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PHYSICS form 4

TOPIC: FORCE AND MOTION

CONTENT: a) Understanding work, energy, power and efficiency.

CHAPTER HIGHLIGHT

WORK :

(30 minutes)

1. Work done = Force x Displacement in the direction of this force

W = F

x

s

where,

W = work

F

= force

S

= Displacement in the direction of the force

2. The SI unit for work is the joule (J).

3. Activities :

Activity 1. Fill in the blank .

a. Work done is a form of

b. Work done is defined as a product of force and

c. Greater work done is needed if the displacement of the object moved is longer.

Activity 2 :

A

boy pushing his bicycle with a force

of

25N through a distance of 3m.

The work done by the boy … ?

Solution :

Activity 3:

A

girl lifting up a 3kg flower pot steadily

to

a height of 0.4m.

The work done by the girl….?

Solution :

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of the object is greater and the

PHYSICS form 4

Activity 4 :

A storekeeper pulling a box along the floor with a force of 40N through a distance of 6m. The work done in pulling the box….?

Solution :

ENERGY

1. Energy can be defined as the capacity to do work.

2. Energy transfer when work is done.

3. Form of energy :

Kinetic energy is the energy of an object due to its motion Gravitational potential energy
Kinetic energy is the
energy of an object due
to its motion
Gravitational potential
energy is the energy of an
object due to its higher
position
Elastic potential energy is
the energy stored is a
stretched object
Forms of energy
Chemical energy stored in the cell
is
released as electrical energy when
Sound energy is released
by vibrating tuning fork
a
Heat energy is the energy
released by a hot object
when it cools down
current flows in the circuit. Part of
the electrical energy is released as
light energy in the light bulb.

4. Kinetic Energy ( Ek ) ,

Ek = ½ mv 2

Activity :

What is the kinetic energy of a man of mass 50kg jogging at a velocity of 3m/s ? Solution :

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PHYSICS form 4

5. Gravitational Potential Energy ( Ep ),

Ep = mgh

Activity :

In a diving competition, a boy of 40kg stands on a 3m high pringboard. What is the gravitational potentialenergy of the boy ? Solution :

6.

(a)

State the change of energy for the dolphins in the(b) State the principle of conservation

.

figure below

of energy for the roller coaster in figure below.

below of energy for the roller coaster in figure below. Answer: POWER Answer: 1. Power is

Answer:

POWER

energy for the roller coaster in figure below. Answer: POWER Answer: 1. Power is defined as

Answer:

1.

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done,

 

Power

=

Work done

 

Time taken

 

P

=

W

 
 

t

2.

The SI unit of power is watt ( W ).

3.

A

power of 1W is generated when 1J of work is done in 1s.

4.

Activity :

 

A crane with an output power of 12kW is used to lift a steel bar of mass 400kg to

a height

of 20m. What is the time taken by the crane to do this work ? (assume g = 10m/s 2 ). Solution :

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EFFICIENCY

PHYSICS form 4

1.

The efficiency define as the percentage of energy which is transformed to a useful form by a divice.

2.

Efficiency (%) = Useful energy output Energy input

x

100%

 

3.

Activity :

a. The rate of energy transfer is equivalent to

b. Another unit for J s -1 is

c. A man pull a rickshaw with a total force of 2800N. After he has pulled for 25m, the 100kg rickshaw is moving at a speed of 6m/s. Calculate the efficiency with which the man is using his energy to pull the rickshaw. Solution :

Energy input = work = Fs

W = Fs

= 2800 x 25

= 70 000J = 70kJ

Energy output = kinetic energy of the rickshaw

= ½ mv 2

= 1/2

= 1800J

x 100

x 6 2

= 1.8 kJ

Efficiency (%) =

?

ASSESSMENT :( 40 minutes)

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PHYSICS form 4

Section A

1

A stone of mass 8 kg is lifted to a vertical height of 3 m. What is the work done to the

stone?

[g = 10 m s -2 ]

A

24 J

B

80 J

C

240 J

D

2400J

2. A girl a mass of 50 kg take s 4 s to run up a stair with a height of 5 m. How much potential energy does she gain.

A

1.0 kJ

B

1.5 kJ

C

2.0 kJ

D

2.5 kJ

3. lorry of mass 5 000 kg moves with a constant velocity of 4 m s -1 along a horizontal

A

road. What is the kinetic energy of the lorry in kJ?

A 20 kJ

B

25 kJ

C

40 kJ

D

100 kJ

4. load of mass 4 kg is lifted from a height of 5 m through a height of another 10 m.

A

What is the increase in gravitational potential energy of the load? [g = 10 m s -2 ]

A 400 J

50 J

B 200 J

C

100 J

D

5. Which of the following device has the best efficiency ?

A Diesel engine

B Electric engine

C Steam engine

D Petrol engine

Section B

1

A ball of mass 120 kg is situated at a height of 3.6 m from the

surface of the floor as shown in the figure. When the ball rolls down a smooth rail, what is the speed of the ball just before it reaches the floor?

[g = 10 m s -2 .]

rail, what is the speed of the ball just before it reaches the floor? [g =
rail, what is the speed of the ball just before it reaches the floor? [g =
rail, what is the speed of the ball just before it reaches the floor? [g =

3.6 m

Floor

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PHYSICS form 4

2 A ball of mass 0.2 kg is thrown vertically upwards from the surface of the Earth with an initial velocity 20 m s -1 . What is the maximum gravitational potential energy acquired?

X

Y

Conveyor belt 6 m Load 8m
Conveyor belt
6 m
Load
8m

3 The figure on the right shows a conveyor belt system carrying a load of mass 30 kg from position X to position Y in 15 seconds. What is the output power of the conveyor system?

Section C

1. A student with a mass of 40 kg carries a bag of mass 5 kg and is going up a

staircase. The staircase has 10 steps and each step of staircase has a height of

0.2m.

a) According to the information above, i) what is work and its S.I unit?

ii) how much work has the student done to reach the top of the staircase ?

b) i) What is power and its S.I unit?

ii) How much powe has the student spent if he take 10s to reach the top?

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Marking scheme.

Work

Activity 1

a. energy

b. work

c. force

Activity 2 W= F x s = 25 x 3 = 75J

PHYSICS form 4

Activity 3 W= F x s = mgh = 3x 10 x 0.4= 12 J

Activity 4 W= F .s = 40 x 6= 240J

Section A

1. C

2.

D

Section B

1. v 2 = 2gh

3.

= 2 x 10 x 3.6

= 72

v = 8.5

C

4.

B

2. v 2 =u 2 + 2as v 2 = 20 2 + 2 (10) s

s = 20 m

s = h = 20 m

Ep = mgh

= 0.2 x 10 x 20 = 40 J

5.

B

3. Output,P= mgh = 30 x 10 x14

Section C

15

= 280 W

1. (a) (i) Work is the product of an applied force (F) and displacement (s) of an

object in the direction of the applied force. (ii) W = Fs

= (m1g + m2g)s

= 1100 J

= 1.1 kJ

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PHYSICS form 4

(b) (i) Power is the rate at which work is done Power,P= Work/time

(ii) P = 1100/ 10s

= 110 W