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4.

3 Designing Heads subject


to Internal Pressure
Stresses in Heads
Heads are one of the important parts in pressure vessels
and refer to the parts of the vessel that confine the shell
from below, above, and the sides.
The ends of the vessels are closed by means of heads
before putting them into operation
The heads are normally made from the same material as
the shell and may be welded to the shell itself. They also
may be integral with the shell in forged or cast
construction.
The head geometrical design is dependent on the geometry
of the shell as well as other design parameters such as
operating temperature and pressure
Types of Head
Flanged
Ellipsoidal
Tori - spherical
Hemispherical
Conical
Tori -conical
Classification according to the shape:
i. Convex heads
Semi-spherical head
Elliptical head
Dished head (spherical head with hem)
Spherical head without hem
ii. Conical heads
Conical head without hem
Conical head with hem
iii. Flat heads
1.Semi-spherical head
i. Molding of heads
Small diameter and thin wall

Integrally heat-pressing
molding
Large diameter
Spherical petal welding

D
i

ii. Calculating equation for thickness

] [ 4
c
t
i c
p
D p
S

=
| o

] [ 4
2
C
p
D p
S
c
t
i c
d
+

=
| o
value of round
] [ 4
S
1 2
+ + +

= C C
p
D p
c
t
i c
n
| o
2.Thickness calculating equation
of elliptical head
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
b
a
S
pa
m
2
max u
o o o
h
i

(
b
)

h
o

D
i
S
R
i
(a)
i. Calculating equation
for thickness:
For the elliptical heat
whose m = a / b 2
2. The maximum stress should be at the top point:
Putting m = a / b, a = D / 2 into the equation,
getting:
S
mpD
4
max
= o
t
S
mpD
] [
4
max
o o s =
t
m pD
S
] [ 4

o
=
Then:
Under the condition about strength:
(1)Replacing P with P
c
(2)Multiplying [o]
t
with welded joint efficiency |
(3)Substituting D with D
i
, D = D
i
+ S

(4) m = a / b = D
i
/ 2 h
i

Putting these conditions into the equation:
getting:
|
|
.
|

\
|

~
|
.
|

\
|

=
i
i
c
t
i c
c
t
i c
h
D
p
D p m
mp
D p
S
4 5 . 0 ] [ 2

2
2
] [ 2
| o
| o
m = a / b = Di / 2 hi
For the standard elliptical head whose m=2:
c
t
i c
p
D p
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2

=
| o
For the elliptical head whose m>2:
o
u
at boundary o
u
and o
m
at the top
point
Then introducing the stress strengthening
coefficient K to replace (D
i
/ 4h
i
)
In this equation:
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
2
6
1
i
i
h
D
K
c
t
i c
p
D p K
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2

=
| o
For standard elliptical head: K=1
This is the common equation for calculating
the wall thickness of elliptical heads.
Beside these conditions:
for standard elliptical heads S
e
0.15% D
i

for common elliptical heads S
e
0.30% D
i

The straight side length of standard
elliptical heads should be determined
according to P103, Figure 4-11
iii. Working stress and the maximum
allowable working pressure
( )
e
e i c
t
S
S KD p
2
5 . 0 +
= o
e i
e
t
S KD
S
p
5 . 0
] [ 2
] [
+
=
| o
3.Dished head
i. Structure
Containing three parts:
Sphere: R
i
Transition arc (hem): r
Straightedge: h
o
(height)

D
i

r
h
o

c
t
i c
p
R p M
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2

=
| o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
r
R
M
i
3
4
1
M Shape factor of dished head
and
ii. Calculating equation for thickness
iii. Working stress and the maximum
allowable working pressure
( )
e
e i c
t
S
S MR p
2
5 . 0 +
= o
e i
e
t
S MR
S
p
5 . 0
] [ 2
] [
+
=
| o
iv. Dished head
When R
i
= 0.9 D
i
& r = 0.17 D
i

the dished head is standard dished head
and M = 1.325
So the equation is:
c
t
i c
p
D p
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2
2 . 1

=
| o
4.Conical head
i. Structure
*without hem (suitable for o 30
o
)
without local strength
with local strength
*with hem (suitable for o > 30 o )
Adding a transition arc and a
straightedge between the joint
of head and cylinder
ii. Calculating equation for thickness
The maximum stress is o
u
in the main aspect
of conical head.
o
o o
u
cos
1
2

max max
= =

S
pD
o
m
o
u

t
max max
] [
cos
1
2
o
o
o o
u
s = =

S
pD
According to the strength condition:
Then
o o cos
1
] [ 2
=
t
pD
S
o | o cos
1

] [ 2

=
c
t
c c
p
D p
S
Replacing P with P
c
, considering |, and
changing D into D
c
D=D
c
+S
This equation only contains the membrane
stress but neglects the boundary stress at the
joint of cylinder and head. Therefore the
complementary design equation should be
established:
(1)Discriminating whether the joint of
cylinder and head should be reinforced
or not.
(2)Calculation for the local reinforcement.
Conical head without hem (o 30
o
)
(1)Not require reinforcing
(consistent thickness for the whole head)
main aspect:
o | o cos
1

] [ 2

=
c
t
c c
p
D p
S
o | o cos
1

] [ 2

=

c
t
s i c
p
D p
S
small aspect:
(2)Require reinforcing
(for the thickness of joint,
the reinforcement region)
Main aspect:
c
t
i c
r
p
D p Q
S

=
] [ 2

| o
c
t
s i c
r
p
D p Q
S

=

] [ 2

| o
Small aspect:
I nterpretation:
D
c
inside diameter of main aspect
D
i.s
inside diameter of small aspect
D
i
inside diameter of cylinder
Q coefficient (Consulting the Figure
4-16 or 4-18 in book)
Conical head with hem (o > 30
o
)
(1)Thickness of hem at the transition section
c
t
s i c
p
D p K
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2

=

| o
c
t
s i c
p
D p f
S
5 . 0 ] [

=

| o
K coefficient (Consulting Figure4-13)
f coefficient (Consulting Figure4-14)
(2)Thickness of conical shell at the joint with
transition section
4.Flat head
i. Structure
The geometric form of flat heads:
rotundity, ellipse, long roundness,
rectangle, square, etc.
ii. Characteristics of load
Round flat with shaft symmetry which is
subjected to uniform gas pressure
(1)There are two kinds of bending stress states,
distributing linearly along the wall.

(2)Radial bending stress o
r
and hoop bending
stress o
t
distributing along the radius.
Fastening the periphery
o
max
= o
r.max
The maximum stress is
at the edge of disk.
S

R
p
o
0
o
t

o
r
.
m
a
x


o
r

2
max .
188 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
D
P
r
o
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
PD
S
R
2
75 . 0
Periphery with simply supported ends
o
max
= o
r.max
= o
t.max

The maximum stress is
in the center of disk.

S

R
P
o
t
o
r
.
m
a
x

o
0
o
r
2
max .
31 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
D
P
r
o
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
PD
S
R
2
24 . 1
iii. Calculation equation for thickness
From the condition of strength o
max
[o]
t
,
getting:
Fastening the periphery
t
P
D S
] [
188 . 0
o
=
t
P
D S
] [
31 . 0
o
=
Periphery with simply supported ends
In fact, the supporting condition at boundary
of flat head is between the previous two.
After introducing the coefficient K which is
called structure characteristics coefficient and
considering the welded joint efficient |, getting
the calculating equation for thickness of round disk:
| o
t
c
c p
P K
D S
] [

=
value of round S
1 2
+ + + = C C S
p n
5.Examples
Design the thicknesses of cylinder and heads
of a storage tank. Calculating respectively the
thickness of each heads if its semi-spherical,
elliptical, dished and flat head as well as
comparing and discussing the results.
Known: D
i
= 1200 mm P
c
= 1.6Mpa
material: 20R [o]
t
= 133Mpa C
2
= 1 mm
The heads can be punch formed by a complete
steel plate.
Solution:
(1)Determining the thickness of cylinder

] [ 2
c
t
i c
p
D p
S

=
| o
mm 26 . 7
6 . 1 0 . 1 133 2
1200 6 . 1
=


=
mm C S S
d
26 . 8 0 . 1 26 . 7
2
= + = + =
C
1
= 0.8 mm (Checking Figure 4-7)
S
d
+ C
1
= 8.26 + 0.8 = 9.06 mm
Round it of, getting: S
n
= 10 mm
| = 1.0 (Double welded butt, 100% NDE)
(2)Semi-spherical head

] [ 4
c
t
i c
p
D p
S

=
| o
mm 62 . 3
6 . 1 0 . 1 133 4
1200 6 . 1
=


=
mm C S S
d
62 . 4 0 . 1 62 . 3
2
= + = + =
C
1
= 0.5 mm (Checking Figure 4-7)
S
d
+ C
1
= 4.62 + 0.5 = 5.12 mm
Round it of, getting: S
n
= 6 mm
| = 1.0 (wholly punch forming)
(3)Standard elliptical head
c
t
i c
p
D p
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2

=
| o
mm 24 . 7
16 5 . 0 0 . 1 133 2
1200 6 . 1
=


=
mm C S S
d
24 . 8 0 . 1 24 . 7
2
= + = + =
C
1
= 0.8 mm (Checking Figure 4-7)
S
d
+ C
1
= 8.24 + 0.8 = 9.04 mm
Round it of, getting: S
n
= 10 mm
| = 1.0 (wholly punch forming)
(4)Standard dished head
c
t
i c
p
D p
S
5 . 0 ] [ 2
2 . 1

=
| o
mm 69 . 8
6 . 1 5 . 0 0 . 1 133 2
1200 6 . 1 2 . 1
=


=
mm C S S
d
69 . 9 0 . 1 69 . 8
2
= + = + =
C
1
= 0.8 mm (Checking Figure 4-7)
S
d
+ C
1
= 9.69 + 0.8 = 10.49 mm
Round it of, getting: S
n
= 12 mm
| = 1.0 (wholly punch forming)
(5)Flat head
K = 0.25; D
c
= D
i
= 1200 mm; [o]
t
= 110 Mpa
| o
t
c
c p
P K
D S
] [

=
mm 36 . 72
0 . 1 110
6 . 1 25 . 0
1200 =

=
mm C S S
d
36 . 73 0 . 1 36 . 72
2
= + = + =
C
1
= 1.8 mm (Checking Figure 4-7)
S
d
+ C
1
=73.36 + 1.8 = 75.16 mm
Round it of, getting: S
n
= 80 mm
| = 1.0 (wholly punch forming)
Comparison:
Head-form
S
n
mm
kg
Semi-sphe. Elliptical Dished Flat
6
106
10 12 80
137 163 662
Selection:
Its better to use the standard elliptical
head whose thickness is the same to that of
cylinder.