x2 k - 1
| x| = - | x| ( l i m xn = | x| and ( x2 k ) , ( x2 k - 1 ) are subseq )
2| x| = 0 | x| = 0 x=0
Li m )

) = 0
And al so l i m xn = 0
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q12 : Show t hat i f ( xn ) i s unbounded t hen t her e exi st a
subseq (

) such t hat l i m (

) = 0
Sol : as ( xn ) i s unbdd f or 1, n1 :

>1
f or 2, n2 >n1 :

> 2
Cont i nui ng l i ke t hi s f or nk > nk - 1
1

>k
0


<

l i m


= 0 l i m

= 0
Q14: Gi ven: ( 1) ( xn ) i s bounded seq
( 2) S=Sup{ xn : n } . Show t hat i f S { xn : n}
To show t hat : t here i s a subseq of ( x
n
) t hat
conver ges t o S
Sol : As S= Sup{ xn : n}
For 1, n1 :

> S- 1
For 2, n2 >n1 :

> S-


Cont i nui ng l i ke t hi s we see k
nk > nk - 1 :

> S-

. ( 1)
Al so k,

S ( Sup{ xn : n } = S ) . ( 2)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

From ( 1) and ( 2) S-

<

S
As l i m ( s -

) = S , l i m S=S
By squeeze t heorem l i m

=S
Def i ni t i on (Cauchy sequence)
A seq X= ( xn ) of r eal number s i s sai d t o be a Cauchy seq i f f or
ever y >0 H( ) : | xn - xm| < n, m H( )
Exampl e: ( a) ( xn ) = (

) i s a Cauchy seq
Let >0 be gi ven1
Now | xn - xm| = |

( 1)
Choose H( ) : H( ) >

, t hen n, m H( )
n>

, m>

<

<


By ( 1) | xn xm| <

= | xn xm| <
( xn ) i s Cauchy sequence






z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Lemma: ( conver gent cauchy)
I f X=( xn ) i s convergent seq of real s t hen X i s a cauchy
sequence
Proof : Let l i m xn =x
Let >0 ( t o f i nd H( ) : | xn xm| < n, m H( ) )
As l i m xn = x f or

> 0 H( ) :
| xn - xm| <

nH( ) . ( 1)
Now | xn - xm| = | ( xn x) ( xm x) |
| xn - xm| | xn x| + | xm x| . . ( 2)
Now by ( 1) f or n, mH( )
| xn x| <


Use t hi s i n ( 2) we get ,
| xn xm| < n, mH( )
( xn ) i s Cauchy






z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Lemma: ( Cauchy bounded)
A cauchy sequence i s bounded

Proof : Let X = ( xn ) be Cauchy seq
f or = 1 H:
| xn - xm| < 1 n, m H
For m=H, | xn xH | <1 nH( 1)
Now | xn | = | xn xH + xH|
| xn xH | + | xH|
< 1 + | xH| nH ( by ( 1) )
| xn | < 1+ | xH| nH . ( 2)
Let M=max{ | x1 | , | x2 | . | xH- 1 | , | xH| +1}
Then | xn | M n ( xn ) i s bounded

Cauchy convergence cri t eri a ( C. C. C)
A sequence of real s i s convergent i f f i t i s Cauchy
Proof : We know by a l emma t hat ever y conver gent seq i s
Cauchy. Conver sel y l et ( x n ) be a Cauchy seq
We l l show ( xn ) i s conver gebt
( xn ) bei ng Cauchy i s bounded
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


By Bol zano- wei erst r ass t heorem ( xn ) has a convergent
subsequence sau (

) and t hat l i m

= x*
We l l show l i m xn = x*
Let >0:
As ( xn ) i s Cauchy H:
| xn - xm| <

n, mh1 . ( 1)
Al so l i m

= x* H2 : H2 H1 ( say)
I n t he set | n1 , n2 , . | , wi t h |

x*| <


Now by ( 1) as H2 H1
| xn -

| <

nH1 . . ( 2)
Now | xn x*| = | xn -

x*|
| xn -

| + |

x*|
nH1 ( by ( 1) and ( 2) )
| xn x*| < nH1
l i m xn =x ( xn ) i s conver gent
Exerci se 3. 5
Q1: Gi ve an exampl e of a bounded sequence t hat i s not cgt .


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q2: Show t hat f ol l owi ng sequences ar e Cauchy di r ect l y f rom
t he def i ni t i on
( a) (

) ( b) (

)
Q3: Show dei rect l y f r om t he def i ni t i on t hat f ol l owi ng are not
Cauchy sequences
( a) )

) ( b) (
)

) ( c) ( l n n)

Sol 1: Let xn = ( - 1)
n

Then | xn | < 2 n ( xn ) i s bounded
But ( xn ) i s Cauchy as we l l see bel ow H
Let m=2H, t hen m>H and l et n=2H- 1>H
Now | xn xm| = | x2 H- 1 x2 H | = | - 1- 1| = 2
So f ar = 1>0
| xn - xm| = 2> H
( xn ) i s not Cauchy
Sol 2:
( a) Let xn =

= 1 +

and >0 ( be gi ven)


The | xn xm| = | ( 1+

) ( 1+

) |
| xn xm| = |


| xn xm| <

( 1)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( Now t o f i nd H : n, m>H) | xn xm| < )
As n>H , m>H

<

<


From ( 1) | xn xm| <

, | xn xm| < i f

<

>

H>

, chose H : H>


Then n, m>H, | xn - xm| < ( xn ) i s Cauchy
( b) Let xn = 1+

. . +


Let f or m>n
| xn xm | =

)
+

)
+. . +


| xn xm | =

)
+

)
+. . +


| xn xm |

+ .


| xn xm |

( 1+

+ .


| xn xm |

/
| xn xm |

)<


| xn xm | <

| xn xm | <, i f

<
2
n - 1
>


( n- 1) > l n(

)
| xn xm | < i f n> l n(

) +1
So chose H : H> l n(

) +1
Then m>nH , n> l n(

)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

And hence | xn xm | < n, mH
( xn ) i s acuchy seq
Sol 3:
(a) See sol ut i on ( 1)
(b) Let xn = n+
)


For any h, i f n=2H, m=2H- 1
Then | xn xm| = | x2 H x2 H- 1 |
= |
)

)
)

|
| xn xm| = |

| = |

|
| xn xm| =

> 1
f or = 1 , any h : | xn xm| < 1 n, mH
( xn ) i s not Cauchy
(c) Let xn = l n( n)
Then f or any h
I f n=4H and m=2H
| xn xm| = | l n4H l n2H|
| xn xm| = ( l n2)
I f =l n2 +1 >0
( xn ) i s not Cauchy





z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Q4: Gi ven ( xn ) and ( yn ) are not Cauchy seq show t hat
( a) ( xn + yn ) i s Cauchy sequence
( b) ( xn yn ) i s Cauchy sequence

Sol :
( a) Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd H : n, m>H)
Consi der | ( xn +ym) ( xm+ym) | | xn xm| + | yn ym| . ( 1)
Now ( xn ) i s cauchy H1 :
| xn - xm| <

n, mH1 . . ( 2)
and ( yn ) i s cauchy H2 :
| yn - ym| < n, mH2 . . ( 3)
Choose H=max{ H
1
, H
2
}
Then | xn xm| <

and | yn ym| <

n, mH
Use t hi s i n ( 1) we get
| ( xn + yn ) ( xm + ym ) | < n, mH
( ( xn + yn ) ) i s Cauchy seq
( b) Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd H : n, m>H)
Consi der | xn yn xmym| = | xn yn xmyn + xmyn xmym |
| xn yn xmym| | xn xn | | yn | + | xn | | yn - ym| . ( 1)
Now ( xn ) and ( yn ) bei ng cauchy ar e bdd M>0 :
| xn | M . | yn | M n
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Use t hi s i n ( 1) we obt ai n
| xn yn - xmym| M ( | xn - xm| + | yn - ym| ) . . ( 2)
Now ( xn ) i s Cauchy H1 :
| xn xm|

n, mH1 ( 3)
and ( yn ) i s Cauchy H2 :
| yn ym|

n, mH1 ( 4)
Choose H=max{ H1 , H2 }
Then | xn xm| <

, | yn ym| <

n, mH( 5)
From ( 2) and ( 5) we get
| xn yn xmym| < n, mH
( xn yn ) i s cauchy

Q5: I f xn = , show t hat ( xn ) sat i sf y l i m | xn + 1 - xn | =0 , but i s not
Cauchy
Q6: Let p be a gi ven nat ur al number Gi ven exampl e of a sequence
( xn ) t hat i s not Cauchy sequence but t hat sat i sf i es l i m| x n + p xn |
=0
Q7: Let ( xn ) be a Cauchy sequence such t hat x n us an i nt eger , n
show t hat ( xn ) i s ul t i mat el y const ant .

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Sol 5: | xn + 1 xn | = | | =



l i m| xn + 1 xn | = l i m


= 0
Now we l l show ( xn ) i s not cauchy
Let H ( be any) t hen f or n=4H, m=H
| xn - xm| = | 1 | xn xm| 1
| xn xm| , i f =

> 0, f or any H
( xn ) i s not Cauchy
Sol 6: Let xn = 1 +

+ . . +


t hen ( xn ) i s not Cauchy , f or n>m
| xn xm| =
|(

)
(

)|
| xn xm| = |

|
| xn xm| =


Let H, be any t hen f or n. 2H, m=H
| xn xm| =


| xn xm|

| xn xm| >


| xn - xm| , f or =

, H
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( xn ) i s not Cauchy
Whi l e xn + p = 1+

+ . +


xn + p = 1+

+ . . +

+ . . . +


xn + p xn =

+ . +


0 < | xn + p xn | <


l i m | xn + p xn | =0

Sol 7: As ( xn ) i s cauchy
f or 1>0 H ; | xn xm| <1 n, mH
Now xn and xm ar e i nt eger s
| xn xm| <1 xn = xm n, mH
( xn ) i s ul t i mat el y const ant

Q8: Show di r ect l y t hat a bounded monot one i ncreasi ng
sequence i s Cauchy
Q9: Of 0<r <1 and | xn + 1 xn | <r
n
n. Show t hat ( xn ) i s a
Cauchy sequence


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Sol 8: Let ( xn ) be bounded and i ncr easi ng as ( x n) i s
bounded as ( xn) i s bounded
{ xn : n} i s bounded
Sup{ xn Ln} exi st s ( By compl et eness pr opert y_
Let u=Sup{ xn Ln}
Cl ai m: ( xn ) i s Cauchy
Now l et >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd H : | xn xm| < n, mH)
As u=Sup{ xn : n}
H: u-

<hH< u ( 1)
Now nmH as ( xn ) i s
uxn xmxH> u-


Al so u <u+


u+

> xn xm> u -

nmH
| xn xm| < nm>H
( xn ) i s Cauchy
Sol 9: f or m>n
| xn xm| = | xn xn + 1 + xn + 1 xn + 2 + + xm- 1 xm|
| xn xm| | xn xn + 1 | +| xn + 1 xn + 2 | + + | xm- 1 xm|
| xn xm| < r
n
+ r
n + 1
+ . . + r
m- 1
| xn xm|

)

)
<

)
m>n . ( 1)
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

| xn xm| <

m>n
Let >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd H : m>nH | xn - x| <
Now 0<r<1 l i m r
n
=0
f or ( 1- r ) >0 H:
| r
n
- 0| <( 1- r) nH
| r
n
| <( 1- r ) nH
r
n
< ( 1- r ) nH ( 2)
From ( 1) and ( 2)
| xn xm| < m>nH
( xn ) i s Cauchy
Q10: i f x1 x2 are ar bi t rary real number s and x n =

) f or
n>2 show t hat ( x n ) i s cgt . Fi nd l i mi t
Q11: I f y1 <y2 are ar bi t rary real number s and y n =


For n>2, show t hat ( yn ) i s cgt . f i nd l i mi t

Sol 10: as x2 >x1 x2 x1 >0, l et L = x2 - x1
we l l show | xn + 1 xn | = L (

)
f or n=1 | x2 x1 | = L
resul t i s t r ue

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

For n+2 | x3 x2 | = |

( x1 + x2 ) x2 |
=

| x2 x1 | =


resul t i s t r ue f or n=2
Assume resul t i s t rue f or n=k
| xk + 1 xk | =

. ( 1)
Now | xk + 2 xk + 1 | = |

( xk + xk + 1 ) xk + 1 |
=

| xk + 1 xk | =


resul t i s t r ue f or n=k+1
| xn + 1 xn | =


As i n quest i on 9 f or m>n
| xn - xm|

+ . +


| xn xm|

( 1+

+. . +


| xn xm| <

, l et >0 be gi ven ( t o f i nd H | xn xm|


< ; m>n)
Now l i m

= 0 f or

> 0 H:

<

nH . ( 2)
Now f rom ( 1) and ( 2)
| xn xm| < m>nH ( x n ) i s Cauchy and hence i s cgt
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

We l l show t hat
X2 n + 1 = x1 +

+ +


we see x3 =

( x1 + x2 ) =

x1 +

x2 =

x1 +

( L + x1 )
x3 = x1 +


x5 =

( x3 + x4 ) =

x3 +

( x2 + x3 )
x5 =

x3 +

x2 =

x3 +

( L+x1 )
x5 =

( x1 +

) +

x1 +

L
x5 = x1

L = x1 +
)


x5 = x1 +

e. t . c .
x2 n + 1 = x1 +

+ +


As ( xn ) i s cgt l i m xn = l i m x2 n + 1
l i m xn = x1 +

( 1+

+ . +


Li m xn = x1 +

/ = x1 +

L =

x2

Sol 11: | yn yn + 1 | = | yn -

( yn +

yn - 1 |
| yn yn + 1 | = |

yn -

yn - 1 |
| yn yn + 1 | =

| yn - yn - 1 |
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
| yn yn + 1 | =

| yn - 1 - yn - 2 |
| yn yn + 1 | =(

| yn - 1 - yn - 2 |
| yn yn + 1 | =(

| yn - 2 - yn - 3 |
| yn yn + 1 | =(

| yn - 2 - yn - 3 |
. .
. .
. .
| yn yn + 1 | =(

| y2 - y3 |
| yn yn + 1 | =(

( y2 - y3 ) ( y2 > y1 )
Now f or m>n , as i n Quest i on 9
| yn ym| =| yn yn + 1 + yn + 1 yn + 2 + ym- 1 ym |
| yn yn + 1 | + | yn + 1 yn + 2 | + | ym- 1 ym |
| yn ym| ( y2 y1 ) [(

]
| yn ym| ( y2 y1 ) (

0
(

1
| yn ym| 3( y2 y1 ) (

m>n . . ( 1)
Now l i m (

= 0 >0 H :
(

<

)
nH . ( 2)
From ( 1) and ( 2) we get | yn ym| < m>nH
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
( yn) i s Cauchy and hence ( yn ) i s cgt
Fi nd l i mi t your sel f ( Ans.

y1 +

y2 )

Def i ni t i on
Let ( Sn ) be a seq i n . we def i ne
l i mSupSn =


l i mI nf Sn =



Theorem : Let ( Sn ) be a sequence i n
( 1) I f l i mSn i s def i ned ( i n { } ) , t hen
l i mI nf = l i mSn = l i mSupSn
( 2) I f l i mI nf Sn = l i mSupSn , t hen l i mSn i s def i ned and
l i mSn = l i mSupSn = l i mI nf Sn

Proof : ( i ) Suppose l i mSn = .
Let Un = I nf { Sn : n>N} and Vn =Sup{ Sn : n>N} t hen
l i mSupSn =

and l i mI nf Sn =

f or any m>0, as
l i mSn = +
N:
Sn >m n>N
Vn m. . ( 1)
Now m>N we have
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

{ Sn : n>m} { Sn : n>N}
I nf { Sn : n>m} I nf { Sn : n>N} n>N
UmUn m m>N
Umm m>N

= +
l i mI nf Sn = +
Si mi l arl y we can show l i i mSupS n = +
Al so when l i mSn = - case i s si mi l ar
Now Let l i mSn =S, S
Let >0 be gi en t hen N:
S- <Sn <S+ nN
Now Vn = Sup{ Sn : n>N} S+ >0
Vn S+ >0
Al so i f m>N, t hen
{ Sn : n>m} { Sn : n>N}
Sup{ Sn : n>m} Sup{ Sn : n>N}
Vm Vn S+ >0, m>N
VmS+ m>N
l i m VmS+ >0
l i mSupSn S+ >0
l i mSupSn S . * 1
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Al so S- <Sn n>N
S- Un where Un ={ Sn : n>N}
S- Un Um m>N
S-

S- l i mI nf Sn >0
Sl i mI nf Sn . * 2
Now we know
l i mI nf Sn l i mSupSn
* 1 and * 2 Sl i mI nf Sn l i mSupSn S
l i mI nf Sn = l i mSupSn = S
( i i i ) ( A) Let l i mSupSn = + = l i mI nf Sn
T. S. T l i mSn = +
Let M be any +ve real no.
As l i mI nf Sn = +

= , Un = I nf { Sn : n>N}

= k:
Un >M N>k
Or i n part i cul ar Uk >M
I nf { Sn : n>k} >M
Sn >m n>ks
l i mSn = +

( B) I f l i mSupSn = - = l i mI nf Sn
T. S. T l i mSn = -
Let M be any r eal o
As l i mSupSn = -
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

l i mVn = -
k:
Vn <M Nk
I n part i cul ar Vk <M . ( 1)
Now Sup{ Sn : n>k} <M
Sn <M n>k
l i mSn = -

( C) I f l i mSupSn = l i mI nf Sn = S, S
Let >0 be any no. ( t o f i nd k : | Sn - S| < nk)
As l i mSn = S

= S, Vn = Sup{ Sn : n>N}
k
1
:
| vn S| < Nk
1
s- < Vn < s+ Nk
1

Vn < s+ Nk
1
I n part i cul ar

<s+
Si p{ Sn : n>k
1
} < s+
Sn < s+ nk
1
( 1)
Al so l i mI nf Sn = S
l i mUn = s, Un =I nf { Sn : n>N}
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

k :
s- <Un <s+ Nk
s- < Un nk
I n part i cul ar f or N=k
s- <


s- <I nf { Sn : n>k }
s- < Sn nk . . ( 2)
Let k=max{ k , k } , t hen
s- <Sn <s+ nk
| Sn S| < nk
l i mSn = S
Exampl e: Let ( Sn ) = )

) f i nd l i mSupSn and l i mI nf Sn
Sol : Un = I nf { Sn : n>N} = I nf { 1)

: n>N}
Un = I nf {



Un = 0 l i mUn = 0 l i mI nf Sn = 0
Si mi l arl y check l i mSupS n = 2
Exampl e: Let xn = )

) n, f i nd l i mSupxn and l i mi nf xn
Sol : Vn = Sup{ xn : n>N}
=Sup{ xN+ 1 , xN+ 2 , xN+ 3 , . . }

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

=Sup { )

) )

) , . }
={



l i mVn = 1 l i mSupxn = 1
Un = I nf { )

) , )

) }
={
(

)
(

)

l i mUn = - 1 l i mI nf xn = - 1

Def i ni t i on:
Let ( Sn ) be a seq i n . A susequent i al l i mi t i s any r eal
number s or symbol + or t hat i s t he l i mi t of some
sunsequence od ( Sn )

Theorem:
Let ( Sn ) be any sequence i n , and l et S denot e t he set of
subequent i al l i mi t s of ( Sn )
( i ) S i s non empt y
( i i ) Sup S = l i mSupSn , I nf S = l i mI nf Sn
Proof : Not requi red ( Not i n t he syl l abus)

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
I nf i ni t e seri es :
An i nf i ni t e ser i es i s an expressi on of t he f orm

= am + am+ 1 , am+ 2 ,
Not e: We l l of t en t ake m=0, or m=1 i n t hi s set of not es we l l
assume m=1. f or us i nf i ni t e ser i ws i s

, We l l i gnore
n=1, 2, , and we l l wr i t e an i nf i ni t e ser i es as



Def i ni t i on:
An i nf i ni t e ser i es i s conver gent i f f ( S n ) i s cgt
An i nf i ni t e ser i es i s di ver gent i f f ( S n ) i s dgt

Seri es of non- negat i ve t erms :
A ser i es

i s of non- negat i ve t er ms i f s n 0 n
Not e : S. O. P. S of seri es of non- negat i ve t er ms i s al ways seq
Let

be ser i es of non- negat i ve t er ms and ( Sn ) be S. O. P. S


Then Sn + 1 Sn = an + 1 0
Sn + 1 Sn 0 Sn + 1 Sn n
Sequence od part i al sums :
Let

be an i nf i ni t e seri es t hen a sequence ( S n ) def i ned as


Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an , i s cal l ed sequence of part i al sums of



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
( Sn ) i s
As ser i es

i s cgt ( Sn ) i s cgt and ( Sn ) i s


( Sn ) i s cgt ( Sn ) i s bdd

i s cgt ( Sn ) i s bdd above


I f | r| 1 | r
n
| 1 n
l i m| r
n
| 1
l i m| r
n
| 0
Al so Of a0
l i m ar
n
= al i m( r
n
) 0 ( l i m| r
n
| 0 l i mr
n
0)

i s no convergent
p- seri es t est :
The ser i es

i s cgt p >1
i s dgt p1








z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Cauchy convergence cri t eri a:

i s conver gent >0 N :

< nm>N

Proof : Let ( Sn ) be S. O. P. S of


Then

i s cgt ( Sn ) i s cauchy
>0 NN:
| Sn Sm| < nm>N

< nm>N

< nm>N
| am+ 1 + am+ 2 + + an | < nm>N

Compari si on t est :
Let

be a seri es where an 0 n
( i ) I f

conver ges and | bn | an f or al l


n t hen

conver ges
(i i ) I f

= + and bn an n, t hen

=+



z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof : ( i ) Let >0 n gi ven
Now f or nm

( 1)
Now

i s cgt N:

< nm>N
As an 0 n

< nm>N . . ( 2)
Fr om ( 1) and ( 2)

< nm>N

i s comver gent
( i i ) Let ( Sn ) be S. O. P. S of


and ( t n ) be S. O. P. S of


as bn an n


t n Sn n . ( 3)
As

= + l i mSn = +
( 1) l i mt n = +

i s di ver gent


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444


Necessary condi t i on of convergence : ( n
t h
t erm t est )
I f

i s convergent t hen l i ma n = 0
( i . e i f l i man 0,

i s dgt )

Proof : Let

be cgt , and ( Sn ) be S. O. P. S t hen ( Sn ) i s


cgt
l i mSn = S ( say)
Al so l i mSn - 1 = S
And an = Sn Sn - 1 l i man = l i mSn l i mSn - 1 = 0
l i man = 0


Geomet ri c t est :
A ser i es of t he f orm

f or const ant a and r i s cal l ed


Geomet r i c ser i es

i s conver gent | r| <1


I s di ver gent i f | r| 1 , a0


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Proof : Let ( Sn ) be S. O. P. S of


Then Sn =


Now )


=a+ar +ar
2
+=ar
n
( ar+ar
2
++ar
n + 1
)
=a ar+n- 1



=
)

)
r1
Sn =
)

)

I f | r | <1, t hen l i m r
n + 1
= 0 l i mSn = (

)
S. O. P. S i s cgt

i s conver gent

Li mi t compari si on t est : Suppose X: = ( xn ) and Y: =( yn ) are
st ri ct l y posi t i ve sequences and suppose t hat t he f ol l owi ng
l i mi t exi st s i n ; r =l i m(

)
( a) I f r0 t hen

i s cgt

i s cgt
( b) I f r=0 t hen

i s cgt

i s cgt

Proof :
( a) I f r0 t hen r >0

> 0
And l i m

= r
k :
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

|

|<

nk

< r +

nk
(

)< xn < ( 2r) yn nk . . ( 1)


Now

yn < xn nk
Ny compari son t est , I f

i s cgt hen

i s cgt
agai n f r om ( 1)
xn < ( 2r ) yn nk
I f

i s conver gent t hen

i s cgt
And hence

i s conver gent

i s cgt
( b) I f r=0
Then f or = 1>0 k:

|

|< 1 nk

< 1 nk
Agai n by compari si on t est i f

i s cgt t hen

i s cgt





z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

Root t est :
Let

be a sequence and = l i mSup

, The seri es


( i ) Conver ges absol ut el y i f <1
( i i ) Di ver ges i f >1
( i i i ) ot her wi se = 1, and t he t est gi v es no i nf or mat i on

Proof :
Case 1 : >1 ; = l i mSup

where we l et
Vn = Sup{

: n>N} ;
As <1, we have 1- >0 ; choose 0<<1- e t hen be
def i ni t i on of conver gence m:
| Vn - | < Nm
Or - <Vn < + Nm
Or i n part i cul ar Vn < +
Sup{

: n>N} < +

< + n>m

< ( +)
n
n>m
As =<+<1; )

i s conver gent
By basi c compari si on t est

i s abs cgt
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

i s conver gent
Case 1
>1, choose 0<<- 1 t hen
As = l i mSup

f or t hi s >0
m :
| Vn - | < Nm
- < Vn + Nm
Sup{

: n>N} > - Nm
some N
1
> N such t hat

> - > 1 Nm
i nf i ni t el y many N
1
>m such t hat |

> 1
t here i s a subsequence (|

|) of

) such t hat each


|

|> 1
l i m| an | 0 l i man 0

i s di ver gent ( By n
t h
r oot t est )






z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
Rat i o t est : A seri es

of non- zer o t erms


( i ) Conver ges absol ut el y i f l i mSup|

|< 1
( i i ) Di ver ges i f l i mI nf |

|< 1
( i i i ) Ot herwi se l i mI nf |

| 1 l i mSup|

| amd t est gi ver no


i nf or mat i on

Proof :
Fi r st we l l show f ol l owi ng resul t
l i mI nf |

| l i mI nf

l i mSup

l i mSup|

|
The mi ddl e i nequal i t y i s obvi ous
Now we l l pr ove t he t hi r d i nequal i t y
= l i mSup


And L = l i mSup|

|, we l l show L.
I f L = + t hen t hi s i s obvi ous ( i . e L)
I f L<+. To pr ove t hat L
I t i s enough t o show L1 f or any L1 >L
Si nce L = l i mSup|

| =

| < L1 ;
There exi st s a nat ural number N:
Sup,|

| -< L1

z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

|

|< L1 f or nM
f or n>N, | an | = |

| |

| . |

| | aN|
| an | <

| an | f or n>N
| an | <

a where a =

> 0
l i mSup

L1 , as desi red
L
l i mSup

l i mSup|

| . . ( 1)
Si mi l arl y we can show t hat
l i mI nf |

| l i mI nf

. . ( 2)
f rom ( 1) and ( 2)
l i mI nf |

| l i mI nf

l i mSup

l i mSup|

|
I f l i mSup|

|< 1
Then l i mSup

< 1
by root t est

i s cgt
( i i ) I f l i mI nf |

|> 1
l i mSup

> 1

i s di ver gent by r oot t est


z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444

( i i i ) Let

t hen

i s dgt
Al so l i mI nf |

| = l i mSup|

| = l i m|

| = 1
I f

t hen

i s dgt
But l i mI nf |

| = l i mSup|

| = 1
i f l i mI nf |

| 1 l i mSup|

|
Seri es

may converge or di ver ge and hence


we can t say anyt i ng i n t hi s case
Al t ernat i ve Seri es :
A ser i es of t he f orm a 1 a2 + a3 a4 + . . where ak >0 kj i s
cal l ed an al t er nat i ng seri es

Lei bni t z t est : I f a1 a2 a3 . .
And l i mak = 0, t hen t he al t er nat i ng ser i es )

i s cgt

Proof : we l l pr ove t hi s usi ng cauchy s pr i nci pal of
conver gence of an i nf i ni t e seri es
Let >0 be gi ven
Let

= )


Consi der f or n>m , m
| Um+ 1 + Um+ 2 + + Um|
z

Notes prepared by sanjeev kumar shukla
9971245238 or 8750558444
= | )

am+ 1 + )

am+ 2 + . . . . . . . + )

an |
= | )

[ am+ 1 am+ 2 + . . . . . . . )

an ] |
= | )

A|
Where A = am+ 1 am+ 2 + am+ 3 - . . + )

an
Now a = am+ 1 am+ 2 + . . - an
When n- m- 1 i s odd
A = [ am+ 1 am+ 2 ] + [ am+ 3 am+ 4 ] + . . + [ an - 1 an ]
{ Si nce ( ak ) al l quant i t i es i nsi de t he bracket s ar e +ve
A0}
Now
A = am+ 1 [ am+ 2 - am+ 3 ] [ am+ 4 am- 5 ] + . . . . + [ an - 2 an - 1 ] - an
= am+ 1 ve ( br acket s are non negat i ve )
<am+ 1 . ( A)
When n- m- 1 i s even
A= am+ 1 am+ 2 + am+ 3 am+ 4 + . . + an
=[ am+ 1 am+ 2 ] + [ am+ 3 am+ 4 ] + . . + [ an - 2 an - 1 ] + an
>0 ( Al l bracket s ar e non negat i ve )
A = am+ 1 [ am+ 2 + am+ 3 ] . . [ an - 1 an - n ]
am+ 1 . ( B)