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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL &

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II










YEAR II- SE MESTER IV

PRACTICAL

Version 1: December 2008

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY


WORKSHOP PRACTICE IV

COURSE CODE: BLD 206


1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

WEEK 1: REALI ZATION OF ONE WAY SWITCH CI RCUI T using PVC conduit

WEEK 2: REALI ZATI ON OF two 2- WAY SWI TCH CI RCUI T

WEEK 3: REALIZATION OF TWO GANG SWITCH CIRCUIT

WEEK 4: REALIZATION OF A LIGHTING CIRCUIT WITH INTERMEDIATE

WEEK 5: REALIZATION OF A RADIAL USING P.V.C TRUNKING

WEEK 6: SETTING OUT, EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATIONS

WEEK 7: BLOCKWORK - SUPERSTRUCTURE

WEEK 8: LINTELS AND ROOFBEAMS

WEEK 9: ROOF STRUCTURE AND COVERING

WEEK 10: CEILINGS AND NOGGINGS

WEEK 11: METHOD OF FIXING PIPES FOR PLUMBING WORKS

WEEK 12: FIXING OF DOORS AND WINDOWS

WEEK 13: FINISHES

WEEK 14: METHODS OF FIXING SANITARY FITTINGS

WEEK 15: PAINTING



Week 1
Title:
REALIZATION OF ONE WAY SWITCH CIRCUIT using PVC conduit
Objective:
To realize a circuit consisting of a one-way switch controlling two lamps in parallel
I ntroduction:
The most commonly used switch in domestic installation is the one way switch. It is used in
domestic premises to control either a fluorescent lamp or an incandescent lamp. This ractical
work familiarizes the student with the connection of the one way switch circuit and further
improves the student skill and ability to handle heavy gauge steel conduit.
Equipment and tools:
- PVC conduits and their accessories).
- 2 end boxes ( 3/4 in.).
- 1 steel conduit box with knockouts ( 3/4 in.).
- 5 sockets and male bushes (3/4 in.).
- 5 spacer bar saddles (3/4 in.).
- A pipe vice and a hacksaw.
- Pipe reamer or half round file.
- Stock and die set. >
- Cutting oil or tallow.
- A bending machine.
- An electrician tool box.







Layout Diagram
J.B
General scheme


Procedure:
Step 1:
Draw the execution plan of the circuit.
Step 2:
Layout the route of the conduits and the position of the boxes on the board.
Step 3:
Cut the conduits to the lengths given by the layout diagram.
Step 4:
Prepare and bend the conduit using bending spring.
Step 5:
Secure the conduit ends to the boxes, use adapters where necessary.


Step 6:
Secure the conduits on the board by the saddles.
Step 7:
Draw the cables in the fittings and ensure the terminals at the boxes long enough for
connections.
Step 8:
Strip the terminals and connect the circuit according to the layout.
Step 9:
Test the circuit for correct wiring by an ohmmeter.
Step 10:
Supply the circuit with power and ensure proper operation.

Week 2
Title:
REALIZATION OF two 2- WAY SWITCH CIRCUIT
Objective :
To connect a 2 way switch circuit
I ntroduction:
Two 2 way switches are use whenever it is required to control a Lighting circuit from two
position. This is useful in controlling the lighting of halls, stair cases and any room with two
doors.fig.1.2 shows the circuit connection and the symbol representation of the switch.
Wiring connection
Load
or
Line
Symbol
representation
Line
or
Load

Equipment and tools:

- P V C conduits and their accessories,
Two 2 way swiches.
One way switch.
Ceiling rose.
Lamp and lamp holders
PVC cable 1.5mm.
Hacksaw.
PVC con duit bending spring.
Electrcian tool box
- An electrician tool box.




Layout Diagram
J.B
L1
General scheme
L 2
C.R L3
E
E
E
E
E
E
Controls the Lamp 1
Controls the Lamp 1 & 2










Procedure:
Step 1:
Draw the execution plan of the circuit.
Step 2:
Layout the route of the conduits and the location of the boxes on the board.
Step 3:
Cut the conduit according to the sizes given on the layout diagram.
Step 4:
Make the required 90 bends as shown on the layout diagram. See Fig. (1.3 a, b), for
bending springs and methods of bending.
Step 5:
Secure the conduit ends to the boxes, use adopters where necessary.
Step 6:
Secure the conduits to the board by saddles.
Step 7:
Draw the cable and ensure the termina; in the boxes and project enough for connection
Step 8:
Strip the terminals in the boxes and connect up the circuit in a layout diagram.
Step 9:
Test the circuit for correct wiring using an ohmmeter
Step 10:
Supply the circuit with power and ensure proper operation.

Week 3
Title:
REALIZATION OF TWO GANG SWITCH CIRCUIT
Objective:
To realize a circuit consisting of a one-way switch controlling two lamps in parallel
I ntroduction:
The most commonly used switch in domestic installation is the one way switch. It is used in
domestic premises to control either a fluorescent lamp or an incandescent lamp. This ractical
work familiarizes the student with the connection of the one way switch circuit and further
improves the student skill and ability to handle heavy gauge steel conduit.
Wiring connection
Symbol
representation
Line
Load 1
Load 2

Equipment and tools:

- Heavy gauge steel conduit ( 3/4 in.).
- 2 end boxes ( 3/4 in.).
- 1 steel conduit box with knockouts ( 3/4 in.).
- 5 sockets and male bushes (3/4 in.).
- 5 spacer bar saddles (3/4 in.).
- A pipe vice and a hacksaw.
- Pipe reamer or half round file.
- Stock and die set. >
- Cutting oil or tallow.
- A bending machine.
- An electrician tool box.




Layout Diagram
J.B
General scheme
L 2
L3
E
E
E
E
E
J.B
L 1
Controls the Lamp 1
Controls the Lamp 1 & 2









Procedure:
Step 1:
Draw the execution plan of the circuit.
Step 2:
Layout the route of the conduits and the position of the boxes on the board.
Step 3:
Cut the conduits to the lengths given by the layout diagram.
Step 4:
Prepare and bend the conduit using bending spring.
Step 5:
Secure the conduit ends to the boxes, use adapters where necessary.
Step 6:
Secure the conduits on the board by the saddles.
Step 7:
Draw the cables in the fittings and ensure the terminals at the boxes long enough for
connections.
Step 8:
Strip the terminals and connect the circuit according to the layout.
Step 9:
Test the circuit for correct wiring by an ohmmeter.
Step 10:
Supply the circuit with power and ensure proper operation.

Week 4
Title:
REALIZATION OF A LIGHTING CIRCUIT WITH INTERMEDIATE
SWITCH USING P.V.C CONDUIT
Objective:
To connect an intermediate switch correctly in a lighting circuit and to improve the
student skills in handling and using P.V.C conduit.
I ntroduction:
A lighting circuit can be controlled from any number of locations by the use of intermediate
switches together with two 2-way switches. Two controls locations will be provided by the
two 2-way switches and the other locations will be provided by the number of intermediate
switches used in the circuit. See Fig.
Wiring connection
Load
or
Line
Line
or
Load
2 Way
switch
2 Way
switch
Any number of intermediate switches as
required N number of locations of control

Equipment and tools:
- 20 mm P.V.C conduits and their accessories.
- One intermediate switch.
- Two 2-way switches.
- Two ceiling roses and two patten lamp holders.
- Two lamp holders.
- 1.5 mm
2
P.V.C cable (red, black and green/yellow).
- Hacksaw.
- Grip vice
- Fish tape.
- Bending spring
- Electrician tool box.

Layout Diagram
J.B
General scheme
E
E
E
E
E
E
J.B
L 1
Controls the Lamp 1 & 2
Controls the C.Rs
J.B
E
E
E
L2
C.R C.R
&










Procedure:
Step 1:
Draw the execution plan of the circuit.
Step 2:
Layout the route of the conduits and the position of the boxes on the board.
Step 3:
Cut the conduits to the lengths given by the layout diagram.
Step 4:
Prepare and bend the conduit using bending spring.
Step 5:
Secure the conduit ends to the boxes, use adapters where necessary.
Step 6:
Secure the conduits on the board by the saddles.
Step 7:
Draw the cables in the fittings and ensure the terminals at the boxes long enough for
connections.
Step 8:
Strip the terminals and connect the circuit according to the layout.
Step 9:
Test the circuit for correct wiring by an ohmmeter.
Step 10:
Supply the circuit with power and ensure proper operation.
27

Week 5
Title: REALIZATION OF A RADIAL USING P.V.C TRUNKING
Objective:
To connect a radial circuit and to consolidate the student ability in using P.V.C trunking
P.V.C conduit and connecting the intermediate switch correctly.
I ntroduction:
Socket outlets are widely used in residential installation. They are connected either as a
radial circuit or as a ring circuit. Both of these circuits utilize 13A socket outlets.
Two types of radial circuits, each with maximum number of six socket can be used.
1. Wired with 2.5 mm
2
cable/ protected by 20A circuit breaker and serves one room of
maximum areas 20 m
2
,
2. Wired with 4 mm
2
cable/ protected by 30A circuit breaker and serves a maximum
area of 50m
2
.
E
L
N
Execution
30A

Equipment and tools:
- P.V.C conduits (20 mm ) with their accessories.
- P.V.C trunking (25x16 mm)
-3 socket outlets (13A)
- Two-way switches
- Intermediate switch.
- 1.5 mm
2
P.V.C cables. Red/ black, green/yellow.
- 2.5 mm
2
P.V.C cables. Red, black/ green/yellow.
- 4 flash boxes (P.V.C) and one end box.
- 3 surface boxes (P.V.C).
- Hacksaw and grip vice.
- Smooth file.
- Bending spring.
- Fish tape.
- Electrician tool box.


Layout Diagram
J.B
General scheme
E
E
E
E
E
J.B
J.B
E
E E E
E E
E
E
Procedure:
Step 1:
Draw the execution plan of the circuit.
Step 2:
Mark the routes of the conduits and trunking/ as well as the locations of all boxes on the
board.
Step 3:
Cut and prepare the trunkings/ then fix them on the board according to the layout diagram.
Step 4:
Fix all boxes on the board/ according to the positions and dimensions given to you.
Step 5:
Cut/ prepare and bend the conduits then secure them to the boxes and board.
Step 6:
Install the 2.5 mm
2
cables in the trunking and draw the 1.5 mm
2
cables in the conduits as
shown by the layout diagram.
Step 7:
Strip the terminals and connect up the circuits.


Step 8:
Test the circuit for correct wiring/ using an ohmmeter
Step 9:
Supply the circuit with power and ensure operation.

Safety notg;
The student must not connect the circuit to the supply without the permission of his
teacher.

WEEK 6: SETTING OUT , EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATIONS
METHOD OF SETTING OUT
In setting out simple building we may use one of the three methods.
1. The 3, 4, 5 method
2. The builders square method
3. Leveling instruments.

THE 3, 4, 5 METHOD (Fig 1)
Mark out the building line from the road by measuring the required distance from the
centre of the road, or by stretching a line along an existing building to the proposed site.
The building line is then represented by a line known as the ranging line, which also
marks the front wall of the buildings as shown.
Mark out the overall length of the building by driving in pegs at A and B,
along the ranging line.
Procure two steel tape measures and mark out four equal distances on the ranging line
starting from the corner peg at B. These distances may be in any unit of measurement, i.e.
millimeters, meters, etc.
Pull a tape measure from point B to C and ask an assistant to hold it, ready
with a hammer and a peg.
Pull the second tape from the fourth mark at D on the ranging line to point E on the first
tape.
The distance 5 m, if using meters, on tape DE should coincide with the point 3 m on tape
BEC, to prove that the angle B is 90 (from Pythagoras' theorem). If this does not happen,
the tape B C is either shifted outwards or inwards until 5 m on the second tape coincides
with the 3 m mark on the first tape.

Repeat the same procedures to obtain the right angle for BAF, and mark out the overall
widths of the building.
Establish corner pegs and erect profiles.
Mark the positions of partition walls on the profiles with either nails or saw cuts. Ranging
lines are stretched through these nails and the corner pegs to mark the ground to indicate
the line of excavation for the foundation trenches.


Fig 1 3,4,5 method
Advantages
1. Simple to use, does not require any calculations. .
2. Can be applied to large buildings.
3. Accuracy of setting out is self-evident and adjustment in the event of error is simple and
quick.
Disadvantages
1. Two tape measures are required, which may be difficult to obtain in rural areas.
2. Effect of wind on tapes and line may lead to inaccurate work especially on long
buildings.

Note that the builder's square can only be used with accuracy for small buildings such as
farmhouses and typical single room and parlour compound buildings.

THE BUILDERS SQUARE METHOD (Fig 2)
Set out the front of building line in the usual manner with pegs or marks at the required
distances.
Place the builders square so that the front line touches one side of the square right
through its length as shown.
Stretch a line from the corner pegs so that it is parallel to the second side of the square
and establish the third peg. A corner with an angle of 90 is thereby obtained.
With the aid of a tape measure, mark out the length and breadth of the proposed building.
Transferring the builders square to the remaining corners and repeating the above
operations; a simple rectangular building can be set out.
After establishing the four corner pegs, profiles, (separate or continuous) may be in the
same way as described earlier.




Fig 2 Builders Square Method

Advantages
1. Simple to use.
2. Does not require any calculation.
3. Can be very accurate when used for small rectangular buildings.
4. Quick in application.
Disadvantages
1. Unseasoned timber can twist and warp leading to errors when used.
2. Unsuitable for large buildings.



LEVELLING INSTRUMENTS THE SITE SQUARE
When a right angle is to be set out, the corner of the angle is always known and also one side of
the corner. One has only to find the position of the second side. The site square solves this
problem in a very simple, quick and reliable way.

The front or building line is set out in the usual manner, with pegs or marks at the
required distances as shown
Set up the tripod at No.2 peg so that the datum rod is directly over the peg or mark which
represents the corner point. Make sure that the legs are firm on the ground.
Release the spike screw and extend the spike so that it sits firmly on the nail or mark.
Tighten the screw, as shown
Before mounting the instrument on to the tripod head, ensure that the locking screw is
tightened screw on the site square. Release the locking screw. By rotating the site square,
point the lower telescope along the front or building line. Tighten locking screw.
Check the circular bubble over the top of the instrument. This will probably be found to
be 'off-centre'. To correct this, release tripod leg screws and adjust the instrument until
the bubble comes into the centre of the black circle. When this is achieved, tighten the
tripod leg screws. The instrument is now ready for use.
Sight on to peg No.1 through the lower telescope to obtain the 'dead on' position by
means of the fine setting screw which moves the telescope to the right or to the left and
by tilting the telescope up or down as shown.

When this position is obtained, measure the distance required to peg No.3. Now by
sighting through the top telescope, taking care not to rotate the instrument to the right or
left, signal an assistant to move the peg sideways until it is 'dead on'. Peg No.3 is now
positioned at an angle of 90.
By moving the site square to peg No.3 and 'lining up' on peg No.2 the remaining corner peg,
No.4, can be set out using the procedures already given.
Profiles can be marked easily by tilting the telescope upwards, having sighted on to the
peg, and placing a nail in the 'dead on' position on the profile board.

EXCAVATION
After setting out is completed by any of the processes above, the next step is to excavate.
Excavation is done to receive the foundation that will be constructed for the building.
Excavation can be done using any of the two methods:
Manual method and
Mechanical method
The choice of the method of excavation depends on the size of work. In small construction, it
is more economical to use the manual method, while for large works mechanical method will
be economical for the execution.

Tools Used in Manual Method of Excavation
The manual method of excavation involves the use of the following tools
pick-axes used to dig up the soil
shovels to remove the dug up soil
spades to level the bottom of the excavation and to load into the wheelbarrow,
Wheelbarrows to convey the excavated soil away from the excavation area.

FOUNDATIONS
Shallow Foundations
Shallow foundations transfer load of the building to a sub-soil at a level close to the surface.
The common types of shallow foundations are
Strip foundation
Pad foundation
Raft foundation.

Strip Foundation
The minimum thickness of a strip foundation is 150 mm. This may be of course, greater where the
projection of the edge of the foundation from the base of the wall is greater than 150 mm. A typical
strip foundation is as shown in figure below. The width of the strip should be at least equal to three
times the thickness of the wall it supports.



Fig 3 Strip foundation



Practical Procedures;

This week students are expected to set out a simple building using the 345 method.

Tools and equipment required for setting out
1. Wooden pegs
2. Steel or fibre tape measures
3. Builders line
4. Hammer
5. Digger(s)

Result;
At the end of the practical exercise students are expected to be able to set out a simple building.

WEEK 7: BLOCKWORK/SUPERSTRUCTURE
Once the wall reaches ground level thought must be given to the positions of openings that will
be formed in the wall, and the arrangement of the blocks in the chosen bond. The drawing should
be properly studied well in advance so that all odd pieces of block and broken bonds are
arranged to appear directly below the positions of the openings. When building with blocks in
running bond little difficulty is experienced in setting out the bond for openings. With brickwork
however, necessary precautions must be taken so that the bond at ground level is continued
throughout the height of the wall. This means that the portends must be maintained throughout
the height of the wall.
Block/Brick walls are built in any one of the following forms;
Stretcher bond
English bond
Flemish bond
But for the purpose of this lesson the stretcher bond style is taken (Fig 1)
Pre-cast window sills are built into the walls as the work proceeds. Where a wall has several
window openings, it is good practice to bed the end sills first, and align all other sills to these.
The bottom edge of the sills must give a true eye-line when finally bedded. If sills are to be cast
in-situ, adequate provision must be made to tie them into the wall. In brick walls, bricks equal in
thickness to the sill are bedded in sand at the reveals, which are later removed. Blocks need to be
cut to shape to provide for the sill before they are built into the wall. Window frames may be
fixed into position as the work proceeds or fixed after the walls have been completed. Whichever
way is adopted depends upon several factors, for instance, the availability of the frames at the
time the wall is being built may be a deciding factor. Each method has it advantages and
disadvantages. In theory, it is argued that the fixing of window frames while the work proceeds
enables the frames to be fixed rigidly to the walls by using fixing lugs, cramps and similar
devices. A major disadvantage in this method is that the frames need to be supported in position
until the walls are built. This slows down the pace of the block layer as the bracing timber often
extends to the scaffold platform, thereby obstructing the passage of wheelbarrows and labourers.
In practice, it has been found that frames fixed after the walls have been built do not suffer any
structural weakness. After all, the plaster on the reveals serves to keep all frames rigid enough.
When frames are not fixed as the work proceeds, the window reveals must be kept plumb. A
pinch rod is used to keep a constant check.
Fig 1 Wall in stretcher bond
Practical procedure;
This week the students should build a brick wall in stretcher bond.
Materials and tools required
1. Blocks or bricks
2. Clean sharp sand
3. cement
4. Masons trowel
5. Float and straight edge
6. Builders line.


Result;
At the end of this exercise, the students are expected to be able to build a wall in stretcher bond
and to be conversant with the other bonds. The students should also know how openings are
provided in walls.
WEEK 8: LINTELS AND ROOF BEAMS
LINTELS
A lintel is a beam that spans across a horizontal opening and supports the load just above the
opening. Lintels can be timber or concrete. Timber is fine for short spans but is not durable. For
this reason most lintels are built from reinforced concrete.
The lintel can be covered with skin decorative brickwork which needs support. This is done by:
Bolting a galvanized steel angle to the concrete lintel.
Building the decorative brickwork on the edge of the angle;
Tying the brick joints to the lintel with metal ties.

Constructing concrete lintels
The following basic guidelines could be used to construct a lintel for domestic scale
construction. Table 3.1 gives some basic requirements for smaller lintels.
Lintels can be cast in situ or precast. The span will determine the height of the lintel, which
should correspond to the height of full brick courses.


Standard dimensions for lintels
Span (mm) Depth (mm) Reinforcement sizes (mm)
900 150 10
1200 150 12
1500 215 12
1800 215 16

The design of the lintel should use these additional requirements:
the bearing of the lintel must be more than 150mm;
at least 25mm of concrete must cover the bottom of the reinforcement bar;
at least 50mm of concrete must cover the ends of the bar.


Fig 1 Construction of a concrete lintel

ROOF BEAM
This is otherwise known as head coarse, it is concrete casted in-situ at the end of the last coarse
of block or brick to seal up the building and support the roof structure / roof covering.
The process is by preparing the formwork to receive the wet concrete at the top of the last block
work equal to the thickness of the block or brick and to height of a block coarse. The process is
the same like that of a lintel construction with the only difference of position in building.




Practical procedures;
The students should prepare a formwork, fabricate and erect a reinforcement and cast the
concrete for a lintel above an opening.
1. Hammer
2. Nails
3. 300mm x 300mm 3.6m planks
4. Carpenters
5. Saw and pinch bar
6. Reinforcing rod
7. Sharp sand, gravel and cement
Result;
At the end of this practical exercise the students are expected to be able to understand the process
of making of a lintel above an opening.


WEEK 9: ROOF STRUCTURE AND OPENINGS

ROOF COSTRUCTION
The roof is perhaps the most important part of building. It shed water more quickly without
leaking, it keeps out grit and dust, it provides shade and sometimes light, and insulate against
heat and noise. It may also be used for re-creational purposes and for additional living space.
Roof design involves a number of factors some of which are overhang, wind insulation,
ventilation, lighting, movement of pest and disposal of water


Pitch roof
A pitch roof has one or more roof slopes at a pitch or slop of more than 10 to horizontal. The
most common roof shape is the symmetrical pitch roof, pitched to central ridge with equal slope.
A mono pitched roof has only one slope free standing vision lean to roof.
A pitched roof is stable in most weather and its slope disposes of rainwater quickly. The main
supporting structure is timber, which is easy to work and transport.

Pitched roof construction
This can be built in different ways depending on the loads and sizes. Below are the list of pitched
roof that use different methods of construction.

Types of pitch roofs
Lean-to roof
Couple roof
Closed couple roof
Collar roof
Trussed rafters roof



Roof sheets covering
This is covering the roof with sheeting materials like corrugated fibre cement, aluminum sheets,
corrugated galvanized steel, etc.

Fixing detail
1. Position the first sheet in the bottom corner of the roof framework
2. Drill through a sheet on top of the corrugations.
3. Fix it to the purlins with galvanized iron drive screws or zinc roof nail
4. Lay the next sheet so that it overlaps the first sheet by one corrugation
5. Fix the ridge member and nailed to the sheets.









Practical procedures;
The student should fabricate a simple purlin roof truss made of timber and fix some section of
the covering.

Materials and tools required
1. Roofing sheets
2. Nails or screws as required
3. Hammer, saw and pinch bar
4. Timbers for roof truss formation

Result;
At the end of this lesson the student should be able form roof trusses of small building, and
should be able to know the process of fixing roof coverings.


WEEK 10: CEILING NOGGINGS AND COVERING
CEILINGS
Ceilings are generally classified into two major types i.e. the suspended and the non-suspended
ceiling.

Functions of ceilings
The ceiling gives a definite demarcation of the room from the top.
The ceiling provides support to lighting fittings and ceiling fans.
The ceiling helps conceal service pipes, heating and cooling systems, which are regarded
as unsightly features.
The ceiling reduces the amount of heat transmission from the interior of the building (in
case of fire) to the timber and /or steel roof members or suspended slab and beams
Thermal insulation: The void created by the ceiling helps to regulate the transmission of
heat from weather to the interior of the building.
Dust proof: The ceiling prevents the effect of dust penetrating through roofing sheet laps
and other into the building.
Sound insulation: Depending on the type of materials used as the final finishing ceiling
act as an insulator for sound in the room.
Reducing in heating or cooling cost: By defining the limit of the room thus reducing the
volume of air in room, the ceiling helps in reducing the cost of heating or cooling room
when the need so arise.
Appearance: The ceilings help in adding to the aesthetic of the interior of the room thus
making the room comfortably habitable.
Rain effect: In case of leakages on roof covering, the ceiling prevents the effect of direct
dropping of rainwater into the room.


Factors affecting the choice of ceiling construction
It is an indisputable fact that the type of ceiling finish affects the construction and the factors that
affect the choice of ceiling construction include the following:

Activities to be carried out in the building: The activities to be carried out in the building
do affect the choice of ceiling thus affecting the construction. (e.g. a room which is meant
to be used as conference room or music recording studio, where reverberation of sound
produce will be detrimental to the activities being carried out in the room, ceiling with
hard surface such as concrete finished carried out in the room, ceilings with hard surfaces
surface such as concrete finished must be used, acoustic will be advisable). An additional
example is the use asbestos in rooms that are prone to fire and POP (Plaster Of Paris) for
functions same as the, and beauty.

Availability of fund: It is only he that has money that thinks of the procedures of owning
on whether there is available fund to select what ever type which consequently affect the
construction.


Suspended Ceiling
The suspended ceiling can be defined as ceiling fixed to a frame work suspended form the main
structure either by means of timber, aluminum or steel members, thus forming a void between
the tow components. The choice of this type of ceiling depends on the aforementioned factors,
through there are some situations where if ceiling must be constructed to a building, then it has to
be suspended ( i.e. when the frame structure is of timber roof members)
Below are some notes that have to be carefully observed while constructing a suspended ceiling
i. They should be easy to construct, repair, maintain and clean.
ii. Should be designed in a form that an adequate means of access is provide to the void space for
the maintenance of the suspension system and concealed services
iii. Conform with the minimum requirement set out in the building regulations and in particular
the regulations governing the restriction of spread of flame over surface of ceilings and the
exceptions permitting the use of certain plastic materials.


Classification of suspended ceiling
There is no standard method of classification since some are classified by their function such as
illuminated and acoustic suspended ceiling; others are classified by materials used.
However, classification by method of construction is also very popular. This method is simple
since most suspended ceiling types can be place in one of the following groups:
a. Jointless suspended ceiling
b. Paneled suspended ceiling
c. Decorative and open suspended ceiling


Jointless suspended ceiling
Jointless suspended ceiling are made with plaster of various sorts and sprayed asbestos, applied
to a backing of expanded metal of 6mm size of the short way of the mesh, either galvanized steel
or steel painted with asphalt, example of these materials are as shown of fig. below


Paneled suspended ceiling
This can be made with dry materials; consequently they are more quickly completed than the
jointless types. The panels are pre-formed, made of fiberboard, plaster, asbestos materials, metal
trays, cork, wood-wool and strawboard. The board is obtainable in thickness from 5 to 50mm
and in sizes from 305mm square 1.2 x 4.2, panels 610mm square or 610 x 1200mm are
commonly used. Some boards are perforated to within a short distance with small holes to
improve sound absorption. Light gauge rustproof steel or aluminum channels, timber members
or tee sections are used to support the sagging to the ceiling. The sections can be exposed or
concealed and the panels should rest on flanges at least 16mm wide to allow for possible
movement. Tees are often used supports, the main ones at 610mm centres with cross tees
(noggin) at the end of the panel. Ideally 610mm square a panel gives the best result. The finished
ceiling weighs from 10 to 12kg/m2


Fig 1 Typical Support Detain

Practical procedures;
This week the students should fix ceiling noggin to the hardwood tie beam and also fix the
suspended paneled ceiling.
Materials and tools required
1. Ceiling sheets
2. 50mm x 50mm Noggin and 10mm x 50mm batten in timber
3. Hammer, saw and pinch bar
4. Nails (75mm and 40mm) long

Result;
At the end of this practical exercise, students should be able to know different types of ceilings
and there method of fixing. Also they should know the requirements for ceiling works.

Assignment
1. List and describe the different types of ceiling covering
2. Show using neat sketch the method of fixing paneled suspended ceilingd
3. State the functions of ceiling.


WEEK 11: METHOD OF FIXING PIPES FOR PLUMBING WORKS

Joints, bends or changes in direction of pipe work can be done using special purpose fittings and
joints, but this can work out costly on big installations where you need a lot of fittings and some
bends cannot be made-up easily using available fittings. In these cases you will have to bend the
pipe yourself. The method chosen will be governed by the size and type of pipe used. Some
bends on steel, copper and certain types of plastics, for example, can be done by heating. In most
situations, however, the easiest way is to use a machine.

Machine Bending to Mild Steel and Copper Pipes.

Machine Bending to Mild Steel Pipe

The easiest and most popular method of bending steel pipe is to use hydraulic pipe bender. There
are several types available but the simplest is the hydraulic press bender which can bend pipes
from 15mm diameters up to 100mm diameters. It consist of a hydraulic ram on which different
sizes of former can be put to bend the pipe against a frame containing adjustable pins and stops.











Figure 2.13.1: Hydraulic Press Bender



Using a Hydraulic Press-Bender to Make a 90 Bend

To make a 90 bend from a fixed point, say 800 mm from the end of the pipe to the centre line of
a bracket fixed on a wall.

Tools Required

1. Hydraulic press bender 7. Measuring tape rule
2. Try-square 8. Sprit level
3. Scriber 9. Hack saw
4. Pipe reamer 10. Pipe vice
5. File 11. Metal divider
6. Pipe cutter 12. Straight edge

Materials Required Any one of the following pipes can be bent using the procedure.
1. Mild steel pipe.
2. Galvanized iron pipe
3. Steel pipe

Produce a working drawing or template.










Fig. 2.13.2: Marking out for a 90
0
bend from the working drawing
Operational Steps

1. Measure and cut the required length
2. Mark the pipe 800 mm from the end.
3. Deduct from this the diameter of the pipe, and make a fresh mark on the pipe, for
example if you are using 35 mm diameter pipe, your new mark should be 800 minus 35,
or 765mm from the end. This will now be the centre of the bend, to allow for the 'gain' in
pipe length caused by a bend.
4. Lift up the top bar of the frame on the machine and put the stops and pins in the correct
position (35 mm) and put sand, the 35 mm former on the end of the hydraulic ram. Lower
the bar on to the top of the pins.
5. Position the pipe in the machine against the stops and with the centre line of the former in
line with your mark on the pipe. Gently pump the ram until it locates against the pipe in
the correct position and the pipe is held secure.
The bleed valve on the hydraulic cylinder must be in the closed position otherwise it will
not build up pressure to pump.
6. Pump the machine carefully until the bend is almost at 90, and check this with a set-
square or, template, To allow for " spring-back, you must bend the pipe a few degrees
beyond 90, When the pressure is removed it will spring back to the desired angle.
7. When you are happy that the bend is right, making the allowances mentioned, open the
valve on the machine body to release the pressure and slowly pump the handle which will
pull back the ram. The former will probably be jammed on the pipe, but do not remove it
yet.
8. Check with a set-square or working drawing that the angle is correct, then remove the
former by holding it with one hand and striking the end of the pipe on a piece of wood on
the f1oor; this should loosen it. If it needs bending more, simply return it to the machine
and increase the bend. If you have bent it too much, it is possible to open the bend by a
couple of degrees by securing one leg of the bend in a vice and carefully applying
leverage to the other leg to pull it back slightly. This is not recommended if it needs
pulling back much over 5, since it will deform the pipe wall.

Copper Pipe Machine Bending

Several machines are available for bending light gauge copper pipe and most of them work on
the same principle. One of the most popular for general site and workshop use is the floor
mounted bender. This is suitable for all sizes up to and including 35mm.













Fig.2.13.3: Floor-mounted copper pipe bending machine Fig. 2.13.4 making offset










Fig. 2.13.5: Use of a floor-mounted copper pipe bending machine


Calculating the Heat Length for a 90
0
Bend

Mark off on the pipe the distance from a fixed point, say 5001 mm to the centre of the bend. This
is the centre line of the projected bent leg of the pipe. This point will also be the end of the actual
travel or length of the bend.
For a 90 bend the actual length or travel of the bend should be a quarter of the circumference of
a circle made to the radius of the given end. Unless a radius is specified. Use a radius equal to 4
times the outside diameter of the pipe to be bent.
If we assume the pipe is 28 mm, the radius will be 4 x 28, which is 112 mm. If the travel or
length of bend is equal to a quarter of the circumference of a circle having a radius of 12mm the
heat length will be:
The circumference of the circle divided by a quarter or D, this will be 2 x 112 x 3.142 which is
181mm, the calculated heat length, then is 181mm.
Steel pipe can also bent by loading the pipe with dry sand, bearing it up in a furnace or with a
large flame from a blowlamp or oxyacetylene torch, then bending it round a former or between
steel pins on a bending table.
From the centre line of the bend already marked out on the pipe (500mm), measure back towards
the fixed point 181mm, the calculated heat length, and mark off on the pipe. This marks the
position of the start of the bend.



Fig. 2.13.12: Marking out the heat length on a pipe




WEEK 12: FIXING OF DOORS AND WINDOWS
A door is a moveable barrier used to cover an opening. Doors are used widely and
are found in walls or partition of a building or space or in furniture such as
cupboards, cages e.t.c. A door can be opened to give access and closed more or
less securely using a combination of latches and locks. Doors are universal in
buildings of all kinds, allowing passage between the inside and outside (external
doors) and between internal rooms (internal doors). When open they also admit
ventilation and light. Doors can be made of timber, glass, metal or plastic or any
combination of these materials. They can also be designed to swing from one
edge, slide, slide and fold, or roll close an opening. Classification of doors can
also depend on their position in a building, their function or by their method of
construction.
On the other hand the primary functions of a window are to provide means for
admission of natural daylight to the interior of building and to provide means of
necessary ventilation of dwellings. Windows like doors can be made from a
variety of materials or a combination of these materials, such as timber, metal and
plastic.
They can also be designed to operate in various ways, i.e to slide, pivot or swing
or by being hung to one of the frame members.
Frames of doors and windows are most important parts of our doors and windows.
They are available in different sizes, heights, widths and shapes. Frames hold
locks and hinges and support doors and windows to shut and open easily. Door
frame or lining is attached to the opening in which a door is to be fitted, it
provides a surround for the door and is the member to which a door is fixed or
hung. Frames can be fixed to a wall by the following methods:-
Built into the wall as the work proceeds by using L-shaped galvanized sheet ties
or cramps. The ties are fixed to the back of the frame for building in at 450mm
centres.
Fixed into the opening at a late stage in the work to prevent damage to the frame
during the construction period. This is a more expensive method and is usually
employed only when good quality timber and joinery or high quality materials are
involved.
Door linings are as wide as the wall including any wall finishes. They are usually
only specified for internal doors. Linings are not built in but are fixed into an
opening by nailing or screwing directly into walls or into plugs built in walls.
Hanging doors and windows requires good carpentry skills and a set of good
quality carpentry tools. It involves:
Trimming the shape to fit the door swing (planning the edge)
Reducing the height to fit the opening
Fitting door closers
Fitting hinges
Fitting bolts
Fitting latches and locks
Fitting handles

TASK
Students are expected to carryout the fixing of the following:-
i. A wooden casement window
ii. A flush door
The task includes the fixing of all ironmongery

RESULT
After the completion of the task, the student is expected to known the techniques
and methods of fixing doors and windows. The task will also allow the student to
know the function of the different types of ironmongery and the effectiveness and
uses of different kinds of carpentry tools.
ASSESSMENT
i. Describe two methods of fixing frames to walls
ii. Briefly describe the steps or procedures you followed in the fixing of any of the
given items in the task carried out.
WEEK 13: FINISHES
Walls constructed using the wet system requires surface finish of one type or another. A
wall finish may consist of painting, plastering or rendering, pointing the joints, tiling etc. No
matter what type of material is used or which method is adopted for a wall finish, the purposes
tend to be common for all. Generally, finishes provide resistance to moisture and rain
penetration, give a pleasant appearance and increase the fire, sound and thermal resistance of
walls. This week, wall finishes will be restricted to plastering or rendering and wall tiling.
Plastering or rendering refers to the application of wet mixes of fine cementing material and sand
to the surfaces of walls, while tiling refers to the application of tiles to internal walls.
STEPS
1. Plastering or Rendering of walls (Task 1)
Clean the wall surface thoroughly.
Prepare plastering mixes by mixing cement and sand in the right ratio and add
water to make a suitable workable mix.
Place plaster screeds at convenient distance to form guides for straightening the
surface. These served are narrow hands of plastering mortar plumbed down.
Apply the coat of plaster. Use the trowel to throw the mortar in an upward stroke
to the wall. This technique spread the mortar in an almost even thickness.
Use the straight edge to spread the mortar to a straight and even surface.
Use the wooden float to work the surface to a sandy gently finish.
Use the plastering trowel to make surface smooth.
Clean up the working space.
2. Wall tiling (Task 2)
Hack the wall and clean thoroghlly if surface is smoth.
Set out the work starting from a corner, making sure that all odd picies are placed at a
corner, and at the base of the wall.
Bed a flat piece of lath to a perfect level at the base of the wall to receive the first
course of tiles.
Soak the tiles in water.
Mix mortar. Fixing of tiles is done with special mastics or a purely cement mix.
Butler the tiles bed evenly with the mix and press on to the wall,tapping it slightly
into position with a mallet.
Allow as small a joint as possible between tilesensure plumb and flatness by using a
spirit level and straight adge.
Rub the joint flush with a piece of soft waste cloth.
Clean the tile after setting and polish as a final oppration.
Clean the tools and working area.
NB When odd pieces are required, a tile cutter or punches is needed to cut and shape tiles to
appropriate sizes.
TOOLS/EQUIPEMENT
1. Plastering or Rendering (Task 1)
Blocklayering Trowel
Plastering Trowel
Straight edge
Spirit Level
Wooden Float
Cement
Sand
Water
2. Wall tiling (Task 2)
Steel Square
Lath
Container, preferable 20L bucket
Mallet
Trowel
Spirit Level
Waste cloth
Tile Cuter
Puncher
Cement
Water
Tiles
RESULT.
These two tasks are expected to give the student a good knowledge about how to
apply finishes to wall of building. On completion of the task, the student is also
expected to be conversant with the techniques of plastering and tilling of walls.
ASSESSMENT.
1. State the main purposes of a wall finish.
2. Explain the important of platerscreeds in plastering.


WEEK 14 : SANITARY APPLIANCES.
Sanitary appliances are fittings used for the collection and discharge of soil or waste matter. This
appliance may be grouped under soil appliances and waste water appliances. Soil appliances are
used for the collection and discharge of excreta matter and they include water Closets (W.C.),
Urinal etc. A sanitary appliances used for the collection and discharge of water after use is called
water appliances and include drinking water from tanks, water hand basin, Kitchen sinks, bath
tub etc. Sanitary fittings are necessary in buildings in order to enhance our convenience and use
of the building.
STEPS
Task 1. Installation of water closet with siphonic action pan
Place the W.C. pan on the flour.
Fix the W.C. pan to the flour by using screws and plastic plugs.
Place the flushing cistern on the W.C. pan.
Align the holes to connect the cistern to W.C. pump.
Insert bolt to the aligned holes.
Tie the bolt and nut to connect the W.C. pan and the flush cistern.
Connect water supply pipe to the flushing cistern.
Clean the tools and working area.
Task 2 Installation of wash hand Basins
Type 1 Bracket type
Mark the position for the wash hand basin bracket.
Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive
plastic plug or ribbed plug.
Insert the plug to the wall.
Pan the screws through the item to be fixed and with the plug.
Screw home the bracket until tight.
Place the basin on the bracket.
Connect the hot and cold water supply.
Connect the water outlets.
Clean the working space.
Type 2 Pedestal type
Mark position for the bolt and nuts to hold the basin
Place the basin to the wall and align the holes in the basin to the bolts.
Tight the bolts and nuts to hold the basin.
Fix down the pedestal to the floor with basin screws to support the basin.
Connect the hot and cold water supply.
Connect the waste outlets.
Clean up the working space.
Task 3 Installation of Baths.
Place the bath on the floor.
Adjust the legs to make the bath slope to the outlet.
Connect the hot and cold water supply.
Connect the waste outlet.
Clean up the working space.
TOOLS/EQUIPMENT.
Task 1.
Hack saw
Reamer
Measuring tape
Spirit level
Hand drilling machine
Screw driver
Hammer
File
Chain pipe vice
Heavy duty multiple cutter
Caulking tools
Drill
Cold chisel
Pliers
Task 2.
Measuring tape
Pipe cutter
Pipe vice
Oil can
Chisel
Screw drivers
Open spanners
File
Spirit level Hack saw
Reamer
Threading machine
Pipe wrench
Hammer
Adjustable spanner
Scriber
Pliers
Task 3.
Same as task 2.
MATERIALS
Task 1.
Ceramic W.C. pan
Flushing cistern
Various pipes
Simple rubber push-fit connectors
Hemp
Cement
Plastic plug
Putty
Sand
Gasket
Flush pipe
Brass screws
Ribbed plug
Task 2.
Wash hand basins (Bracket or/and pedestal type)
Mild steel pipe
Plastic pipe
Copper pipe
Bran Screws
Plastic plug
Cantilever basin bracket
Pipe fittings
Ribbed plug
Bolt and nuts
Task 3.
Baths
Copper pipe
Pipe fitting
Putty
Mild steel pipe
Plastic pipe
Brass screws
RESULT
After the completion of these tasks, the student is expected to understand the methods of
fixing sanitary appliances and their mode of connection to water supply. These task are also
expected to give the student acknowledge about the requirement of sanitary accommodation, the
differences between sanitary appliances, the use of these appliances and their mode of operation.



ASSESSMENT
1) Differentiate between soil and waste appliances.
2) Explain the differences in the fixing of bracket type and pedestal type wash hand basins.
3) Write a report to explain the type or types of tools used to achieve each step in any of the
three tasks.
WEEK 15: PAINTING.
Paint is a liquid that drives to form a protective film on the surface. Paints mainly consist of
pigments, builders, additives and solvents. The pigments are fine particles that provide the
colour. The builder holds the pigment together and glues them to the surface being painted. The
additives are included to enhance different properties of the paint e.g. Splatter resistance, easier
brushing, etc. The solvent could be water or natural plant oils
There are generally two types of paints, i.e. the latex paint and the Alkyd paint. Latex paint are
formulated with water as the main ingredient and are known as water base. Because its primary
liquid is water, latex paint dries quickly, is almost odorless and is environmentally friendly.
Alkyd paints use mineral spirits or paint thinner as a solvent. Since earlier paints use natural
plant oils as a binder instead of alkyd resins this type of paint become known as oil base. Alkyd
paints are used especially on interior trim. If is durable, stain resistant and dries with less brush
marks. Both paint types have excellent qualities but are incompatible with each other. Alkyd or
oil-based paint can be applied over latex or water-based paint, but never the other way round (oil
over water- never water over oil).
Painting is the art or process of applying paints to surfaces especially in building. With the use
of right colours, a room can change its feel and become a more enjoyable living space.
Paint is designed to be applied to clean and smooth surface, therefore a quality paint job
beings with the preparation can amount to 50% or more of actual work involved in painting.
Preparation involves removal of loose and peeling paint, washing away dust particles and spider
webs, covering areas where you do not want to paint and protecting floors. The choice of the
right type of ladder is also a very important aspect of preparation.
Choosing the right type of paint for a job depends on the surface, the use of the surface, and
the type of tools available for the work. Any type of paint chosen must be stirred thoroughly for
about three minutes because paint and painting look better if the components are well mixed.
In applying the paint to the surface, ceilings are the first area to receive the new colour.
Ceilings are always a pain in the shoulders, therefore rolling is suitable for ceilings in small
rooms and most area of the house. Painting the walls are next and by far the easiest. If the colour
and sheen is identical to the ceiling, the same paint and application method can be used.
Different paint will require a separate application method such as in large jobs the ceiling could
be sprayed then the walls rolled. Next, it is the time for details like painting the windows, doors
and trim. These areas require extra patience and attention to details. The choice of the right tools
and painting technique will help with these projects.


TOOLS
The tools needed for house painting can be separated into two categories i.e. preparation tools
and application tools. Preparation tools consist of the following:-
Pressure washer- used for washing the dust and spider webs of house prior to
preparation.
Paint scraper- for removing loose paint as well as other old materials.
Power sanders, Wire brushes, Sandpaper- used to identify and remove additional loose
and peeling paint.
Drop cloth or Rags- for protecting floor to prevent messes.
Masking machine, Masking tape- used for covering areas you do not want to paint.
Putty Knife- for applying putty to cover depressions.
Caulking gun.
Extension and step ladders.
Application tools consist of the following:-
Paint brushes- most basic of all and it comes in different sizes and styles.
Paint rollers- consist of roller cover, roller frame and roller pole and also comes in
different sizes, shapes and styles.
Powered painting tools- such as airless sprayer, HVLP sprayer, Power roller and pad
applicators.
Availability of painting tools saves a lot of time and additional effort and most tools are
suitable for interior and exterior jobs.
After painting the surfaces, the clean up stage involves removing paint stains and washing the
tools water-based or latex paint cleans up with water while a paint thinner or TSP (Tri Sodium
Phosphate) will be required to clean up oil-based or alkyd paints.
TASK.
After studying the explanation in the introduction, the student should carry-out a complete
painting of room. This will involve the processes of preparation, application and cleaning of
ceiling walls and trims. The types of tools available should guide the students choice of method
of application.



RESULT.
After the completion of the task, the student is expected to present a wall painted room.
Furthermore, with this task the student is also expected to have acquired a good understanding of
the processes involved and methods of painting a house.
ASSESSMENT.
The student should write a report. The report is expected to present an explanation of the step
taken to complete the task in logical sequence and the tools used to achieve each step.