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4.

0 DESI GN OF MARI NA STRUCTURES AND


FACILITIES
The ul t i mat e envi r onment al performance of a properl y sited coastal mar i na depends
on the mar i na design, construction and operation. Gui del i nes for the desi gn of
mari nas are current l y avai l abl e i n Australia. ' Australian Standard AS3962-1991,
Gui del i nes for Desi gn of Marinas' details appropri at e desi gn and engi neeri ng
st andards for mar i nas i n Queensl and. However, gi ven the World Heritage status of
the GBRMP, and the sensi t i vi t y of mari ne ecosystems in the Park, engi neeri ng and
desi gn criteria whi ch may meet these st andards may still have unacceptable
envi ronment al consequences in the Mari ne Park. Subsequently, in some situations
and envi ronment s the desi gner ' s job may require stricter, novel or more
' envi ronment al l y fri endl y' alternatives whi ch mi ni mi se effects on the Park, as much
as possible. It s ho ul d be stated here that the gui de l i ne s out l i ne d i n thi s s ect i on are
i n no wa y prescri pt i ve or mandat ory by l a w and compl i ance wi t h the g ui de l i ne s
does not neces s ari l y guarant ee the accept abi l i t y of a devel opment . The fol l owi ng
desi gn notes are i ncl uded as a hel pful gui de to developers as many specific
approval s are the responsi bi l i t y of State and Commonweal t h authorities apart from
GBRMPA. They have been i ncl uded however because even if the mar i na design,
construction and opera~.ion are in accordance wi t h these st andards, there is still
potential for i mpact on the mar i ne envi ronment . Mari na devel opment s need to be
j udged on a case-to-case basis. However, it is hoped that more knowl edge of the
envi ronment al i mpl i cat i ons of engi neeri ng and desi gn recommendat i ons as spel l ed
out in these guidelines, wi l l assist designers, developers and operators achieve
sound, economical mar i na devel opment s wi t h acceptable envi r onment al impacts.
The l ayout of mar i na l and facilities is usual l y det ermi ned by the physi cal constraints
of the part i cul ar location and the need to enabl e efficient mat eri al and activity flow
paths. It is r ecommended that a l and to wat er area ratio of bet ween 50:50 and 40:60
be adopt ed for pr el i mi nar y pl anni ng of a mar i na devel opment , dependi ng on the
extent of shore-based facilities to be provi ded. However, fi nanci al vi abi l i t y of
l and/ wat er ratio must also be carefully consi dered as the ' real estate' created by
reclamation in many mari na devel opment s is the pri nci pal financial asset of the
devel opment .
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 39
4.1 Bas i n
Mi n i mi s e vert i cal l y f aced
st ruct ures.
Se e k expert advi ce i n
mari na bas i ns e x po s e d to
ocean wa v e energy.
De s i g n of t he ba s i n mus t
f aci l i t at e ade quat e
f l u s h i n g of t he mari na.
Gi ve c ons i de r at i on to t he
di v e r s i o n of s t reams and
creeks to h i g h f l u s h i n g
z o ne s .
Mi n i mu m de pt h of t he
ba s i n s h o u l d not be l e s s
t han 2.5 m at MLWS.
Maxi mi s e t i dal e xc hange
and mi x i ng i n t he bas i n;
mi n i mi s e bac kwat e r s and
current cons t ri ct i ons .
In the desi gn of a mar i na basin, the following shoul d
be considered:
9 Vertically faced st ruct ures lead to reflection of wave
energy, causi ng confused seas and hi gh wave energy
wi t hi n the bert hi ng area.
9 Basins exposed to ocean wave energy may be
subject to longer peri od oscillations and resonance
(seiche).
9 Adequat e fl ushi ng of a mar i na is necessary for
mai nt ai ni ng the wat er quality of the mar i na basi n and
adjacent wat erway. Nat ur al circulation near the site
should be mai nt ai ned whenever possible. Poorl y
flushed mari nas can become st agnant and permi t the
concentration of pol l ut ant s from the mar i na facility
and boats. The settling and accumul at i on of organic
material and fine sedi ment s can result in decreased
dissolved oxygen levels and shoal i ng wi t hi n the
mar i na basin.
9 Adjacent st reams or creeks shoul d not be allowed to
discharge into the mar i na basi n as t hey may cause
wat er quality problems.
9 It is r ecommended that the mi ni mum dept h within
the moori ng basin (at MLWS) shoul d be no less t han
the maxi mum dr aught of moored craft pl us half the
predi ct ed wave hei ght pl us tolerance of 0.3 m or 0.5 m
for seabed conditions compri si ng soft mat eri al or rock
respectively, pl us allowance for siltation. As a general
rule, these factors sum to at least 2.5 m as a mi ni mum
dur i ng MLWS.
The configuration of a mar i na basi n may enhance or
hi nder flushing rates. Open mar i nas located on
existing channels will general l y have the same
flushing rate as the channel. Mari na basins wi t h
excessively deep or dead- end areas t hat have lower
t han nat ural r at es of exchange t end to accumul at e
potential pollutants or require i nordi nat e peri ods of
time for fl ushi ng and organic decomposition.
Semi-closed mar i nas or mari nas wi t h dr edged basins
should be desi gned to maxi mi se tidal exchange and
40 Environmental Guidelines for Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Ens ur e c h a n n e l d e p t h s
e l i mi na t e ' si l l s' p o n d i n g
de e p ba s i n areas.
Pr ovi de t wo o p e n i n g s , or
part i al wa l l s o n o n e s i de .
Mi n i mi s e ' dead' wa t e r b y
c r e at i ng c ur ve d s urf aces .
Mi n i mi s e l o n g r e ac he s
wh e r e wat e r f l o ws are
rest ri ct ed.
4.2 Ent rance Ch a n n e l
Ent rance c h a n n e l wi d t h
s h o u l d c o nf o r m wi t h
AS3962- 1991.
Ent rance c h a n n e l s s h o u l d
be st rai ght ; a l i g n e d i nt o
pr e v a i l i ng wi n d s ; and not
i n an area of s ho a l i ng .
mixing wi t hi n the marina. Marina basin design
features that promote flushing include:
9 Basin depths that are not deeper than the open
water or channels to whi ch the basin is connected and
never deeper than the marina access channel. Basin
and channel depths should gradually increase toward
open water. Dredging of natural channel sills for
larger marinas should be avoided.
9 Two openings at opposite ends of the marina to
establish flow-through currents.
9 Basins with few vertical walls and gently rounded
corners or circular or oval shaped basins. Even
bottom contours, gently sloping toward the entrance
with no pockets or depressions.
9 For rectangular marinas, the length to breadth ratio
should be in the range of 0.5-3.0 to promote good
mixing characteristics; for similar reasons, entrances
should be centrally located.
While the wi dt h of entrance channels is clearly
dependent on many factors, AS3962-1991 states that
the channel should be the greatest of 20 m, or, the
length of the longest boat to use the marina plus 2 m,
or 5 times the beam of the broadest monohul l to use
the marina. For marina basins of say 200 to 300 berths
the entrance channel should have a mi ni mum
navigable wi dt h of 30 to 50 m in unexposed
conditions.
The entrance channel should be as straight as possible
and follow an existing natural channel if available.
The entrance channel should also be aligned in the
direction of prevailing wi nds to promote mixing. The
entrance should not be located in areas of shoaling as
increased maintenance dredging is required and sills
between the marina and open water can form causing
reduction in flushing.
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 41
Mark channel s i n
compl i ance wi t h
Commonweal t h and State
Departments of Transport
requi rements.
4.3 Fairways
Preferred fai rway wi dt h i s
1.75L.
4.4 Berthing Facilities
Marina l ayout must
attempt to accommodate
present and l i kel y future
boati ng requi rements.
In the interests of safety, channel s must be properl y
marked, bot h approachi ng and i nsi de the mar i na and
in compl i ance wi t h Commonweal t h and Queensl and
Depart ment of Transport (Marine and Ports Division)
requirements.
To mi ni mi se manoeuvr i ng accidents, it has been
found that mi ni mum fai rway wi dt hs bet ween rows of
bert hs in wel l protected waters shoul d be the greater
of 20 m or L + 2 m (where L is l engt h of longest boat
i n marina). The preferred wi dt h is 1.75L.
Mari na desi gners shoul d carefully pl an the l ayout of
berths. Whi l e boat sizes 25 years hence may not be
forecast wi t h any certainty, for the initial 'loss' of a few
berths, the mar i na' s future suitability mi ght be
enhanced. The l ayout can affect operat i onal
efficiency, conveni ence to boat owners, security, safety
and the comfort of owners worki ng or l i vi ng on
board.
Water area for turning
= 2.25L.
Berths at right angl es to
wal kway.
Fingers symmet ri cal l y
opposi te.
Smal l er berths cl oser to
shore.
The fol l owi ng floating desi gn features are desirable:
9 Turning areas shoul d be provi ded, part i cul arl y
adjacent to fuel l i ng bert hs and dead-end channels.
Water area for t urni ng, ent eri ng and l eavi ng bert hs
shoul d be 2.25 times the l engt h of the longest boat
( mi ni mi si ng chance of collision).
9 Berths shoul d be orientated at right-angles to the
wal kway (maxi mi ses numbers, reduces manoeuvr i ng
difficulties).
9 Berths shoul d be arranged so that, wherever
possible, fingers are symmet ri cal l y located on
opposite sides of the wal kway (reduces manoeuvr i ng
difficulties).
9 Smaller bert hs shoul d general l y be located closer to
the shore (more easily manoeuvr ed into and out of).
42 Envi ronment al Guidelines f or Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Berth access cl ose to
marina office.
Berths for hire and bare
boat charter craft shoul d
al l ow greater tolerance for
i nexperi enced drivers.
Marina berths may be fi xed
or floating.
Effective (design) berth
wi dt hs and l engt hs for
fi xed moori ngs are:
(Wb) = B + 1.0 m
(Wdb) = B 1 + B 2 + 1.5 m
(Lb) = L + 2.0 m
Suggested berth
di mensi ons for fl oati ng
berth are :
(Wb) = B + 0.6 m
(Wdb) = Wb l + Wb2
(Lb) = L + 1.0 m
9 Access to ber t hs s houl d be close to t he ma r i na of
rice (for secur i t y reasons).
Careful consi der at i on s houl d also be gi ven to t he
al l ocat i on of ber t hs for hi r e and bare boat char t er craft
i n t he mar i na. In general , hi re boat s are us ed mor e
frequent l y, and by less exper i enced peopl e t han
pr i vat el y owne d boat s at t he mar i na. Bert hs for t hese
boat s s houl d be r eadi l y accessible to t he ope n
wat er ways so as to mi ni mi s e ma noe uvr i ng wi t hi n t he
mar i na. They s houl d also be wi der to a c c ommoda t e
i nexper i enced dri vers.
Mar i na ber t hs ma y be fi xed, i.e. pi l ed jetty, or
floating, i.e. pont oon t ype. Fixed moor i ngs us ual l y
consi st of pi l ed wa l kwa ys (jetties) and moor i ng piles.
One boat moor ed bet ween a pai r of moor i ng pi l es is a
t ypi cal ar r angement . Fl oat i ng moor i ngs are us ual l y
pont oons ar r anged to pr ovi de wa l kwa ys to vessels.
These wa l kwa ys may be l ocat ed by means of gui de
pi l es or cabl es / chai ns (at t ached to anchor bl ocks),
al l owi ng free vert i cal movement . The boat s are
moor ed i n ei t her si ngl e or doubl e bert hs, s epar at ed by
fi nger pont oons . In areas of hi gh t i dal range, f l oat i ng
bert hs are cl earl y advant ageous , whi l st fi xed ber t hs
are mor e accept abl e i n r educed t i dal ranges.
An al l owance shoul d be ma de in t he des i gn of craft
ber t hs for ma noe uvr i ng (t aki ng account of cross
current s) and also cl earances whe n moor ed. Cr af t
may be moor ed i n bot h si ngl e and doubl e bert hs. The
effective (design) ber t h wi dt hs and l engt hs for fi xed
moor i ngs are as fol l ows:
Single Bert h wi dt h (Wb) = B + 1.0 m
Doubl e Bert h wi dt h (Wdb) = B 1 + B 2 + 1.5 m
Bert h l engt h (Lb) = L + 2.0 m
As wi t h fixed bert hs, cl earances are r equi r ed for craft
i n f l oat i ng ber t hs (refer Fi gure 5). The be a m
r equi r ement is not as hi gh, however , because t he
craft ' s beam at t he wat er l i ne is gener al l y smal l er t han
t he ma xi mum beam, and craft on f l oat i ng ber t hs can
be mor e t aut l y moor ed t han i n fixed ber t hs wher e
some sl ack is pr ovi ded i n moor i ng l i nes to account for
t i dal vari at i ons. The suggest ed ber t h di mens i ons for
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 43
4.5 Walkways
Recommended wal kway
wi dt hs gi ven in Table 4.1.
floating bert hs are:
Single Berth wi dt h (Wb) = B + 0.6 m
Doubl e Berth wi dt h (Wdb) = Wbl + Wb2
Berth Lengt h (Lb) = L + 1.0 m
WalkwaY wi dt hs depend on likely usage levels, length
of wal kway and t he extent of ancillary services
mount ed on the wal kway. The wal kway shoul d be
wi de enough to al l ow t wo- way pedest r i an traffic wi t h
barrows. Mari nas wi t h live-aboard pat r onage will be
expected to compl y wi t h ASl170 Version 2 l oadi ng
st andards. Where wa l kwa y l engt hs exceed 150 m, the
mi ni mum wi dt hs shoul d be increased by 0.5 m for
every 100 m of l engt h over 150 m. Table 4.1 provi des
r ecommended wal kway wi dt hs.
Figure 5. Floating berth di mensi ons
r B 2
~iii~i!~iiiiiii
~ i ~ i i i i i i i i i i i
! ~ ! ! iii! ! i~ ili~ iiii~ ii
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
i i i i i
i i ~ i ~ i i i i i i i i ~ i i i i i i i
~ii!i}iii#iii!ii!iii
i i i i i i i ~ i g i i i i } i i i i i i ! i i i i i
i i i i i i i i i i ! i i i i i i ! i i i i ! i
!: !iii}!iiii!iiiii'ii
iii:iiiii!iiiiiiiiiii iiiii!ii
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
W b W b l W b 2
W
44 Envi ronment al Guidelines for Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Opt i mum fi nger l engt h is
0.8 Lb.
Fingers have lower levels of usage; hence the wi dt h
may be reduced to provi de passage of onl y one
person at a time. The l engt h of the fingers shoul d fall
bet ween 0.6 times the bert h l engt h and 1.0 t i mes the
bert h length, however the opt i mum appears to be 0.8
Lb. This is sufficiently long to enabl e boar di ng and
securing of the boat. Shorter fingers ma y be
subjected to oscillations from short peri od wave
action, and may also require provi si on of addi t i onal
free-standing moori ng piles.
Fenderi ng is requi red al ong
wal kways of bot h fi xed and
fl oati ng structures.
It is usual to provi de fender (or buffer) strips al ong
the edges of wal kways and fingers. Fenderi ng is
needed along wal kways for two reasons. Firstly it
shoul d prevent vessels getting under fixed structures,
and secondl y it will reduce the damage in the event
of a collision. The latter applies to bot h fixed and
floating structures.
A 'tee' s houl d be
incorporated at the end of
each wal kway.
A ' tee' shoul d be incorporated into the end of each
wal kway to prevent wave buffeting of boats bert hed
at the distal end of the wal kways. This area shoul d
be used for t emporary moori ng only.
Table 4.1 Recommended wal kway wi dt hs
Pri mary Wal kway 2.4 m 3.0 m
Secondary Wal kway 1.8 m 2.0 m
Finger 0.75m 1.0 m
Fuel Berth Finger 2.4 m 3.0 m
Access Gangway 1.2 m -
4.6 Recl amati ons
Recl amat i on not to cover
nat ural MLW. Recl amat i on
crossi ng ML W may be broken
and bridged.
Reclamation works are not to cover the nat ural
location of the GBRMP boundar y (MLW), but that
line may be bri dged. MLW is not a st andard tidal
pl ane and must be calculated by an approved
met hod.
Desi gn of Mari na St ruct ures and Faci l i t i es 45
Contact GBRMPA for
further information on
defining MLW and
GBRMPA boundaries.
4.7 Piers and Pilings
Consideration shoul d be
gi ven to the most
appropriate materials to be
used for wetted surfaces.
Desi gn and place
structures to mi ni mi se
impacts on aquatic
habitats.
Mooring pile 0.9 times the
berth length from the
walkway.
Where a marina is proposed at a site where MLW
forms the boundary of the Great Barrier Reef Marine
Park, reclamation over this point would result in
alteration of the GBRMP boundary. Except for trivial
instances (which generally must be judged on legal
advice for each case) the boundary of the GBRMP
cannot be altered wi t hout the approval of both houses
of the Commonwealth Parliament.
Moored wooden st ruct ures can i mpact wat er quality
wi t hi n the mar i na basi n t hrough the leaching of wood
preservatives. Potential impacts can be avoi ded or
reduced by:
9 Using alternative materials such as concrete-filled,
steel-reinforced PVC, plastics or Other non-
conventional materials.
9 Using hi ghl y refined (grade one) creosote t hat
contains less tar, or alternative preservat i ves such as
chromat ed copper arsenat e (CCA salt) to mi ni mi se
chemical leaching.
In addition, the use of solid structures shoul d be
avoi ded in order to minimise habi t at loss by allowing
adequat e wat er circulation. The mar i na desi gner
shoul d also mi ni mi se structure wi dt h to allow for
maxi mum sunl i ght penetration. Docks and piers
shoul d be elevated as hi gh as possible and orientated
in a nort h-sout h rat her t han an east -west direction.
These designs will avoi d excessive shadi ng of aquatic
habitats.
For ease of bert hi ng and protection of craft when
moored, the moori ng pile should be located
approxi mat el y 0.9 times the bert h length from the
wal kway.
46 Environmental Guidelines for Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
4.8 Breakwaters
For fi xed breakwaters use
desi gn features to enhance
f l ushi ng rates.
Desi gn for a category 4
cyclone. Incorporate
al l owance for sea l evel
rises.
Sl opi ng riprap
structures are preferred for
breakwater construction.
Floating breakwaters have
a number of advantages
over fi xed breakwaters but
are onl y effecti ve for
shel tered sites.
Breakwat ers can be fixed or floating. Fixed
breakwat ers can interfere wi t h currents and reduce
the flushing rate wi t hi n the mari na, resul t i ng in
reduced wat er quality and increased shoaling. Solid
br eakwat er desi gn shoul d therefore include
consideration of nat ural current and sedi ment flow,
wave pat t erns and overall flushing characteristics.
Circulation can often be mai nt ai ned by pr ovi di ng
openi ngs in solid breakwat ers, at bot h ends of fixed
breakwat ers or bet ween the fixed br eakwat er and
shore.
Breakwat ers and protective works shoul d be desi gned
to wi t hst and a cat egory 4 cyclone, and i ncorporat e
allowance for sea level rise as predi ct ed to result from
the ' Greenhouse Effect' (refer Section 3.5).
Sloping ri prap structures are preferred for fixed
br eakwat er construction. If the l and mar gi n needs
stabilisation, a sloping ri prap wal l wi t h under l yi ng
filter cloth is preferred - these have the advant ages of
maxi mi si ng habi t at niche creation, economy,
reduction of wave reflectance probl ems and
mi ni mi sat i on of sedimentation.
The alternative to fixed breakwat ers are floating
breakwat ers. Al t hough floating br eakwat er s are onl y
effective for wavel engt hs short er t han twice the wi dt h
of the br eakwat er and are not effective on open coasts,
t hey offer certain advant ages over fixed br eakwat er s
as follows:
9 construction cost is nearl y i ndependent of
wat er dept h;
9 t hey can be used where soft or unst abl e bot t om
precl udes the use of fixed structures;
9 t hey can be easily relocated if necessary (i.e.
reversible impact);
9 t hey can mi ni mi se potential interference wi t h
fish mi grat i on and shoreline processes and can
reduce benthic habi t at modification; and
9 t hey can be used in areas of hi gh tidal r ange
where hi gh br eakwat er walls woul d pr ovi de
unaesthetic visual effects.
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 47
4.9 Fuel l i ng Facilities
Locate f uel l i ng faci l i ti es
l eeward of mari na wi t h
respect to prevai l i ng wi nds
and l eeward of exits.
Ensure easy access to the
f uel i ng faci l i ty and the
empl acement of the safety
precauti ons.
The l ocat i on of a f uel l i ng f aci l i t y is a cr i t i cal deci s i on
wi t h r es pect t o safet y. It s h o u l d be l oc a t e d t o be eas i l y
accessi bl e b y vi s i t i ng a n d p a s s i n g boa t s , wi t h o u t
access t h r o u g h t he ma i n b e r t h i n g ar ea. The f aci l i t y
s h o u l d be l ocat ed t o l e e wa r d of t he ma r i n a wi t h
r es pect t o t he p r e v a i l i n g wi n d i n t h e b o a t i n g s e a s on
a n d t o l e e wa r d of exi t s t o p e r mi t s af e e v a c u a t i o n of
boa t s i n t he e v e n t of fire. Th e y s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be i n
t he ar ea of gr e a t e s t f l us hi ng i n o r d e r t o mi n i mi s e
wa t e r qua l i t y i mpa c t s .
Wh e n p l a n n i n g a f uel be r t h, t he f ol l owi ng poi nt s
s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t h a t a g o o d ba l a nc e
b e t we e n ma x i mu m benef i t a n d pot e nt i a l
e n v i r o n me n t a l i mp a c t s ar e a c hi e ve d:
9 access t o f uel b e r t h b y boa t s i n ma r i n a a n d
vi s i t i ng boat s ;
9 access of fi re f i ght i ng vehi cl es t o f uel be r t h;
9 pr ovi s i on of a d e q u a t e fi re f i ght i ng e q u i p me n t ;
9 l i ght i ng of b e r t h ( f or s a f e t y a n d s ecur i t y) ;
9 pr ovi s i on of f uel s pi l l age pr ot e c t i on devi ces to
be k e p t on si t e;
9 si ze of f uel s t o r a g e t anks ;
9 fl exi bl e f uel s u p p l y l i nes f r o m s hor e t o be r t h as
a p p r o v e d b y t he De p a r t me n t of Tr a ns por t ;
9 a u t o ma t i c f uel cut - of f va l ve s a n d r e f ue l l i ng by
a u t h o r i s e d p e r s o n n e l onl y;
9 l ocat i on of b o ws e r s on s hor e i n pr e f e r e nc e to on
pont oon;
9 p r o x i mi t y t o ma r i n a office;
9 f uel faci l i t i es s houl d h a v e b a c k p r e s s u r e
a u t o ma t i c s hut - of f nozzl es ;
9 a n y f uel t r a ns f e r s y s t e ms o p e r a t i n g wi t h i n or
acr os s t he i nt er t i dal z one s h o u l d us e v a c u u m
o p e r a t e d p u mp s , d r y b r e a k c oupl i ngs or dr i p
t r ays ;
9 pr ovi s i on f or r e por t i ng a n d d e a l i n g wi t h all
spi l l s; a n d ,
9 s e c ur i t y a ga i ns t v a n d a l i s m a n d u n a u t h o r i s e d
- use.
48 Envi ronment al Guidelines f or Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
4.10 Ame ni t i e s
Speci al i s t requi rement s
for mari nas l arger t han
200 bert hs or dedi cat ed to
racing.
Recommendat i ons for the pl anni ng of mar i na
facilities, wi t h part i cul ar reference to ameni t i es are
gi ven below. The val ues quot ed are for a typical
commercial operat i on of moder at e size, say 200 craft.
Club facilities and mar i nas bert hi ng a significant
number of racing yacht s woul d demand a great er
number of the part i cul ar amenity.
Toilet blocks shoul d be pr ovi ded at conveni ent points.
Recommendat i ons for mar i na toilet facilities are gi ven
in Table 4.2.
Tabl e 4.2 Toi l et bl oc k requi rement s
i i ',i ',i ~ i ~ i ~ i i i i ', i ', i i ', i ', i ', i ' , ~ i i i i i i i i ' , i i i ! ' , ! i i i i i i i ' , i ' , ' , ' ~ i i i i i i i ' , i i i i i i l i i i i i ! ! i i i i i i i i i ! i i i i i i i i i i i i i ' . i ! i i i i i i i i i i i i i ' i ' i ! i i i i i i i i i i i i ' , i i i i ~ i ! ~ i ! i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ', i i ~ i ! i '. i ~ i i ~ i ' i i i i i i i i i i i ~ i i i i i ' , i i i ! ~ i ~ i i i i i ~ i ! ~ ~ ' ~ i ! ~ ~ i i ~ i ~ ' , i ~ ! ~ l ~ l ! ~ i ~ i ~ l i ! ~
Toilets
Uri nal s
Wash basi ns
Showers
Deep Sinks
I per 50 peopl e
I per 75 peopl e
I per 50 peopl e
I per 75 peopl e
one at each block
Ame ni t i e s s ho ul d be c l os e
to bert hs and e as i l y
acces s i bl e by di s abl e d
pers ons .
The range of amenities whi ch are pr ovi ded at a
mar i na will depend upon the size of t he mar i na and
requi rement s of the clients. Mari nas wi t h mor e t han
50 pens shoul d provi de rest rooms wi t h showers,
basins and toilets convenient to the pens.
It is usual that toilets and showers are pr ovi ded,
however, l aundry, locker and similar facilities ma y be
wor t hy of consideration. NO bert h shoul d be in excess
of 300 m from an amenities block. Access and ease of
use by di sabl ed persons shoul d be i ncorporat ed in the
desi gn and location of amenities buildings.
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 49
4.11 Waste Treatment and
Di s pos al Facilities
Onshore pump-out
f aci l i t i es wi l l be required
f or "desi gnat ed
developments'.
Assess appropriate marina
onshore wast ewat er
col l ecti on syst ems.
Sewerage s ys t em
connecti ons are preferred.
For marinas which are desi gnated devel opment s in
Queensland, the provision of sewage pump-out
facilities onshore will become a condition of
development consent.
Three types of onshore marina wastewater collection
systems are available: marina-wide systems,
port abl e/ mobi l e systems, and slip side systems.
Marina-wide wastewater collection systems include
one or more centrally located wastewater pump-out
installations. Vessels requiring the wastewater pump-
out services woul d dock at the pump-out installation
and a flexible hose woul d be connected to a
wastewater fitting in the deck of the vessel. These
units pump to an onshore hol di ng tank (or truck) or to
an onshore wastewater collection and treatment
system. Port abl e/ mobi l e systems are similar to
marina-wide systems except that the pump-out
stations are mobile. The mobile unit includes a
positive displacement pump and a small storage tank.
Slip side systems provide continuous wastewater
collection facilities at each slip. In general, there are
two types of slip side systems, each with
modifications available to customise the system.
Pump-out systems use an on board grinder pump to
transport wastes to a main sewer. Vacuum systems
use differential pressure to transport wastewater from
each slip to a central collection tank from which
wastewater may then be pumped to a sewer or hauled
to a wastewater treatment plant. Both types of
systems can also handl e bilge water discharged from
boats if the flow rates do not exceed a specified rate.
The system may be used on either floating or fixed
docks.
Larger projects, that is, marinas with more than 50
pens, should have sewage pump-out facilities unless
all users are short-term transients. These can be
conveniently placed adjacent to refuelling points.
Pump-out and public facilities should preferably be
connected to a sewerage treatment system.
50 Environmental Guidelines for Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Sept i c s y s t e ms r e qui r e a
mi n i mu m dr ai n f i e l d
s e t bac k of 35 m f r om
s urf ace wat er.
Li ve - aboar ds c a nno t
di s c har ge di rect l y.
With mari na-connect ed septic systems, t he pr obl em of
chemi cal s from onboard hol di ng syst ems may be
solved by usi ng two septic syst ems in series for bot h
mar i na and pump- out use (thus i ncreasi ng resi dence
time). A mi ni mum drai n field setback of 35 m from
surface waters is recommended.
Note that it is GBRMPA policy that any sewage
di scharge into the Mari ne Park receives t ert i ary
t reat ment (nutrient removal). Live-aboard vessels wi l l
therefore not be permi t t ed to use direct flow toilets
onboard.
4. 12 Admi ni s t r a t i v e Areas
Admi ni s t r a t i o n cent re
s h o u l d ha v e a g o o d v i e w
over ent i re mari na.
4. 13 Ma i n t e n a n c e Ar e as
Ma i n t e n a n c e area s h o u l d
a l l o w f or o ne boat per 25
craft.
Ma x i mi s e l a ndwa r d l e n g t h
of t he s l i p.
S l i p wa y gr adi e nt of 1:15 i s
pref erred.
The extent and sizing of admi ni st r at i on areas depends
on the size of the mari na, extent of shore-based
activities and whet her offices for gover nment
authorities are to be provi ded. The admi ni st r at i on
centre shoul d command a good vi ew over the entire
mar i na for safety considerations and client
management .
As a guide, allow enough area for mai nt enance of one
average sized boat per 25 craft at the mari na. This
will vary dependi ng on craft types and the rate of
fouling. For initial pl anni ng, provi si on of 5% of total
l and area for mai nt enance is reasonable. Mai nt enance
areas shoul d be located above hi gh tide mar k to avoi d
cont ami nat i on of i ncomi ng tidal water.
The l andwar d l engt h of the slip shoul d be maxi mi sed
to permi t as many boats as possible to be sl i pped
simultaneously. Tandem cradles assist i n this regard
and are favoured. Transverse sl i ppi ng of smal l er
boats can increase sl i pway utility.
Sl i pway gradi ent s of 1:10 to 1:15 have been f ound to
be the practical limits for most situations. In general,
a gradi ent of 1:15 is preferred (the steeper gradi ent s
are useful for smal l boats only).
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 51
Pavi ng desi gn mus t al l ow
for very hi gh poi nt l oads.
Mai ntenance area drainage
s houl d i ncl ude a col l ecti on
pit.
Wastewater disposal may
require s peci f i c l i censes.
Provi si on s houl d be made
for regular cl eani ng of
sl i pways.
In the desi gn of sl i pways, har dst and and mai nt enance
areas, the pavi ng desi gn must al l ow for ver y hi gh
poi nt loads. Such l oads are generat ed beneat h the
wheel s of fork lift trucks (as used i n dr y stacks),
har dst and cradles (for smal l boats and cruisers), under
keel chocks, sl i pway rail support s, paral l el boat lifts
and st raddl e transporters.
Careful attention must also be pai d to drai nage and
di sposal of st ormwat er and was h down wastes.
Disposal facilities are requi red to take used s ump oil,
hul l scrapi ngs and ot her wast es associated wi t h
mai nt enance areas. Mai nt enance area drai nage
shoul d therefore i ncl ude a collection pit from whi ch
wast e can be removed and bunds around the area to
di vert external stormwater. Where possible, remove
mar i ne growt h and pai nt by mechani cal means.
Opt i ons for wast ewat er di sposal include: pump out
pit contents for di sposal at an appr oved site; connect
to sewer if cont ami nant s are not har mf ul to the
t reat ment syst em (a t r ade wa s t e p e r mi t i s required);
and di scharge to wat ers after t reat ment to an
acceptable st andard (a di scharge l i cence i s requi red)
(refer ' Sewage Discharges into the Great Barrier Reef
Mari ne Park, GBRMPA 1993').
Wastewater from sl i pways also need to be cont ai ned
and di sposed of, al t hough this is difficult. Sl i pways
shoul d be regul arl y cleaned by sweepi ng or
vacuumi ng and the solids removed. Traps may be
able to be installed at the lower end to collect wastes
whi ch can also be regul arl y removed.
52 Envi ronment al Guidelines f or Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
4.14 Boat Launc hi ng
Faci l i t i es
Boat l a unc hi ng ramp ne e ds
s h o u l d be i de nt i f i e d.
De s i r abl e f eat ures are:
Locate away f rom s e ns i t i ve
areas.
Re c o mme n d e d s l o pe 1:10.
Re c o mme n d e d wi d t h s
4.0 m ( s i ngl e) and 3.7 m
( mul t i pl e) .
Al i g n pe r pe ndi c ul ar to
pr e do mi na nt wave s .
Exami ne e xi s t i ng ame ni t y
of pr o po s e d area.
Ade qua t e wat er de pt h at
ramp t oe.
Boat l aunchi ng r amps are required at most mar i na
facilities for the l aunchi ng and recovery of hire boats,
t ransi ent craft, dinghies, boats for sale and for
deliveries from manufact urers. The need for such
facilities shoul d first be identified.
The following guidelines cover the principles of
pl anni ng and desi gn whi ch may be modi fi ed to suit
the scale, scope and part i cul ar pur pose of t he mar i na
ramp. Separat e r amps for different pur poses may be
indicated.
Boat l aunchi ng r amps shoul d have the following
characteristics:
9 Locate boat r amps away from sensitive areas such
as seagrass beds or shellfish beds. Preferred areas are
shorelines wi t hout wet l and veget at i on and adjacent to
wat ers wi t h adequat e navi gat i on dept hs.
9 To reduce risk of accident, ramp slope shoul d be
1:10 (recommended) and not exceeding 1:8. For ease
of use, lane wi dt h mi ni mums are 4.0 m (single lane)
and 3.7 m (multiple lanes).
9 The effect of waves, currents and boat was h shoul d
be mi ni mi sed. The r amp shoul d be aligned
perpendi cul ar to the pr edomi nant waves so t hat the
boat is not moved si deways dur i ng l aunchi ng and
retrieval.
9 In general, boat l aunchi ng facilities shoul d not be
located wher e the r amp activities will have an adver se
effect on the existing ameni t y of the area or wher e
there will be conflict wi t h other activities of t he
mari na.
9 Adequat e wat er dept hs at the toe of the r amp at low
wat er shoul d allow all tide boat launching.
Design of Marina St ruct ures and Facilities 53
Boarding jetties of 15 m
length.
Car manoeuvring areas to
be provided.
Doubl e wi dth ramps
recommended.
Sufficient lighting.
Indicate ramp lanes by
painted lines.
A grooved surface using
appropriate ratio cement.
Marine ways and hoists
can be used to mi ni mi se
shoreline alterations.
4.15 Air Quality
Facilities/activities
involving releases into the
air shoul d be placed and
controlled to avoid
d6wnwi nd air quality
problems.
9 Boarding j et t i esor pont oons shoul d be not less t han
15 m in length for all wat er levels.
9 Sufficient area shoul d be provi ded for approach
ramps, manoeuvr i ng cars and trailer par ki ng areas.
9 Construction of single r amps shoul d be avoi ded
wher ever possible. The additional cost of a doubl e
wi dt h r amp is relatively mi nor compar ed to the cost of
constructing an addi t i onal lane at a later date.
9 Provi de mi ni mum lighting for r amp usage.
9 Ramp lanes shoul d be indicated by pai nt ed lines,
not kerbs whi ch may cause probl ems dur i ng
manoeuvr i ng of boat trailers.
9 Deep, square-shoul dered grooves moul ded into the
surface at an angle of 45 degrees to the r amp contours.
Concrete used shoul d be the equi val ent of 35 Mpa,
wi t h sl ump of 80 mm, wat er / cement ratio of 0.45 and
20 mm mi ni mum aggregat e size.
As an alternative to ramps, mari ne ways (dolly) and
hoists can be used to mi ni mi se shoreline alterations.
A mari ne way precl udes the need for a pier or
dredgi ng at mar i nas wi t h a gr adual submar i ne slope
and permi t s preservat i on of a veget at ed fringe, while
hoists require pier construction.
Ai r quality probl ems can arise from: vapour s from
volatile organic solvents used in degreasers, pri mers,
thinners, paints and antifoulants; spr ay pai nt i ng drift;
dust from abrasive blasting, sandi ng, planing, wood
shavi ng and sawdust . Paint, spr ay odours and dust
fallout can be a ver y real nui sance to nei ghbours at the
devel opment , but can be controlled in a number of
ways such as mai nt ai ni ng adequat e separat i on
distances bet ween boat bui l di ng/ mai nt enance areas
and neighbours; restriction on use of at omi sed spr ay
guns whi ch produce large amount s of overspray;
enclosing wor kshops and provi si on of ventilation
where appropri at e; use of spr ay ' booths' ; conduct of
abrasive blasting dur i ng low wi nd conditions and
54 En v i r o n me n t a l Gui del i nes f or Mar i nas in the Great Barri er Reef Mar i ne Park
mi ni mi sat i on of dust from sandi ng by use of suitable
dust collectors or i ndust ri al vacuum cleaners.
4.16 Parki ng
As s e s s me n t of par ki ng
r e qui r e me nt s s h o u l d
i ncl ude:
9 craft us age pat t erns
9 publ i c us age of ot her
mari na s ervi ces
9 al t ernat i ve par ki ng
pos s i bi l i t i e s
9 s peci al par ki ng for
di s a bl e d pe r s ons
9 access s peci al areas for
l arge ve hi c l e
9 par ki ng for cars and
at t ached trai l ers.
Provi de par ki ng for pe o pl e
wi t h a di sabi l i t y.
Provi de for ( and
separat e f rom t he
publ i c ) l arge and
commerci al ve hi c l e s .
A large portion of the l and area associated wi t h a
mar i na may be required for car parki ng (refer also to
AS3962-1991). Where l and is not readi l y available, it
has to be purchased or reclaimed. This can amount to
a major cost in a mari na development. In assessing the
number of car parki ng spaces required, the following
factors shoul d be considered (together wi t h any others
whi ch mi ght appl y to a gi ven development):
9 size and type of craft at bert hs l i kel y to use the
mar i na (this relates to cr ew/ passenger number s
and mai nt enance requirements);
9 frequency of use of the vari ous types of craft (to
establish a base parki ng demand);
9 likely usage patterns of craft dur i ng publ i c
hol i days and summer periods (to establish peak
parki ng demand);
9 location of mari na site and adjacent areas for
passi ve recreation, tourism, etc by the public;
9 provi si on of adequate car parki ng for other
mari na services and special use areas, such as
repair facilities, ferry and charter services,
restaurants, shops, sailing clubs, dr y storage or
for boat l aunchi ng r amp facilities;
9 availability of overflow parki ng i n sur r oundi ng
streets or nearby areas duri ng peak periods; an
9 del i very areas shoul d be pr ovi ded adjacent to
mari na wal kaways.
Parki ng spaces shoul d be made avai l abl e for persons
wi t h a di sabi l i t y (refer AS1428). These spaces shoul d
be wi der t han normal (at least 3.7 m) and shoul d be
i dent i fi ed as bei ng reserved for peopl e wi t h a
disability. They shoul d be located close to the l and
based bui l di ngs and compri se at least 1% of the
avai l abl e parki ng spaces. Al l owance shoul d be made
for peopl e wi t h a di sabi l i t y to cross kerbs and' ot her
obstructions.
Al l owance shoul d be made where the projected
activities of the mari na require access for large
vehicles, (e.g. del i veri ng sail or power boats, and
cranage). Wherever possible, del i very and
Design of Marina St ruct ures and Facilities 55
mai nt enance vehicle traffic shoul d be kept
separat e from car par k areas and circulation
roads.
Mi ni mum parking
requirements detailed
opposite.
Assessment of each aspect of the mar i na
devel opment is necessary, and appropri at e car
par ki ng requi rement s need to be assigned.
Parki ng may be allocated usi ng the following
mi ni mum provisions:
0.6 par ki ng spaces per wet bert h
0.2 par ki ng spaces per dr y st orage bert h
0.5 par ki ng spaces per mar i na empl oyee
0.2 par ki ng spaces per swi ng moori ng licensed
to the mar i na
Parki ng area design shoul d consider many factors:
Provide separate areas for
car parking only.
9 Provide separat e areas for ' car only' parki ng, and
provi de sufficient car and trailer par ki ng to meet
projected demands for normal usage.
Al l ow for drive-through
parking spaces.
9 Design dri ve-t hrough par ki ng spaces for ease of
manoeuvr i ng car and trailer combinations.
Locate parking close to the
ramp or provide a loading
z o n e .
9 Locate par ki ng as close as possible to the r amp such
that all par ki ng spaces are no more t han 200 m away.
If this is not possible a l oadi ng zone shoul d be
provi ded close to the ri ggi ng and wash areas.
Al l ow emergency vehicle
a c c e s s .
9 Provi de easy access for emergency vehicles to ' high
risk' areas such as workshops.
Avoid large asphalted areas
through use of green areas.
9 Avoid large asphal t ed expanses t hrough the use of
green areas. Green areas in the form of strips or
islands may be used as a means of controlling traffic
and trailer par ki ng areas.
Grass trailer parking areas.
9 Experience has shown that grass can wi t hst and
trailer loads wi t hout undue damage and therefore it is
recommended that all trailer par ki ng areas be grassed.
Provide overfl ow grassed
parking areas.
9 Provi de overfl ow grassed par ki ng areas wher ever
possible.
56 En v i r o n me n t a l Gui del i nes f or Mar i nas in the Great Barri er Reef Mar i ne Park
Rout e par ki ng r unof f vi a
l a nds c a pe d areas.
Ens ure a hi g h s t andard of
archi tectural t reat ment .
Cl earl y s i g npo s t par ki ng
cont rol s.
De s i g n i n accordance wi t h
l ocal c ounc i l r e gul at i ons .
Pl an s uf f i c i e nt f l e xi bi l i t y to
cope wi t h f ut ure de ma nd.
4.17 Commerci al Faci l i t i es
Appropri at e bal ance of
commerci al f aci l i t i es
s h o u l d be c ons i de r e d.
4.18 Re v e t me nt De s i g n
Pl ace r e ve t me nt s as far
upl a nd as pos s i bl e .
Us e s l o pi ng r e ve t me nt s
whe r e pos s i bl e .
9 Encour age r unof f f r om pa ve d areas to nour i s h
adj acent site l andscapi ng, r at her t han pi pi ng t he
r unof f away f r om t he site.
9 Under t ake a hi gh s t andar d of ar chi t ect ur al
t r eat ment (bot h st r uct ur al and l andscape) i n or der t hat
t he car par ki ng area does not det ract f r om t he vi sual
appeal of a mar i na.
9 Par ki ng areas wi l l be enhanced if a set of rul es for
traffic are adopt ed and cl earl y si gnpost ed.
9 Desi gn par ki ng i n accor dance wi t h l ocal counci l
regul at i ons.
9 The boat l aunchi ng faci l i t y shoul d, if possi bl e, be
desi gned and l ocat ed such t hat f ut ur e l and and wat er
based expans i ons to t he l aunchi ng r amp ma y be
possi bl e as a resul t of i ncreased demand.
Appr opr i at e commer ci al facilities are oft en essent i al to
the fi nanci al vi abi l i t y of a mar i na. They can also
comp' l ement t he mar i na and in t ur n t he mar i na
act i vi t i es oft en add val ue to commer ci al
devel opment s.
Breakwat ers or r evet ment s are used to absorb and
reflect wave ener gy away from t he mar i na and to
prot ect boat s wi t hi n t he mar i na basi n. Revet ment s
shoul d be si t uat ed as far upl a nd as possi bl e and
pr ovi de access ways over wet l ands to avoi d s hal l ow
i nt er t i dal areas.
Sl opi ng r evet ment s (stair-step or sl oped 45 ~ or l ess)
and veget at ed r evet ment s pr ovi de bet t er habi t at and
pr ot ect i on for j uveni l e fi sh and are pr ef er abl e to
vert i cal wal l s, wher e feasible. If vert i cal wal l s are
necessary, t hey s houl d cont ai n weep hol es cover ed
wi t h a filter cloth.
Des i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 57
Assessment of a sui tabl e
desi gn s houl d i ncl ude
hydrographi c and
geot echni cal surveys.
4.19 Aestheti cs
Use sl opi ng riprap wal l s
for l and margi n
stabi l i sati on.
4.20 Boat Clearances from
Revetments and Quays
Al l ow 1.0 m clearance from
boat stern to poi nt of
mi ni mum depth on sl opi ng
revetment and a si mi l ar
val ue from boat stern to
quay wal l .
4.21 Fixed Moori ngs
A wave hei ght range of
0.5 m to 0.6 m is commonl y
adopted as t he maxi mum
for fi xed moori ng systems.
Solid breakwat ers can reduce wat er circulation and
affect wat er quality. Design of these st ruct ures should
therefore include consi derat i on of nat ural current and
sedi ment flow, wave pat t erns and overall fl ushi ng
characteristics. Addi t i onal items whi ch shoul d be
considered in the desi gn of a br eakwat er include: tidal
range; wat er dept hs; stability of the st ruct ure
(permissible damage levels); overt oppi ng; availability
of suitable rock or use of concrete armour; and
foundat i on stability.
The mar i na desi gner shoul d ai m to maxi mi se
veget at ed l andscapi ng. If the l and mar gi n needs
stabilisation, a sl opi ng ri prap wal l wi t h underl yi ng
filter cloth is preferred. These have the advant ages of
maxi mi si ng habi t at niche creation, economy and
reduct i on of wave reflectance problems. In some
cases, stabilising wal l s have been successfully
veget at ed wi t h mangr ove pl ant i ngs to provi de
st rengt h and soften the visual i nt rusi on of such walls.
The wat er area available for bert hs is strongly
influenced by the revet ment or quay wal l treatment.
Allow typically 1.0 m clearance from boat stern to
poi nt of mi ni mum dept h on sloping revet ment and a
similar val ue from boat stern to quay wall. Craft wi t h
t ransom hung r udder s or deep skeg r udder s may
require great er clearance. For sloped revetments, the
distance from the bank to the boat shoul d be
mi ni mi sed. The furt her the boat from the bank, the
longer the wal kway and the more difficult the access.
Moori ng st ruct ures wi t hi n a mari na shoul d be
desi gned for the wave climate wi t hi n the harbour,
related to an appr opr i at e ret urn period. Moori ngs are
often anchored usi ng piles (a fixed mooring). A wave
hei ght range of 0.5 m to 0.6 m is commonl y adopt ed as
the maxi mum for fixed moori ng systems. It is
i mport ant to be awar e that while the moori ng syst em
58 Envi ronment al Guidelines f or Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
4.22 Floating Moori ngs
Floating moori ngs where
wave hei ght is l ess than
0.3 m, water dept h i s
excessi ve, sea bed i s
unsui t abl e for pi l i ngs or
est abl i shment costs are
prohi bi ti ve.
Four major types:
may not be damaged by l oadi ngs i mposed by 0.5 to
0.6 m waves, the craft may suffer damage to moor i ng
cleats or other fittings.
Floating moori ng syst ems are general l y used i n
harbours wi t h smal l wave heights. A wi del y accepted
practice for the desi gn of wave protection i n smal l
craft harbours i ncorporat i ng floating moor i ng syst ems
has been that wave hei ght s (within the harbour)
shoul d not exceed 0.3 m. Floating moor i ng syst ems
are also used in sites wi t h excessive wat er dept hs,
unsui t abl e sea bed conditions, or prohi bi t i ve pi l i ng
est abl i shment costs.
The floating moori ng uses an anchori ng syst em of
either:
Cl ump wei ght
Anchored
Pile dri ven
Auger moori ngs.
Requi re peri odi c survey
and major mai ntenance or
repair i n 15-20 years.
9 concrete or steel cl ump moori ngs consisting of a
series of wei ght s connected by chai ns and connected
to the pont oons by anchor lines, usual l y wi t h
i nt ermedi at e drag plates or wei ght s to reduce shock
loads;
9 commerci al anchor systems;
9 anchor piles dri ven into the sea bed and cut off at or
near bed level, connected to the pont oons by anchor
lines, also wi t h i nt ermedi at e drag plates or weights.
This syst em is used where wat er dept hs make full
length piles uneconomi cal ; or
9 screw or auger moorings.
Screw and auger moori ngs require more mai nt enance
t han a pi l ed system. Periodic servicing by di vers is
required. However, t hey have been shown to wor k
effectively. The worki ng life of floating structures is
general l y shorter t han that of fixed structures, wi t h
major mai nt enance or repl acement t ypi cal l y requi red
wi t hi n 15 to 20 years of installation.
De s i gn of Mar i na S t r u c t u r e s and Fac i l i t i e s 59
4.23 Cho i c e of Mat eri al s
Se l e c t mat e r i al s f or t hei r
r e s i s t anc e to de g r a da t i o n
and c o mpa t i bi l i t y wi t h
ot her mat eri al s .
The selection of mat eri al s for all structural, buoyancy
and cl addi ng el ement s of mari nas shoul d be gi ven
careful consideration. The envi r onment is ext remel y
aggressi ve at mar i nas fronting sea water. The factors
whi ch influence the selection of mat eri al s are
exposure or vul nerabi l i t y to:
attack by mar i ne organi sms (e.g. ship wor ms,
barnacles, algae); tidal zone conditions; stress
reversal or fluctuation; fatigue; corrosion; erosion;
wear (e.g. at hinges due to const ant movement );
spillage of solvents; fire hazard; and electrolytic
corrosion due to the connection of i ncompat i bl e
materials. Materials shoul d be selected havi ng regard
to their compatibility wi t h ot her mat eri al s to whi ch
t hey may be connected.
Ad h e r e to Aus t r a l i a n
St andar d Spe c i f i c at i ons for
mat eri al s .
Pe t r o l e um r e s i s t ant
p o l y s t y r e n e to be u s e d i n
f o a m s t ruct ures .
Mi n i mi s e wa t e r pr o o f e d
areas.
Av o i d t he u s e of
a n t i f o u l i n g pai nt s
wh e r e v e r po s s i bl e .
Aust ral i an St andards Specifications exist for the
majority of const ruct i on materials and these shoul d
be used. The list is too large for inclusion in this
document . St andards are obtainable from the
St andards Association of Aust ral i a, 80 Ar t hur Street,
Nor t h Sydney 2060.
Foam structures shoul d be made of pet rol eum
resistant pol yst yrene foam rat her t han expanded bead
foam - it lasts longer, has greater cohesion and better
fouling resistance.
Wat erproofed (concret e/ bi t umen) areas shoul d be
mi ni mi sed. Gravel or shell grit surfaci ng is an
attractive al t ernat i ve appropri at e in many instances
and has benefits of decreasi ng runoff velocity,
increasing infiltration and al l owi ng suspended solids
to settle out of runoff water.
While wood preservat i ve such as CCA are suitable,
antifouling pai nt s will not be appr oved for use on
non-boat facilities in the GBRMP unl ess it can be
shown t hat t hey do not release heavy met al s into the
water. If the use of creosote is necessary t hen use
Gr ade I not 2 or 3.
60 Envi ronment al Guidelines f or Marinas in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
4.24 Safety Requirements
Incorporate safety features
into design.
A mari na facility shoul d be desi gned wi t h
consideration gi ven to safety so as to reduce the risk
of injuries and damage to life and property. If safety
features are incorporated into the initial desi gn of the
mar i na it wi l l ul t i mat el y facilitate site management
and reduce safety hazards that otherwise arise due to
poor pl anni ng. When pl anni ng the mar i na layout, the
desi gner shoul d ensure easy access for peopl e wi t h a
di sabi l i t y is provi ded to all areas of the mari na. Steps
shoul d be avoi ded wherever possible.
Design of Marina St ruct ures and Facilities 61