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History HL Notes

19
th
Century Russia
The Russian people are descendants of the Rus who are thought to be a mixture of
Scandinavian and Slavic origin and settled in that region out of 800 AD
Byzantine Empire
A major legacy of the Byzantine Empire for the Russians was the eastern orthodox or Greek
Orthodox Church
With the decline of Byzantium came a wave of conquest from the East, the Mongols until the
15
th
century (Tatars)
To a large extent, the Mongols allowed Russians to maintain their way of life:
- Slavic based languages including writing system (Cyrillic)
- Orthodox religion
The Russians adopted much from Asian culture and this led western Europeans to think less
of the Russians
Geographically Russia was isolated from the rest of Europe:
- Entirely land locked (mostly)
- Huge Plains of Eastern Europe prevented overland travel
During these early years there were a series of muscovite princes based in Moscow and
called themselves Tsars
By the 17
th
century the Romanov family became the ruling dynasty:
- Alexander I (1801-1825)
- Nicholas I (1825-1855)
- Alexander II (1855-1881)
- Alexander III (1881-1894)
- Nicholas II (1894-1917)
Under the rule of Peter the Great (1689-1728) Russia grew greatly in size and entered the
European World
The Russia of 1800 was one of the greatest autocracies in Europe where:
- The Tsars rule was absolute
- There was a small, but powerful landowning elite
- The vast majority of the population existed in a state called serfdom
Serfdom: refers to the legal and economic status of peasants (serf).
In Russia Serfdom practically equaled slavery
- In 1646, landowners registered peasants living on their land. From then they are
considered property of the estate.
- Serfs could not leave the estates unless sold or relocated by owner
- Serfs could not marry who they wish
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Background to Anti Semitism
Hostility and prejudice against Jewish people
The Jewish people have a long history of discrimination in Europe
They were expelled from the Promised Land by the Romans, so, many Jews settled
throughout medieval Europe.
- Jerusalem destroyed at 70 AD
As the church in Rome grew in power, the persecution of the Jews also grew
This caused many Jews to move to Eastern Europe, where at that time, the Orthodox
Church was more tolerant
During the reformation (1500s), the climate of religious intolerance grew
Protestants were also guilty of anti-Semitism, with Luther himself being very hateful towards
Jews.
Every major European country experienced waves of anti-Semitism in which Jews had
limited rights/ were driven out of countries/ slaughtered by the thousands
By the late 19
th
Century Russians actually adopted this violence against Jews as ofcial
policy approved by government
These sanctioned campaigns are known as pilgrims
By the late 19
th
century many Europeans believed the myths and propaganda that had
grown to blame the Jews for almost every conceivable social/economic/political problem
Background of Alexander I
Alexander I (1801-1825) had taken Russia through a turbulent period in terms of foreign
afairs, which included:
- Napoleonic Wars and the congress of Vienna
- The attempted revolutions of the early 1800s in Europe
During his reign Russia grew geographically with Alexander securing most of Poland,
Finland and Bessarabia
Domestically Alexander I did very little to improve Russias social or political development
The death of Alexander I in December 1825 gave anti-autocracy conspirators their cue to
plan a revolution
The Decembrist Revolt
As the revolt took place on the frst day of Nicholas Is reign, he was inheriting the legacy of
Alexander I, his eldest brother
Although a miserable failure, this revolt marked the frst political movement directed against
established system of Russian Imperial Autocracy.
Prior to this point the position of the Tsar was never questioned by any inside Russia.
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The leaders of this revolt were not united in their arms, however they all agreed that Russia
needed some signifcant changes
- Some were calling for a constitutional monarchy
- Others wanted to get rid of the Tsar altogether and establish a republic
- Some wanted the emancipation of the serfs, as well as judicial reform
- The leaders of this revolt were a handful of army ofcers who had seen a more liberal
world while in the west during the Napoleonic wars, they wanted these same kind of
reforms for their own country
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism
Nicholas upbringing and training had prepared him for the military, not ruling Russia
Nicholas was opposed to any political reform or change in Russia and was convinced that
military discipline was needed to control Russia
This was due to:
- His personality which was very rigid and controlling
- His suspicions about any dissent after the December Revolt
- Political climate in the rest of Europe
Russias Domestic Scene
To stamp out any opposition to the autocracy, Nicholas established a secret police
(Okhrana) which quickly became notorious for its brutality
He viewed education and universities as the nourishment of subversive ideas, so he
closed down many schools
Nicholas did nothing to improve the economy, which became weaker than other
European empires
Russian Foreign Afairs
Having the largest empire in Europe, both in terms of mass and population, Nicholas felt
he had a special position and role in European politics
He saw himself as the guardian of the status quo, and as such thought it was his
responsibility to use his great army to put down any liberal revolts in other autocratic
empires
He did this successfully in 1848 in Hungary where his armies crushed a revolt against
the Habsburgs
Like all previous Tsars, Nicholas had visions of Russian expansion to the south east
along the black sea
However, it was this goal that ultimately saw his demise in the Crimean War of 1855
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Serfdom in Russia
Impact on the population:
1)Peasants
- Kept them uneducated and illiterate
- Very little awareness of politics especially at the national level
2)Gentry
- Were very dependent on their surfs and lacked a strong work ethic (lazy!)
- A small minority felt guilty exploiting their fellow human beings
Impact on the country:
1)Economy
- Due to restrictions of moving of, the Land lords holdings, serfs did not tend to
migrate to cities
- This hindered the development of towns and industries
2)Society
- The reduced economic development in turn stunted the development of a middle
class which is typically the moderating infuence of a society
3)Politics
- Because there were very few people with moderate or liberal ideas, when new ideas
did develop they tended to be quite radical
The Eastern Question
During the 19
th
century Europe was dominated by the great powers
- Russia
- Austria
- Prussia
- France
- Britain
- Italy (after 1859)
- Germany (after 1871)
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, these powers worked together in a system called The
concert of Europe or the Congress system
The goal of this system was to maintain the balance of Power in Europe and the rest of the
world
This goal was threatened by the fact that the Ottoman Empire was in decline which meant
possible changes to the European map
In the 19
th
century the great powers had interests in the geographical area of the Ottomans
A)Britain
a.Didnt want Russian warships to be able to exit the Black Sea via the Aegean
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b.Didnt want the Balkans states, who were pushing for independence from the
Ottomans, to fall into the hands of the Russians
c.Wanted to ensure that their shortened route (via the Suez Canal) stayed in
Ottoman hands not Russian hands
B)Russia
a.Wanted the straights (dardinel and
b.Viewed themselves as the natural heir to rule the Balkans
C)Austria-Hungary
a.Was in a very precarious situation because there were many ethnic groups within
their borders that were seeking independence
b.Hope Ottoman Empire would maintain control over the Balkans, lest newly
independent would cause minorities in Austria to want to do the same
D)France
a.Was interested in trying to gain trade and infuence in Egypt
The Crimean War (1853-1856)
This was the frst war involving most of the great powers since 1815
It marked the beginning of the end of the balance of powers
Causes:
- Diplomatic concerns over long standing eastern question lay behind the confict
- The more immediate fuse lay in the confict about which European powers should have
control over the interest of Christians and Christian sites within the Ottoman Empire
- Nicholas I was not prepared to hand over his protectorate of some 12 million orthodox
subjects
- When negotiations failed, Russia occupied the Ottoman territories of Moldovia and
Wallachia in an attempt to win control over the religious issue
- The Turks protested and in 1853 declared war on Russia
The Russians were very successful against the Turks and in March 1854, France and Britain
felt compelled to help the Ottomans against what they saw as a Russian threat
Britain and France attacked Russias soft underbelly, the Crimea, and that is where the
fghting largely contained
Russias home court advantage of a larger army and shorter supply lines were eventually
outweighed by the greater ineptitude of her military leaders and the poor training/equipment
of the soldiers
With the fall of Sevastopol, in September of 1855, and the Austria ultimatum, the Russians
surrendered in January 1856 with the treaty of Paris signed shortly there after
Signifcance of Crimean War
Marked some major changes in warfare:
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- Artillery and rifes replacing cavalry and bayonets
- The scale of casualties was large some 675,000 men died
- Field hospitals and army nurses introduced
- First war covered live in the newspaper
Marked the end of the congress system that had kept the peace of Europe for some 40
years
It showed everyone that Russia was weak and forced the new Tzar to implement a program
of internal reform
Imperial Russia
Until 1905 Russia was an absolute monarchy
This is the way the Tzars wanted it and kept it that way through the control of these
institutions
1)The bureaucracy, which acted as a personal staf to the Tzars, rather than as civil
servants to the nation
2)The police force, which was divided into two branches
a.One to maintain law and order among the people
b.One to protect the state from the people
3)The army which traditionally stayed out of politics. They simply followed the order
of whoever was in power
4)The landed gentry who had no real function within Russia. They were essentially
a parasitic class having money but no responsibilities.
5)The Orthodox Church, which was used as a tool to educate Russians in correct
political belief.
The Development of the Intelligentsia
The Intelligentsia- who were they?
They were educated Russians that were open to Western ideas and were obsessed with
Russias destiny
Students, university graduates, people who had leisure time to read (wealthy)
Also included a new generation of educated Russians coming from the children of the
rising merchant class- it wasnt just the aristocracy and landed gentry
The Decembrists of 1825 were the forerunners and martyrs of the Intelligentsia during
the reign of Nicholas I not much had changed with regard to reform within Russia
Nicholas I banned all open discussion on the subject of reforming Russia and thus those
interested were forced underground to discuss their dangerous ideas.
This led some to become more radical in their desire for change
By the time of Alexander II they became known as the Intelligentsia
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Because they were educated, they saw themselves as above the Russian masses and
therefore took on the role of social engineer trying to build a perfect society
The more extreme Intelligentsia dreamed of molding a whole new society which made
them hostile towards reforms
The Russian masses did not tend to support them and their revolutionary ideas
Signifcance of 19
th
century Russian Intelligentsia
They were the only group that raised and debated questions concerning serious political
and social change in Russia
This group included some of Europes foremost literary giants
o Pushkin
o Gogol
o Tolstoy
Introduction to the reforms of Alexander II
Social reform was needed because:
o There were fears of wide-spread peasant revolt
o The immobile peasants population was impairing attempts to industrialize
o The general level of education was far lower than in the other Great Powers
Political and Economic reform was needed because:
o After the humiliating Crimean defeat the Russian administration needed to be
modernized
o Crimean War left the Russian economy strained
o Serfdom was no longer economically advantageous
Military reforms were needed because:
o The Russian army was poorly equipped, poorly supplied and poorly trained
o The army was too large and was taking up between 40 and 50 percent of
Russias peacetime budget
o The existence of a large, trained, armed group of peasants was dangerous given
the general mood of unhappiness within the serfs
Alexander said to the nobles:
It is better to abolish bondage from above than to wait for the time when it
will begin to abolish itself from below
The reforms of Alexander II
In 1858 Alexander II stated his aims for reform:
Stage 1: The peasant must immediately feel that his life has improved
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Stage 2: The landowners must immediately be reassured that their interests are
protected
Stage 3: The government must never be weak in maintain law and order
The frst major reform was the Emancipation Act of 1861 which took the form of 22 separate
pieces of legislation between 1851 and 1863 resulting in:
Serfs being given the right to marry, own property and set up in business
Serfs still being tied to the mir
o The mir- a peasant commune where the land was owned commonly, controlled
paternalistically (oldest man)
o The mir acted as the unpaid civil service collecting taxes
Serfs having to pay redemption payments for the next 49 years
Judicial reforms were passed to create the image of equality before the law with:
o Open courts and jury trials
o The introduction of justices of the peace and a bar of lawyers that gave the
peasants two sources of legal support
However:
o Ofcials could only be tried under special circumstances and with the
governments permission
o Military courts retained their own jurisdiction
o Ex-serfs were restricted to special courts and the governments kept informal
pressure on the judges to comply with ofcial policies and attitudes
Elected districts and provincial assemblies called Zemstva (zemstvo in singular) were
created and represented the frst form of popular involvement in the government of
Russia
Although all classes of men could vote/enter, the assemblies were dominated by the
upper class
The zemtsva had limited powers over public health, public education and prisons, but the
provincial governor could veto their decisions if they were deemed to be contrary to the
laws and the general welfare of the state
Zemstva = baby step towards democracy
Other reforms included:
1)The introduction of a public budget of government fnances
2)Universities having greater autonomy over their curricula and opening up admission
to lower class
3)Restrictions on vodka production and sales were lifted
4)Legislation was introduced to limit censorship
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5)Military service became compulsory for all classes and the term of service was
reduced from 25 years to 6 years
After the Polish rebellion in 1863, Alexander began to follow the advice of more reactionary
people and became more repressive
Background to 19
th
Century Philosophies
After 1815 the combined forces of industrialization and of the French Revolution led to the
multiplication of doctrines and movements of many sorts.
Absolute monarchism and reaction began to challenge with new ideas
Conservationism, nonetheless, remained strong
Support of traditional institutions:
Autocracy
Church
Nobility
Military
Opposed the idea of a constitution or representative government
Liberalism
Supported a parliamentary/ representative form of government
Not as supportive of traditional institutions
Made up of businessman and enterprising landowners, so naturally they supported
capitalize free enterprise
Nationalist
Socialism
Called for a radical solution to the problems of society:
o The whole population should own and control the means of production, rather
than private individuals
Grew out of the Enlightenment faith in progress, belief in the basic goodness of human
race, and concern for social justice
There were many diferent groups of socialists that were infuenced by a number of writers,
one of the most signifcance being Karl Marx
For Marx the entirety of human existence could be boiled down to an economic struggle
between the haves and the have nots.
Eventually the proletariat (urban poor) would rise to power and overthrow the bourgeoisie
and then all would live happily (and equally) after
Under the Marxist model, societies pass through stages of development
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The last stage was socialism, but that was preceded by capitalism
Radical Response to the Reforms of Alexander II
Members of the Intelligentsia saw Alexanders reforms as a fraud.
Initially their goals were not outrageousthey wanted land for the people, union and a
parliamentary style government
However, as they met more ferce reaction from the tsar, they become more radical
Populism ( Narodnost) (1960s and 1870s)
They had great faith in the peasants as a political force
They believed that Russia should follow a unique path to socialism by using the existing
style of communal peasant living the mir
They were also infuenced by a strong anarchist streak believeing that the deed of
violence was the ultimate expression of practical politics
Populism then split into two factions
1)Those following Lovrov who proclaimed the peaceful movement of Going to the
People
2)Those following Bakunin who believed that the peasants were ready to overthrow
the government
Lovrov, prevailed and the summer of 1874 was known as the Mad Summer when
thousands of wealthy students left their studies to go out to the country side and
prepare the people
With the failure of Going to the People, another movement emerged known as Land
and Liberty, led by Chaikovtsi and Plekhanov, which saw massive demonstration
organized
Out of Land and Liberty came a more radical group called The Peoples Will whose
goals were:
a)Murder the Tsar
b)The violent destruction of the state
c)The redistribution of economic power on socialist lines
Their use of terror alienated the populists from the liberals and from the public at large
Nonetheless, they did inspire all the revolutionaries from the 1870s onward by their
challenge to Tsardom
The Social Revolutionaries (SRs)
Growing out of the populist movement were the radical ideologies of Nihilism and Anarchism
Later, in the 1890s, various radical groups formed the social Revolutionary party, led by Chernov
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The party gained support by recruiting from the growing urban workforce, all the while
maintaining the destruction of the tyrant system as their goal
The party was riddled with internal confict and splits between left and right elements
A)Anarchistswanted to continue in the tradition of political terror and assassination
B)Revolutionarieswho allocated a more moderate stance of cooperating with other
parties in working for an immediate improvement in the condition of the workers and
peasants
Between 1900 and 1905 the terrorist faction dominated and were responsible for over 2000
political assassinations
After the 1905 revolution the situation charges
The Social Democrats (Marxism) (1898)
By the 1880s, with the failure of other movements, many intellectuals began to consider
Marxism.
Marxist theory received a boost in Russia in the 1890s due to the great spurt of
industrialization that occurred of that time making the fullillment of a proletarian revolution seem
possible
Plekhanov was one of the earliest leading fgures in the Russian Marxist movement.
Like other political movements, those that followed Marxism in Russia often ended up
quarrelling with each other over doctrinal issues
Some found Plekhanov too theoretical in his approach and urged more active revolutionary
policies
The most outstanding spokesman for this viewpoint was Vladimir Ulyanov (AKA Lenin!!!)
Lenin promoted the idea of a small revolutionary elite to lead the masses rather than a broad
grouping of progressive, reformist and anti- tsarist elements.
Russia at the Turn of the Century
The People
The total population was about 125 million, made up of more than 20 ethnic groups
o Russians (56 million)
o Poles (8 million)
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o Jews (5 million)
The people of the Russian Empire Lived in a highly stratifed social structure which saw a great
underdevelopment, of the commercial, professional and proletariat class.
Peasants remained outside of active participation in Russian citizenship.
Economics
Russia was rich in oil and minerals
By 1900 Russia had only recently begun to industrialize under Sergei Witte, Russias fnance
minister
Witte focused heavily on developing communications and transportation as a prerequisite to
industrial growth.
By 1913, with the help of foreign investment, Russia was the worlds ffth largest industrial nation
However, considering Russias size and resources, its manufacturing, as well as agriculture
output was low
The opposition to Autocracy
A)Liberalism
a.Liberal minded men had continued to work through the Zemtsvo system towards
making piecemeal local reforms
b.Between 1895 and1905 Russian liberalism had broadened its base to include the
new industrial professional classes
c.By 1902, under the reactionary Minister of the interior, Plehve, the system of local
government was eliminated and Nicholas had publicly called hopes for a
constitutional parliament a senseless dream
d.However, libearals continued to meet and even formed a coherent political party
called the Liberation league
B)Socialism
a.Was led primarily be empires living in Western Europe
b.Leaders and members of the various socialist groups met to organize themselves
in congresses held in Western Europe
c.Out of these meetings came a split in the social Democrats
The Russo-Japanese War
Given the repressive social, political and economic situation, by the early 20
th
century the
Russian people were ripe for radical change
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Recognizing this, the government looked in defect attention from its internal troubles as
well as gain prestige by expanding its eastern frontiers in Asia.
It was believed that a short, victorious war would give the Russian government back the
support of the people
There had existed some tension between Russia and Japan for control of Manchuria and
the Korean peninsula
Russia used this tension to justify a war with Japan which resulted in the Russo-
Japanese war of 1904-1905
It took less than a year for the Japanese to soundly defeat the Russians on land and at
sea
The 1905 Revolution
The poor performance in the Russo-Japanese war brought to the surface discontent that
had been brewing for a time
In January a series of strikes and anti-government demonstrations occurred throughout
Russia
On January 22 1905, about 200,000 unarmed workers marched to the Tsars Winter
Palace in St. Petersburg to petition the Tsar fore forms aimed at achieving a better
system for distribution of food and employment opportunities
This petition, written by a priest, Father Gapon, was really about social issues
Initially the protests of 1905 were not political
When the marchers neared the palace, the ofcers at the gate panicked and opened fre
This day became known as Bloody Sunday and was the spark that ignited the 1905
Revolution because it:
o Caused many of those people who had still respected the Tsar to hate him
o Increased support for revolutionaries in that they claimed (albeit illegitimately)
leadership roles in the ensuing unrest
1905 Revolution Continued
Started a wave of riots, strikes and murders in the empire
Caused many non-Russian areas to start to demand independence
In May 1905 news of the Baltic Fleet defeat further fueled unrest
In June there were mutinies within the navy
In October a general strike brought the nation to a standstill and the Tsar was forced to
make some concessions
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Political Reactions to the Chaos of 1905
As the unrest continued throughout 1905, various political groups were also establishing
themselves
The Kadets (constitutional democrats)
This was the largest and most radical of the liberal parties
They wanted Russia to develop as a constitutional monarchy in which a democratically
elected national assembly would restrict the powers of the Tsar
This was part of the liberal intelligentsia, containing:
o Progressive landlords
o Smaller industrial entrepreneurs
o Professionals and academics
Paul Milyukov was a prominent Kadet
The Octobrists
Were the voices of the conservatives among the liberals?
They were mainly drawn from large commercial, industrial and landowning interests
The Soviets
These workers councils were formed at the spontaneous initiative of workers in an
attempt to co-ordinate strikes and other activities
Although the original goal of these soviets was to push for better working conditions,
some revolutionaries quickly realized potential for political purpose
Lev Trotsky, an independent socialist sympathetic to the Mensheviks, became the leader
of the St Petersburg Soviet
The Tsars Response
The government recognized that some concessions had to be made, but in giving
ground, they intended to divide the opposition
A)The October Manifesto was designed to placate the liberals. It Promised:
a.The creation of a legislative Duma, elected by a wide franchise
b.Fundamental civil liberties
B)The next concession was the Peasants Manifesto which promised to:
a.Abolish the collective responsibilities of the Mir. Thus giving peasants
individual ownership of land
b.Cancel all pre-existing tax debts
c.Cancel all redemption fees after January 1907
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Immediately the general lawlessness and number of land seizures dropped
C)With only the proletariat left to worry about, the government changed from a position
of concession to one of suppression
a.They used the troops that had returned from the far east to destroy the soviet
b.By December 1905 the soviets had all been disbanded
The Dumas, 1906-1914
I have a constitution in my head, but as to my heart, I spit on it.
-Nicholas II
The Fundamental Laws
Issued in May 1906, these laws were to be the basis for the new constitutional government
They were contradicted the October Manifesto in several ways:
By afring that supreme autocratic power belonged to the tsar
Declaring that the Duma would have two chambers, one elected, one appointed by the
Tsar
The appointed chamber would have the power of legislative veto
Declaring that the Tsar would have exclusive control over foreign afairs
Through article 87 giving the Tsar the right to rule by decree during emergencies
Although with a few broken ribs, the stardom came out of the experience of 1905 alive and
strong enough.
-
Trotsky
The First Duma (April- June 1906)
The liberal and reformist parties who immediately voiced their dissatisfaction with the
fundamental laws and demand further reforms dominated the First Duma.
The Tsar would not tolerate this and dismissed the duma after less than 3 months
During this time he also appointed Peter Stolypin as Prime Minister who dealt harshly
with those calling out for revolution
The Second Duma (February- June 1907)
Saw a decrease infuence of the middle (Kadets) and an increase in strength for both the
left and right
However, they were too critical of the government and dissolved after 3 months
Rather than eliminating the duma altogether and thus risk
a.More domestic chaos and
b.Losing international support
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Stolypin introduced restrictions to the electoral system which would ensure a more docile
duma
Proportional Representation
1906
% of population Representation in the Duma
Peasants 80 50
Propertied 20 50
1907 and onwards
% of population Representation in the Duma
Peasants 80 20
Propertied 20 80
Stolypin was a frm supporter of the autocracy, however, the realized that in order to save
it, a large degree of reform was needed
Although his views and actions won him enemies on both sides of the spectrum, even
they confessed that he was an honest, courageous and honorable man
After ensuring that the revolutionary chaos was quelled through suppression and terror,
he turned to reform
Stolypins strategy was to nurture the conservative outlook amongst the peasants that
would act as a counter- revolutionary force
He did this agricultural reforms which led to the further growth of a new class of wealthy
peasant, the Kulaks, who were loyal to the Tsar
However, there is evidence to suggest that these reforms did not go far enough to make
a real change to the social and economic structure of Russia
Stolypin was assassinated in 1911 by a SR who was also an Okhrana agent
Problems Plaguing Russia to 1914
A)Foreign Debt
a.Although Wittes policy of obtaining foreign investment and loans to expand
industry helped in the short term, in the long run Russia could not cope with the
payments
B)Rural Life
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a.I terms of social and economic improvements, not much had happened since
1861
C)Urban Life
a.With the introduction of social insurance and trade unions after 1905, conditions
did improve, but not enough to deal with the rabid urbanization
b.The harsh methods used by the government to deal with strikers increased
proletarian tension
D)Political Life
a.Growing revolutionary tendencies
b.Continued political stagnation due to the reactionary views and ineptitude of the
Tsar
E)Foreign Afairs
a.Russia now had WWI to fght which brought social, political and economic chaos
1906-1907
Throughout these years Russia was in constant turmoil and chaos
The peoples grievances included:
Disappointment over the limitations of the Duma
The terrible working conditions of the Proletariat
The peasants still had to pay high taxes and rents
The harsh winter of 1917 also added to the misery of the people
Rasputins infuence
The efects of the WWI
It seemed as though only the tsar and those he took advice from failed to take note of the
extreme distress of the Russian People
The Role Of Rasputin in the Downfall of Tsardom
Rasputin was a peasant who:
o Claimed to be a holy man with supernatural powers
o Was a drunker and a womanizer
o Became a trusted member of the royal court
o Came to have considerable power due to his strong infuence over the tsar
o Brought great shame and scandal on the royal family
o Became the focus of much hatred on the tsarist system
On December 29, 1916, in an attempt to save the Monarchy, a group of aristocrats
assassinated Rasputin
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The Great War and its impact on Russia
Russia entered WWI on August 1, 1914 when Germany declared war on her
Initially the war was greeted with great enthusiasm and a sense of nationalism that
united Russia
WWI impacted almost every part of Russian society, ultimately, some historians say,
heading to the demise of the autocracy
Socialists and WWI
Prior to the outbreak of WWI, there was a high level of unity between socialists from
diferent countries across Europe
The obvious socialist response to WWI would have been to:
a.Welcome it as the confict that would usher in the utopian era (Marx)
b.Not participate, but rather prepare for the post-war era
However, in 1914 socialists internationalism collapses into hostile nationalism
Rather than seeing each other as members of the same class struggle team, many
socialists saw themselves in terms of their nationality and chose to support their country
rather than the socialist movement
Lenin was a rare exception. His response was Revolutionary Defeatism
He proposed that soldiers stop fghting because they were really only fghting for the
ruling classes, not for the people
Defeat in WWI, according to Lenin, could mean Civil War, within countries and it was out
of this chaos that worldwide socialist revolution could erupt
March (February) Revolution
7
th
20,000 steel workers locked out, other workers strike in sympathy
8
th
Thousands of women demonstrate calling for bread, bringing even more workers out to
strike
9
th

Large crowds are repeatedly dispersed by police and soldiers
10
th
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250,000 workers on strike, Petrograd are paralyzed.
Tsar orders army to end strikes
11
th
Troops fred on crowds, killing 40.
Duma advises Tsar to form a new government
Tsar orders Duma to disband
12
th
Soldiers in Petrograd perform mutiny
Duma refuses to dissolve, instead it forms itself into a 12 man committee to take over the
government of Russia
Now named the Provisional government
Workers re-established Petrograd Soviets
13
th
Tsar Telegrams the Duma ofering to share power, Duma refuses
Army generals telegram the Tsar informing him of the withdrawal of support from the
armed forces
14
th
Petrograd Soviet issues order no.1 which deprives all army ofcers of authority, giving it
instead to the elected representations of the soldier
Tsar leaves army headquarters for Petrograd to take control
15
th
The Tsars train is stopped 250km from Petrograd by revolutionaries
Nicholas II abdicates in favor of his brother
16
th
Grand Duke Michael renounces the title
300 years of Romanov rule ends
The Provisional Government
Initially this body was quite liberal (center-right) in its composition, but became
increasingly socialist (center-left)
The three main parties were the Kadets, and the Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks
19
The Socialists parties became frustrated, and thus more open to radical ideas, with what
seemed like the governments lack of action
The Provisional Government main concerns were:
1)To continue the war
2)To set up a western-style parliamentary government
3)Land Reforms
However to continue the war was inevitable as during this time Russias economy relies
on their allies loans and if they were to surrender they must pay reparations
Also, the chaos of the war prevented for a proper election to take place, thus there
wasnt a chance to set up a western-style parliamentary government
Finally, land reforms could not be made because of large population of the country out in
war
The Provisional Government under attack
With the governments determination to continue the war, it was decided that a major
ofensive against Austria was needed
The June Ofensive was a miserable failure and sparked signifcant unrest
This grew into the July days which saw Petrograd workers, soldiers and sailors rioting
to have the soviets be given the role of becoming the government
The Bolsheviks played a signifcant role in these riots
On July 8, the provisional government appointed Alexander Kerensky as its new prime
minister in the hope that he could quell the riots
Kerensky was a logical choice to try to unite the ever more left wing government
because he had been
o A member of the Duma (made him acceptable to liberals)
o Minister of Justice in the provisional government
o Minister of war in the provisional government
o A socialist revolutionary
However, neither the right, nor the extreme left (Bolsheviks) found him acceptable
In July, Kerensky was successful in putting down the riots by labeling the Bolsheviks as
German Collaborators
This was so because Lenin used German railways to reach Russia and received money
from the German government for Bolshevik growth
The military was also used to arrest and harass the leaders of the demonstration
However, General Kornilov, commander in-chief of the army wanted even more counter
revolutionary actions
Kerensky knew that this would bring the Provisional Government into a potential war
situation with the Petrograd Soviet, and therefore did not agree with Kornilov
20
As a consequence, in August Kronilov tried to mount a military attack against the Soviet
and the provisional government which was known as the Kornilov Revolt
Kerenskys only option was to use the leftists to defend Petrograd, which resulted in:
a.Using agitators to destroy the loyalty of Kornilovs soldiers
b.Using workers to deny Kornilov use of the railways and telegraphs
c.Releasing Bolsheviks that had been jailed in July
d.Arming the Petrograd Soviet, including the Bolshevik Red Guards
Petrograd Soviet
Initially the Petrograd Soviet established itself as the supervisors of the Provisional
Government to ensure that the interests of the soldiers and workers were guarded
However, the Petrograd Soviet gained in importance because
o The Provisional Government often times failed to take action
o New Soviets were springing up in other cities and looked to Petrograd for leadership
o Soviet Order Number 1
Initially moderate socialists had a bigger infuence on the Petrograd Soviet, however as
the year wore on it became more radical, eventually being taken over by the Bolsheviks
The Bolsheviks Takeover the Soviets
After the abdication of Nicholas II, Bolsheviks in exile returned to Petrograd
Prior to the return of Lenin, The Bolsheviks were willing to work with other socialists
groups
When Lenin arrived back in April, he declared that the March Revolution had created a
bourgeois republic and called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government
Lenin planned to use the Soviets as the tool through which the Bolsheviks would take
over the state
However, his April Theses succeeded only in isolating the Bolsheviks from other
Socialist groups
The non-Bolshevik members of the Soviet decided instead to work with the Provisional
Government- which had the unfortunate efect of connecting them to the failures of the
provisional government
This, along with the increasing radicalization of the masses, made the Bolsheviks more
popular
The Bolsheviks also had the advantage of German Funding with which to produce
propaganda and build an army of their own- Red Guard
21
Although the Bolsheviks sufered a setback during the July days, they capitalized on the
situation in August after the Kornilov Revolt
By early September, the Bolsheviks had become the majority in most of the Soviets and
began making plans for the takeover of the state
The Collapse of the Provisional Government / (The October/November/Bolshevik Revolt)
The Bolsheviks did not seize power, it fell into their hands
-Lynch
Was November 1917 a coup by the Bolsheviks, or an abdication by the Provisional
Government?
Since the March Revolution, Lenins unswerving aim was to overthrow the Provisional
Government and seize power
By September he was calling for an immediate seizure
He felt this urgency because:
1)There was an all-Russian Congress of Soviets planned for early November
a.There was no guarantee that this meeting would result in support for a
revolution, so Lenin wanted to take over power before the meeting
2)The Constituent Assembly was to be elected in November and again, there were no
guarantees of Bolshevik electoral success
3)Lenin feared another, potentially successful counter-revolutionary attack
4)After the Kornilov Revolt, Bolshevik popularity was at an all-time high, and Lenin
wanted to capitalize this
However, Lenin had to work hard to convince the Bolshevik control committee that an
immediate attack was wise
Kerensky suspected that a Bolshevik attack was imminent and began to act against the
Bolsheviks on November 6
Lenin took this as the cue to begin the revolution
The groundwork had already been laid by Trotsky through the formation of the Red
Guards and the Military Revolutionary Committee (MRC)
Red Guards
Combat forces of the Bolshevik Party- initially made up of fairly elderly men recruited
from the workers in the factories
22
Military Revolutionary Committee
Set up by the Petrograd Soviet in late October to organize the defense of Petrograd
against the Germans or another reactionary attack
It was the only efective military force in Petrograd and Trotsky controlled it.
On the night of November 6/7 the Red Guards and the MRC secured strategic locations
throughout Petrograd and were able to announce at the meeting of the All Russian
Congress of Soviets that the Revolution was complete
The Bolsheviks Get Organized
At the All Russian Congress of Soviet, the Bolsheviks announced the structure of their
new government
The Sovnarkom would consist of 14 commissars all of whom were Bolsheviks, and Lenin
was the chairman
The Mensheviks and the Right Social Revolutionaries did not agree with this and walked
out of the meeting in protest
At these meetings Lenin also declared that there would be peace and land
The Bolsheviks Early Struggles
After the defeat of the Provisional Government, the Bolsheviks initial opposition came
from the left- the Mensheviks, Kadets and Social Revolutionaries
The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, March 1918
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Armistice an agreement to stop fghting so that a peace treaty can be made
The Bolsheviks asked the central powers for an armistice in early December
However, the German demands were very high and this caused further confusion and
division among the left in Russia, even among Bolsheviks
Bukarin argued that they should fghting and that would encourage the outbreak of a
workers revolution in Germany
The Bolsheviks continued the debate about whether to make peace or not, hoping that
revolution would break out in the rest of Europe
Meanwhile, the Germans resumed hostilities against Russia, and by February 1918 they
had occupied the Ukraine and were even threatening Petrograd
23
Therefore, on March 3, 1918, the treaty of Brest-Litvosk was signed with very high cost
for the Bolsheviks:
a)They lost; Poland, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and parts of the Ukraine
b)Humiliation
c)The support of many Russians, especially the Social Revolution whose base of
support was in the Ukraine
However this enabled them to:
a)Keep the armys support
b)End hardship at home
c)Give their new government a bit of breathing space
The Formation of the Cheka
Formed on December 20, 1917
On August 30, 1918, Fanny Kaplan, a Right SR assassin, seriously wounds Lenin with 3
pistol shots
On the same day, another SR assassin kills M.S. Uritsky, President of the Petrograd
Cheka
Other attempts were made against Trotsky, V. Volodarsky and Bakharin
With tensions rising inside Russia, the Bolsheviks felt it necessary to from a body to
combat counterrevolution and sabotage
With this group, the main instrument of Bolshevik repression, the revolution entered a
period known as the Red Terror.
Felix Dzerzhinsky was the director of the Cheka during these early years.
The Cheka was responsible for the assassination of the Tsar and his family on July 16,
1918.
The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921
Foreign Reaction to Bolshevism in Russia:
Frustration and anger from the allies that Russia dropped out of the war
Anger from foreign investors, especially the French, that all foreign debts incurred by the
Tsarist government were now void
Fear from all capitalist governments that there would be a spreading of the revolution to
the rest of Europe.
Foreign Actions toward the Bolsheviks:
Various countries gave support to Russian forces fghting against the Bolsheviks
The new Russia was excluded from the League of nations
24
At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the boundaries of the new Russian state were
revised
The peacemakers decided to build a dam against the spread of Communism
o This was known as the cordon sanitaire and included Finland, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland and Romania
The newly recreated Poland declared war on the Bolsheviks in an attempt to gain the
Ukraine in 1920
Domestic Reactions to Bolshevism:
Mass exodus of people not wishing to live under Communism
Counter-Revolutionary White movements:
o An All-Russian government in Siberia which came to be dominated by admiral
Kolchak, a strong reactionary
o The formation of a Volunteer Army in southern Russia under Generals Kornilov
and Denikin
In Moscow and Petrograd Social Revolutionaries took up arms against the Bolsheviks
Independence Movements:
Ukrainian peasants called Greens fought both the Reds and the Whites for Ukrainian
independence.
Regions such as the Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan tried to get their
independence.
There was a short lived attempt at Siberian independence.
The anti-Communist Russians represented every hue of the political spectrum
During this time, the left wing were flled with the Mensheviks and SRs, the right wing were
flled with white reactionaries such as Kornilov and on the middle there are anti-Bolsheviks
as well such as the Kadets.
From the radical Mensheviks to the liberal Kadets and all the way to the reactionary Whites,
the political spectrum was flled with anti-Bolshevik groups.
The allies were using White generals like dogs to take down the Bolsheviks
Bolshevik Victory
Reasons for:
A.They had gained popular support because of their reforms, whereas the Whites had lost
support because:
a.They could be associated with the Tsar, landlords and foreign intervention
25
b.The harsh treatment of the people in the lands that they had captured
B.Trotsky and his outstanding military leadership of the Red Army.
C.The Reds held a strategic location:
a.Moscow and Petrograd with their factories
b.The railways allowed them to quickly move their supplies and troops
c.Their area held the majority of the population
D.The Cheka was efectively used to hunt down people who sympathized with the Whites
and to force the peasants to hand food over to the government
E.The Bolsheviks were united in fghting for a single purpose and for their very survival
a.They had strong leadership with Lenin and Trotsky
b.The Whites lacked unity in purpose and central leadership
F.War communism kept the Red Army supplied with food and weapons. It involved:
a.Nationalization of all factories with more than 10 workers. Sovnarkom decided
what each factory would produce.
b.Tight military type control over all workers.
i.Labor conscription was introduced (cant choose your own job)
ii.These measures caused discontent among the workers and a fall in
industrial output
c.Peasants were forced to give all surplus food to the state with no opportunity to
make proft (requisitioning). This caused:
i.Food shortages in 1919-1920
ii.Full scale famine by 1921 which was made worse by bad weather and
disease
d.Food clothing and fuel rationing was introduced in the cities
e.As the money lost value due to overprinting, many formerly cash payments such
as rent, fares, etc. were abolished
In some instances people were expected to barter for their goods instead of using
money
Results of the Civil War:
1.The survival of Bolshevik rule
2.The extension of Bolshevik rule over a wider area
3.Huge loss of life
4.The permanent Soviet fear that the capitalist powers would seek to destroy the Bolshevik
state
5.Famine, industrial collapse and the New Economic Policy
Global Impact
26
1.Colonial independence movements began to see an ally in the Bolsheviks
Why did Lenin place so much emphasis on trying to get colonies to rise up against their
European colonizers?
1.Colonies were prone to propaganda because they were unhappy
2.European countries would be weaker without the resources coming from the colonies
Communist state
By 1922 the communist party was the only legal political party in the USSR (Bolsheviks
= communist party now)
Communist party members became the favored class in the USSR
Within the party, Lenin had banned all opposition groups (ban on factionalism)
Although the government appeared to represent the will of the people as expressed
through their Soviets, in reality Soviet Russia had become a one party state ruled by a
dictator
Under the new constitution of 1923, Russia became the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics (USSR)
Autonomy was given to the republics in:
Cultural issues such as use of language, education and folkways
The administration of justice
The organization of agriculture
Federal authority was retained over:
Foreign policy
International trade
Defense
Economic planning
The New Economic Policy (NEP)
By 1921 it was apparent that the Russian proletariat was opposed to the dictatorship of the
proletariat as can be confrmed by the
Large scale anarchist revolts of 1920-1922
The Kronstadt mutiny of March 1921
Lenin realized that he would need to make some drastic changes to save his government
His NEP represented a temporary return to a capitalist economy with the main goals to:
Improve agricultural productivity
Overcome the famine
27
When recovery was assured, all would revert back to state control
Highlights:
Grain requisitioning was replaced by a tax, but only on about half the amount that had
been previously requisitioned, AND any surplus could be freely sold for proft.
An agrarian reform law ensured that small landowners (not the peasants) would keep
their land; therefore the peasants remained dispossessed wage earners, while the
landowners (Kulaks) gained in wealth.
Small factories were turned back over to capitalists who were known as NEPmen or neo-
bourgeois. (Larger industries remained in state hands.)
A limited amount of private commerce with foreigners was allowed
The government made several trade agreements with other countries under the NEP.
The impact of the NEP
Although there were some improvements in agricultural production, there were still some
major problems:
o The increased production caused a fall in the price of agricultural goods which
combined with increased prices for manufactured goods resulting in the Scissors
Crisis with the peasants being very disgruntled.
o The free operation of the market system in agriculture was not ideologically
sound for many party members.
Growth in industry:
o Iron production increased
o Coal and textile production doubled
Transport and communications showed slow improvement
A money system was reintroduced
The state tightened its control over banking, transport, foreign trade and large-scale
domestic industries.
In order for a Marxist system to succeed, production levels and distribution networks
must be sufcient to meet the needs of all people before the move to collective or
cooperative ownership can take place.
Under the NEP these improvements were taking place, but because the system was
essentially capitalist, it was also creating a mentality which would resist collective or
cooperative ownership
This meant that in order for a move to collective or cooperative ownership to take place,
force and coercion would need to be used
Why do art and literature exist?
28
Expression of creative essence of the human soul (God)
People who have nothing better to do.
Enrich cultural heritage.
Its inherent human nature.
Fulfll our artistic needs.
Propaganda.
To express feelings and emotions
Communication
Entertainment
To hyperbolize everything.
What do you think of the notion that artistic expression had to serve the state?
You cant censor spirit; you cant censor love.
Religion
Respond to Marxs claim that religion is the opium of the people and that it only existed in
order to deaden the pain of life.
Lenin tried to eradicate religion. He was not ultimately successful. Why do you think that is?
o Humans have an innate need to place their faith in something bigger than
themselves (Religion: God. Atheism: humanity)
Women and Family
Love is a bourgeois concept based on a false view of the relations between the sexes
and between parents and children.
The state should be responsible for the raising of children.
The Power Vacuum Lenin Left by Lenin
Lenins death left a vacuum in the leadership of the Communist Party
Possible successors included:
Zinoviev
o One of Lenins earliest Bolshevik comrades
o Leader of the Petrograd Soviet
o First president of the Comintern and member of Politburo
Kamenev
o Early Bolshevik who spent time in exile in Siberia
29
o More moderates than others in that he was willing to work with other socialist
parties
Trotsky
o Early Menshevik, didnt switch to Bolshevism until May 1917
o Chairman of the ST Petersburg soviet during the 1905 revolution and the
Petrograd Soviet in 1917
o Organized the MRC which was the force behind the October revolution
o Became Lenins commissar of foreign afairs responsible for taking Russia out of
the war
o Became Commissar for war and organized the Red Army to fght the civil war
o Member of the Politburo
1924-1929 The Power Struggle
Ultimately Stalin was successful in becoming the absolute dictator of the USSR through:
Behind the scenes maneuverings as General Secretary
Manipulating factions within the upper levels of the party
Eliminating all possible opposition, both within and outside of the party
Factions and issues
1922-1924
Stalin working to fll the party at all levels with his supporters
1924
Lenin died, his testament revealed that he wanted Stalin removed as General Secretary
Stalin formed a triumvirate with Kamenev and Zinoviev against Trotsky
They agreed to suppress Lenins testament and quickly establish the Cult of Lenin
Stalin moved all Trotskyites in the Party to posts far from Moscow
Trotsky was calling for:
o Party reform
o Continued World Revolution
o Rapid industrialization
o An end to the NEP
Stalin supported NEP and Socialism in one country
1925
Trotsky was forced to resign as Minister of War
The triumvirate fell apart
30
Stalin joined with Bukharin and other right-wing members of the Politburo who wished to
continue with the NEP and a gradual shift to industrialization
1926
Stalin attacked Zinoviev and Kamenev on matters of policy, so they joined forces with
Trotsky
Zinoviev was expelled from the Politburo and Comintern
Trotsky and Kamenev were expelled from Politburo
1927
Trotsky was expelled from the Party and exiled in Central Asia
1928
Stalin turned on Bukharin and had him removed from the Politburo, Pravda and the
Comintern
Stalin ended the NEP, moved towards rapid industrialization and began the campaign
against the Kulaks
1929
Trotsky was expelled from Russia
Stalin was in supreme control
Stalins rise to power in the Soviet Union was more a matter of luck than of ability.
The Elimination of Dissent
Stalin realized his methods and policies were bound to bring criticism and dissention,
two things he could not tolerate
Therefore, he set out to systematically remove any threat to himself- real or imagined
This became a campaign of terror known as the great purges that reached their climax in
1936-38
The murder and subsequent show trials for the murder of Kirov in 1934 began this period
Millions of Soviet citizens were executed or sent to the prison camps (Gulags) of which
the secret police were the administrators
The Party 70% of those in the 1934 Central Committee were executed in the next 5
years
Ordinary delegates: 1,108 of 1,966 were arrested or executed in the next 5 years
The purges also decimated the command of all parts of the military
31
A KGB report to the Politburo in 1960 said that between Jan. 1935 and Dec. 1941, 19.8
million people were arrested of whom seven million were shot
The purges were successful in crushing all opposition to Stalin and producing a climate
of fear and suspicion in which any criticism of the regime was impossible.
Styles of Government
Nicholas II- autocracy
Provisional government democracy
Lenincommunism
Stalin communism
The Great Terror
The historiographical controversies
State versus societal control over the terror
How planned was the terror
Number of victims
Byproduct of Marxist-Leninism? Or a unique product of the time?
What purpose does it serve?
The Totalitarian model
Stalins terror was rooted in Lenins Bolshevik past
The terror was intentionally initiated by Stalin to further his own agenda:
o Eliminating rivals
o Consolidating his dictatorship
o Modernizing the USSR
The terror was a smooth running operation
Leading historians: Conquest, tucker, pipes.
Revisionism: the Confict School
Rather than Stalin at the apex of the totalitarian pyramid, there were opposing groups
and key fgures within the Party.
This is still a top down model.
Leading historians: Cohen, Getty
Revisionism: the Social Model
The masses played the greatest role in shaping Soviet history.
32
While Stalin initiated change, the regime only had limited control over the outcome of
their plans.
The terror provided the peasantry the opportunity to settle old scores, assign blame for
disasters and further their own ambitions.
Socialism in One Country
Goal:
To transform the USSR into a highly industrialized state, able to compete with more
advanced countries and of putting up a good fght against aggression by capitalist
nations.
Method:
The use of economic plans, which encompassed all felds of economic activity in all
parts of the country.
These came to be called the fve year plans and were begun in 1928
Before Soviet industry could be transformed, Stalin had to ensure the success of Soviet
agriculture in order to:
a)Feed the increasing number of urban industrial workers
b)Produce surplus for export in order to generate foreign currency needed for
investment into industry
Collective Farms would be the vehicle through which agriculture would be transformed
because:
a)It would facilitate the use of modern methods and machines
b)There would be a surplus of labor that could move to the heavy industries
c)Collectivization would strengthen the grip of the government on rural life
d)Ideologically it ft with communism as it would end the ownership of private
property and the inequality of incomes
The Kulaks resisted collectivization fercely.
The government responded by eliminating the kulaks as a class. They used the poorer
peasants, the police and the military in this class warfare.
Kolkhoz
The frst and most common collective farms, which came under, the state plans
In addition to the vast collective felds, farmers were allowed small private lots to farm for
their own use
33
There was an obligation to provide the state with a fxed quota of produce per year in
order to receive payment for work
Sovkhoz
State farms where peasants were hired as workers of the state
They were paid wages regardless of the harvest; however, all produce went to the state
They had to use their wages to buy food and other necessities
The break with the NEP was a preemptive strike of the central party-state apparatus
Soviet society and Culture under Stalin: The reversal of radicalism (compared to under Lenin)
1.Education
2.Egalitarianism
3.Women and the family
4.Legal matters
5.Religion
6.Art and literature
7.Health
Traditional View
Stalin controlled his political system and exerted ruthlessness. Through this he had a successful
and efective regime. His agriculture policies caused problems but his industrial policies were
efective.
Revised View
Although his crimes were unjustifed. He is now viewed in a more realistic manner other than a
mass murderer dictator. The central power had no control over the scattering of local authorities
and therefore the result has often failed or blown out of proportion.
34
European Diplomacy and The First World War (1870-1919)
Post Napeleonic Europe
Forces Shaping European Politics:
Conservatism or Reaction
Liberalism
Nationalism
The Peace of Vienna
Once they had defeated Napoleon, the major European powers were determined to
restore order, keep peace and squelch the ideals of the Revolution.
To decide on the best way to do this, they came together in a meeting called the
Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Main fgures at the Vienna Congress:
o Metternich of Austria
o Castlereagh of Britain
o Alexander I of Russia
o Hardenberg of Prussia
o Talleyrand of France
Principles of the Congress of Vienna
1.Legitimacy
All former ruling families should be restored to their thrones
2.Containment
The map of Europe was redrawn to ring France with stronger countries
3.Compensation
This principle ensured that countries that had sufered loss of land under Napoleon
would be compensated and that no important power sufered a loss as a result of the
Congress work
4.The restoration of the Balance of Power in Europe
35
The distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from
becoming too strong
Highlights from the Congress of Vienna:
There was no great, long lasting war in Europe for the next 100 years
Nationalist groups in Italy and Poland were frustrated by the fact that they were
placed under hated foreign rule
Nationalist groups in Austria were frustrated because they were denied self-
government
The German desire for national unity came closer to fulfllment
Britain was recognized as the strongest European imperial nation
Both Prussia and Russia gained in infuence further west in Europe
The Great Powers agreed to hold future congresses to review the political situation
and enforce the peace
The Peace of Settlements of 1814-1815 Reading Summary:
Possession of colonial islands
Peace in Europe for 100 years.
Poland
Territory problems
Nationalism and Liberalism was thwarted
Prussia and Russia shifted powers westwards
The Concert of Europe
After the Congress of Vienna ended in June of 1815, the major participants wanted to
ensure that the Balance of Power they so carefully established would last
So in November 1815 the four members of the Grand Alliance came together to form the
Quadruple Alliance. (Later, in 1818, France joined and it was called the Quintuple
Alliance.)
Through this Alliance System they hoped to work together, by meeting periodically, to
avoid major wars and to suppress any emerging nationalism and/or liberalism.
This Alliance System came to be called The Concert of Europe and Metternich was the
driving force behind it
This was a forerunner of the more modern international organizations dedicated to
maintaining peace.
The Long Term Causes of WWI
36
1.Nationalism
- The general atmosphere nurtured through new means of communication:
The increase in literacy and mass printing techniques caused newspapers
and magazines to be widely read
The often promoted nationalistic stories
Examples of aggressive nationalism:
A.Germany, under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, had fought a series of wars
aimed to unify the German states:
a.1864 defeated Denmark
b.1866 defeated Austria
c.1871 defeated France
- The German Empire came into being in 1871.
- Germany was very proud of its new position and was looking to extend its
power and territory.
- In 1980 Bismarck was forced to resign by the new German Kaiser, Wilhelm II.
- Kaiser Wilhelm set the German empire on a New Course (nueu Kurs) in
terms of a more aggressive foreign policy then what Bismarck had been
building.
B.The French were still bitter about losses from the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War and
wanted revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine
C.Pan-Slavism
a.As the largest Slavic country, Russia felt a duty to lead and defend all
Slavs.
2.Economic and Imperial Rivalries
- Most European countries felt threatened by Germanys rapid economic growth
- Italy (unifed in the 1860s) and Germany wanted to catch-up with the other Great
Powers to become World Powers. Imperial rivalry in Asia between Russia and
Japanese had brought the frst war between major powers since the 1870s in the
form of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05.
3.Militarism and the Arms Race
Germany France
65 million population 40 million population
18 million tons of steel 5 million tons of steel
190 million tons of coal 40 million tons of coal
37
Militarism is a situation in which a nations military has too much infuence on its
politics.
How does a country come to the point where its military has too much infuence?
a)Which part of the population supports a big military? Weapons manufacturers.
They make money by selling weapons thus they are rich thus they have a lot
of say in politics. Of Prussia it was said: other states have an army, in Prussia,
the army has a state. Junkers
b)Also, weapons manufacturing was good for the countries economy.
Look at page 44 of Pope and read all the info regarding Source F
The rise of militarism grew partly out of the ideas of Social Darwinism and the
survival of the fttest. (The strong got what they wanted as shown by Prussia
against Denmark, Austria and France, and Italy in losing in its African imperialist
attempts.)
As international rivalries intensifed, each country believed that they needed to keep
their armed forces stronger than any potential enemy.
This led to:
Conscription, compulsory military service
An arms race
Look at military spending fgures on page 20 of Pope Look at chart on page 20-21 of Pope
From a British cartoon at the time:
We must build a bigger navy than the enemy will build when he hears were building a
bigger navy than hes building.
The arms race was encouraged by the new technologies of the Second Industrial
Revolution (Alfred Noble explosives technology applied to small caliber weapons,
especially machine guns and heavy long-range artillery, new iron-clad ships, and
railways essential for mobilization)
The fercest competition was the naval rivalry between Britain and Germany.
Germanys strength, under Bismarck, lay in its army. Bismarck had wanted Germany
and Britain to be friends A land rat has no quarrel with a water rat, but the Kaiser
didnt like the fact that Britain was so much stronger navally and also saw a strong
navy as a means to acquire more colonies.
Look at pages 40-41 Source B info. And pages 42-43 Source D.
In 1906 Britain launched a new kind of super-battleship called the H.M.S.
Dreadnought which became the standard for all battleships of this era
38
Soon Germany was producing Dreadnoughts of their own and the race was on.
(When the war broke out in 1914 Britain had 28 and Germany had 18, although the
quality of the Germany ships were slightly better.
Kaiser William II boasted:
All the long years of my reign, my colleagues, the monarchs of Europe, have not
paid attention to what I have to say. Soon, with my great navy to endorse my words,
they will be more respectful.
o Fear of war gave military leaders more infuence with governments turning to
the generals and admirals for advice on matters of peace and war.
o The overall efect of militarism is that it increased the tensions between the
Great Powers and led to a cyclical process that was difcult to stop.
4.The Entangling Alliances
(By the 1870 the Metternich system, of Balance of Power was in serious danger
because of the emergence of Italy and Germany. Nations of Europe began to deal with
this new political situation by forming alliances. They were acting in pride, competition,
revenge and fear of each other.)
By 1907 the alliance system threatened the peace because it divided Europe into two
armed camps. (Triple Alliance & Triple Entente)
(The process by which this came to be began in 1870 with the creation of Italy and
Germany and the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war.)
Pre-War Crises Short-Term Causes
A.Morocco, 1905
Germany vs. France
Background:
In 1904, with the formation of the Anglo-French Entente the British recognized French
interests in Morocco.
Although the Germans themselves had no interest in Morocco, they saw an opportunity
to use Morocco as a tool to split up the new entente. Would Britain really support
France?
The Crisis:
In March 1905 Kaiser Wilhelm on a visit to Tangier declared that he was in favor of a fully
independent Morocco and called for an international conference to discuss the future of
Morocco.
39
Although the French Foreign Minister, Delcass, opposed the meeting, the Germans
were able to force it to go ahead, scoring a diplomatic victory.
At the meeting (January 1906), however, while Moroccan independence was afrmed,
France was given control over the Moroccan police and state bank.
Impact:
Germany, not France was isolated diplomatically.
The Entente was strengthened.
British suspicions of Germany increased which:
a.Led to closer military conversations between Britain and France
b.Led to an entente between Britain and Russia
B.Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1908-09 (frst Balkan Crisis)
(Russia vs Germany and Austria-Hungary; Austria-Hungary vs Serbia)
Background:
Bosnia-Herzegovina was mainly populated by Serbs but had been occupied by Austria
since the Congress of Berlin 1878.
There was a Turkish revolt in 1908 and Austria used this excuse to annex Bosnia-
Herzegovina from the Ottoman Empire. Wheeling and dealing by the Austrians to beat
Russia in their own gamethey were each looking for concessions in the Balkans and
Russia walked away with not.
Russia had by this time turned their attention back towards Europe, especially the
Balkans after their sound defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.
The Crisis:
The Serbs also wanted to claim Bosnia and were backed by the Russians to the point of
war.
Russia was forced to back down because Germany ofered military support to Austria
and Russia was at that time too weak to go against Germany and Austria. (A strategy
Germany tried again in 1914.
Impact:
Russia lost face and some Serbs started to doubt Russias commitment to them.
The Serbs continue to claim Bosnia and their hatred of Austria grows.
The rift between Germany and Russia grows.
In an attempt to weaken Austrian infuence, Russia encourages formation of the Balkan
League. (Dedicated to uniting Slavs in the Balkans)
C.Morocco, 1911 (Agadir Crisis)
Germany vs. France - supported by Britain
40
Background:
The Sultan of Morocco was having problems with rebels.
France sent their army in to occupy Morocco and stop revolts.
The Crisis:
Germany protested and sent gun boat (Panther) to Agadir for a show of strength.
(Supposedly to protect German commercial interests.)
Britain supported France and both countries prepared to go to war, but Germany backed
of in return for concessions in central Africa. (They didnt get much because Britain was
so keen on helping the French in order to make sure that Gibraltar didnt fall into German
hands.)
Impact:
Diplomatic defeat for Germany and further sensitized Britain and France to the German
threat.
France given freedom to act in Morocco.
D.First Balkan War, 1912-13
Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece (The Balkan League) vs. Ottoman Empire
Background:
Serbia was looking for a port on the Adriatic coast Russia supported this, Austria didnt
The Balkan states decided to attack the Ottoman Empire while they were at war with
Italy.
Crisis:
Britain and Germany were able to restrain their alliance/entente partners, thus the war
stayed localized.
Impact:
Balkan League drives the Ottoman Empire out of the Balkans.
The Balkan states could not decide how to divide up the land they conquered and this
led to war amongst them.
E.The Second Balkan War, 1913
Serbia, Greece, Romania, Ottoman Empire vs. Bulgaria.
Background:
Following the First Balkan War, Bulgaria claimed more territory (Macedonia) than the
Serbians were willing to let them have.
Both Greece and Serbia want Albania.
Crisis:
41
Serbia, Greece and Ottoman Empire attacked Bulgaria
Russia supported Serbias claim to Albania.
Austria wouldnt allow Serbia to grow in strength by taking Albania.
Impact:
Independent nation of Albania is formed
Serbian nationalism is thwarted and thus fanned
Russia looks weak because they backed down from Austria again. (The Balkan Slavs
are really starting to lose confdence in Russia)
Serbia did enlarge its territory and power which becomes a big threat to Austria
The Turks asked for help from the Germans to reorganize their military, thus allowing the
Germans to greatly increase their infuence in the Ottoman Empire
F.Berlin to Baghdad Railway
There was another factor behind all the tension in the Balkans, and that was the
fact that Germany had hopes of dominating the region through their infuence
with the Ottomans.
Therefore it was in Germanys best interest to prop up the Ottoman Empire
instead of letting Austria and Russia basically divide up the Balkans.
G.Assassination at Sarajevo, 1914
(The July Crisis)
Serbian Nationalism vs. Austria; Austria and Germany vs. Serbia and Russia
Background:
Serbia resented the fact that Bosnia had gone to Austria. They, and many Slavs within
Bosnia wanted to join Serbia to form a larger Slavic nation. These people were willing to
fght Austria for it.
Within Bosnia there was an underground group called the Black Hand whose goal was
to unite Serbs living under Austrian and Turkish control
Austria was trying to stamp out this Slavic nationalism before it led to the disintegration
of the Empire
Russia realized that if it abandoned its Balkan Slavic brothers again she would lose all
infuence in that region
Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian throne
The Crisis:
After several unsuccessful assassination attempts, the Archduke and his wife were shot
by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand. (June 28,1914)
Austria were furious and asked the Germans where they stood on this issue
42
The Kaiser gave the Austrians a Blank Cheque
Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia (July 23) which would efectively mean the end of
Serbian sovereignty
Russia pledged its support for the Serbs and the Serbs put their trust in Russia.
Impact:
World War One
H.Mobilizations and Military Timetables
Technology, especially industrial and military infrastructure played an important role in
the outbreak of hostilities in 1914
Moving all the men and equipment to the fronts required the redirecting of all
transportation and support facilities for this purpose
This required a highly planned and coordinated efort and therefore came under the
leadership of the military generals who were generally bellicose in every country.
Due to the size of the Russian Empire, as well as her relative industrial backwardness,
and the fact that she faced two potential enemies on her borders, they had more
difculties when planning their mobilizations.
Once an army was mobilized it was particularly difcult to change those directions
midstream
If a nation was mobilizing against you on your borders you had to react because if you
didnt they would have the ofensive advantage if war was declared.
Tribunal
Pope 55, 80, 33
Lowe 101, 113
Martel 95
Russias Balkan Policy, Pan-Slavism
Serbia involvement with Black Hand, wrong to want all Serbian people
Serbia embarked on a policy of instilling revolutionary ideas into the Serb subjects of the
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
Serbian press stir up their readers to hatred or contempt towards Austria-Hungary
Large number of agents are employed in carrying on by every means the agitation
against Austria-Hungary
Decision for ultimatum: Take new and urgent steps at Belgrade with a view to inducing
the Serbian Government to stop the incendiary movement that is threatening the security
and integrity of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
43
Why did the Austrians attempt to eliminate Serbia as a sovereign state?
Serbia was a threat to the Austro-Hungarian Empire because they were an expansionist force in
the Balkans and they were sparking revolutionary ideas to the already crumbling Austro-
Hungarian Empire. Serbia also agitated Austria-Hungary by assassinating the heir to the throne,
Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Why did Russia decide to risk war by mobilizing in support of Serbia?
Russia was losing grip on their infuence in the Balkans as in previous afairs they have failed to
help their Slav brothers. Russia also had a frm idea of Pan-Slavism; they were obliged to help
their Slav brothers, Serbia. Russia wanted and needed the Balkans for access to the Bosporus
and Dardanelles; therefore they could not risk losing infuence in the Balkans. Nicholas II hoped
to improve the nationalism in Russia. Germanys actions surrounding the assassination also
infuenced Russias decision to mobilize in support of Serbia.
How did the Germans become involved in a dispute that apparently had little to do with them?
Germany was growing rapidly and they wanted to expand. Beginning with the unifcation of
Germany, they wanted to show the world their strength. They began to want colonies in order to
become super world powers. Germanys expansion motives (Weltpolitik) led to them become
involved in the dispute. They were also under alliance with Austria-Hungary and they were
obliged to support Austria-Hungary. Russia was threatening Germany with their economic
potential and Germany wanted to fnish of Russia sooner rather later. They were also hoping
that Britain would not get involved in this afair.
Why did the French decide to mobilize their troops when war broke out in the east?
The French were furious after the Franco-Prussian War as they lost Alsace-Lorraine. Thus, they
mobilized at the opportunity for revenge and to reclaim Alsace-Lorraine. France also had an
obligation as they were under alliance with Russia.
Why did the British choose to go to war for the sake of Belgium? Or did they?
The British had an obligation to protect Belgium in a treaty they signed. As Germany invaded
neutral Belgium, they had to come in the aid of their allies. Another more likely reason is that the
British were scared that if Germany claimed France, they would have access to the English
Channels. Britain also wanted to maintain the balance of power, as they were scared of
Germanys expansionist force.
What happened to the Italians?
The Italians backed of the Triple Alliance after stating that their Alliance was defensive, thus
44
they were not bound to the Alliance. The Italians then observed the war and decided to enter the
Entente side, which seemed to be winning.
Is it not true that the war within Europe was really a contest to see who would be master outside
it?
Partly. It added to the tension; Moroccan crisis. Other factors contributed more to the war.
Beliefs and Attitudes about War in 1914
Although unpleasant and dangerous, war was a legitimate instrument of politics.
A war would be short, lasting only a few weeks or months and decided in a few great
battles
Some leaders saw in war the potential to unite their populations and take the focus of of
their own internal problems. (Austria-Hungary and Russia)
Many saw war as the vehicle through which a new social order could be established and
thus it was highly desirable and exciting. (Socialists/Communists)
The Outbreak of the War in the West
The Schliefen Plan
The underlying rationale as that at some point Germany would face a war on two fronts,
against France and Russia.
It was designed to quickly knock out France and then fght Russia at a slower pace.
It was designed to avoid attacking the heavily wooded and mountainous parts of Eastern
France (Ardennes Forest)
Rather they would attack through Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg using a very
strong right-wing to encircle Paris
Reasons for Failure:
1.The plan was revised before 1914 by Colonel von Moltke because he feared the
French ofensive Plan 17 (to take back Alsace-Lorraine) would threaten German
communications
Changes:
- Made the left-wing stronger
- Did not pass through the Netherlands or Luxembourg which created a
bottleneck in Belgium
2.There was too little attention paid to:
- Over-extended supply lines
- Inadequate communication systems
- Impact of battle
45
3.It underestimated:
- The strength of Belgian resistance
- The speed of Russian mobilization
- Britains entry into the war.
The Germans never got past the Marne River in their attempt to take Paris.
After the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne, the Western Front became a race to
the sea to see who would control the ports that were vital for the Ententes military
supplies.
Once on the coast, both armies dug in and what had been a war of mobilization came to
a grinding halt with both armies hiding behind a great line of trenches stretching from the
English Channel to Switzerland.
For the next four years this line remained largely unchanged despite many unsuccessful
attempts by each side to break through.
The Changing Nature of Warfare
A.Old Ideas versus New Technology
19
th
Century Warfare:
Infantry attacks with men standing should to shoulder armed with muskets or
early rifes
Cavalry charges providing the decisive breakthroughs
Cannons
Battles lasting days with wars fnished in weeks/months
20
th
Century Technology:
Rifes that could shoot a round every 3-4 seconds
Machine guns that could fre 7-8 rounds per second
Artillery such as the howitzer that had a range of 9-16km and could fre shrapnel
shells of between 130-900 kg.
These massive increases in frepower led the generals to believe that their
attacks were guaranteed.
The number of casualties in WWI was so much higher than ever before because
the generals were fghting with 20
th
century defensive weapons while using 19
th

century attacking ideas.
Therefore each side searched for new and improved ofensive weapons:
Tanks
- A British Invention, initially limited in efectiveness, but became a decisive
weapon
Poison Gas
46
- Although terrifying, this was not a very efective weapon due to the
introduction of gas masks, and to the fact that it was wind dependent
Aircraft
- Played a limited role in WWI
- Mostly used for reconnaissance, although some Zeppelins and planes
were used to drop bombs
- Later airplanes were equipped with machine guns which led to aerial dog
fghts
Total War
WWI lasted so long because it involved industrially advanced alliances which were
relatively evenly matched
Therefore each nation began to use every available resource to fght and gain advantage
This involved:
o The development of government control over the means of production,
communications and the marketing of the nations resources
o Government direction of the nations labor resources.
o The mobilization of previously unused resources, for example, female labor.
o Government control of the allocation of scarce resources
o Government control over non-economic areas of the population such as
conscription, propaganda, censorship and security.
Measures and Eforts Taken As Part of Total War
Political
Military leaders took more control and became more politically active
Royal rulers/monarchs lost power and military leaders took on more responsibilities.
Citizens of the country were not allowed to move freely, needed permission from
government
Conscription introduced to complement the needs of total war
Propaganda which contained inaccurate facts.
Social
Anti-German propaganda was used to increase the morale of the citizens.
Censorship; Pro-German articles banned, news that can stir up doubt in the civilians
(facts about pre-war crisis)
Working hours in Britain extended to support the war efort and weapons manufacturers
maintained their level of production
Rationed resources (four, wheat) to support the military needs
47
Decreased the age limits for conscription and allowed more women to help in the war
efort
Women given more jobs in the industrial sector
Women wear shorter skirts to save hemp and linen for the war efort
Pub hours limited to maintain focus in the workers
Some sport events were halted; boxing and horse racing in particular
The government controlled transportation.
Economic
Economic enterprises were taken over by the government; communist-esque
Controlled the wage so that some companies can expand and some can decline
Controlled trade, export import, placed heavy importance on raw material for weaponry
Strikes were made legal
Selling bonds to support the war efort
Lowered interest rates which leads to more infation
Total War caused the governments of the belligerent nations to focus all its resources by taking
over most of the countrys afair for the war efort.
Major Battles of the Western Front (1915-1917)
1915 February/March
Battle of Champagne
French Ofensive
Gained eight kilometers at the cost of 90,000 casualties
1915 April/May
Second Battle of Ypres
German Ofensive
First use of chlorine gas
50,000 British died
1916 February December
Battle of Verdun
German Ofensive
Goal: to bleed the French white. To kill as many French soldiers as possible.
First use of fame throwers
No signifcant change in territory
o French casualties: 377,000
o German casualties: 337,000
The Germans launched no other ofenses on the Western Front until 1918
48
1916 July November
Battle of the Somme
French and British ofensive
Under the command of British General Haig, the goal was a decisive
breakthrough
In total:
o 620,000 British & French deaths
o 450,000 German deaths
The situation in early 1917:
The Allies were facing a critical situation because:
o Russia was in the throes of revolution
o The USA still had not entered the war and even when they did in April, they were
months away from being ready to fght.
o The French army began to mutiny.
1917 August November
Battle of Passchendaele
British ofensive
British casualties around 300,000
The Eastern Front
On the Eastern Front, the Russians were the frst to attack both Germany and Austria-
Hungary
The Russians attacked Eastern Prussia, but because they were poorly equipped and
supplied they were soundly defeated by the Germans at the Battles of Tannenburg and
the Masurian Lakes.
Russian advances in Austria-Hungary were more successful.
In 1915, because of the stalemate in the West, the Germans decided to concentrate on
an attack of Russia.
Despite some strong counter-ofensives by General Brusilov, the Germans captured a
large section of Russian land.
After 1918 when the new Russian Communist made peace, this land was surrendered.
Hindenburg and Dundendorf war heroes of Germany
War at Sea
The Allies were the frst to take the ofensive at sea.
They did this by blockading German ports to prevent food and other important supplies
from being imported into Germany.
49
In response to this, the Germans began using their submarines to sink British merchant
ships.
The Allied response to this submarine campaign was the convoy system, which was
highly successful and put Britain in a much safer position.
A signifcant aspect of the German submarine campaign was the U-boat commanders
were told to sink ANY ships traveling to Britain.
U-Boat Encounter Choices
Full speed away
Fire torpedoes
Quietly head for the bottom
Move in and fre your gun
Naval Battles:
There were very few actual naval battles during WWI
The most signifcant one was the Battle of Jutland on May 16, 1916, which occurred of
the coast of Denmark.
Both sides claimed victory in this battle, however, most historians view it as an Allied
victory as the result was the prevention of the German feet from entering the Atlantic.
The Mediterranean
Upon entering the war late in 1914, the Ottoman Empire posed many problems for the
Allies:
o By blockading the Dardanelles, they prevented British and French help from
reaching Russia
o They threatened British trade interests in the Mediterranean
o They drew Russian forces away from the Eastern Front by attacking the
Caucasus Mountains
The result was Russian victory in the Caucasus
Defeat for the Turks led them to believe that Armenians living in this region had been
disloyal to them, which in turn brought about the frst European genocide of the 20
th

century.
In March 11915 the British navy, led by Winston Churchill, attempted to open the
Dardanelles and take Constantinople by ships alone.
This attack was abandoned on the frst day after 6 British ships were sunk by the Turks.
A second attack in the same region was planned for April 1915 on the Turks Gallipoli
peninsula.
50
The British underestimating the Turks abilities, allowed only one division of soldiers to
leave the Western front. The rest of the soldiers came from France, Australia and New
Zealand.
Although outnumbered, the Turks were able to repel the invasion due to:
o The outstanding leadership of the German General von Sanders and the Turkish
commander, Mustapha Kemal
o The superior strategic positions on the slopes
o Poor Allied leadership
o The extreme climate conditions which incapacitated many Allied soldiers
o The Allies did not decide to retreat until late December by which time hundreds of
their soldiers had frozen to death.
o The British supported and used Arab nationalism within the Ottoman Empire to
loosen the Turkish control over the Middle East.
The Italian Front
Italy joined the war in April 1915 on the side of the Allies largely due to being promised
Austrian land at the successful conclusion of the war.
Although the Italians were unable to achieve success in any of their ofenses against the
Austrians, with Allied help, they were able to hold the Italian front.
The Balkans
Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in October 1915.
The Serbs were able to fght of the Austrians, however, when Austria, Germany and
Bulgaria joined tzo attack in October 1915, Belgrade quickly fell.
In December 1916 Romania was defeated by Germany and Bulgaria.
Asia and the Pacifc
Japan came into the war quite early (August 1914) with the goal to take over the German
spheres of infuence in Pacifc.
The Allies promised to support Japans claim to these lands after the war.
The British Dominions of Australia and New Zealand seized other German islands in the
Pacifc.
Africa
In western Africa, British and French troops seized German coastal colonies.
The Union of South Africa (British) took over the German colony of German Southwest
Africa
51
Changing Tides of War 1917-1918
By 1917 the situation looked favorable for the Central Powers for several reasons:
o Chaos in Russia
o Romania, Serbia and Montenegro had all been defeated
o France saw increasing anti-war demonstrations and talk of mutiny in the army
o On the Western Front, the Germans had fallen back to their strong Hindenburg
Line
o U-Boat warfare, which had been reinstated in February 1917, had been very
successful in destroying Allied shipping
o Even though America had entered the war on April 6, they were not prepared
enough to have a signifcant impact in Europe in 1917.
Why did America enter the war?
Resumption of unrestricted U-Boat warfare
Zimmermann Telegram of January 19, 1917
The fall of Tsardom in March made fghting on the side of the Allies in defense of
democracy more believable
Considerable sums of money had been invested and loaned to the Allies by both private
bankers and the US government making an Allied defeat very unfavorable.
The Defeat of the Central Powers
Why did the Germans surrender?
1.Efective counter measures to U-Boats were developed
2.Impact of blockade in causing food and munitions shortages in Germany
3.Failure of the Ludendorf (or German Spring) Ofensive due to:
a.Overstretched supply lines
b.Germans fell victim to their own scorched earth policy
c.Large number of Germans deserters
d.US troops had arrived in huge numbers allowing for an Allied counter-
ofensive
e.Allied better use of radio and tanks
4.The collapse of Germanys allies
5.US contribution in terms of morale, money and men
6.Germanys inability to attract new allies
7.Uprisings in conquered areas in the East
8.Unrest in Germany
a.Many Germans revolted against what was in essence the dictatorship of
Ludendorf and Hindenburg
52
b.Although the Kaiser gave some concessions to more democratic rights, it
wasnt enough to satisfy the people, including soldiers and sailors who were
at the point of mutiny.
c.On November 9 the Kaiser abdicated and Germany became a republic
No Compromise Peace
By the beginning of 1917 within both the belligerent camps there were civilians who tried
to negotiate peace and generals who still pushed for military victory
The problem with negotiations was that what was seen as compromise for one side was
seen as defeat for the other:
o The Allies wanted a return to the status quo of 1914:
- Germany could keep her colonies and her feet, but had to get out of the
occupied territories of Russia, France and Belgium and perhaps have to
pay to restore them.
o The Germans wanted a return to the status quo of 1916:
- They keep Lorraine and military control over Belgium, as well as
additional colonies and perhaps parts of Poland.
Therefore it appeared a decisive victory was needed to achieve any compromise which
would mean a dictated peace for the losers.
That is why the American war aims, Wilsons Fourteen Points, were so appealing to the
Germans.
German Domestic Politics and the Armistice
Realizing that military defeat was imminent, in October, Ludendorf advised the Kaiser to
appoint a civilian government to negotiate an armistice.
Reasons:
o A constitutional government would be more acceptable to the Allies and would
thus get better peace terms.
o Ludendorf and the German High Command did not want to take the blame and
shame for losing the war.
Thus Germany became a liberal constitutional monarchy
Wilhelms abdication both as German Emperor and King of Prussia was abruptly
announced by the Chancellor, Prince Max von Baden, on 9 November 1918.
Friedrick Ebert, a Social Democrat (SPD) became chancellor the First of the German
Republic.
On November 11, 1998 the new German government accepted the Allies peace terms
bringing an end to the fghting of WWI.
53
Believing that they had fought to an honorable draw on the Western Front, while being
totally victorious in the East, German leaders now waited to be summoned to Paris to
assist the Allies in a crusade against Bolshevism.
The Paris Peace Conference
What was originally called the Preliminary Conference of Peace began on 18 January
1919.
He stage of the conference was meant to be the time for the 32 Allied and Associated
Powers to coordinate their negotiating plans ahead of peace talks with the Central
Powers.
However, due to the rapid disintegration of the Central Powers during these months this
preliminary conference was transformed into the fnal peace conference, which explains
why none of the Central Powers were part of the negotiations.
This factor also added confusion for the delegates because many believed that it was an
initial negotiating position that they were preparing, not the actual terms of the treaty.
Due to the large number of delegates from various nations, eventually the important
decision making function was taken over by a Council of Four sometimes referred to as
the Big Four:
o Woodrow Wilson, USA
o Georges Clemenceau, France
o David Lloyd George, Britain
o Vittorio Orlando, Italy
It took the Big Four until May to agree on the terms of the treaty to be presented to
Germany.
After the German treaty terms were decided, the leading statesmen of the Big Four
returned to their countries and left the working out of the remaining treaties with the
Central Powers to their ambassadors.
The message of this cartoon is that Germany would have treated the Allies much more harshly if
they had won the war.
The Paris Peace Settlements
The frst clause in each of the treaties was the Covenant of the League of Nations.
Eastern Europe
54
It was agreed that in Eastern Europe the countries should be sizable and economically
viable in order to provide stability and withstand any future German or Bolshevik
pressure.
They also agreed with the idea of self-determination
However, the fnal borders were as much a product of the post-war military clashes in
Eastern Europe as the decisions made in Paris.
The existence of large minorities in the new states was an ongoing concern.
That is why when it came to defending these new Eastern European states, Britain and
others were less than committed.
Treaty of St. Germain with Austria, September 1919
Treaty of Trianon with Hungary, June 1920
Recognized Austria and Hungary as separate states.
Each had to give up land, reduce their armed forces and pay reparations
Forbade Austria to unite with Germany (Anschluss)
Created new states based on Wilsons Self Determination Poland, Czechoslovakia &
Yugoslavia
Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria, November 1919
Gave land to Yugoslavia and Greece
Reduced armed forces
Ordered reparations
Treaty of Sevres with Turkey, 1920
Transformed the political geography of the Eastern Mediterranean:
o Turkey and Arabia became independent countries
o The rest of the old Empire was broken into League of Nations Mandates:
Britain Palestine, Jordan, Iraq
France Lebanon & Syria
o Demilitarized the Turkish Straits and put them under League control
Treaty of Versailles with Germany, June 1919
Military restrictions:
Max. 100,000 men in the army
Max. 6 battleships & no subs
No air force
No tanks
Production of military goods limited to certain factories and these were monitored by the
Allies
Demilitarized the Rhineland
Put the Saar Valley under League control for 15 years, after that it went to a plebiscite
and the people chose to go to Germany
55
Took land away
o To France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Lithuania
Colonies given to the League to distribute as mandates
Forbade Anschluss with Austria
Blamed the war on Germany and their Allies War Guilt Clause Article 231, therefore
giving justifcation for the huge reparations demanded of Germany by France and Britain
France is sucking the life out of Germany through the Treaty of Versailles, while Britain and
America are depicted as bats are just lingering around waiting for the same opportunity.
Freedom of seas including the opening of Bosporus and Dardanelles
o Britain
The occupation of Rhineland for 15 years and permanent demilitarization
o France
The formation of the League of Nations
o United States
Germany and Austria not permitted to unite
o France
The majority of German colonies to put under league control
o United States (France and Britain later on because they get to keep them as
mandates)
A defensive alliance between Britain, France and USA incase Germany got aggressive
again
o France
Self determination for the people of the Balkans
o United States
Blame on the war to be put on Germany and Allies
o Britain, France, US, Italy
German Navy to be limited in size
o Britain and France
The dismantling of the Austrian-Hungary Empire
o Italy
Enforcing the Treaty, 1920-23
Complicating factors:
1.Russia
The Russian Civil War added to the confusion of the peace settlements
56
The Allies continued to send war material and troops to help the Whites after
WWI
Following the Bolshevik victory, other nations were not sure what kind of
diplomatic relations to build with Soviet Russia, and so for the most part, shunned
them
This caused Lenin to begin diplomatic relations with the other European pariah
state Germany.
In 1922 this grew into the Treaty of Rapallo by which each state recognized the
other, renounced any past fnancial claims, and opened the way for secret military
collaboration.
2.France and Britain
Essentially Britain and France were left to implement the treaty which had been
negotiated on the assumption of American participation.
However, they had conficting ideas:
Britain
a.Concerned with empire, wanted balance of power in Europe
b.Wanted a prosperous and peaceful Germany that could pay the
reparations and help rebuild European economy
c.Many in Britain felt that indeed the Treaty had been unfair and that it
should be amended
France was mostly concerned with permanently weakening Germany and forcing
her to fulfll the Treaty terms.
Neither nation was strong enough to get their own way
At the same time, the overriding aim of German foreign policy was revision of the
Treaty.
Therefore, during the frst half of the 1920s the German response to the Allied
attempts to carry out the Treaty was either outright defance or procrastination in
an attempt to split the former allies
It was thought by fnally fxing the sum of the reparations(in April 1921 at 132
milliard gold marks) it would help the Germans to know the full extent of their debt
and begin raising credit.
The Ruhr Crisis
In July 1922 the Germans requested a three-year moratorium on reparation payments.
At the same time Britain announced that America was demanding the repayment of
British wartime debts, and thus in turn, had to insist on the repayment of the equivalent
amount from her former allies.
57
Raymond Poincare, the new French Prime Minister saw no other solution than to occupy
the Ruhr as the only means to force Germany to pay.
French and Belgium troops entered the Ruhr in January 1923
The Germans responded with passive resistance and strikes which triggered hyper-
infation
The French responded to passive resistance harshly; over 100 workers were killed and
100,000 protestors were removed
Not knowing how to respond, Britain adopted a position of benevolent passivity.
For the French it was an expensive occupation, which weakened the franc.
Finally in September the new German Chancellor, Gustav Stresemann, called of passive
resistance.
The French agreed to an Anglo-American initiative to look into the reparations issue.
The Ruhr Crisis marked the end of attempts to carry out the Treaty of Versailles by force
and the beginning of the gradual revision of the Treaty itself.
Source-based questions on Chapter 3
1.Revising the Treaties
a.Study Source C
Source C is a speech from the German, Walther Rathenau. The line our country has
been mutilated in line 7 signifes the loss of territory Germany sufered due to the treaty.
The treaty has cut Germany into pieces, creating new states and the said land that
Germany lost was crucial for a lot of their resources. The treaty mutilated Germany,
which caused a shortage of resources in Germany.
b.Study Source D
Source D is a secret message from the French Minister of Finance requesting an
economic entente with Germany. What was meant in line 11 is that France wanted a
mutual understanding, an alliance with Germany regarding the reparation fees. The
French kept vetoing the moratorium so Germany turned over to Russia and signed the
Treaty of Rapallo.
The League of Nations
Rationale:
To promote international cooperation
To guarantee international peace and security
Membership:
Open to any independent state, except for Germany (1926) and the USSR (1934).
There were 48 original members
58
The Structure of the League
The Secretariat
Carried out all the administrative functions
The Assembly
All members attended and debated once a year
Admitted new nations, controlled the budget and elected non-permanent members to the
council
The Council
Dominated by permanent members: Britain, France, Italy, Japan and Germany
Non-permanent members (originally 4, but up to 11 in 1936)
Dealt with problems when the Assembly was not in session
Could organize sanctions against ofending members
League Positives
Some new and good ideas brought about through the League:
Article 14
Mandates, Article 22
Agencies established to deal with:
o Labour laws
o Human trafcking
o Drug trafcking
o Supervision of the arms trade
o Prevention and control of diseases
League Problems
Some difculties encountered by the League:
Collective Security:
all members undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial
integrity and political independence of all members of the League.
This became the cornerstone of the League and the basis for a new theory for
international relations.
It sought to banish the old alliance systems (treaties), which were designed to protect or
defend against specifc threats or specifc nations.
Nations entered into these treaties to defend or advance their own vital interests
It is on the basis of the treaties that foreign policy decisions were made.
Collective security is less concrete in that it does not specify where threats may come
from or what the response should be under certain circumstances
It assumes that all nations:
59
a.Are equally prepared to act in defense of the principle that aggression is
wrong and must be resisted.
b.Will see each challenge to peace in exactly the same light and will be willing,
regardless of costs or efect to their own interests, to defend the principle.
Collective Security failed because:
It requires a level of altruism which doesnt seem realizable
It asked nations to surrender their freedom of action and enforce policies with which they
disagreed or to intervene against countries with whom they were friends or had proftable
relationships.
It wasnt very collective' when three of the worlds largest nations were not even
members of the League.
Members (or lack thereof)
Outlaw states (Germany and USSR) had no desire to support the League or its principles.
Rather, the League was seen as the keeper of the Versailles status quo which both were
trying to revise.
Their exclusion caused to work together in the Treaty of Rapallo (1922), which rendered
the disarmament clauses of Versailles pointless because the League couldnt do
anything about their economic and military cooperation.
Furthermore, the exclusion of the USSR confrmed their suspicion that there was a
conspiracy to destroy them.
US rejection of the League and its principles undermined the Leagues credibility.
As America was the wealthiest nation, it had the greatest potential to intervene in issues
in the interest of maintaining peace.
Because the US didnt join, the Anglo-American security guarantee to France was
cancelled as the UK would not commit to intervention in Europe without SU support and
was suspicious of French ambitions.
The difering attitude towards Versailles was problematic because the French wanted the
League to enforce the settlement, while the British wanted to rebuild Germany.
Thus the two major powers of the League often disagreed on what actions should be
taken
Members could quit and did!
Refects the view that the League was too dominated by the European WWI Allies Great
Powers mentality
There was no penalty for quitting
Military
It had no forces of its own; it had to rely on member countries declaring war on countries
that broke the covenant
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Decisions
Had to be unanimous, although the votes of countries directly involved in the dispute
were not considered
Could only make recommendations, could not force the members to take the action
Disarmament
In a world where many nations had grievances or territorial ambitions and distrusted their
neighbors, disarmament would have little chance.
Although disarmament was one of the major goals of the League, much of the eforts to
achieve it were actually accomplished outside the League.
The Washington Conference (1921-1922)
After WWI there had been growing tension between Japan and the US over mutual
suspicions of intentions in China
This was a scary prospect for Britain as she was still under the 1902 defensive alliance
with Japan, which could mean that she would need to side with Japan in a war against
the USA
There also existed a signifcant naval arms race between Britain, US and Japan.
Due to the need to reduce military expenditures as well as the rising tension, all three
agreed to meet to discuss naval arms reductions.
They agreed to limit the size and number of battleships, as well as the size of cruises
and aircraft carriers to a constant ratio of USA, Britain and Japan; 5:5:3
Additionally, USA, Britain, France and Japan signed the Four Power Agreement which
guaranteed them their possessions in Asia.
The Nine Power Agreement confrmed the Open Door for China and guarantees its
territorial integrity.
The success of this conference can be credited to:
o The fact that each nation felt it benefted
o The small number of participants
o The timing after the war when disarmament was a popular concept
By the early 30s these agreements were largely ignored after Japans invasion of
Manchuria
The London Naval Conference (1930)
Timed well as it coincided with the onset of the Great Depression and countries were
looking to further reduce their naval arms.
The USA, Britain, France, Italy and Japan all agreed to reductions in their naval
capacities, as well as new rules governing U-boat warfare
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The London treaty was not renewed in 1936 because of the aggressive stance of the
Japanese and Italians, as well as her fear the others had about rapid Japanese and
Germany rearmament programs
The Geneva Disarmament Conference (1932-4)
Was a League organized attempt at world disarmament that included the USA and
USSR as well
Problems:
o Less positive attitude towards international cooperation due to the impact of the
Depression
o The French were unwilling to disarm without some guarantees of security which
Britain and others were unwilling to give
o Disagreement over what constituted ofensive versus defensive weapons
o Germany used the conference as a platform to push the claim that they were
being unfairly discriminated against through their military restrictions
o When Germany demands for military parity were not considered, they left the
conference (1932)
o The conference failed to achieve its goal.
France Between the Wars
WWI had a very high cost for France:
Approximately 10% of the active male population had been killed
Approximately 10% of the most valuable industrial and agricultural had been destroyed
War debts of approximately 7 billion dollars owed to USA and Britain
Accordingly, many Frenchmen felt that the Versailles did nothing to solve the German Problem
Economy
Despite the impact of WWI, the French economy was able to make quite a remarkable
recovery in the 1920s because:
o Improved taxation system, as well as spending reform enabled the French to
stabilize their currency.
o Tourism brought a lot of money into the country.
o Alsace-Lorraine gave the French rich mineral deposits and factories.
o Modern factories were established in areas where the destruction of WWI had
destroyed the old ones.
Domestic Politics
French politics were quite unstable during this period
There was a polarization between political parties, ranging from extreme right wing to far
left
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Therefore, with each election came a coalition government, which proved to be very
inefective in setting policy.
Foreign Afairs
Frances hopes for security were not met in either agreement with Britain nor in the
League of Nations, therefore, she explored several other options:
o Building a system of defensive alliances with other European nations through the
1920s:
Belgium 1920
Poland 1921&1925
Czechoslovakia 1924
Romania 1926
Yugoslavia 1927
o Following a policy of compromise and conciliation with Germany
o However, there were a number of factors that changed French foreign strategy
into the 1930s:
1.The death of Stresemann and the rise of fascism in Europe
2.The Wall Street crash
o Thus, the French turned forward a more defensive and passive mentality that is
best exemplifed in the Maginot Mentality
o The French also began to seriously rearm their military strength starting in 1936.
Britain Between the Wars
Although WWI left Britain with large war debts and a great loss of manpower, she also
gained a certain friends faade of prestige from the mandates awarded to her.
However, her commitment to empire was also her main weakness due to the huge cost
of administering and defending it
Economy
The British economy was in decline:
Due to the wartime lapse in the production of non-military goods, and the rise in
industrialization of non-Western nations, the British lost a lot of their markets
War debts
Layofs in the coal mining industry led to huge protest strikes
Very high unemployment rates, 25%
All these factors led Britain to:
1.Abandon free trade and introduced protective tarifs
2.Adopted the policy of Imperial Preference
3.Make dramatic cuts in military spending
Politics
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The Labour Party (Ramsey McDonald) did replace the Liberal Party however they were
moderate in their policies
Through this time of economic stress Britain moved towards the development of a
welfare state
Although politicians, both conservative and Labour, recognized the need for rearmament
in the early 1920s, public opinion did not support it, so it was delayed
Foreign Afairs
The British approach to diplomacy in the 1920s, especially with regards to Germany, was
based on economic self-interest
There was a relatively strong support (at least in the early years) in Britain for Hitler due
to his strong anti-Communist stance and the perceived harshness for Versailles
By the early 1920s, the British were beginning to realize the need for rearmament in light
of the aggressive acts committed by Japan, Germany and Italy
By 1936 British rearmament was in full swing, however it would be several years before
they reached war preparedness.
As such the British, led by Neville Chamberlain (1937) followed a policy known as
appeasement.
The Dawes Plan (April 1924)
The Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 resulted in catastrophic infation for
the Weimar government which made the situation untenable
o Germany was on the brink of total collapse which could result in the Germans
embracing communism
o Further, Germanys collapse would also prevent European economic recovery
Stresemann was willing to call of passive resistance and announced that Germany
would comply with her Treaty obligations
o This has come to be called the Policy of Fulfllment whereby the Germans co-
operated with the terms of the Treaty in order to gain concessions in the future
from the Allied Powers.
o It proved successful as the Germans did gain a number of concessions and
became a respected member of the international community.
The French were also willing to come to an agreement, as the occupation had been
costly economically and in terms of damaging relations with Britain and the U.S.
Most importantly, the Americans were eager to see European economic recovery and
thus have their loans repaid
Therefore, the Dawes Plan (London Conference of 1924) was arranged to ensure that
the Germans could continue with their reparations payments.
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o French agreements to evacuate the Ruhr within 12 months
o The reparations payments were rescheduled to ft with German ability to pay
o The Germans could borrow money from abroad, mostly from America
o The end of the Ruhr occupation marked the end of eforts to use reparations as a
method of keeping Germany weak
o The Dawes Plan opened the way for the economic recovery of Germany.
Locarno Diplomacy
Even after the Dawes Plan, there was still considerable tension between Germany and
France.
Throughout 1923, the Germans had made several ofers to the French for neither side to
resort to war, however, the hardline French premier, Poincare, refused.
New political leaders in both Britain (Austen Chamberlain as Foreign Minister) and
France (Avistide Briand as Foreign Minister) in 1924 did much to open the way for
friendlier relations between countries
Therefore in October 1925 a conference was held at Locarno out of which came a set of
four treaties known collectively as the Locarno Pact:
o Germany guaranteed the 1919 borders with Belgium and France and promised
not to change its borders with Poland and Czechoslovakia except through
negotiations.
o Britain gave a military guarantee to the borders of France and Belgium if
Germany invaded (but not for Poland and Czechoslovakia)
o France created an alliance with Poland and Czechoslovakia against future
German aggression.
o All concerned parties agreed to the permanent demilitarization of the Rhineland
(France could not threaten to occupy the Ruhr again)
o Germany would be accepted into the League of Nations and have a seat on the
Council which restored its status as a great European power.
The Locarno era was seen by many as proof that Europes tensions had been resolved.
a.German willingness to accept Versailles.
b.Failure of the spread of communism
c.Economic prosperity of the 1920s.
However:
The League wasnt strengthened in any way and it was the means through which
the French were given a military guarantee
Germany didnt accept the Eastern border decisions of the Treaty
Germanys renewal of Rapallo in 1926 meant that they could continue re-arming.
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Much of the goodwill between nations was based on economic prosperity, when
that crashed, so did much of the goodwill.
The Weimar Republic (1918-1933)
Beginnings:
From Nov 9 1918, an entirely socialist provisional government took power under Eberts
leadership
From the start, this new government faced threats from:
1.The extreme Left the Spartacists led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
2.The extreme Right the Freikorps units groups of ex-soldier and others, all of
whom were aggressive nationalists and fercely anti-socialist
The constitution of the Weimar Republic was approved by the National Assembly
(Reichstag) in August 1919.
Weimar Constitution:
The Reichstag was to be elected every 4 years on the basis of proportional
representation each party would get a representative for every 60,000 votes.
o This resulted in coalition governments as the smaller parties were able to gain
seats.
The Chancellor was supposed to come from the largest party in the Reichstag
Although Weimar was a republic with an elected parliament, the constitution also created
the position of President which held considerable power.
The powers of this position show an underlying lack of faith in the democratic Reichstag
The President was to be elected directly by the people every 7 years.
The President:
Was the supreme commander of the military
Appointed all important ofcials, military and civilian, including the Chancellor.
Alone held the power to summon and dissolve the Reichstag
Through Article 48, could sign into law emergency bills without the consent of the
Reichstag, which gave him the power to suspend civil liberties, take emergency powers
and rule by decree.
As President between 1919 to 1925 Ebert used this power occasionally to help the
Chancellors pass normal legislation which the Reichstag could not agree on due to the
nature of the coalitions.
After 1925, however, President Hindenburg often abused this special power which led to
increasingly authoritarian government.
The Crisis Years of 1919-1923
66
Why?
Jan.1919 The Spartacists
Jan.1919 Communist coup in Bavaria
Further disturbances throughout 1920-21
2 prominent politicians assassinated by far right groups
1920 The Kapp Putsch
1921 Reparations Committee
1921 Infation
1923 Ruhr Crisis & Hyper-infation
The German mark to the US dollar
1914 4.2
1918 8.9
1923 (Nov) 42,000,000,000
Why?
Historians do not agree on a single cause. Some explanations are:
The reparations caused the hyper-infation
The cost of the war, and the system of defcit spending, compounded by the reparations
The Germans deliberately provoked the crisis to avoid having to pay the reparations
Did the Weimar Republic save itself between 1919-1923?
Successful in suppressing the Kapp Putsch and organized passive resistance to
overcome French Powers in the Ruhr
Efective use of Article 48 by Ebert.
Efective Chancellorship, cutting expenditures and introduction of Rentenmark, won the
western powers view that Germany was rehabilitating
Dawes Plan
The Golden Years 1924-29 (?)
Economics Dancing on a volcano
Through the Dawes Plan of 1924 French troops were pulled out of the Ruhr and
Germanys reparation payments were rescheduled.
American loans were also essential for the expansion of German industry.
The level of prosperity did rise as this money was used to fnance industrial expansion
and fund a variety of public works schemes, both of which provided employment.
However, there were some weaknesses in the Weimars economic system:
1.The post 1923 recovery was too reliant on externally generated credit.
a.Most of the loans were American and short-term, which meant they were very
vulnerable to fuctuations on the US stock market.
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2.While the capacity of the German factories increased, there did not exist the demand
for the goods they were producing.
a.Thus, owners began looking at non-consumer manufacturing as a way to
make money rearmament.
3.The government stepped in to arbitrate labor disputes, which had the short term
efect of preventing strikes, but the long term efect of making the industrialists more
rigid and authoritarian in their relationship with the workers.
4.Agriculture never modernized the way German industry did and therefore never grew
in any consistent way.
Overall, the economy of the Weimar Republic did recover between 1924 and 1929, but
this recovery was highly fragile.
Politics
Support from the radical parties fell while the moderate parties that supported the
Republic increased in support.
This evidence has led many historians to conclude that the Republic was stable during
this period and it was the economic crisis of 1929-1930 that sent it tumbling. But! What
the election results do not show us is:
A.The extent of the breakdown of political consensus of the part of the spectrum that
supported the Republic
Left | KPD SPD Z DDP DVP DNVP NSDAP | Right
o SPD, Z, DDP, DVP worked well for foreign Policy
o Z, DDP, DVP, DNVP worked well on domestic policy
o Therefore, often Reichstag coalitions had to be manufactured for each item of
legislation, which made for a very unstable government.
B.Changes in the nature and strength of the right.
o The DNVP moved further to the right as a response to government involvement in
industrial and labour practices.
o Changes in the NSDAP mad it more of a mainstream, respectable party.
- Hitler realized that rather than using violence to overthrow the
government, he would need to participate in regular politics in order to
achieve power.
- He also recognized his party into regional units called Gau in order to
strengthen his hold on the party.
o The DNVP and the NSDAP began to form a close coalition by 1929.
C.Hindenburg became president in 1925 and his behavior became increasingly
authoritarian.
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The Weimar Collapse and the Rise of Hitler
Upon his release from prisoin in 1925 Hitler found that the political and economic climate
in Germany was much more stable, and therefore the Nazis lost some of their support.
The period between 1925 and 1929 marked a low in terms of support for the Nazis, but
Hitler used this time to rebuild and restructure the party.
Hitler devised ways in which to involve many segments of the population with the party
thus making it a mass movement by the early 1930s.
During these years, a number of military-type groups developed within the Nazi
movement.
One of these was the SA (Brown Shirts)
By the early 1930s the SA was several times larger in numbers than the German army.
With the economic chaos created by the Great Depression came an increased
polarization of the German population towards either the Nazis or the Communists.
Under these circumstances, Brning (center Party) was appointed Chancellor (March
1930), but was not successful at gaining the support of the Reichstag and had to rely on
support of Hindenburg and Article 48 to rule, thus marking a return to authoritarian style
leadership.
When the Reichstag passed a vote of no confdence in Brning, he made the mistake of
calling for new elections in September 1930.
Yet, Brning stayed on as Chancellor because the SPD supported him.
Even though they hated his economic policies, they were afraid of what would happen of
Brnings government fell and the Nazis came to power.
What would have earned Brning the nickname The Hunger Chancellor?
o His defationary program
Aims:
To balance the budget?
To worsen the efects of the Depression in order to end reparations?
How did he seek to achieve his aims?
Increase taxes
Severe cuts in government spending which was felt most by the
unemployment because their welfare benefts were cut
Outcome?
His policies made things so bad in Germany that people lost confdence in
him (unemployment, bank crashes, political violence on the streets)
His proposed land reform lost him the support of the agrarian elite which
included Hindenburg
The government defcit was cut
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Reparations suspended in July 1931 and cancelled in June 1932 (one
month after Brning lost ofce)
In April 1932 Brning worked to get Hindenburg re-elected as President
By this time Hitler had grown in popularity and had gained 37% of the vote in his attempt
to become President.
Because of Hitlers growing strength and popularity, his seizing power through the SA
was seen as a real threat.
Therefore Brning had the SA banned and some on the right opposed this ban.
General Schleicher saw a potential in having the SA incorporated into the German army.
On May 30, 1932 Brning was forced to resign because he had lost the support of
Hindenburg.
This meant that he could no longer make use of Article 48.
The Messy Months May 1932 Jan 1933
May Dec Franz von Papen
Schleicher convinced Hindenburg to appoint Papen to lead a cabinet of elites.
Papen lifted the ban on the SA and agreed to Hitlers demand to call new elections.
Despite the huge Nazi showing in the 1932 election, Hindenburg refused to make Hitler
Chancellor and instead kept Papen in that position.
This caused chaos in the Reichstag and under Schleichers advice, Hindenburg was
forced to dissolve it and call another election.
The new Reichstag was as unworkable as the previous one.
Papen, wanting to remain as a Chancellor, proposed to Hindenburg that the Reichstag
be permanently replaced and that the army be used to suppress any opposition.
Dec Jan
Schleicher convinced Hindenburg that Papens plan would start a civil war and instead
had himself appointed Chancellor.
He failed in trying to split the Nazi Party and also in gaining the support of the trade
unions.
At the same time he lost the support of the right wing elite.
Behind the scenes Papen plotted with Hitler to return to government.
Hitler would be Chancellor and Papen would be Vice-Chancellor.
This was backed by a coalition of representatives from big businesses and the army.
Hindenburg dismissed Schleicher on January 28, 1933.
Hitler was appointed as Chancellor on January 30, 1933.
Japanese Aggression After WWI
70
Japan was the only other nation, besides the USA to emerge from WWI stronger than it
had been before, and there was a desire to build an empire on this success.
Emperor Hirohito 1901 1989
Japan had limited natural resources and therefore felt it necessary to make themselves
less dependent on other nations (especially USA for oil)
They were also looking for locations to resettle their surplus populations.
Their solution was to look for new areas within Asia to colonize.
Manchuria
The Japanese saw Manchuria as a very signifcant reason because it was a good
physical barrier between Russia and the Japanese mainland, and it was a good starting
place from which to spread through and take over China.
They had invested large sums of money into railway construction through out the region.
In the late 1920s Chinese companies began building their own railways.
This threatened the Japanese and increased tensions in the area.
On Sept. 18, 1931 a section of a Japanese railway was mysteriously blown-up and the
Japanese used this as a reason to send in troops to defend their investments in
Manchuria.
The defense turned into an occupation and the Leagued condemned it.
o Japan quit the League.
o The League did not come to Chinas aid.
On March 9, 1932, the Independent Republic of Manchuko (a Japanese puppet state)
was proclaimed.
In 1934 the Japanese gave notice they were breaking the conditions of the Washington
Naval Treaty and began to massively build up their navy.
The USSR was very concerned about Japanese expansion. They formed a defensive
alliance with Mongolia.
Japan interpreted this as aggression and in 1936 signed a similar treaty of their own with
Germany, the Anti-Comintern Pact (also known as the Tripartite Pact)
By July 1937 Japan declared war on China and within the next several months had
efective control over large portions of China.
Fascism
Although Mussolini was the frst to use the term to identify his movement, it came to refer
to man similar movements in Europe between the wars.
General characteristics of fascism:
o Hostility to parliamentary democracy and communism
o Support for authoritarian and military values
o Aggressive nationalism
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o The mobilization of mass support behind a charismatic leader.
Italy Between the Wars
Italys political and economic situation after WWI was similar to other post-war European
countries infation, unemployment, food shortages, political polarization and violence.
Between 1918-1920 there was a period known as Biennio Rosso (two red years) in
which there were huge protests from farmers and industrial workers.
These protests were led by socialists and trade-union leaders.
The moderate liberal coalition government failed to take decisive action to stop these
protests.
Industrialists and landowners feared a Bolshevik revolution and felt the government was
unwilling or powerless to stop it.
They therefore began to support the right-wing radicals, the Fascists Black Shirts
(Squadristi) who used terror against any socialist groups.
Throughout 1921-1922 the Blackshirts continued their terror and by late 1922 they had
control over most of the towns and cities in Northern Italy.
The situation was getting critical with Mussolini planning to march into Rome and take
over the government.
Prime Minister Facta requested a declaration of martial law from the King.
Instead the King preferred to try to negotiate with Mussolini by ofering him a position in
the government.
Mussolini would not accept any part in a government he did not lead, so on October 30,
1922 the King made him the Prime Minister of the new government.
New elections were held in 1924 in which Mussolinis fascists won a majority through the
use of violence and initimidation.
Upon his win in the 1924 elections, Mussolini proceeded to pass a law in 1925 that gave
him total power. With these powers he:
o Banned all political opposition
o Banned trade unions
o Censored the press.
o Purged all anti-Fascists from the bureaucracy
o Replaced all elected ofcials with appointed Fascists.
o Set up a secret police and special courts.
To gain a broader base of support he ended his antagonism with the Catholic Church in
1929.
When the depression hit he began a program of public works to combat unemployment.
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Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini
Italy was in the fortunate position of appearing to be the lesser of evils when compared
to Hitler and therefore both France and Britain took pains not to alienate Mussolini.
Using this to his advantage, Mussolini tried to take on the role of mediator between
France & Britain and Germany to overturn the Treaty of Versailles.
However, the increasing German threats (to Austria in particular) converted him to a frm
supporter of the territorial status quo
In the early 1930s Mussolini even took several steps to check Hitlers foreign aggression:
1.1934 mobilized his troops along the Austrian border when Hitler gave support
to the Austrian Nazis to stage a coup.
2.1935 met with the British and French to condemn German rearmament and to
maintain the peace settlements (Stresa Conference)
At the same time, however, Mussolini was also looking towards his own imperialist
expansion, specifcally in the Balkans and North Africa.
His frst target was the independent nation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) which the Italians had
been trying to gain since the 1880s.
In October 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia
Results:
1.The invasion had a high economic cost which weakened Italy considerably
2.Haile Selassie (emperor of Abyssinia) protested before the League.
3.Made Mussolini believe he was strong militarily.
4.Mussolini, isolated from his Stressa partners, looked to Hitler for support
In return for this support, he agreed not to cooperate with the British and
French if German troops entered the Rhineland.
Totalitarianism
Dictatorship Totalitarianism
Seeks limited (usually political)
control
Seeks a pacifed and submissive
population
Seeks only to rule over the
individual and society
Seeks to dominate all aspects of
national life
Mobilizes and makes use of mass
political participation
Seeks the complete
reconstruction of the individual
and society
73
Is often seen as a temporary
response during a crisis or
emergency
Believes in a permanent
reconstruction of the country
Both in theory and practice, totalitarianism began after World War I
Reason:
a)During the war, governments had taken over more and more aspects of their country
in order to focus the countrys resources into winning the war.
Examples:
Conscription both into the military and into the workforce
Rationing
Control of transportation networks
b)The chaotic political, economic and social situations
Common Characteristics of Totalitarian States
Single party state with unquestioning obedience to a single ruler, which leads to a
personality cult.
State control over the economy
Strict censorship and government control over the media
Use of schools and media to indoctrinate and mobilize citizens
Police spies and state terrorism used to deny personal freedom.
Highly nationalist, often to the point of racist
Individual identity is taken away and replaced with a group identity based on either race
or class
Glorifcation of violence and war
Italian and German Response
Mussolini was the frst to commit aid to the nationalists, but Hitler is quick to participate
also
Italian and German Fascist aid came in the form of soldiers, weapons and military
strategists
Motives behind German participation:
A venue to test their new weapons and military capabilities
A chance to help bring about the demise of left wingers, especially communists.
By helping instill a fascist government in Spain, it would force France to fght a war on
74
two fronts net time and would cut of.
For Hitler it was a chance to work together with Mussolini, forge Rome-Berlin Axis and
this keep Mussolini attention away from his aggressive plans for the central Europe.
It gave Germany access to Spains raw materials to feed their re-armament.
French and British Response
Ofcially, both France and Britain did not participate and went even further to create the
Non-intervention agreement of 1936.
This stance led to some degree of disagreement within both countries, and in fact France
did have several short periods where aids
Motives behind this malevolent neutrality:
Both nations were in their twilight years and didn't want another European war that would
completely destroy the balance of power.
Neither nation particularly wanted to see a communist government come to power in
Spain
It wasn't quite certain whether Mussolini would go in with Hitler and neither France nor
Britain wanted to push him into Hitlers arms by opposing hum directly in Spain.
Economically and in terms of arms of military readiness, neither country was able to
participate on a grand scale.
Soviets Response
Was the only government send aid to the Republican side
Motives behind participation:
Ideological battle between fascism and communism
Stalin wanted to ensure that his band of communism prevailed in Spain
Didn't want to see France get surrounded by fascist states
Stalin hoped that the Soviets support for the Republicans would encourage France and
Britain to do the same.
In the end.
Foreign intervention served only to lengthen the duration of the war
Brought Germany and Italy Together in the Rome-Berlin Axis
Weakened Italys economy due to military spending
Ironically it also pushed Stalin into the arms ofHitler.
From Nihilism to Nazism
Nihilism is a philosophy that began in the 19
th
century that, simply stated,
says that there is no meaning or value to life.
75
This conclusion is reached based on the claim that there is no reality that is
independent of the human mind.
Friedrich Nietzsche
1!""-19##$ is perhaps the most in%uential of the nihilistic thin&ers of the 19
th
century.
This atheistic 'orldvie' thin&ing played a signi(cant role in the development
of the Nazi movement because Hitler 'as a disciple of Nietzsche.
Nihilism)s in%uence on Nazi doctrines*
+f there is no ,od, then -reation is a myth and evolution is correct.
.volutionary theories can be applied to human races and societies /
0ocial 1ar'inism.
2ith the 3death of ,od) came the denial of any ob4ective moral values
and therefore 'ho 'as to say that &illing 5e's 'as 'rong6
Factors Favoring for the Emergence of Hitler
The 2eimar 7epublic had many inherent 'ea&nesses, 'hich created
'idespread disillusionment in the population.
The Nazis 'ere able to ta&e advantage of this situation in 'hich people 'ere
abandoning traditional political loyalties by appealing to various sectors of
the electorate individuality.
Hitler also used several general policies to cut through class di8erences.
These included*
9 nationalist o8ensive proclaiming :ersailles a 3stab in th ebac&)
9n emphasis on the need for ,erman geographical e;pansion or 3living
space) <ebensraum$
The identi(cation of 3race enemies) such as the 5e's.
=iscalculation by the 7ight
7ather than a return to party politics, many of the right felt that
government through a broad based movement of the right 'ould be
best for ,ermany.
To accomplish this, they needed the radical impetus of the Nazis to
destroy the 7epublic
>nce this 'as accomplished, the Nazis 'ould be brought into line
'ith the more conservative forces
The Nazi Party and its Associations
,au
The Nazi party organized itself geographically by dividing into ?@ regions
These regions 'ere called ,au and each one 'as to be led by a governor or
,auleiter
.ach ,au 'as further divided into local branches, 'hich each local leader
reporting directly to his ,auletier 'ho reported directly to Hitler.
Nazi 39ssociations)
76
To broaden their base of popular support and further in%uence the ,erman
people, the N019A established a variety of groups, 'hich appealed to
di8erent segments of society.
Structure of Nazi Society
1. Fuhrer
B. :ol&gemeinschaft or National -ommunity replaced the old social order of
class and political di8erences.
The individual 'as seen to be less important than the state and therefore
should be made to serve the leader and the state
2as de(ned in ethnic terms, thus ,erman regeneration depended on
creating a racially pure state or Herrenvol& master race$
From Chancellor to Dictator
Cpon his appointment as -hancellor, Hitler still came under the authority of
Hindenburg 'ho had the army)s 7eichs'ehr$ support.
Therefore Hitler had to tread carefully to avoid upsetting Hindenburg and
getting dismissed.
0tep 1* +ncrease N019A seats in the 7eichstag
o +mmediately upon his appointment as -hancellor on 5anuary ?#, 19??,
Hitler called for dissolution of the 7eichstag Feb. 1$ and ne' electrons
to be held in early =arch.
o >n February BD, the 7eichstag building mysteriously burnt do'n and
Hitler 'as able to blame this on the -ommunists and further in%ame
anti--ommunist sentiment.
o >n Feb. B! He used this event and the hysteria that follo'ed to have
Hindenburg enact 9rticle "! and severely limit other parties through
the suspension of civil rights.
o The Nazis also ran a program of voter intimidation through the threat
of 09 violence.
o The tactics succeed in increasing the Nazi presence in the 7eichstag
from 19E to B!! in the =arch @, 19?? elections.
0tep B* -hange the -onstitution
o +n order to accomplish this, Hitler needed a BF? vote in the 7eichstag
'hich he got by*
Ganning the HA1 from the 7eichstag
,uaranteeing -atholic liberties, thus gaining the support of the
-enter Aarty
o >n =arch B", 19??, 'ith a vote of ""1 to 9", Hitler 'as able to ma&e
signi(cant change to the constitution, 'hich allo'ed the -abinet
essentially Hitler$ to pass decrees 'ithout the Aresident)s
involvement.
o This came to be called the I.nabling 9ctJ.
o I<a' for Terminating the 0u8ering of the Aeople and the NationJ
77
o +t 'as rene'ed in 19?! and became the virtual constitution of the
Third 7eich.
o +t too& Hitler only a fe' months to destroy 3democracy) in ,ermany
through a process called ,leichschaltung -o-ordination$
o =ost institutions 'hich might have harbored opposition to the Nazis
'ere undermined*
Trade unions 'ere dissolved and replaced by a Nazi >rganization
=ay B$
The civil service 'as purged of non-Nazis 9pril D$
The Nazi party became the only legal party 5uly 1"$
The -atholic -hurch 'as compromised into signing the
concordat 'ith the government 5uly B#, 19??$
0chools and universities had to follo' Nazi curriculum.
0tate governments 'ere subordinated to Gerlin 5anuary 19?"$
o Ho' 'as this possible in such a short time6
The e8ective use of terror through the establishment of
concentration camps.
The penetration of Nazi propaganda into every area of ,erman
life
=any ,ermans felt that Hitler 'as right
.conomic recovery had actually started before he came to
po'er, but it loo&ed as though he 'as responsible.
0tep ?* .liminate all other potential threats
o The Reichswehr 'as still under the control of conservative generals.
Hitler &ne' he had to carefully gain the support of the generals
and eventually control army
o =ean'hile, the 09, under 7ohm, had become a very large and
po'erful force.
o 7ohm 'ished to merge the 09 and the Reichswehr, 'ith himself as the
leader
o Hitler 'as able to use another of the Nazi militia groups, the 00
formed in 19B@$ to*
a) 1estroy the 09
b) ,ain the support of the Reichswehr
o This 'as accomplished through an event that has come to be &no'n as
IThe Night of the <ong HnivesJ 5une ?#, 19?"$ 'hen 7ohm and other
09 leaders 'ere shot, along 'ith hundreds 6$ of 09 members.
o Hitler also used this event to remove others that 'ere a threat to his
leadership.
o This event, along 'ith Hitler)s ambitious rearmament plans, and
denunciation of :ersailles, guaranteed army support for Hitler.
0tep "* -ro'n himself IFKhrerJ
o 9ugust 1, 19?"* Hitler passed a ne' la' that merges the oLce of
Aresident and -hancellor into IFKhrer and 7eich -hancellorJ
o 9ugust B, 19?"*
Hindenburg died
78
9rmy ta&es an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.
The SS State
The 00 Schutzstafel) 'as established in 19B@ by Hitler for tas& 3of a police
nature) that could not be entrusted to the 09.
Heinrich Himmler became its leader in 19B9 and e;panded the 00 into the
Aarty)s o'n police force of @B,### men by 19??.
The 00 'ere the ones responsible for carrying out the 09 purge and 'ere
re'arded for this by becoming independent of the 09 as a'ell as being able
to form armed groups, such as the 2a8en-00
The 00 'as the elite militia group of ,ermany, basically acting as Hitler)s
private army.
The 00 sa' itself as being the force that 'ould ultimately rule .uropeM
therefore they recruited 9ryan members from other countries as 'ell.
Gy 19?? the ,estapo Arussian secret police$ had also been absorbed under
the 00 umbrella.
The ,estapo had been set up by ,Nring and 'as responsible for the
elimination of political resistance, ta&ing e;tra legal orders directly from
Hitler.
+t 'as the ,estapo that decided 'ho could be sent to concentration camps.
The concepts of Iprotective custodyJ and Ipreventative arrestJ 'ere invented
to 4ustify the detention of many.
The ,estapo 'as not large, appro;imately 1@,### members to police a nation
of nearly !# million people.
This sho's the e;tent of police informants in the era.
The 00 undertoo& a number of di8erent functions for the Nazi state*
1. The 2a8en-00 units 'ere military formations and played a signi(cant role
in several of the campaigns of the 'ar
B. The 00 too& over the running of the concentration camps after 19?".
?. The 00 'as used to control some of the industrial enterprises in ,ermany.
". 9fter 19?" the 00 became the principal agent in applying the state)s racial
policies.
@. 1uring the 'ar, the 00 organized the 'hole net'or& of conOuered
territories as 'ell as the programs for slave labor and e;termination.
The fact that the 00 did have a lot of in%uence over foreign policy and the
military sphere brought it into con%ict 'ith other institutions li&e the Foreign
>Lce and even the Nazi Aarty.
Nazi Social Control
The main tas& of schools 'as to educate the youth for service to the state.
This 'as accomplished through*
o .nsuring that teachers 'ere supportive through forcing them to 4oin
the Nazi teacher)s union and receiving training in Nazi ideology.
o -hanging the curriculum*
Ahysical (tness 'as increased to t'o hours a day.
A. 'as valued the most to ma&e the youth tough and fearless.
79
Nazi ideas 'ere incorporated into sub4ect, particularly biology
and history.
7eligious education 'as stopped
o -o-educational schools 'ere reduced in an attempt to provide
3appropriate) lessons for girls and boys.
o 0pecial schools 'ere established to train the future Nazi elite.
+n general, educational standards dropped during Nazi rule due to the climate
of anti-intellectualism, propagandist elements and focus on e;tra-curricular
activities.
Pouth =ovements
The main tas& 'as to introduce youth to become active participants in the
Nazi state.
The IHitler PouthJ 'as the main organization for boys aged 1#-1!.
For the girls there 'as the J<eague of =aidensJ 'hich stressed the
importance of motherhood, (tness and racial purity.
2omen Q Family
Family 'as supposed to be foundation of Nazi society.
They tried to construct a society in 'hich 'omen 'ould be 'ives and
mothers.
7eligion
Hitler sa' -hristianity as*
o 2ea&, re%ecting the values of an inferior race
o 9 threat to his reordering of society
He tried to gain control of the Arotestant churches by unifying them into the
Arotestant 7eich -hurch that pledged their loyalty to him.
This bac&(red as the -onfessional -hurch bro&e a'ay.
Gy 19?D it 'as clear that Hitler 'as not &eeping his side of the -oncordat
'ith the -atholic -hurch.
This led to an attac& on Nazi belief and methods by Aope Aius R+.
Aius R++, 'ho became Aope in 19?9 too& a much softer stance against the
Nazis. +n 199! the :atican oLcially apologized for its lac& of opposition to
the Holocaust.$
0ociety in ,eneral
9ll media, theatre, (lm, music, boo&s, art, rallies 'ere controlled by IThe
=inistry of Aopular .nlightenment and AropagandaJ.
The Nazi Economy
Gecause Nazism 'as primarily a racist ideology, it had no (rm economic
foundation, and therefore economic policy 'as often a series of compromises
bet'een opposing forces.
Hitler 'as elected 'ith the promise to give the ,erman people 3bread and
4obs)
.conomic priorities*
7educe unemployment.
80
9utar&y-economic self-suLciency.
Lebensraum-<iving space in .astern .urope.
Transform the economy to focus rearmament and 'ar.
H4almar 0chact held the position of =inister of .conomic from 19?" to 19?D.
He follo'ed a policy of 4ob-creation and 'age controls to prevent the threat of
in%ation and currency instability.
2hat 'as the aim of the public 'or&s programs6 National <abor 0ervice$
a. ,ave men 4obs in public 'or& schemes such as building schools,
motor'ays. 1itches and etc.
b. =en had to 'ear a uniform and live in camps and 'ere given free meals
and poc&et money.
c. To &ic& start the economy and to improve the living conditions of the
,erman people.
d. To build impressive buildings and ma&e the ,erman people 'ould feel
proud.
e. To improve the public transport net'or& for industrial and military use.
>ther factors accounting for the fall in unemployment*
Gy 19?" all 5e's 'ere sac&ed from civil service 4obs 'hich 'ere then given
to ,erman 'or&ers. Cnemployed 5e's 'ere not registered$.
2omen lost their 4obs 'hich 'ere given to men.
Aeople 'ho refused 4obs o8ered by the labor service 'ere arrested and
put into concentration camps.
Cnmarried men under ?@ 'ere forced into the National <abor 0ervice.
>pponents if the Nazis 'ho 'ere in concentration camps.
Aart time 'or&ers 'ere counted as full 'or&ers
-onscription from 19?@ too& thousands of young men into the military
service.
0chacht continued many of the pro4ects that had been initiated under the
2eimar ,overnments.
He fell out 'ith Hitler over the spread of rearmament and 'as replaced by
Hermann ,oering in 19?E.
Cp to that point 0chacht had been some'hat of a moderating in%uence on
the economic and racial policies of the Nazis.
Gy 19?E Hitler believed that the economic recovery had been suLcient to
introduce an accelerating of the rearmament and this introduced his Four
Pear Alan.
9ims of the four years plan 19?E*
0peed up rearmament
=a&e ,ermany self suLcient as possible of both industrial and
agricultural imports-autar&y.
Have both military and economy ready for 'ar by 19"#.
2as the "-year plan a success6
Cnemployment dropped Ouic&ly ".! million in 19?? to #.@ million in 19?!.
81
2ages rose slightly but 'ere still lo'er in 19?! than they had been in
19B!.
2or&ing hours 'ent up to "9 hours per 'ee& in 19?9-@B hours in 19"? to
over E# hours per 'ee& by 19"@.
9utar&y 'as not achieved 'hich meant that ,ermany is still reliant on
imports.
There 'ere fe'er consumer goods.
Trade unions 'ere replaced by beauty of <aborJ and strength through 4oy
'ho organized better conditions and leisure activities.
Historians di8er in their interpretation of 'hat Hitler meant to be 3ready for
'ar.)
2as it total 'ar, or limited 'ar based on blitz&rieg.
The cartoon signi(es that the basis of ,erman prosperity are armaments and
'eaponries.
Nazi Racial Policies
Geliefs*
The Nordic ,ermans 9ryans$ 'ere the master race Herrenvol&$, and all
other races 'ere arranged in a hierarchy beneath them.
3eugenics) the 3science) of producing (ne o8spring by the control of inherited
Oualities$
The Nazis sa' it as their duty to protect the purity of the 9ryan race from*
o 5e's
o ,ypsies 7oma$
o 3'or&-shy)
o Hereditary asocial
o Those 'ith mental andFor physical handicaps
+n 5uly 19?? the I<a' for the Arevention of Hereditary 1iseased >8springJ
allo'ed for compulsory sterilization.
9ctions to'ards the 5e's*
19??*
5e's (red from civil service, la' and university positions
9 boycott of 5e'ish shops and business ordered
19?"*
5e's banned from public places such as par&s, playing (elds, restaurants and
s'imming pools
19?@*
The 3Nuremburg <a's)
o 7estrict citizenship and the right to vote to 9ryans
o =arriage or se;ual relations bet'een 5e's and ,ermans forbidden
19?E-!*
=ore professional activists of 5e's banned or restricted
November 9, 19?! 3-rystal night), an 00 campaign to destroy 5e'ish shops,
homes and synagogues throughout ,ermany.
82
19?9*
5e's no longer permitted to run shops or businesses
5e'ish children e;cluded from schools and universities
5e's forbidden to o'n radios, hold driver)s licenses, buy ca&es and chocolates
5e's given curfe's
5e's had to hand overall gold and 4e'elry
Get'een 19?? and 19?9, about half of the 5e'ish population in ,ermany
emigrated
Those that did not, 'ould soon (nd themselves being relocated.
erman Foreign Policy of the !"#$s
Historiography
There are essentially three di8erent vie's 'ith regards to Hitler)s foreign policy*
a. Hitler follo'ed a deliberate policy to create 'ar.
b. The last thing Hitler 'anted 'as a 'ar 'ith the great po'ers.
He 'ould rather gain territory by blu8. Threat and diplomacy
c. He 'as an opportunist, having no coherent plan for e;pansion or 'ar, but he
responded to various crises as they arose.
,erman Foreign Aolicy of the 19?#s*
Cnder GrKning in 19?#, ,erman foreign policy 'as already becoming more
revisionistFaggressive 6$*
o He made an attempt to build a customs union 'ith 9ustria
o ,iven ,ermany)s (nancial situation and the gro'ing nationalist
resentment to the reparations, GrKning 'as able to convince the C0
and Gritain to cancel the reparations at the <ausanne -onference in
5une 19?B.
o 9t the 2orld 1isarmament -onference in February 19?B, GrKning
secured the right to increase the ,erman military.
o -ontinued ,ermany)s rearmament in secret
2hen Hitler came to po'er, he continued the revisionist trend, but 'ith
less caution.
Hitler)s Foreign Aolicy 'as built on three aims*
o To reverse the Treaty of :ersailles
o To create a I,reater ,ermanyJ by uniting all ,erman spea&ing
people
o The creation of Lebensraum / living space for the ,ermans
a$ Hitler)s 9ction*
Hitler pulled out of the ne;t 1isarmament -onference >ctober 19??$ and
Ouit the <eague because he 'asn)t granted parity of armaments 'ith
other nations.
7eaction of other nations*
The Gritish tried to bring Hitler bac& to the -onference by o8ering to level
out the sizes of the ,erman and French armies, 'hile allo'ing ,ermany to
have an air force half the size of France)s.
83
France did not agree, and the conference fell apart in 9pril 19?", by 'hich
time Hitler had already accomplished a fair amount of rearmament.
b$ Hitler)s 9ction*
1id not rene' the 7apallo Treaty in late 19??.
7eaction of other nations*
Gritain in particular 'as pleased as they still 'ished to use ,ermany as a
barrier in -entral .urope against communism.
0talin continued to try to build relations bet'een the C007 and ,ermany.
c$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n 5anuary of 19?" he signed a Non-9ggression Aact 'ith Aoland.
2hy6
+t served as an act of diplomacy to ma&e ,ermany seem less aggressive.
To 'ea&en the French position as they also had a treaty 'ith the Aoles.
d$ Hitler)s 9ction*
9n attempted Nazi coup in 9ustria in 5une of 19?".
7eaction of other nations*
This heightened the tension bet'een Hitler and =ussolini, as =ussolini did
not approve of the idea of a Nazi 9ustria on +taly)s border.
<ed Gritain and France to guarantee 9ustrian independence.
e$ Hitler)s 9ction*
Gy early 19?@ the massive push to'ards rearmament in ,ermany had
become apparent and ,erman military strength 'as dra'ing close to that
of France and Gritain.
7eaction of other nations*
Gritain introduces ne' rearmament plans
France e;tends their period of military service
f$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n =arch 19?@, Hitler announced the e;istence of the <uft'a8e and
declared that there 'ould be conscription and that ,ermany 'ould no
longer obey the military restrictions of :ersailles.
g$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n early =arch 19?E, Hitler ordered ,erman troops into the 7hineland
remilitarization$.
7eaction of other nations*
Gritain did nothing as they had been e;pecting this move for a 'hile.
France 'as terribly alarmed but did not ta&e any military action.
1ue to France)s inaction, Gelgium bro&e o8 their treaty 'ith them.
=ussolini had already promised not to cooperate 'ith any Gritish or French
actions because he needed a ne' ally after the brea&-up of the 0tresa
Front over his 9byssinian policy.
h$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n the summer of 19?E, Hitler sent military aid to help Franco in the
0panish -ivil 2ar.
i$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n >ctober 19?E Hitler and =ussolini signed a friendship pact >ctober
protocols$, 'hich created an alliance &no'n as the 7ome-Gerlin 9;is.
84
4$ Hitler)s 9ction*
+n November 19?E Hitler signed the 9nti--omintern Aact 'ith 5apan.
+n November 19?E +taly also 4oined this alliance.
&$ Hitler)s 9ction*
>n =arch 1B, 19?! Hitler integrated 9ustria into the Third 7eich /
Anschluss
7eaction of other nations*
France didn)t have a government at the time and thus too& no actionS
Gritain issued a 'ea& protest, but accepted the Nazi ta&eover of 9ustria.
+taly previously given Hitler assurances that they 'ould accept Anschluss.
l$ The -zechoslova&ian -risis, 19?!-?9
9-T 1
1uring the spring and summer of 19?! relations bet'een ,ermany and
-zechoslova&ia 'orsened as Hitler bac&ed the 0udeten ,ermans even
though Aresident Genes had already made considerable concessions to
them.
Gy 0eptember the situation 'ithin -zechoslova&ia 'as e;tremely tense,
'ith outbrea&s of violence.
Genes 'as forced to order martial la' to Ouiet do'n the 0udeten Nazis.
>n 0eptember 1@, Gritish Arime =inister Neville -hamberlain decided to
step in and try to negotiate a peaceful settlement.
Hitler insisted that the 0udetenland be passed to ,ermany or else there
'ould be 'ar.
-hamberlain o8ered to negotiate this transfer and Hitler agreed only
because Hitler never e;pected the -zechs to agree 'ith this.$
-hamberlain (rst got the French to agree, and once they did, the -zechs
had no choice.
Cpon his return to ,ermany 0ept. BB$ 'ith this signed settlement,
-hamberlain 'as greeted by an annoyed Hitler because he 'anted a
small 'ar$.
Hitler then made further demands and threatened to go to 'ar if they
'ere not met by >ctober 1.
9-T ++
+n the midst of the crisis, =ussolini called for a four-po'er conference and
Hitler agreed.
This 'as the I=unich -onferenceJ 0eptember B9$ 'hich include
,ermany, France, Gritain and +taly.
-hamberlain and 1aladier agree to Hitler)s demands in return for vague
promises to guarantee the territory of the rest of -zechoslova&ia.
Genes resigned after his appeals 'ere not heard
The -zechs not only lost land, but also their strategic defensive position in
the 0udeten =ountains, 'hich left them vulnerable to further ,erman
aggression.
This event did cause the Gritish an the French to come close, and in
February 19?9 they formed an 9nglo-French defensive alliance.
85
The total re4ection of 0oviet input at =unich convinced 0talin that the
'estern po'ers 'ere not interested in upholding collective security and
'ere not greatly alarmed by Hitler)s advance in .astern .urope.
9-T +++
2hat remained of -zechoslova&ia fell even deeper into civil strife 'ith the
-zechs (ghting the 0lova&s.
+n =arch 19?9 the -zech Aresident appealed for Hitler)s help, and then
'as forced to agree to allo' ,erman troops into the country to restore
order and in doing so provided Hitler 'ith legal 4usti(cation for occupying
-zechoslova&ia.
The Gritish and French did not ta&e any military action, giving the e;cuse
that because the -zech government had fallen before the ,erman troops
moved in, the guarantee given at =unich did not apply.
The Aact of 0teel
>n =ay BB, 19?9, the 7ome Gerlin alliance a;is 'as made an o8ensive
military alliance 'hen other nations agreed to support each other if one 'as
involved in a 'ar
1@. The Nazi 0oviet 9ggression pact
The 9greement*
.ach country agreed not to support any third po'er if that third po'er
attac&ed the other.
They promised to consult each other on matters of common interest
They promised not to 4oin any alliance aimed at the other.
0talin)s :ie'point*
+t removed the capitalist threat Hitler$ against the 0oviet Cnion.
+t o8ered him some recompense for being so poorly treated by Gritain
and France
+t 'ould give him time to continue his military build-up before an
o8ensive 'ar
+t o8ered him territory 'hich could act as a bu8er for the C007
Hitler)s :ie'point*
+t removed the danger of having to (ght a t'o-front 'ar
+t gave him more territory in the east 'ith only having to (ght a limited
'ar for it
2ith it, he hoped to scare Gritain and France out of their guarantee to
protect Aoland.
Soviet Foreign Policy in the %nter&ar years
a$ .ssay response* The 0oviet pact 'ith ,ermany in 9ugust 19?9 'as the result
to desperation, not any long-term policy. 1iscuss.
b$ 2or&ing 'ith a partner, graphically display 0oviet foreign policy during from
22+ to the signing of the Nazi-0oviet Non-9ggression pact.
Phases of ''%% in Euro(e
86
1. Glitz&rieg, 19?9-"#
B. Gattle of Gritain, 19"#
?. >peration Garbarossa, 19"1-"B
". The defeat of ,ermany 19"B-"@
The Aartition of Aoland and the Galtic 0tates

The ,ermans invaded Aoland in 0eptember 1


st

2ith the help of the 0oviets, 'ho attac&ed on the 1D


th
, they forced the Aolish
army to surrender on 0eptember BD. -asualties* 1",### ,ermansM E#,###
AolesM B@,### -iviliansM D##,### A>2$

Aoland 'as divided bet'een ,ermany and the C007 according to the secret
9ugust 9greement.

Goth the Nazis and the 0oviets committed atrocities against the Aolish people

1uring the late months of 19?9 the 0oviets also too& over the Galtic 0tates as
agreed to in the secret protocol.

Finland resisted and 'as invaded by the 0oviets in November.

1espite putting up a valiant e8ort and being aided 'ith supplies, 'eapons
and volunteers from France and Gritain, the Finns surrendered.

They 'ere allo'ed to &eep their independence in return for coastal areas
'hich 0talin felt 'as crucial to the defense of 7ussia.
Glitz&rieg
Glitz&rieg 'as a ne' method of mechanized 'arfare that 'as based on the
airplane and tan& and depended on surprise, speed and lots of ground force.
The ,ermans needed a s'ift 'ay to defeat other nations because they did
not have the resources for a prolonged 'ar.
The pattern of Glitz&rieg
a. Gombers attac&ed enemy air(elds and communication centers
b. Aarachutists dropped behind enemy lines to capture bridges and other
important targets.
c. 1ive bombers moved ahead of the tan&s attac&ing enemy strong
points.
d. Tan&s bro&e through 'ea& points in the enemy line and traveled
Ouic&ly over long distances.
e. =otorized infantry follo'ed to mop up resistance.
This strategy 'or&ed e;tremely 'ell against Aoland, Nor'ay, 1enmar&,
Gelgium, Holland and France.
0itz&rieg6
9fter the fall of Aoland, the ,ermans did not ma&e another lightning stri&e
until 9pril 19"#.
These si; months came to be &no'n as the IAhony 2arJ because no (ghting
actually too& place.
Hitler used this time to strengthen his forces, 'here other nations made
some miscalculations*
a. The Gritish and French put a little too much faith in secret peace
negotiations 'ith Hitler 'ho they felt 'ould be impeded by their
bloc&ade and economic 'arfare.
87
b. The Gritish rearmament e8ort 'as not forceful enough.
c. The French felt secure enough behind their =aginot line.
d. The neutral countries felt secure in the neutrality especially Gelgium
and Nor'ay 'ho 'ould not allo' foreign forces on their soil.$
e. The French and Gritish felt that the ma4or attac& 'ould come through
central Gelgium and therefore stationed their main forces along the
French border.
>n 9pril 9 Hitler unleashed Glitz&rieg in 1enmar&, forcing their surrender that
same day.
9t the same time they attac&ed Nor'ay, 'hich 'as strategic to protect the
North 0ea access to 0'eden from 'hich the Nazis got resources.
Gy early 5une, Nor'ay had fallen.
The success of the ,ermans caused political crises in both France and Gritain*
o 1aladier is replaced by 7eynaud
o -hamberlain 'as replaced by -hurchill
>n =ay 1#, Hitler invaded the lo' countries and France*
o The Netherlands 'as defeated in @ days.
o +t too& 1D days to defeat Gelgium
o France lasted fro about E 'ee&s
The lo' countries 'ere occupied
7oughly t'o-thirds of Northern France 'as occupied 'hile a small puppet
regime 'as set up in the south called :ichy France under ,eneral Aetain.
5ust prior to the French surrender, =ussolini entered the 'ar by attac&ing
France.
Gritain 'as left alone to (ght the 9;is.
Gattle of Gritain 19"#$
This became the ma4or turning point in the 'as as the Nazis) aggression 'as
th'arted for the (rst time, casting them to ultimately have to (ght a t'o-
front 'ar.
+n order to launch a successful invasion of Gritain, Hitler needed to &noc& out
the 79F.
Therefore, during 5uly and 9ugust, the <uft'a8e made attac&s on shipping in
the channel, as 'ell as air(eld and munitions factories.
Cnable to sustain the high losses in the dog(ghts, in 0eptember Hitler turned
to bombing Gritain)s cities in an attempt to brea& Gritain morale and force an
armistice.
9lthough the bombing outlasted until =ay, by >ctober Hitler had already
called o8 the invasion of Gritain >peration 0ea <ion$
There 'ere a number of factors, 'hich ensured Gritish success in this
campaign.
9. +ntelligence
- Aossession of the &ey to ,erman radio codes Cltra$ gave the Gritish
advance 'arning of ,erman plans.
- -aptured spies 'ere turned into double agents and fed bac& inaccurate
information to the Nazis
88
- 7adar provided &ey information about the location of incoming
bombers.
G. Gritish factories 'ere able to turn out huge numbers of ne' planes.
-. The Nazis s'itch from strategic bombing to 3blitz&rieg) allo'ed the 79F to
recover its previous losses.
1. The performance of Gritish and other volunteer pilots 'ere outstanding
The =editerranean Q North 9frica
Arior to launching its attac& on the C007, the 2ehrmacht sent successful
action in North 9frica and the Gal&ans.
Gy 5uly 19"1 7omania and Gulgaria had 4oined the 9;is, and they had
defeated ,reece and Pugoslavia.
The fall of -rete 'as especially serious for Gritain as it put the .astern
=editerranean in danger of ,erman control 'hich could cut o8 access
through the 0uez -anal to the oil-(elds of the =iddle .ast as 'ell as +ndia and
the Far .ast.
>peration Garbarossa 19"1-"B
9lthough the ,ermans made remar&able progress 'ith their blitz&rieg
techniOues, the 'inter of 19"1-"B stopped their advances.
They resumed their attac& in 5une, 19"B 'ith an attac& on 0talingrad to
capture the oil (elds of the -aucasus region and 'ith an attempt to capture
=osco'.
The 0oviets successfully counter-attac&ed and thus began the beginning of
Nazi defeat on the .astern Front.
To 'hat e;tent 'as the 0oviet Cnion prepared for 'ar in 19"16
Pes No
They 'ere prepared because of
their (ve years plan.
They had the largest number of
tan&s in the 'orld
7eady for an o8ensive 'ar.
The 7ed 9rmy 'as in disarray
due to the purges
0talin did not 'ant 'ar and even
still tried to appease Hitler
sho's that C007 is still
incapable of 'ar$
Not prepared for a defensive 'ar.
0talin)s political blunders led to
the 7ed 9rmy)s lac& of readiness.
89
9n inarguably crucial moment in 0oviet Cnion history, >peration Garbarossa
of 19"1 tested the 0oviet Cnion to the limit. The 0oviet Cnion through the Five
Pear Alan had been rearming and stoc&piling adeOuate military eOuipment
including tan&s, aircraft, munitions, etc. They 'ere in fact based on their
eOuipment ready for an o8ensive 'ar. Ho'ever in 19"1, a series of political
blunders by 0talin compounded to the fact that the 7ed 9rmy 'as not ready for a
defensive 'ar. 0talin made a series of miscalculations regarding Hitler)s actions
and the 7ed 9rmy itself 'as in disarray due to the purges. The 0oviet Cnion 'as
in fact ready for a 'ar, but not for the 'ar 'aged upon them in 19"1.
2as the rapidity of 0oviet defeat in 19"1 due entirely to errors of made 4udgement
made by 0talin6
Pes No
0talin)s miscalculation led to the
unpreparedness of the 7ed
9rmy.
0talin 'arded of 'arnings from
his intelligence 'hich gave
,ermany the element of
surprise.
7ed 9rmy purges
1id not order mobilization
,erman e8ectiveness
=inority defections
From Euro(ean to 'orld 'ar
9lthough oLcially isolationist, the C09 found 'ays to help the 9llies through
the <end-<ease 9ct through 'hich the 9mericans became the self-proclaimed
3arsenal of democracy).
<end-<ease promised to lend or sell 'ar materials to Iany country 'hose
defense the Aresident deems vital to the defense of the Cnited 0tatesJ.
+n 9ugust 19"1 7oosevelt met secretly 'ith -hurchill and they issued the
9tlantic -harter.
9tlantic -harter goals*
a. 3The (nal destruction of Nazi tyranny.)
b. 3The right of all peoples to choose the form of government under 'hich
they lived.)
c. 9 3permanent system of general security.)
0ince the 19?#s 5apan had been trying to conOuer -hina and 'ith the
outbrea& of 'ar in .urope, they sa' an opportunity to grab .uropean
possession in 9sia.
To stop 5apanese aggression, the C0 banned the sale of 'ar materials, such
as iron and steel, to 5apan.
90
>n 1ecember D, 19"1 5apan attac&ed the Cnited 0tates in Ha'aii bringing the
C09 into the 'ar.
Three days later ,ermany and +taly also declared 'ar on the C09.
Thus ma&ing the C09 and the 0oviet Cnion allies.
No' the Gig Three could 'or& together to defeat their common enemiesS
)ccu(ied Euro(e and the Final Solution
7epressions in .astern .urope, especially in 7ussia 'as 'orse than
else'here, ho'ever, in all occupied countries the populations su8ered.
9ll occupied countries 'ere made to pay for the cost of occupation and many
civilians 'ere forced into slave labor for the Nazis.
+n Aoland over a million ,ermans 'ere brought in as part of the colonization
program dislocating local inhabitants. The active destruction of Aolish culture
too& place.
9s ,ermany invaded .uropean countries, they began to round up the 5e's
and ship them to isolated concentration camps.
+n Aoland and other occupied eastern .uropean countries, 5e's 'ere made to
live in ghettos 'here they 'ere often starved or 'or&ed to death.
2ith the invasion of 7ussia in 19"1 special 00 groups 'ere formed
T.insatsgruppenU to 3deal 'ith) all resistance (ghters, -ommunist party
oLcials and 5e's.
+n 5anuary 19"B Nazi leaders met to discuss strategy to &ill all .uropean 5e's
at the 2annsee -onference.
Final 0olution
+t 'as decided that secret e;termination camps, eOuipped 'ith gas
chambers, 'ould be built in Aoland.
From all over .urope 5e's and others 'ould be brought to these camps.
2hat tactics did the Nazis use to get the 5e's to leave the ,hettos6
1. 0tarvation
o The 5e's in the 2arsa' ,hetto 'ere only fed a 1### calories a day
o 9 human being needs B"### calories a day to maintain their 'eight
o Hungry people are easier to control
B. Terror
o The 00 publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of
resistance
?. 1eception
o The 5e's 'ere told that they 'ere going to 3resettlement areas) in the
.ast.
o +n some ,hettos the 5e's had to purchase their o'n train tic&ets
o They 'ere told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans
9bout ".@ million 5e's 'ere &illed in these camps
9ll together the Nazis &illed about E million .uropean 5e's
erman Defeat
91
>peration >verlord
2ith the C-boat threat defeated and the Luftwafe almost eliminated, the
'estern 9llies 'ere ready to mount a cross-channel invasion.
The ,ermans 'ere e;pecting thus and thus had defensive preparations in
France and the <o' countries / ho'ever, they didn)t &no' 'here e;actly to
e;pect the assault.
1'ight 1. .isenho'er 'as appointed overall commander of the operation.
Normandy 'as chosen as the landing point.
9fter almost a year of meticulous planning, 1-1ay 'as launched on 5une
E,19""
The 9llies overcame the problem of Normandy having no port by bringing
over t'o %oating harbors.
B?,### 9llied airborne 'ere dropped over Normandy in the early da'n.
The landings at Normandy too& the ,ermans by surprise, and it too& them
several days to really believe that this 'as the main attac&, thus they &ept
many of their forces at -alais in anticipation of the )real) attac&.
Gy 5uly 1D the 9llies had managed to land over a million troops in France.
Gy the end of 9ugust the 9llies had liberated France.
The 'ar in the 'est no' became a push by the 9llies to'ards ,ermany.
They e;perienced a ma4or setbac& in 0eptember 'ith the failure of >peration
=ar&et ,arden to ta&e the bridges over the 7hine in 9rnhem, Holland.
Gy the autumn of 19"", the 9llied advance into occupied .urope had stalled.
Nonetheless, =ontgomery 'as con(dent that the ,ermans 'ere in near
defeat.
>n 1ecember 1E, Hitler launched his last ma4or countero8ensive, 'hich too&
.isenho'er by surprise.
9lthough ultimately unsuccessful, the Gattle of the Gulge had a high cost for
both sides.
o C0 su8ered !1,### casualtiesM 19,### dead
o ,ermans lost nearly 1##,### men and much eOuipment
The main conseOuence 'as that by committing ,ermany)s last reserves to
the 2estern Front, it guaranteed the 7ed 9rmy a rapid advance in its 'inter
o8ensive, 'hich began in 5anuary 19"@.
The 0oviet 'inter o8ensive 'as devastating losses for the ,ermans as they
'ere totally outmanned and under eOuipped.
The ,ermans put up sti8 resistance on many fronts, and the month of 9pril
19"@ sa' almost as many 9merican deaths as in 5une 19"".
7oosevelt died 9pril 1B, 19"@ and 'as replaced by Harry Truman 'ho
continued on 'ith the 'ar e8ort.
>n 9pril B!, 19"@ =ussolini 'as shot by +talian partisans.
0ince mid-5anuary, Hitler hand con(ned himself to his bun&er under the
-hancellery in Gerlin from 'hich he issued increasingly unrealistic orders.
92
.isenho'er, &no'ing that Gerlin 'ould fall into the 0oviet post-'ar zone, and
not 'anting to ris& the high casualties, as 'ell as honoring the high price in
casualties paid by the 7ed 9rmy, allo'ed the 7ed 9rmy the prize of Gerlin.
The ,ermans thre' everything they had into defending Gerlin from the
0oviets.
The 7ed 9rmy)s Gattle for Gelin began on 9pril 1".
Hitler ordered the total destruction of ,ermany as punishment to the ,erman
people for failing him. 9lthough 9rmaments =inister 0peer did not boey this
order, many ,ermans &ept (ghting even though they &ne' the 'ar 'as lost.
9s the 7ussians neared Hitler)s bun&er, on 9pril ?#, Hitler committed suicide.
9dmiral 1onitz 'as Hitler)s appointed successor.
Full, unconditional surrender 'as on =ay D, 'ith =ay ! being celebrated as
3:ictory in .urope) :.$ day.
%ntroduction to the Cold 'ar
9 basic understanding of the -old 2ar*
1. 9 fundamental con%ict bet'een capitalism and communism
a. -apitalism is an economic system in 'hich the production of goods and
their distribution depend on the investment of private capital 'ith a
vie' to ma&ing pro(t. 7un by individuals rather than the state.
b. -ommunism sees capitalism as evil e;ploitation of the 'or&ing class
and believes that liberal parliamentary democracy is a sham 'hich
conceals the controlling role of big business and capital in society.
7ather, it sets out to create a society 'here there is no private 'ealth
nor need for government.
B. 9n increasingly bipolar con%ict bet'een the C09 and C007.
?. There 'as a prolonged arms race 'ith an intense build up of both nuclear and
conventional 'eapons.
". Goth sides denied each other)s legitimacy as a regime and attempted to
attac& each other by every means short of 'ar.
@. .ach side suppressed its internal dissidents.
0uperpo'er 1ecision =a&ing / Teheran
+t 'as under conditions of mutual fear and suspicion that The Gig Three meet
for the (rst time in Teheran in November of 19"? to ma&e plans for .urope
once Hitler 'as defeated.
+t 'as agreed that after the 'ar, .astern Aoland 'ould became part of the
0oviet Cnion, and in return, Aoland 'ould get some ,erman land.
0talin agreed that as soon as ,ermany 'as defeated, the 0oviets 'ould
declare 'ar on 5apan.
The most signi(cant decision to be made at the Teheran -onference 'as the
agreement of Gritain and the C09 to open a 0econd Front against ,ermany in
the 2est.
This 'as against -hurchill)s better 4udgment, as his preference 'as to launch
a second front in the Gal&ans.
93
9 ma4or 'ea&ness of the Teheran -onference is that no political agreements
'ere made about the future of eastern .urope, and that largely guaranteed
0oviet domination once their 7ed 9rmy 'as in place.
-hurchill 'ould have preferred to have some more concrete agreements that
mar&ed out spheres of in%uence, but 7oosevelt 'ould not agree to this.
Palta, February 19"@
0talin agreed to support the proposed Cnited Nations.
0talin con(rmed that he 'ould (ght 5apan once ,ermany 'as defeated. +n
return he 'ould get some 5apanese held territory.
2ith regards to ,ermany*
9ll agreed on the priority of unconditional surrender
,ermany 'ould be de-Nazi(ed and demilitarized.
,erman reparations 'ere to be partly in the form of forced labor.
Those Nazis responsible for the holocaust and other 'ar crimes 'ould be put
on trial.
,ermany and Gerlin 'ould be split into " occupied zones*
Gy this point, the 9mericans and Gritish 'ere Ouite concerned about the fact
that the 0oviets, by virtue to the 7ed 9rmy occupation, had de facto control
over eastern .urope.
IGattle (eld facts that diplomacy could not alterV
Therefore, they tried to ma&e an agreement that 'ould limit the 0oviet)s
control in this region.
I1eclaration on <iberated .uropeJ 'as signed
The 1eclaration contained no mechanisms for the enforcement of its
principles.
Gy signing the document 0talin bought himself time to consolidate his
territorial gains.
The 2estern 9llies also agreed to the forced repatriation of all 0oviet citizens
The allies left Palta placated, but 'ary.
0talin 'as able to &eep .astern .urope 'ithin the 0oviet sphere of in%uence
'ithout having to directly confront the 2est.
I 9lgebra versus 9rithmeticJ
0talin is said to have remar&ed that he vie'ed declarations as algebra.
For 0talin 3Palta) represented algebra, 'here his practical arithmetic included*
a. The 7ed 9rmy)s occupation of .astern .urope
b. The huge 0oviet 'ar dead (gures
c. The cost of appro;imately C0 W"# billion to rebuild the C007
He 'as loo&ing for a 0oviet sphere of in%uence in .astern .urope and
(nancial support either from the 9llies or from reparations from a defeated
,ermany.
Thus, although he signed the declarations at Palta, there 'ere early
indications such as the arrest and deportation to labor camps of Aolish
intellectuals and democrats$ that he did not intend to be bound by them.
94
The *nited Nations )rganization
Foundations* From ,reat -oalition to Cnited Nations
+n 5anuary 19"B, the C0, Gritain, C007 and -hina, as 'ell as BB other states,
signed the Cnited Nations 1eclaration, 'hich formally inaugurated the
coalition established to defeat the 9;is.
The 9ugust 19"1 9tlantic -harter, reminiscent of 2ilson)s 1" points, became
the stated purposes and principles of the early Cnited Nations.
Gy 19"? tal& of IS the necessity of establishing at the earliest practicable
date a general international organizationSJ 'as begun.
The 'or& of drafting the -harter of the CN too& place in 0an Francisco,
beginning in 9pril 'ith completion in 5une 19"@.
Found Aurposes and Arinciples*
1. The maintenance of peace and security
B. The development of friendly relations bet'een nations.
?. The furtherance of international cooperation in solving problems of an
economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character.
". The establishment of a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.
=embership 'as to be 3open to all peace-loving states). Ho'ever it 'as based upon
the recommendation of the 0ecurity -ouncil and a BF? vote in the 9ssembly.
The ,eneral 9ssembly
=eets annually and in special sessions, as occasions reOuire.
1ra's up the CN budget, assesses each members) share of costs, elects the
0ecretary-,eneral as 'ell as the 4udges of the +nternational -ourt of 5ustice,
receives reports from various CN agencies and recommends actions.
.ach nation attends, but each only has one vote.
>n issues regarding 3peace and security), a BF? ma4ority is needed, 'hile on
other issues, it)s a simple ma4ority.
7ecommendations of the 9ssembly are not bindingM there is no po'er to carry
them out, e;cept the force of public opinion and the 'illingness of disputing
po'ers to cooperate.
The 0ecurity -ouncil
C0, C007, Gritain, France and -hina Gig @$ 'ere all made permanent
members, 'hile there 'ere E non-permanent members.
=aintains peace, settles disputes among nations, and prevents or resists
aggression.
.ach of the Gig @ can prevent the 0ecurity -ouncil from ta&ing action by
using their veto.
The +nternational -ourt of 5ustice
5urisdiction of the -ourt e;tends to Iall cases 'hich the parties refer to it and
all matters specially provided for in the -harter of the CN or the treaties and
conventions in force.J
Potsdam+ ,uly !"-.
Temperatures begin to drop
95
Factors a8ecting this change*
The 'ar in .urope 'as over.
Gasically all of .astern .urope is occupied by the 7ed 9rmy, 'hich 0talin 'as
un'illing to 'ithdra'. .vidence pointed to 0talin not honoring the Palta
declaration.
7oosevelt had been replaced by Harry Truman 'ho 'as much more
suspicious and pessimistic about negotiations 'ith the 0oviet Cnion.
The C09 no' had the bomb, so Truman didn)t need anything from 0talin any
more.
-lement 9tlee had replaced -hurchill as Gritain)s Arime =inister.
1ecisions made at Aotsdam
1. ,ermany
a. 1etails of military occupations zones infalized
b. 1ecision to treat ,ermany as a single economic unit.
c. "-po'er 9llied -ontrol -ouncil set up to handle future issues
B. 7eparations
a. .ach po'er 'as to collect industrial eOuipment from its o'n zone
b. 0ince its o'n zone 'as mainly agricultural, the C007 'ould receive
additional reparations from other zones
?. Aoland
a. 2estern boundary to be moved 'est at the e;pense of ,ermany
". 7epatriation
a. ,erman living in Aoland, Hungary and -zechoslova&ia 'ere to return to
,ermany.
Tensions*
1. 2estern suspicions about the 0oviets intentions in .astern .urope increased
because*
a. 0oviets did not allo' non-communist leaders to return to po'er
b. Far more ,ermans 'ere e;pelled from the .astern .urope than the
2estern 9llies had e;pected.
B. 0oviet suspicions about C0 intentions increased because*
a. Truman did not tell 0talin that the C09 intended to drop an atomic
bomb.
b. +n =ay, 9merica had abruptly cut <end-<ease aid to the C007.
ro&th of Communism in Eastern Euro(e
1. -ontrol of the police
B. 1isappearance of pro democratic supporters
Factors 'or&ing in the favor of the -ommunist Aarties in all of .urope*
o -ommunists had been very active in the underground and resistance,
and therefore, they 'ere very popular 'ith the people.
o Aost'ar economic chaos ma&es a -ommunist 7evolution more
appealing.
5oseph 0talin enforced the iron curtain and -hurchill is trying to go around it.
Communist /Fifth Columns0
96
9ny ,roup of people 'ho aided the enemy from 'ithin their o'n country.
1. =anchuria
The 0oviets began supporting the -hinese -ommunists
B. North Horea
The government become communist
?. Tur&ey
0talin 'anted a 0oviet military presence in the 1ardanelles and the
Gosporus
". +ran
The 0oviets 'ould not remove their troops on time.
@. ,reece
,ree& -ommunists 'ere (ghting a civil 'ar 'ith the democratically
elected government.
Ne' C0 Aolicies 'ith the Truman 1octrine
1. 9bandoned the policy of isolationism and became a leader in 'orld a8airs.
B. Gegan an open policy of resistance to 0oviet e;pansion that came to be
&no'n as -ontainment.
Aossible e;planations for -ontainment)s popularity in the 2est*
1. The 2est 0a' the C007 in the same light as they sa' Nazi ,ermany, and
purposed not to appease another aggressive regime.
B. The C0 felt threatened because*
They had been attac&ed
They had interests all over the 'orld
7apid advancements in 'eapons technology made e;isting arsenals
obsolete.
?. Fear of another 'orld-'ide economic collapse made it more imperative to
&eep 'orld commerce 3free).
". The threat of the 'ar 'ith the C007 'ould have a 3positive) impact on the
9merican morale and economy.
@. The C0 military needed an 3enemy) in order to maintain its economic and
political status.
The 1arshall Plan
5une, 19"D$
9n 9merican program of aid to help .urope rebuild.
The C0 'as concerned about .uropean economic recovery and stability
because*
o .conomic collapse ma&es fertile breeding ground for communism.
o They 'ere concerned about the humanitarian needs of .uropeans
o .urope)s poor economy threatened their o'n economic 'ell-being.
Gefore 19"D C0 aid to .urope had been irregular.
C0 0ecretary of 0tate ,eorge =arshall called for the C0 to ,+:. WB# Gillion to
revive .uropean economies.
97
This o8er 'as made to any .uropean states 'illing to 'or& together to'ards
economic recovery.
+t soon became clear that the .astern Gloc countries 'ould not be allo'ed to
participate.
-zechoslova&ia
+n 19"@ Aresident Genes agreed to pinpoint -ommunists to run important
ministries in return for 0oviet help to reconstruct his country.
+n 19"E a coalition government 'as set up 'ith both -ommunists and non-
-ommunists.
+n 19"D, 0talin forbade the -zechs to 4oin the =arshall plan.
+n 19"! -zechoslova&ia is (rmly under a pro-0oviet -ommunist government.
0oviet 7esponse to the Alan*
a. The -ominform Nov. 3"D$
The -ommunist +nformation Gureau 'as a body of -ommunist
leaders 'hose function 'as to fan revolutionary zeal throughout
.urope through the use of propaganda.
b. The -omecom
The -ouncil for =utual .conomic 9ssistance 19"9$ 'as set up to
help 'ith economic reconstruction.
The Pugoslavian .;ception
The Pugoslavian -ommunists led by Tito$ 'ere the only eastern .uropean
country to liberate themselves from the Nazis and therefore they 'ere never
occupied by the 7ed 9rmy.
Ho'ever, Tito 'as a 0talinist and loyal to the 0oviet Cnion.
Gut he 'as not a 3yes) man. He had his o'n ideas 'ith regards to economic
strategies for Pugoslavia.
+t 'as this independent spirit that posed a direct threat to 0oviet hegemony
in the region.
+n 19"! 0talin had Pugoslavia e;pelled from the -omecom, thin&ing that this
'ould bring Tito bac& in line.
+nstead, Tito appealed to 9merica for economic assistance and thereby
became the (rst =ar;ist nation to receive C0 aid and thus began the 9
merican policy of aiding any state 'hich opposed the 0oviets.
The de%ection of Pugoslavia from behind the curtain intensi(ed 0talin)s fears
and thus he began another round of purges 'ithin the -ommunist elite of the
0atellite countries.
Conse2uences of the 1arshall Plan
.uropean economic recovery 'as accelerated through cooperation of 1E
states in the >..-.
+t served C0 economic interests by restoring a 'orld mar&et.
+t sharpened the divide bet'een the 0oviet Gloc and the 2est.
+t proved to be the most successful C0 foreign policy program of the -old
2ar.
98
The 3erlin 3loc4ade and T&o ermanies
T'o vie's on 'hat to do 'ith ,ermany*
The 0oviets 'anted*
o 9 'ea& ,ermany under four zones.
The 2estern 9llies 'anted*
o 9 ne' and improved ,ermany.
Negotiations on the future of ,ermany 'ithin the -ontrol -ouncil 'ere
stagnant.
Fearful that a united ,ermany 'ould be hostile to the C007 and that any ne'
3'estern) currency 'ould undermine 0oviet control in their zone, 0talin
bloc&ed any cooperation bet'een zones.
Therefore, early in 19"!, the 2estern zones merged together and 4oined the
>..-.
+n 5une 19"! the 1eustche =ar& 'as introduced throughout the 2estern
,erman and Gerlin zones.
0talin issued the currency issue to test the resolve of the 2estern po'ers
regarding ,ermany by ordering a bloc&ade of all ground access to the
2estern zones of Gerlin. 5une B", 19"!$
1uring this time the 0oviets organized mass rallies to convince Gerliners to
support a united city council led by -ommunists.
They also cut electricity to the 2estern sectors to " hours per day.
1espite this, 2est Gerliners continued to support the 2estern 9llies and hang
on for democracy.
>n =ay 1B, 19"9, the 0oviets (nally lifted the bloc&ade.
E5ects of the 3erlin 3loc4ade
2ashington believed that in contrast to the 'ea&nesses of appeasement, the
victory over the bloc&ade 'as their (rst victory in the -old 2ar.
2est ,erman morale and trust in 9merica to protect them from 0oiet
aggression 'as greatly enhanced 'hich made them 'illing to live in a state
that 'ould be 'ithin 9merica)s sphere of in%uence in .urope
+n 0eptember 19"9 the ne' Federal 7epublic of ,ermany 2est ,ermany$
came into being.
o +t 'as not allo'ed an army of its o'n, and C0, Gritish and French forces
remained on ,erman soil as a safeguard against resurgent ,erman
aggression as 'ell as an invasion by 0oviet ground forces.
+n >ctober 19"9 the 0oviet occupation zone became the ,erman 1emocratic
7epublic .ast ,ermany$.
o .ast ,ermany remained a one-party state under the ,erman
-ommunist Aarty.
o <arge numbers of 0oviet troops remained stationed there to ensure
.ast ,erman)s continued 3loyalty) to =osco'.
:ie's on the division of ,ermany*
99
o The hostility bet'een the t'o ,ermanies after 19"9 served to deepen
the suspicions and increase tensions so that ,ermany became, for
many, both the center of and symbol of the -old 2ar.
o >thers see this division giving a de facto balance 'hile resolving the
historic problem of an over'helmingly po'erful and populous ,ermany
in -entral .urope.
The Defense of Euro(e
+n =arch 19"!, concerned about possible 0oviet aggression in .urope, several
'estern nations signed the Grussels Treaty, 'hich brought the 2estern
.uropean Cnion, a defensive alliance, into being.
Ho'ever, 'estern .uropean nations believed that there could be no real
security against communist aggression 'ithout the deterrent of 9merican
airpo'er and atomic 'eapons.
9merican congressmen supported the idea that the actual front line for the
defense of democracy 'asn)t the 9tlantic >cean, but rather than the 7iver
.lbe 'hich divided the t'o ,ermanies.
=oreover, they considered that economic aid 'asn)t enough and that
9merican military assistance 'as urgently reOuired to enable 2estern
.uropean nations to recover economically and politically.
9fter much negotiation, it 'as agreed that the area to be protected 'ould be
enlarged from 4ust the C0 and the Grussels Treaty nations to include -anada,
1enmar&, +celand, +taly, Nor'ay and Aortugal.
The North 9tlantic Treaty organization came into being 9ugust 19"9.
9t the time of its conception, fe' 9mericans felt that they 'ould actually be
reOuired to come to the military defense of .urope, and thus sa' N9T> as a
3shield and s'ord) concept*
o The shield being .uropean ground forces to halt a 0oviet advance
o The s'ord being the C0 atomic 'eapons.
Ho'ever, several events changed this limited and defensive concept of
N9T>*
o The discovery in 9ugust 19"9 that the 0oviets had successfully tested
an atomic bomb.
o The communist ta&eover of -hina in >ctober 19"9
o The 19@# revie' of 9merica)s armed Forces N0--E!$ 'hich concluded
that 9merica)s military po'er 'as inadeOuate to prevent the 0oviets
from obtaining 'orld domination.
o The invasion of 0outh Horea in 5une 19@#.
0omething had to be done to bolster N9T>)s strength, ho'ever the
.uropeans had no budget for increased military spending.
Therefore, the 9mericans too& on the bul& of strengthening N9T> by
assuming central military command of ground forces and promising to place
more troops in .urope.
100
The 9mericans 'ere &een to see 2est ,ermany be allo'ed to contribute
troops to N9T>, ho'ever this idea disconcerted their .uropean allies,
particularly France.
+n =ay 19@@, 2est ,ermany became member of N9T>.
+n 19@1 ,reece and Tur&ey 4oined N9T>. From Tur&ey the C0 had the
capability to launch air raids against the southern C007 as 'ell as bloc& any
0oviet attempt to advance on the oil(elds of the =iddle .ast.
The prospect of a strengthened N9T> caused 0talin to signi(cantly
strengthen his military po'er.
=ilitary training and the allocation of military resources in the satellite states
'as closely controlled by =osco'.
The establishment of a formal military alliance called the 2arsa' Aact 'as
not publicly announced until =ay 19@@.
+nterpretations on the -old 2ar
The >rthodo; or Traditional .;planation
Glames the C007 for the -old 2ar
9uthoritarian socialism vs. 1emocratic capitalism.
7ussian nationalist e;pansion
The 7evisionist .;planation
Historians in the 19E#s
Glame the C09 for the -old 2ar
7epeated attac&s made it natural for the C007 to create a condition of
security
C09 see&ing continual economic e;pansion and ultimate 'orld domination.
The Aost-7evisionist .;planation
Glames a lac& of communication and understanding for the -old 2ar
.;amples of Aost-7evisionist :ie's*
o The Cold War grew out of a complicated interaction of eternal and
internal de!elopments inside both the "nited States and the So!iet
"nion#
o The eternal situation $circumstances be%ond the control of either
power& left Americans and Russians facing one another across
prostrated 'urope at the end of World War ((#
o (nternal in)uences in the So!iet "nion $ the search for securit%* the
role of ideolog%* massi!e postwar reconstruction needs* the personalit%
of stalin $together with those in the "nited States& the ideal of self&
determination* fear of communism* the illusion of omnipotence
fostered b% American economic strength and the atomic bomb $ made
the resulting confrontation a hostile one#
o Leaders from both superpowers sought peace* but in doing so %ielded
to considerations* which* while the% did not precipitate war* made a
resolution of diferences impossible# +,ohn Lewis -addis)
101
The fall of the =anchu 1ynasty
Cp until the 91th century, -hina had been very closed to the outside 'orld
and thus had developed a very uniOue culture over the centuries.
9lso at the heart of -hinese society 'as the value of obedience to authority /
be it familial, societal or political.
These t'o factors played a large role in the creation of a society that
disdained individualism and e;tolled conformity.
Cp to the beginning of the B#
th
century -hina had a long history of imperial
rule.
The last royal house to rule -hina 'as that of the =anchus -h)ing 1ynasty$
'ho had ruled since 1E"".
9t the turn of the century -hina had several 'ea&nesses 'hen compared to
other nations*
o 9 large and ine8ective bureaucracy
o +ndustrial bac&'ardness.
The Chinese Revolution and the Early Re(u6lic 7!"!!8!9:
The years bet'een 19## and 1911 sa' great economic, social and political
chaos in -hina 'ith more and more rebellion and resistance to =achu rule.
Follo'ing a successful uprising in the south on >ctober 1#, 1911, 0un Pat-sen
proclaimed a ne' central government called the 7epublic of -hina 'ith its
capital at Nan4ing.
+n February 191B, Au Pi abdicated.
0un Pat-sen formed a nationalist party 191B$ called the ,uomindang ,=1$
and 'as a popular reform (gure.
The ,=1 had little in%uence as they 'ere sidelined by the reactionary
=anchu ,eneral Puan 0hi&ai 'ho 'as to be the provisional president until the
elections of 191B.
+n the elections of 191BF191? the ,=1 gained a ma4ority of seats in the
parliament, ho'ever, Puan used the army to repress the ,=1 and disbanded
the party and either &illed its leading (gures or chased them into e;ile.
The Era of the 'arlords 7!"!98;<:
+n 191E Puan himself faced a military revolt and 'as deposed
This ushered in a period of chaos &no'n as the 2arlord .ra 191E-19BD$.
The peasants su8ered most during this time as they 'ere levied 'ith heavy
ta;es to pay for the 'arlords) armies.
0un Pat-sen realized that the ,=1 needed a disciplined organizational and
military structure to unite all of -hina and loo&ed to the C007 for help.
19B1 sa' the formation of the -hinese -ommunist Aarty --A$ 'hich initially
also 'or&ed closely 'ith the -omintern. =ao Tse-tung 'as a founding
member.
102
=ao)s belief 'as that -hina should not follo' the C007 model of urban
revolution but rather favored a peasant revolution. This brought him into
con%ict 'ith the -omintern.
The ,=1 and --A 4oined in a Cnited Fort to combat the 'arlords and foreign
imperialists.
+n 19B@ 0un yat-sen died 'as replaced by -hiang Hai-she& 5iang-5ieshi$ 'ho
'as po'er hungry and ruthless.
The Cnited Front 'as Ouite successful in defeating the 'arlords but -hiang
'as alarmed by the gro'ing po'er of the -ommunists.
Gy 19BD, 'ith the 'arlords defeated, -hiang turns on his --A allies and tries
to obliterate them in a movement &no'n as the I2hite Terror of 19BDJ.
=ao Xedong <enin
Goth 'ere pragmatic, did not adhere to =ar;ist theories at all times
9ppealed to the people 'ith ideas. 9pril Thesis$
+mposed himself on the party
through Futien.
1id not impose himself on the
party, gained his position.
The =anan Soviet 7!";<8!"#<:
The remnants of the --A %ed under the leadership of =ao the hills of
southern -hina 5iang;i province$.
Here he trained the --A in the tactics of peasant guerilla 'arfare.
-hiang)s forces continued to try to destroy the --A.
+n 19?" the -ommunists undertoo& 'hat have become &no'n as 3The <ong
=arch) to Panan to escape -hiang)s army.
+n Panan, =ao overcame his rivals 'ithin the --A and developed his o'n
brand of =ar;ism-<eninism 'ith its heavy emphasis upon peasant revolution.
The Sino8,a(anese 'ar
Gy 19?D 5apanese aggression in -hina stimulated a rene'al of the --A-,=1
Cnited Front.
Ho'ever, -hiang 'as still more concerned 'ith defeating the --A than the
5apanese 'hile =ao)s struggle against the 5apanese did much to endear him
to the -hinese people.
1uring this time both 9merica and the C007 preferred to recognize the ,=1
as the legitimate -hinese government.

103