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The Solar System

The Solar System may be defined as consisting (1) ... all those objects that are governed
by the Sun's gravitational field. (2) ... effects arising (3) ... the proximity of the Sun could
equally well be used as criteria, (4) ... as radiation pressure or interaction with the solar
wind. With any of these definitions the Solar System extends (5) ... to a distance of about
two lightyears! the closest star, "roxima #entauri, (6) ... lying at a distance of slightly
more than four lightyears. $ur %nowledge of this region of space certainly does not
reach as far as this, (7) ... , because the most distant SolarSystem objects that we %now
about, the comets, seem to originate at a distance of no more than &',''' astronomical
units, or (8) ... than a third of the total distance. (s for the other SolarSystem bodies
%nown to us, they lie at distances of less than a (9) ... hundred (). $ur study is (10) ...
confined to (11) ... is primarily the central region of the Solar System. The first thing to
note is that (12) ... total mass of the objects in the Solar System represents a negligible
fraction of the mass of the Sun itself and the second is that most of (13) ... objects orbit
close to the plane of the solar equator. The Solar System thus forms a disc, essentially
empty, (14) ... which the planets and their satellites, the asteroids and the comets orbit at
considerable distances from (15) ... another.
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Global Language
( language achieves a genuinely global status (1) ... it develops a special role that is
recogni*ed in every country. This might seem (2) ... stating the obvious, but it is not,
(3) ... the notion of 'special role' has many facets. Such a role (4) ... be most evident in
countries where large numbers of the people spea% (5) ... language as a mother tongue in
the case of +nglish, this would mean the )S(, #anada, ,ritain, -reland, (ustralia, .ew
/ealand, South (frica, several #aribbean countries and a sprin%ling of other territories.
(6) ... , no language has ever been spo%en by a mother tongue majority in more (7) ... a
few countries 0Spanish leads, in this respect, in some twenty countries, chiefly in 1atin
(merica2, so mothertongue use by itself cannot give a language global status. To achieve
such a status, a language has (8) ... be ta%en (9) ... by other countries around the world.
They must decide to give it a special place (10) ... their communities, even (11) .... they
may (12) ... few 0or no2 mothertongue spea%ers. (13) ... are two main ways in (14) ... this
can be done. 3irstly, a language can be made the official language of a country, to be used
as a medium of communication in (15) ... domains as government, the law courts, the
media, and the educational system. To get on in these societies, it is essential to master
the official language as early in life as possible.
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10) within
13) There
2) li%e
5) the
8) to
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14) which
3) for
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15) such
o!ern Te"hnology
Technology, or the ma%ing and using of artifacts, is (1) ... largely unthin%ing activity. -t
emerges (2) ... unattended to ideas and motives, while it produces and engages with
unreflectedupon objects. We ma%e dinner, sew clothes, build houses, and manufacture
industrial products. We use tools, turn (3) ... appliances, answer telephones, drive cars,
listen to radios, and watch televisions. -n our technological society, all this happens
mostly (4) ... habit (5) ... even in less technologically framed cultures the context of
ma%ing and using is (6) ... so different, (7) ... the %inds of ma%ing and using certainly are,
and artifice itself is less prevalent. The need to thin% about technology is nevertheless
increasingly manifest. -ndeed, the inherent complexity and practical efficacy of modern
technologies call forth diverse %inds of thin%ing scientific and technical, of (8) ... , but
(9) ... economic, psychological, political, and so forth. Within such a spectrum of
approaches and issues, what does it mean to thin% philosophically about technology5
What basic stance and distinctions characteri*e (10) ... thin%ing5 Such are the principal
issues to (11) ... addressed, and through them a perhaps even (12) ... fundamental
question6 (13) ... try to thin% philosophically about technology at all5 What is there about
technology that is not adequately addressed by (14) ... %inds of thin%ing5 What (15) ...
philosophy tell us about technology5
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The #a!ger
The ,adger's legs are so short, that its belly seems to touch the ground ! this, (1)..., is but
a deceitful appearance, as it is (2)... by the length of the hair, (3)... is very long all over
the body, and ma%es it seem much more bul%y than it really is. -t is a solitary, stupid
animal, that finds refuge remote (4)... man, and digs itself a deep hole with great
assiduity. -t seems to avoid the light, and seldom quits (5)... retreat by day, only stealing
(6)... at night to find subsistence. -t burrows in the ground (7)... easily, its legs being short
and strong, and its claws stiff and horny. (8)... it continues to bury itself, it throws the
earth behind it, to a great distance, and thus forms to itself a winding hole, at the bottom
(9)... which it remains in safety. (s the fox is not so expert at digging into the earth, it
often (10)... possession of that which has (11)... quitted by the badger, and (12)... say,
forces it from its retreat, by laying its excrements (13)... the mouth of the badger's hole.
This animal, however, is not long in ma%ing itself a new habitation, from which it seldom
ventures far, as it flic%s but slowly, and (14)... find safety only in the strength of its
retreat. When it is surprised by the dogs at some distance from its hole, it then combats
with desperate resolution ! it falls upon its bac%, defends itself on every side, and seldom
dies unrevenged (15)... the midst of its enemies.
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