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GPRS/EDGE

OVERVIEW
Course contents
GPRS Background and Evolution
GSM/GPRS network
GPRS Architecture
IP Addressing in GPRS
GPRS Air Interfaces
MS types and Coding Schemes
Mobility Management
PDP Context Activation Sequence
GPRS Roaming
GPRS Charging
Practical Demonstration of GPRS
GPRS

BACKGROUND
AND
EVOLUTION
GPRS BACK GROUND
With Mobile penetration reaching its full potential, GPRS gives
Mobile operators competitive edge and optimum use of the
infrastructure.
SMS is a good example of just how hungry users are for data
services.
The main Objective of GPRS is to offer the access to standard
data networks, using protocols e.g. TCP/IP and X.25
Transactions such as Credit Card checks and a variety of
telemetric applications benefit from the fast session set-ups.
GPRS enables efficient use of radio resources by allowing many
data users to share the same interface on a statistical basis.
The main benefits of GPRS are that it reserves radio resources
only when there is data to be sent
Mobile users doesnt have to connect to the network each time he
wants to transfer the data, he can stay connected all day.

Evolution from GSM to 3G
The GSM Growth Phases
GSM
2G
HSCSD
GPRS
2.5G
EDGE
3G
GSM Evolution
GPRS
200 KHz carrier
115 Kbps peak data rates
EDGE
200 KHz carrier
Data rates up to 384 Kbps
8-PSK modulation
Higher symbol rate
UMTS
5 MHz carrier
2 Mbps peak data rates
New IMT-2000 2 GHz spectrum
GSM
200 KHz carrier
8 full-rate time slots
16 half-rate time slots
GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS
3G

2.5G

2G

HSCSD
HSCSD
Circuit-switched data
64 Kbps peak data rates
MAIN ADVANTAGES FOR OPERATORS
More Revenue :
By providing more than a mobile connection.
Also operator can charge on the basis of type and amount of
content accessed.
Huge Potential Market for Data Sevices :
Mobile Phone and Internet, both are fastest growing
technologies and GPRS is the merger of two.
Fast Roll-out and Continuous Network Expansion :
GPRS is an integral part of GSM.
GPRS uses excess voice capacity for data :
GPRS Packets are transmitted in short, free periods between
busy hour calls.

Free GSM Capacity
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1:00 PM 1:15 PM 1:30 PM 1:45 PM
TCH
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00
TC
H
GPRS packets can be transmitted in
the short free periods between busy
hour calls
2TRX = 14 Speech TS
2% blocking means
8 Erlang speech traffic

On average 6 TS free !
GPRS Vs GSM
1. SUPPORTS BOTH CKT. Only circuit switched.
SWITCHED as well as
packet switched service.

2. MS Utilizes Automatic No re-transmission is
retransmission (ARQ) at provided.
data link layer to re-transmit
error frames.

3. Multiple time slots can be Single time slot per user.
allotted to a single user

4. One time slot can be allotted Single time slot per user.
to several users.

5. Charging/ billing more complex Simple time-based billing.
(Volume based, Q.O.S. based)
GPRS Vs GSM

* Communications- E-mail, fax,
intranet/ internet access.

* Value added services - Information services, games,
e-commerce.

* Location-based applications - Navigation, traffic conditions,
airline/rail schedule, location finder.

* Vertical applications - Freight delivery, fleet management,
sales-force automation

* Location sensitive A user nearing a cinema hall or
Advertising - a restaurant receives flashes of
advertisement



TYPICAL GPRS SERVICES
GPRS

NETWORK ELEMENTS
GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS
The Main elements of GSM are:
NSS :
MSC
VLR
HLR (Includes Authentication Center and Equipment Identity Register)
BSS :
BSC
BTS
Transcoder
NMS
Fault Management
Configuration Management
Performance Management
Network Element Software Hardware
SGSN SG1 DX Platform
GGSN G1 IP650
Firewall Checkpoint IP650
Ethernet Switch N/A Cisco Catalyst
DNS HP-UX 11.00 HP 9000 A class
CG HP-UX 10.20 HP K class
Border Gateway BGP4 IP650
DHCP HP-UX 11.00 HP 9000 A class

GPRS Network Elements
GPRS

ARCHITECTURE

GPRS Interface

HLR
Air (Um)
Gb
Gs
Gr Gf
Gn
Gn
Inter-PLMN
GPRS
Backbone
Gp
External
packet
network
Gi
SGSN
EIR
BSC
MSC/
VLR
SMS-
GMSC
Gd
GGSN
GGSN
Signalling and data
Signalling
Authentication, Authorization
GTP tunneling to GGSN
Ciphering & compression
Mobility Management
Session Management
Interaction with HLR, MSC/VLR
Charging & statistics
NMS interfaces
SGSN Role
GGSN Role
Interface to external data networks
Encapsulate in GTP and forwards end user
data to right SGSN
Routes mobile originated packets to right
destination
Filters end user traffic
Collects charging and statistic information
for data network usage
GPRS

AIR INTERFACES
Different GPRS Capacity Types
TRX 1
TRX 2
CCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
Circuit
Switched
Territory
Packet
Switched
Territory
Territory border moves based
on Circuit Switched traffic load
GPRS
Capacity
Dedicated
GPRS
Capacity
TS TS
Additional
GPRS
Capacity
TS TS
GPRS

MS CLASS
&
CODING SCEMES
MS Class
CLASS A:
Supports simultaneous attach, simultaneous activation,
simultaneous monitor, simultaneous invocation, and
simultaneous traffic.
CLASS B:
Simultaneous traffic shall is not supported. The mobile user
can make and/or receive calls on either of the two services
sequentially but not simultaneously. The selection of the
appropriate service is performed automatically
CLASS C:
Supports only non-simultaneous attach. Alternate use only.
The status of the service which has not been selected is detached,
that is, not reachable.
GPRS Channel Coding Schemes
GPRS

MOBILITY
MANAGEMENT
Mobility Management State
Idle
Standby
Ready
Packet
TX/RX STANDBY
Timer Expiry
GPRS
Attach
/ Detach
READY
Timer Expiry
MS location known to
SGSN level.
MS is capable of receiving
Point-to-Multipoint data
and being paged for
Point-to-Point data
MS location
not known.
Subscriber is not
reachable by the
GPRS NW.
MS location known to
cell level.
MS is transmitting or has
just been transmitting.
MS is capable of receiving
Point-to-Point data and
Point-to-Multipoint data.
Routing Area
RAI = MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC
GPRS Mobility Management
Routing Area :
The RA is a new concept for tracing the MS location.
Cell =< RA =< LA served by one SGSN
RAI = MCC + MNC + LAC + RAC
Every time the MS sees the new RAI is has to initiate the RA
update procedure.
Mobility Management States :
The IDLE State is when the MS is not connected.
The Standby State is when the MS is connected to the GPRS Network
The Ready State is when the MS is ready to connect to the external IP Network.
Changing between states can be initiated from the MS, from the network and from the timers
set.
GPRS Mobility Management
PDP CONTEXT

ACTIVATION
BTS BSC
SGSN
GGSN
Intranet
GPRS
Backbone
IP Network
SS7
HLR
DNS
(1) MS sends "Activate PDP Context
Request" to SGSN
Access Point Name
PDP Type (IP)
PDP Address (empty == dynamic)
Access Point Name = Reference to an external packet data network the user
wants to connect to

Internet
APN=
"Intranet.Ltd.com"
1.
2.
Access
Point
(2) SGSN checks against HLR
Access Point Name
Dynamic / static IP address

PDP Context Activation
Accessing the HLR
SECURITY IN GPRS
Authentication of the subscriber
IMEI Checking
User Identity Confidentiality (TMSI in GSM, P-TMSI in GPRS)
Ciphering of the data traffic between MS and SGSN



Private IP Addressing in the GPRS backbone.
Ciphered links and authentication between nodes in the GPRS Backbone.
Screening of packets coming from the external networks (Firewall).

(P-TMSI is used to derive the Temp Logical Link Identity (TLLI))

GPRS SYSTEM HAS INHERITED THE GSM PH-2 SECURITY FUNCTIONS
ADDITIONAL GPRS SECURITY FEATURES ARE
The Abbreviation
GPRS = General Packet Radio
System
EGPRS = GPRS + EDGE modulation
EDGE Provide 3G services today
Provide 3G services with existing licenses
New modulation optimized for wireless data services
Link adaptation: Take highest possible rate
Covered by existing GSM licenses
Same channel structure, network infrastructure, frequency
planning and protocol as todays GSM
M
S
BTS
P
U
C
BSC MSC/VLR
HLR
SGSN GGSN
Backbone
Network
ISP Network
Corporate
Network
AUC
SMS G/IW MSC
Gb
Gd
Gs
Gn
Gr
Gn
Gi
EDGE
TRU
M
S
Evolution to EDGE
voice voice voice voice voice
voice voice voice voice voice
Free
TS
Data
Free
TS
Standard GSM Transceiver
EDGE Transceiver
EDGE increases capacity
System upgrade for EDGE
B
S
C
BSC Software Upgrade
R
B
S
EDGE TRU
EDGE enabled RBS
What EDGE would mean to subscribers
Streaming Applications
Very high speed downloads
Corporate Intranet connections
Quicker MMS
Video Phone
Vertical corporate applications Video
Conference, Remote presentations
Thank You!