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1

. . , . . ,
. . , . .

.

.-
1999
81.2 .
85
. . , E. . een, . . ccncxn, . . yseen
85 rncoro xst: o]onorx. cc. ueoe nocoe nx cyeon
neroruecx cyon yneceon no cnenntoc N 2103 "octe xst". -
., , 1999. - 496 c.
H N 065425 o 30.09.97 ISBN 5-87852-108-3

- (., ,
!"#$ % (., , !"&$.
' %%%(
)* +,-. /0' '/.
()'1
]e r rncoro xst coro ;
no]ecco . 2. 3 ( . . . He)
4' 5 , ' 5
'.
rn-e
oroonn . . non
. . o, . . oeen,
. . cconcx, , . yseen
"", 1999
. . oenon, o]onee
onox, 1999
6 4 7, 8 4 7,
0* 9 , 7 4 :

.
ueoe nocoe
onco n neut 25 mnx 1999 r. uo 70x100
1
/16.
y c. yr o]cex. eut o]cex.
2
e: 31,0 neu. n. x 10 000 +s. s N 830.
sentcno
195197, -eeyr, yn. ceo, 6.
neuo c roontx nosnon
n Hes (nor]x . onocoro)
ocycneoro oe u no neu.
191023, -eeyr, . . uo, 59.
3
H
coxmee nocoe e ocouo nonoe cceuecoe once cox coneeoro
rncoro xst, nooo snrx sent r, neycoete oro
cecn nocnemex nx cyeon I-III ycon ]ynteon oene rncoro
xst neroruecx cyon. u nocox coco n o, uot t cye nuecoe
se ruecoro cox rncoro xst, eoxooe nx nnex xsto.
cono en yue snrecx c nosn coneeo rnco neyo
rueco ot, oo ]cymcx ece nt, xe onnonnst
xuece ]ot, cnontsyete n no+s.
xo ono ee nenoctnmcx e cneex, mme omym xecy
onctneoro xnnex.
oet en eoeyecx sennxt cex ynxe, ce ootx suentoe
eco onxt st ynxex oynoro n.
nx yocn nontsonx nect en yue sene nr]t, emme cnosym
yenm.
cono nnmcnt en noueny s rno-eco neyt nocnex
ecxne.
ocoe tno noono n euee econtx ne rnco oene ]ynte
octx xston . . . ene.
4'
4
INTRODUCTION
The grammatical system oI English, like that oI any other language, possesses its own peculiar Ieatures.
The English language has comparatively Iew grammatical inIlections. They are the plural and the Genitive
case endings oI some nouns, the comparative degree endings oI some adjectives and adverbs; personal
inIlections oI verbs are conIined to the third person singular and the opposition oI the Iorms ;<= - ;>?>. What is
most characteristic oI these inIlections in comparison with Russian is that they are more uniIied. Thus the plural
ending -= in nouns is used with the majority oI count nouns. The Iew exceptions (such as @AA@B - @>>@B, CAA=> -
C>>=>, DBEFG - DBEFG?>H, AI - AI>H) are regarded as obsolete Iorms.
In the sphere oI the verb, however, many complications arise, as there is no such regularity among the past
tense and participle II Iorms. Some oI them are Iormed with the inIlection ->G (B>FJ - B>FJ>G K B>FJ>G$, others
by means oI root vowel change (L?EHC - L?AMCB@ - L?AMCB@, DAN> - D<N> - DAN>). The latter are considered as
irregular verbs.
Alongside synthetic Iorms, the verb has an elaborate system oI analytical Iorms (most oI the tense, aspect
and perIect Iorms, the passive voice Iorms, most oI the subjunctive mood Iorms). The analytical Iorms, include
an auxiliary verb, as the bearer oI the grammatical meaning, and a notional part: B<= CAH>, ;<= =>H@, ;AMFG FEO>,
@A L> JA=@>G, L>EHC GAH>, B<PEHC L>>H GAH>, etc.
Many words are not inIlected at all: most adjectives and adverbs, modal words, statives, non-count nouns,
conjunctions, prepositions, particles and interjections. Moreover, most words are devoid oI any word-Iorming
(derivational) morphemes which would show that they belong to a certain class. This lack oI morphological
distinctions between the classes accounts Ior the Iact that a great number oI words (both notional and Iunctional
words) may easily pass Irom one class to another, their status being determined mainly syntactically, by their
Iunction in the sentence. The prevailing role oI syntax over morphology is also revealed in the Iact that words,
phrases and clauses may be used in the same Iunctions.
The order oI elements in the English sentence is Iixed to a greater degree than in inIlected languages (as the
Russian language). The order =MLQ>D@ - J?>GED<@> - ALQ>D@ is most characteristic oI statements, and any modi-
Iication oI it is always justiIied by either stylistic or communicative considerations. Attributes may precede or
Iollow head-word, the Iirst pattern being more usual. The most mobile element in the sentence is the adverbial,
but that can be explained by its reIerence to diIIerent parts oI the sentence.
A most peculiar Ieature oI English is a special set oI words employed as structural substitutes Ior a certain
part oI speech: noun substitutes (one, that), the verb substitute (do), the adverbs and adjective substitute (so).
5
MORPHOLOGY
PARTS OF SPEECH
1. All the words oI the English language are grouped into diIIerent types oI classes. This classiIication is
based on three main principles:
1) their grammatical meaning;
2) their Iorm and
3) their syntactical characteristics.
By the Iirst we understand the meaning common to all the words oI the class, such as thingness Ior the noun
or either process or state Ior the verb.
By the second we mean the morphological characteristics oI the class meant, such as the number oI the noun
or the voice oI the verb.
By the third - the combinability and the syntactical Iunctions oI a type oI word.
We distinguish between notional and Iunctional parts oI speech: the Iormer denoting extralinguistic
phenomena such as things, actions, qualities, emotions and the latter - relations and connections between
notional words or sentences. Thus there are 9 notional parts oI speech and 3 Iunctional ones.
The notional parts
oI speech are:
The Iunctional parts
oI speech are:
the noun
the adjective
the stative
the pronoun
the numeral
the verb
the adverb
the modal words
the interjection
the preposition
the conjunction
the particle
THE VERB
2. Most P>?L= denote action or state. However, there are some verbs which have other meanings. They are
modal verbs, causative verbs, some impersonal verbs, relational and link-verbs. They present a system oI
Iinite and non-Iinite Iorms, except Ior modal verbs, which have no non-Iinite Iorms.
The verb in its Iinite Iorms possesses the morphological categories oI person, number, tense, aspect, perIect,
voice and mood. Its syntactical Iunction is that oI the predicate.
The non-Iinite Iorms (or verbals) are Iour in number, they are: the inIinitive, the gerund, participle I and
participle II.
Non-Iinite verb Iorms possess the verbal categories oI perIect, voice and to a certain extent aspect. Owing to
the richness oI its morphological categories, the Ilexibility oI its syntactical Iunctioning and wide combinability,
the verb is oI the greatest importance in the structure oI the sentence.
The morphological categories oI the verb are interrelated, that is every verb Iorm expresses all these
categories simultaneously.
Formation of verb categories
3. English morphological categories are Iormed in two ways, synthetically and analytically.
Synthetic or simple Iorms are those the Iormal elements oI which are to be Iound within one word Irom
which they are inseparable. These are the present and the past indeIinite aIIirmative (=EHC, =EHC=, =<HC); the non-
perIect common aspect Iorms oI the inIinitive, participle I, the gerund, participle II (=EHC, =EHCEHC, =MHC); the
imperative mood (=EHCR).
Analytical or compound verb Iorms consist oI at least two verbal elements, an auxiliary verb and a notional
6
verb; the latter is presented by participle I, participle II, or the inIinitive.
An auxiliary verb is devoid oI its lexical meaning, its role is purely grammatical. It may be Iinite or non-
Iinite, thus showing whether the whole verb Iorm is Iinite or non-Iinite as in:
Jane E= =EHCEHC.
Someone seems @A L> =EHCEHC in the next room.
The auxiliary verbs in English are not numerous, they are seven: @A GA, @A L>, @A B<P>, =B<FF, ;EFF, =BAMFG,
;AMFG.
The notional verb oI a compound verb Iorm is always non-Iinite, it carries the lexical meaning oI the whole
verb Iorm.
The analytical verb Iorms are the Iorms oI the continuous aspect, the perIect Iorms, the passive Iorms, the
Iuture Iorms, the Iuture in the past Iorms, some Iorms oI the subjunctive mood, the interrogative, negative and
emphatic Iorms oI the present and past indeIinite.
The meaning oI the analytical Iorm as a whole is the result oI the complete Iusion oI the auxiliary and the
non-Iinite Iorm.
Morphological composition
4. According to their morphological composition verbs can be divided into simple, derivative, compound
and phrasal.
Simple verbs consist oI only one root morpheme: @A <=O, @A LMEFG, @A DAN>.
Derivative verbs are composed oI one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (preIixes
and suIIixes). The main verbIorming suIIixes are -ize, -fy, -en, -ate, as in: @A D?E@EDES>, @A QM=@ETU, @A LF<DO>H, @A
>HMN>?<@>.
Compound verbs consist oI at least two stems: @A AP>?C?A;, @A MHG>?@<O>.
Phrasal verbs consist oI a verbal stem and an adverbial particle, which is sometimes reIerred to as
postposition. The adverbial meaning is evident in phrasal verbs oI the type @A DAN> EH, @A FAAO AM@, whereas it is
quite lost in the verbs @A CEP> MJ, @A CEP> EH, @A L?EHC MJ.
Basic verb forms
5. Among the synthetic verb Iorms there are those which are used independently and those which are used
to build other verb Iorms. They are Iour in number:
the inIinitive
the past indeIinite
participle II
participle I
- ;A?O, ?E=>V
- ;A?O>G, ?A=>V
- ;A?O>G, ?E=>HV
- ;A?OEHC, ?E=EHC.
The inIinitive stem and participles I and II are employed to build other verbal Iorms.
The past indeIinite is the only basic Iorm that is not used to build other Iorms.
Regular and irregular verbs
6. Owing to the historical development oI the verb system the English verbs Iall into two groups: regular
and irregular verbs.
The regular verbs, which go back to the Germanic weak verbs, constitute the largest group. The past
indeIinite and participle II oI these verbs are Iormed by means oI the dental suIIix -ed added to the stem oI the
verb. This is the productive pattern according to which all new verbs Iorm their past indeIinite and participle II.
The irregular verbs Iorm their past indeIinite and participle II according to some Iixed traditional patterns
going back partly to the Germanic strong verbs, partly to the weak verbs, which underwent some changes in the
process oI history.
The irregular verbs are about 250 in number. They can be arranged according to sound changes.
7
The list of irregular verbs arranged according to sound changes
WHTEHE@EP> X<=@ WHG>TEHE@> X<?@EDEJF> WW Y?<H=F<@EAH
1 2 3 4
|| || ||
begin |bgn| began |b'gn| begun |b'gn| ut
drink |dnk| drank |drk| drunk |drk| nt
ring |r| rang |r| rung |r| snot
shrink |rnk| shrank |srk| shrunk |rk| comt(cx)
sing |s| sang |s| sung |s| net
sink |sk| sank |sk| sunk |sk| oyt
spring |spr| sprang |spr| sprung |spr| ntrt
stink |stk| stank |stk| stunk |stk| noxt
swim |swm| swam |swm| swum |swm| nnnt
|| || ||
dig |dg| dug |dg| dug |dg| ont
Iling |Iln| Ilung |Il| Ilung |Il| t(cx)
spin |spn| spun |spn| spun |spn| nxct
stick |stk| stuck |stk| stuck |stk| ntt
sting |st| stung |st| stung |st| xnt
swing |sw| swung |sw| swung |sw| ut(cx)
win |wn| won |wn| won |wn| noext
wring |r| wrung |r| wrung |r| cyunt
|| || ||
sit |st| sat |st| sat |st| cet
spit |spt| spat |spt| spat |spt| nnen(cx)
|i:| |e| |e|
bleed |bl:d| bled |bled| bled |bled| onoout
8
breed |bri:d| bred |bred| bred |bred| ntnot, snot
(Z')
Ieed |Ii:d| Ied |Ied| Ied |Ied| ot
lead |li:d| led |led| led |led| nec
meet |mi:t| met |met| met |met| nceut(cx)
read |ri:d| read |red| read |red| ut
speed |spi:d| sped |sped| sped |sped| cnemt
|e|
get |get|
||
got |gt|
||
got |gt|
nonyut
||
hang |h|
||
1) hung |h|
2) hanged |hd|
||
hung |h|
hanged |hd|
nemt
nemt (*)
|a|
bind |band| |
Iind |Iand|
grind |grand|
wind |wand|
|au|
bound |baund|
Iound |Iaund|
ground |graund|
wound |waund|
|au|
bound |baund|
Iound |Iaund|
ground |graund|
wound |waund|
cnxstnt
xot
onot
ntcx
|a|
light |lat|
slide |slad|
||
lit |lt|
slid |sld|
||
lit |lt|
slid |sld|
cnet, sxrt
contst
|a|
shine |an|
||
shone | n|
||
shone |n| cnet, cxt
|a|
Iight |Iat|
|:|
Iought |I :t|
| :|
Iought |I :t| ootcx
|a|
strike |strak|
||
struck |strk|
||
struck |strk| yxt(cx)
|ou|
hold |hould|
|e|
held |held|
|e|
held |held| ext
|u:|
shoot |u:t|
||
shot| t|
||
shot | t| cenxt
|i:|
creep |kri:p|
keep |ki:p|
leap |li:p|
|e|
crept |krept|
kept |kept|
leapt |lept|
leaped
|e|
crept |krept|
kept |kept|
leapt |lept|
leaped
nonst
ext
ntrt
9
|i:|
sweep |swi:p|
sleep |sli:p|
weep |wi:p|
|e|
swept |swept|
slept |slept|
wept |wept|
|e|
swept |swept|
slept |slept|
wept |wept|
ec,
noet
cnt
nnt,
tt
|e| |ou| |ou|
sell |sel| sold |sould| sold |sould| nont
tell |tel| told |tould| told |tould| ronot
|i:| |e| |e|
Ilee |Ili:| Iled |Iled| Iled |Iled| ext,
cnctcx
ercno
|| |:| |:|
hear |h| heard |h:d| heard |h:d| cntmt
|e| |e| |e|
say |se| said |sed| said |sed| ronot,
cst
|i:| |e| |e|
deal |di:l| dealt |delt| dealt |delt| snt,
cneenxt
dream |dri:m| dreamt |dremt|
dreamed
dreamt |dremt|
dreamed
net ct; eut
Ieel |Ii:l| Ielt |Ielt| Ielt |Ielt| uyncnont
kneel |ni:l| knelt |nelt| knelt |nelt| nenoxt
one
lean |li:n| leant |lent| leant |lent| noxtcx
mean |mi:n| meant |ment| meant |ment| sut
|a| | :| | :|
buy |ba| bought |b :t| bought |b :t| noynt
|i:| |e| |e|
leave |li:v| leIt |leIt| leIt |leIt| not
|u:| | | ||
lose |lu:z| lost |lst| lost |lst| ext
|a| |ou| |I|
drive |drav| drove |drouv| driven |'drvn| nec, ext
( [Z,

. .$
ride |rad| rode |roud| ridden | 'rdn| ext nexo
rise |raz| rose |rouz| risen | 'rzn| notcx,
ncnt
write |rat|
4 I
wrote |rout| written |'rtn| nct
|a|
Ily |Ila|
|u:|
Ilew |Ilu:|
|ou|
Ilown |Iloun| net
10
|i:|
Ireeze |Iri:z|
speak |spi:k|
steal |sti:l|
weave |wi:v|
|ou|
Iroze |Irouz|
spoke |spouk|
stole |stoul|
wove |wouv|
|ou|
Irozen |'Irouzn|
spoken | spoukn|
stolen |'stouln|
woven | 'wouvn|
oost
sronnt
ct
t
|e|
break |brek|
|ou|
broke |brouk|
|ou|
broken |'broukn| not
|e|
Iorget |I'get|
| |
Iorgot |I'gt|
| |
Iorgotten |I'gtn| stnt
||
swear |sw|
tear |t |
| :|
swore |sw :|
tore |t :|
| :|
sworn |sw :n|
torn |t :n|
nxctcx
nt
|a|
lie |la|
|e|
lay |le|
|e|
lain |Ien| next
|a|
bite |bat|
hide |had|
||
bit |bt|
hid |hd|
||
bitten |'btn|
hidden |'hdn|
yct(cx)
nxt(cx)
|u:|
choose |tu:z|
|ou|
chose |touz|
|ou|
chosen |'touzn| ntt
|i:|
see |si:|
|:|
saw |s:|
|i:|
seen |si:n| net
|i:|
eat |i:t|
|e|
ate |et|
|i:|
eaten |'i:tn| ect
||
Iorbid |Ie'bd|
Iorgive |I'gv|
give |gv|
|e|
Iorbade |Io'bed|
Iorgave |I'gev|
gave |gev|
||
Iorbidden |I'bidn|
Iorgiven |I'gvn|
given |'gvn|
snemt
stnt
nt
|e|
shake |ek|
take |teik|
|u|
shook |uk|
took |tuk|
|e|
shaken |'ekn|
taken |'tekn|
xc
t
|:|
Iall |I:l|
|e|
Iell |Iel|
|:|
Iallen |I:ln| nt
|:|
draw |dr:|
|u:l
drew |dru:|
|:|
drawn |dr:n| cont
|ou|
blow |blou|
grow |grou|
know |nou|
throw |rou|
|u:|
blew |blu:|
grew |gru:|
knew |nju:|
threw |ru:|
|ou|
blown |bloun|
grown |groun|
known |noun|
thrown |roun|
yt
c
st
oct
|e|
swell |swel|
|e|
swelled |sweld|
|ou|
swollen |'swouln| ynt(cx)
11
|e|
make |mek|
|e|
made |med|
|e|
made |med| ent
||
bring |br|
think |ik|
|:|
brought |br:t|
thought |:t|
|:|
brought |br:t|
thought |:t|
ec
yt
|i:|
teach |ti:t|
|:|
taught |t:t|
|:|
taught |t:t| yut
||
catch |kt|
|:|
caught |k:t|
|:|
caught |k:t| xnt
||
stand |stnd|
understand
|nde'stnd|
|u|
stood |stud|
understood
|nd'stud|
|u|
stood |stud|
understood
|nd'stud|
coxt
not
|d|
build |bId|
lend |lend|
mend |mend|
spend |spend|
send |send|
|t|
built |blt|
lent |lent|
ment |ment|
spent |spent|
sent |sent|
|t|
built |blt|
lent |lent|
ment |ment|
spent |spent|
sent |sent|
cot
onxnt,
cnt n ey
ut
t, cxoont
noctnt
bet |bet|
burst |b:st|
bet |bet|
burst |b:st|
bet |bet|
burst |b:st|
ext n
nontcx; nstntcx (o
cxe)
cost |kst| cost |kst| cost |kst| cot,
oxotcx
cut |kt| cut |kt| cut |kt| est
hit |ht| hit |ht| hit |ht| yxt
hurt |h:t| hurt |h:t| hurt |h:t| nuxt ont
let |let| let |let| let |let| nosnonxt, semt
put |put| put |put| put |put| nct, nonoxt
shut |t| shut |t| shut |t| stnt(cx)
split |splt| split |splt| split |splt| cntnt(cx)
spread |spred| spread |spred| spread |spred| snetntcx
upset |'set| upset |p'set| upset |p'set| onotnt (cx)
ccnt,
ymt ($
Pronunciation rules of the suffix ed
The suIIix -ed is pronounced in three ways:
1) id] when the verb stem ends in the dental consonants |d| or |t|:
skate - skated decide decided
12
chat - chatted end - ended
2) d] when the stem ends in any voiced sound except |d|:
live lived
travel - travelled
stay - stayed
change changed
3) t] when the stem ends in any voiceless sound except |t|:
talk - talked
stop - stopped
wish wished
place placed
Spelling rules of the verb forms with the suffix ed
1) The letter -d is added to stems ending in -e:
skate - skated Iree Ireed
2) In all the other cases the letters -ed are added:
stay - stayed talk talked
The Iinal consonant letter is doubled iI it is single and Iollows a short vowel in a stressed syllable:
nod - nodded
stop- stopped
stir - stirred
permit - permitted
reIer - reIerred
compel- compelled
The Iinal - l is doubled even in an unstressed syllable (British English):
travel - travelled cancel cancelled
In some words the Iinal -p is doubled in the same position:
kidnap - kidnapped
handicap handicapped
worship worshipped
The Iinal -y is changed to -i iI it is preceded by a consonant:
cry cried reply replied
Formation of participle I
7. Participle I oI both regular and irregular verbs is composed by adding the suIIix -ing to the stem oI the
verb. In writing the Iollowing rules oI spelling are observed:
1) iI the stem ends in a mute -e, the -e is dropped beIore adding -ing:
skate - skating
2) iI the stem ends in a single consonant letter preceded by a short vowel oI a stressed syllable, the consonant
letter is doubled:
stop - stopping
nod - nodding
stir stirring
permit permitting
reIer - reIerring
compel compelling
3) iI the stem ends in -l aIter a short vowel oI an unstressed syllable, the -l is doubled (in British English):
travel travelling cancel cancelling
The same reIers to some words ending in -p:
kidnap - kidnapping
handicap- handicapping
worship worshipping
13
4) verbs ending in -ie drop the Iinal -e and change i into y beIore taking the suIIix -ing:
lie lying die dying
Note:
The same rules apply to the Iormation oI the gerund.
Semantic classifications of the verb
8. Semantic classiIications oI the verb may be undertaken Irom diIIerent standpoints.
Grammatically important is the devision oI verbs into the Iollowing classes:
Actional verbs, which denote a c t i o n s p r o p e r (GA, N<O>, CA, ?><G, etc.) and statal verbs, which
denote s t a t e (L>, >IE=@, FE>, =E@, OHA;, etc.) or r e l a t i o n s ( TE@, L>FAHC, B<P>, N<@DB, DA=@, etc.). The
diIIerence in their categorical meaning aIIects their morphological paradigm: s t a t a l and r e l a t i o n a l
v e r b s have no passive voice (though some have Iorms coinciding with the passive voice as in YB> DM?@<EH=
<HG @B> D<?J>@ ;>?> N<@DB>G). A l s o s t a t a l and r e l a t i o n a l v e r b s generally are not used in the
continuous and perIect continuous tenses. Their occasional use in these tenses is always exceptional and results
in the change oI meaning.
rom the syntactic standpoint verbs may be subdivided into transivite (neexote) and intransitive
(eneexote) ones.
Without the object the meaning oI the transitive verb is incomplete or entirely diIIerent. Transitive verbs may
be Iollowed:
a) by one direct object (monotransitive verbs);
Jane is helping her sister.
b) by a direct and an indirect objects (ditransitive verbs);
Jane gave her sister an apple.
c) by a prepositional object (prepositional transitive verbs):
Jane looks after her sister.
Intransitive verbs do not require any object Ior the completion oI their meaning:
The sun is rising.
There are many verbs in English that can Iunction as both transitive and intransitive.
Tom is writing a letter. (transitive)
Tom writes clearly. (intransitive)
Who has broken the cup (transitive)
Glass breaks easily. (intransitive)
Jane stood near the piano. (intransitive)
Jane stood the vase on the piano. (transitive)
The division oI verbs into terminative and non-terminative depends on the aspectual characteristic in the
lexical meaning oI the verb which inIluences the use oI aspect Iorms.
T e r m i n a t i v e v e r b s (neentte rnront) besides their speciIic meaning contain the idea that the
action must be IulIilled and come to an end, reaching some point where it has logically to stop. These are such
verbs <= =E@ GA;H, DAN>, T<FF, =@AJ, L>CEH, AJ>H, DFA=>, =BM@, GE>, L?EHC, TEHG, etc.
N o n - t e r m i n a t i v e , or d u r a t i v e v e r b s (eneentte rnront) imply that actions or states
expressed by these verbs may go on indeIinitely without reaching any logically necessary Iinal point. These are
such verbs as D<??U, ?MH, ;<FO, =F>>J, =@<HG, =E@, FEP>, OHA;, =MJJA=>, @<FO, =J><O, etc.
The end, which is simply an interruption oI these actions, may be shown only by means oI some adverbial
modiIier:
14
\> =F>J@ @EFF HEH> EH @B> NA?HEHC.
The last subclass comprises verbs that can Iunction as both t e r m i n a t i v e and n o n - t e r m i n a t i v e
(verbs of double aspectual meaning). The diIIerence is clear Irom the context:
Can you see well (non-terminative)
I see nothing there. (terminative)
The finite forms of the verb
9. The category of person expresses the relation oI the action and its doer to the speaker, showing whether
the action is perIormed by the speaker (the 1st person), someone addressed by the speaker (the 2nd person) or
someone/something other than the speaker or the person addressed (the 3rd person).
The category of number shows whether the action is perIormed by one or more than one persons or non-
persons.
or the present indeIinite tense oI the verb @A L> there are three contrasting Iorms: the 1st person singular,
the 3rd person singular and the Iorm Ior all persons plural: (W$ <N - (B>$ E= - (;>, UAM, @B>U$ <?>.
The other term used Ior indeIinite tenses is "simple tenses". Accordingly there are @B> =ENJF> J?>=>H@, /@B> =ENJF> J<=@/, /@B>
=ENJF> TM@M?>/.
In the past indeIinite tense it is only the verb @A L> that has one oI these categories - the category oI number,
Iormed by the opposition oI the singular and the plural Iorms: (W, B>$ ;<= - (;>, UAM, @B>U$ ;>?>. All the other
verbs have the same Iorm Ior all the persons, both singular and plural.
In the Iuture and Iuture in the past tenses there are two opposing Iorms: the 1st person singular and plural
and the other persons: (W, ;>$ =B<FF CA - (B>, UAM, @B>U$ ;EFF CAV (W, ;>$ =BAMFG DAN> - (B>, UAM, @B>U$ ;AMFG
DAN>.
In colloquial style, however, no person distinctions are Iound either in the Iuture or in the Iuture in the past
tenses. The only marker Ior the Iuture tenses is ll used with all persons, both singular and plural: W]FF GA E@V \>]FF
GA E@V ^>]FF GA E@, etc. The marker Ior the Iuture in the past tenses is d, also used with all persons and numbers:
W =<EG W_G DAN>V \> =<EG B>_G DAN>V ^> =<EG ;>_G DAN>, etc. Historically ll is the shortened Iorm oI ;EFF, d is
the shortened Iorm oI ;AMFG.
The categories oI person and number, with the same restrictions, as those mentioned above, are naturally
Iound in all analytical Iorms containing the present indeIinite tense oI the auxiliaries @A L> and @A B<P>, or the
past indeIinite tense oI the auxiliary @A L>: (W$ am ?><GEHC - (B>$ is ?><GEHC - (;>, UAM, @B>U$ are ?><GEHCV (W$ am
@AFG - (B>$ is @AFG - (;>, UAM, @B>U$ are @AFGV (B>$ has DAN> - (W, ;>, UAM, @B>U$ have DAN>V (B>$ has L>>H @AFG - (W,
;>, UAM, @B>U$ have L>>H @AFGV (B>$ has L>>H ?><GEHC - (W, ;>, UAM, @B>U$ have L>>H ?><GEHC.
A more regular way oI expressing the categories oI person and number is the use oI personal pronouns. They
are indispensable when the Iinite verb Iorms in the indicative as well as the subjunctive moods have no markers
oI person or number distinctions.
W stepped aside and they moved away.
YB>U had been walking along, side by side, and she had been talking very earnestly.
II UAM were his own son, you could have all this.
II =B> were not a housemaid, she might not Ieel it so keenly.
The verb is always in the 3rd person singular iI the subject oI the predicate verb is expressed by a negative or
indeIinite pronoun, by an inIinitive, a gerund or a clause:
Nothing B<= B<JJ>H>G. Somebody B<= DAN>.
To see him at last ;<= a real pleasure. To shut that lid =>>N= an easy task.
Seeing E= believing. isiting their house again =>>N= out oI the question.
What she has told me T?ECB@>H= me.
or Iurther details see on Agreement oI the Subject and Predicate.
15
The category of tense
10. The category oI tense in English (as well as in Russian) expresses the relationship between the time oI
the action and the time oI speaking.
The time oI speaking is designated as present time and is the starting point Ior the whole scale oI time
measuring. The time that Iollows the time oI speaking is designated as Iuture time; the time that precedes the
time oI speaking is designated as past time. Accordingly there are three tenses in English - the present tense,
the future tense and the past tense which reIer actions to present, Iuture or past time.
Besides these three tenses there is one more tense in English, the so-called future in the past. The
peculiarity oI this tense lies in the Iact that the Iuture is looked upon not Irom the point oI view oI the moment
oI speaking (the present) but Irom the point oI view oI some moment in the past.
Each tense is represented by Iour verb Iorms involving such categories as aspect and perIect. Thus there are
Iour present tense Iorms: the present indeIinite, the present continuous, the present perIect, the present perIect
continuous; Iour past tense Iorms: the past indeIinite, the past continuous, the past perIect and the past perIect
continuous; Iour Iuture tense Iorms: the Iuture indeIinite, the Iuture continuous, the Iuture perIect and the Iuture
perIect continuous; and Iour Iuture in the past tense Iorms: the Iuture in the past indeIinite, the Iuture in the past
continuous, the Iuture in the past perIect, the Iuture in the past perIect continuous.
The category of aspect
11. In general the category oI aspect shows the way or manner in which an action is perIormed, that is
whether the action is perIective (conemeoe), imperIective (econemeoe), momentary (roneoe,
oooe), iterative (orooe, nonoxmmeecx), inchoative (suentoe), durative
(noonxeoe, nentoe), etc.
In English the category oI aspect is constituted by the opposition oI @B> DAH@EHMAM= <=J>D@ and @B> DANNAH
<=J>D@.
The opposition the continuous aspect the common aspect is actualized in the Iollowing contrasting
pairs oI Iorms:
Continuous Common
is speaking
was speaking
will be speaking
has been speaking
speaks
spoke
will speak
has spoken
The Iorms in the leIt-hand column (whether taken in context, or treated by themselves) have a deIinite
meaning: they describe an action as a concrete process going on continuously at a deIinite moment oI time, or
characteristic oI a deIinite period oI time (hence its name - the continuous aspect). The Iorms in the right-hand
column, iI treated by themselves, are devoid oI any speciIic aspectual meaning. They denote the action as such,
in a most general way, and can acquire a deIinite and more speciIied aspective meaning due to the lexical
meaning oI the verb and speciIic elements oI the context in which they are used. Thus, Ior example, the verb
Iorm =<HC, when regarded out oI context, has no speciIic aspectual characteristics, conveying only the idea oI
the action oI singing with reIerence to the past. However when the same Iorm is used in the context, it acquires
the aspectual meaning conIerred on it by that context. Compare the Iollowing sentences:
When he was young he =<HC beautiIully (nen yen net).
He went over to the piano and =<HC two Iolk-songs (cnen).
He went over to the piano and =<HC (snen).
While everybody was busy lighting a camp Iire, he =<HC Iolk-songs (nen).
The Iact that these Iorms may express diIIerent aspectual meanings according to the context, accounts Ior the
term - the common aspect.
12. Whereas all verbs can be used in the common aspect, there are certain restrictions as to the use oI the
continuous aspect. Some verbs do not usually have the Iorms oI the continuous aspect. They are reIerred to as
16
statal verbs. The most common oI them are the Iollowing:
1. Relational verbs B<P>, L> and some link verbs:
L>DAN>, ?>N<EH, <JJ><?, =>>N, =AMHG.
However, both @A L> and @A B<P> can be used in the continuous aspect Iorms where @A L> has the meaning @A
<D@ and @A B<P> has a meaning other than @A JA==>==.
She E= so Ioolish
I B<P> three brothers.
She E= L>EHC so Ioolish (acting Ioolishly) today.
I <N B<PEHC dinner (am dining) now.
Other verbs having the same meaning oI relation are not used in the continuous aspect Iorms:
to apply to
to belong to
to compare (to)
to concern
to contain
to cost
to depend on
to deserve
to diIIer Irom
to exist
to hold
to interest
to matter
to measure
to own
to possess
to remember
to stand Ior
to weigh
2. Verbs expressing sense perception, that is involuntary reactions of the senses:
to Ieel (uyncnont),
to hear (cntmt),
to see (net),
to smell (uyncnont snx),
to taste (uyncnont nyc).
However these verbs as well as other statal verbs may be sometimes used in continuous and perIect
continuous Iorms, especially in inIormal English.
These verbs will be considered in detail in 22.
3. Verbs expressing emotional state:
to care, to detest, to envy, to Iear, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to preIer, to want, to wish.
4. Verbs expressing mental state:
to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to expect, to Iind, to Iorget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to
mind, to notice, to perceive, to remember, to suggest, to suppose, to think, to understand.
Note:
Care should be taken to distinguish between some oI these verbs denoting a mental state proper and the
same verbs used in other meanings. In the latter case continuous aspect Iorms also occur. Compare, Ior
example, the Iollowing pairs oI sentences:
I DAH=EG>? (believe) her to be a very good student.
I >IJ>D@>G (supposed, thought) youd agree with
me.
I T>>F (suppose) there is something wrong about
W_N =@EFF DAH=EG>?EHC (studying) all the pros and cons.
I could not come Ior I ;<= >IJ>D@EHC (waiting Ior) a
Iriend at the time.
I_N T>>FEHC quite cold.
17
him.
I @BEHO (suppose) youre right. I <N @BEHOEHC AP>? (studying) your oIIer.
I <N TA?C>@@EHC things more and more now (beginning to Iorget).
She E= MHG>?=@<HGEHC grammar better now (beginning to understand).
Moreover, all the verbs treated in 12 can occur in the continuous aspect when the ideas they denote are to
be emphasized:
Dont shout, I]<N B><?EHC you perIectly well
Why are you staring into the darkness What <?> you =>>EHC there
`?> you still ?>N<EHEHC my Iriend.
ou see, she= OHA;EHC too much.
They dont know that inside I know what theyre like, and that all the time I_N B<@EHC them.
The category of perfect
13. The category oI perIect is as Iundamental to the English verb as the categories oI tense and aspect,
whereas it is quite alien to the Russian verb.
The category oI perIect is constituted by the opposition oI the perfect to the non-perfect.
The perIect Iorms denote action preceding certain moments oI time in the present, past or Iuture. The non-
perIect Iorms denote actions belonging to certain moments oI time in the present, past or Iuture.
To see the diIIerence between the two categories compare the Iollowing pairs oI sentences containing non-
perIect and perIect Iorms:
PerIect Non-perIect
I B<P> =>>H the Iilm, and I think it is dull.
At last you are here I_P> L>>H waiting Ior you so
long
She B<G F>T@ by the 2nd oI September.
She B<G L>>H =F>>JEHC Ior halI an hour when the
telephone woke her up.
I =B<FF B<P> ?>@M?H>G beIore you get the supper ready.
I =>> you are tired.
Whom <?> you ;<E@EHC Ior
She leIt on the 2nd oI September.
When the Iire began, everybody ;<= =F>>JEHC.
I =B<FF ?>@M?H at 10.
14. The perIect Iorms belong either to the continuous or to the common aspect and as such they have
speciIic semantic characteristics oI either one or oI the other. Thus the perIect continuous Iorms denote
continuous actions taking place during a deIinite period oI time preceding the present moment or some moment
oI time in the past or Iuture. The moment oI time in question may be either e x c l u d e d or i n c l u d e d in
the period oI time oI the action, as in the Iollowing:
Dont wake her up, she has only been sleeping TA? B<FT
<H BAM?. (She is still sleeping at the moment oI
speaking.)
Ive woken her up, she has been sleeping >P>? =EHD>
GEHH>?. (She is not sleeping at the moment oI
speaking.)
She had been living in St.-Petersburg TA? - U><?=
;B>H ;> N>@. (She was still living there at that
moment oI past time.)
They had been living in St.-Petersburg TA? - U><?=
;B>H @B>U NAP>G @A a. (They were not living in St.-
Petersburg any longer at that moment oI past time.)
He will have been working here TA? ,- U><?= H>I@
<M@MNH. (He will still be working here at that moment
oI the Iuture.)
He will have been working there TA? # U><?= L>TA?> B>
?>@M?H= @A AM? EH=@E@M@>. (He will not already be
working there any longer at that moment oI the
Iuture.)
The perIect Iorms oI the common aspect are devoid oI any speciIic aspect characteristics and acquire them
only Irom the lexical meaning oI the verb or out oI the context in which they are used. Thus terminative verbs
in the perIect Iorms oI the common aspect express completeness oI the action:
18
She B<G =BM@ the window and was going to sleep.
The completed actions expressed by such Iorms may be momentary or iterative, as in:
He B<G =@MNLF>G and T<FF>H GA;H beIore I could
support him.
He B<G =@MNLF>G and T<FF>H GA;H on his knees several
times beIore he reached the bushes.
Non-terminative verbs may express both completed and incompleted actions:
She B<G =JAO>H to all oI them beIore she came to any
conclusion.(noronon)
I B<P> OHA;H him all my liIe. (sm)
They may also express iterative or durative actions:
He B<G FEP>G in many little towns beIore he settled in
St.-Petersburg.
She B<G FEP>G here since the war.
Thus the diIIerence between the perIect and the perIect continuous Iorms is similar to the diIIerence between
the indeIinite and the continuous non-perIect Iorms.
BeIore passing on to a thorough study oI all verb Iorms in detail it should be clearly understood that every
one oI them is a bearer oI three grammatical categories, those oI tense, perIect, and aspect, that is every Iorm
shows whether the action reIers to the present, the past, the Iuture or the Iuture viewed Irom the past; whether it
belongs to a certain moment oI time within each oI these time-divisions or precedes that moment, and whether
it is treated as continuous or not.
Table I
Tense, aspect and perfect forms of the English verbs
Tense PerIect
Aspect
Non-PerIect PerIect
Present Common Takes Has taken
Continuous Is taking Has been taking
Past Common Took Had taken
Continuous was taking had been taking
uture Common will take will have taken
Continuous will be taking will have been taking
uture in the Past Common would take would have taken
Continuous would be taking would have been taking
Thus each tense is represented by Iour verb Iorms involving such categories as aspect and perIect. There are
four present tense forms:
the present indeIinite (the simple present)
the present continuous
the present perIect
the present perIect continuous
19
four past tense forms:
the past indeIinite (the simple past)
the past continuous
the past perIect
the past perIect continuous
four future tense forms:
the Iuture indeIinite (the simple Iuture)
the Iuture continuous
the Iuture perIect
the Iuture perIect continuous
four future in-the-past tenses:
the Iuture in-the-past indeIinite (the simple Iuture-in-the-past)
the Iuture in-the-past continuous
the Iuture in-the-past perIect
the Iuture in-the-past perIect continuous.
Present tenses
15. All the present tenses (The present indeIinite, the present continuous, the present perIect, the present
perIect continuous) reIer the actions they denote to the present, that is to, the time oI speaking. The diIIerence
between them lies in the way they express the categories oI aspect and perIect.
The present indefinite
(The simple present)
Meaning. The present indeIinite reIers the action which it denotes to the present time in a broad sense.
It bears no indication as to the manner in which the action is perIormed, that is whether it is perIective
(complete) or imperIective (incomplete), momentary or durative (continuous), iterative or inchoative, etc. Any
oI these meanings can be imparted to the Iorm by the lexical meaning oI the verb or by the context. Neither
does it bear any indication as to the precedence oI the action it denotes to the moment oI speaking.
16. Formation. Some oI the Iorms oI the present indeIinite are synthetic (aIIirmative Iorms), some -
analytic (interrogative and negative Iorms).
AIIirmative Iorms Ior all persons singular and plural except the 3rd person singular coincide with the
inIinitive stem: @A =J><O - W =J><O, UAM =J><O, @B>U =J><O.
The 3rd person singular Iorm is built Irom the same stem by means oI the inIlexion -s, -es: to speak |spi:k| -
he speaks |spi:ksj; to land |lnd| - he lands |lndz|; to wish |wI| - he wishes |wIIz|.
As can be seen Irom the above examples, the pronunciation and spelling oI the inIlection oI the 3rd person
singular vary:
1. erb stems ending in vowels and voiced consonants (except voiced sibilants and aIIricates) take the
inIlection -s which is pronounced |z|:
to see |si:|
to play |ple|
to stir |st|
to come |km|
- he sees |si:z|
- he plays |plez|
- he stirs |st:z|
- he comes |kmz|.
The 3rd person singular oI the verb @A =<U (=<U=) is pronounced |sez|.
In verb stems ending in the letter y and preceded by a consonant the letter y is replaced by the letters ie:
to try |tra|
to carry |'kr|
- he tries |traz|
- he carries |'krz|.
20
The verbs @A CA and @A GA and their compounds (to Iorego, to overdo, etc.) take the inIlexion |z| spelled as
-es:
to go |gou| - he goes |gouz|,
the verb @A GA (and its compounds) changes its root vowel:
to do |du:|
to overdo
|'ouvdu|
- he does |dz|,
- he overdoes |'ouvdz|.
The 3rd person singular oI the verb @A B<P> is B<= |hz|.
2. erb stems ending in voiceless consonants (except voiceless sibilants and aIIricates) take the inIlexion -s
pronounced |s|:
to work |w:k|
to hope |houp|
- he works |w:ks|
- he hopes |houps|
3. erb stems ending in sibilants and aIIricates take either the inIlexion -s or -es. Both are pronounced z]:
a) -es iI the Iinal letters oI the stem are -s, -sh, -ss, -x, -z, -zz, -ch, -tch:
to push |pu]
to pass |pa:s|
to box |boks|
to buzz |bz|
to catch |kt|
- he pushes |'puz|
- he passes |'pa:sz|
- he boxes |'boksz|
- he buzzes |'bzz|
- he catches |'ktz|;
b) -s iI the Iinal letters oI the stem are -se, -ce, -ze, -ge, -dge
(i.e. sibilants and aIIricates plus the mute e):
to please |pli:z|
to place |ples|
to Ireeze |Iri:z|
to stage |sted|
to sledge |sled|
- he pleases |'pli:zz|
- he places |'plezz|
- he Ireezes |'Iri:zz|
- he stages |'stedz|
- he sledges |'sledz|.
17. Interrogative and negative forms oI the present indeIinite are analytical and are built by means oI the
present indeIinite oI the auxiliary to do and the inIinitive oI the notional verb.
Besides these there is one more type oI Iorms, namely negative-interrogative forms, which has two
possible patterns.
The paradigm of the verb in the present indefinite
AIIirmative Interrogative Negative
I speak
He (she, it) speaks
We speak
ou speak
They speak
Do I speak
Does he (she, it) speak
Do we speak
Do you speak
Do they speak
I do not (dont) speak
He (she, it) does not (doesnt) speak
We do not (dont) speak
ou do not (dont) speak
They do not (dont) speak
Negative-interrogative
a)
Do I not speak
Does he (she, it) not speak
b) Dont I speak
Doesnt he (she, it) speak
21
Do we not speak
Do you not speak
Do they not speak
Dont we speak
Dont you speak
Dont they speak
Note:
The auxiliary @A GA can occur in the aIIirmative Iorm as well, iI special emphasis is required. In this case the
auxiliary is always stressed:
Ask him again, he bGA>= OHA; what it was.
She bGA>= B>FJ me so much
18. There are some verbs that Iorm their present indeIinite in a diIIerent way.
These are:
1) The verb @A L>, which has synthetic Iorms not only Ior aIIirmative, but also Ior interrogative, negative and
negative-interrogative structures. Besides, it distinguishes the category oI number and has in the singular the
category oI person.
See the table on p. 339.
2) The verb @A B<P> when meaning @A JA==>== also builds its interrogative, negative and negative-
interrogative Iorms synthetically.
When the verb @A B<P> has a modal meaning or when it is used as part oI a phrase verb it makes its
interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative Iorms in the ordinary way, that is with the auxiliary @A GA1
When GA you B<P> @A C>@ MJ in order to catch the Iirst morning train
She GA>= HA@ B<P> any lunch at home.
3) All the modal verbs do not take the inIlexion -s in the 3rd person singular. They Iorm their interrogative
and negative Iorms without the auxiliary @A GA.
19. The present indefinite.
1. To state facts in the present.
I FEP> in St.-Petersburg.
Most dogs L<?O.
It= a long way to Tipperary.
2. To state general rules or laws of nature, that is to show that something was true in the past, is true in the
present, and will be true in the Iuture.
It =HA;= in winter.
Snow N>F@= at 0C.
Two plus two N<O>= Iour.
3. To denote habitual actions or everyday activity.
They C>@ MJ at 8.
On Sundays we =@<U at home.
Do you oIten CA to the dancing hall
4. To denote actions and states continuing at the moment of speaking (with statal and relational verbs,
verbs oI sense and mental perception.)
22
Who GA>= the car L>FAHC to
I GA HA@ =>> what you are doing.
Now I B><? you perIectly well.
I GA HA@ MHG>?=@<HG you at all.
5. To express declarations, announcements, etc. referring to the moment of speaking.
I G>DF<?> the meeting open.
I <C?>> to your proposal.
I ATT>? you my help.
6. To denote a succession of action going on at the moment of speaking.
Now watch me closely: I @<O> a match, FECB@ it, JM@ it into the glass and ... oh, nothing B<JJ>H=
7. To denote future actions.
a) Mostly with verbs of motion (@A CA, @A DAN>, @A =@<?@, @A F><P>, @A ?>@M?H, @A <??EP>, @A =<EF and some
other verbs), usually iI the actions denote a settled plan and the Iuture time is indicated:
W CA to Moscow next week.
They =@<?@ on Sunday.
She F><P>= Ior England in two months.
What GA you GA next Sunday
b) In adverbial clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions ;B>H, @EFF, MH@EF, <= =AAH <=, <= FAHC
<=, L>TA?>, <T@>?, ;BEF>, ET, MHF>==, EH D<=>, AH DAHGE@EAH @B<@, J?APEG>G, etc.:
When she DAN>=, ring me up, please.
Do it as soon as you <?> @B?AMCB with your duties.
I promise not to tell her anything if you B>FJ me to get out oI here.
However in object clauses introduced by the conjunctions ;B>H and ET it is the Iuture indeIinite that is used to
denote Iuture actions:
I dont know when she ;EFF DAN>.
Im not sure if she ;EFF DAN> at all.
8. To denote past actions:
a) in newspaper headlines, in the outlines oI novels, plays., Iilms, etc.:
Dog c<P>= Its Master.
Students c<U No to New Weapon.
Then leur N>>@= ittle Jon. They T<FF EH FAP> with each other.
b) in narratives or stories to express past actions more vividly (the so-called historic present):
It was all so unexpected. ou see, I came home late last night, turned on the light and - whom do you
think I =>> Jack, old Jack, sleeping in the chair. I CEP> < D?U, ?M=B to him and =B<O> him by the shoulder.
9. To denote completed actions with the meaning of the present perfect (with the verbs @A TA?C>@, @A B><?,
@A L> @AFG).
I TA?C>@ your telephone number.
23
I B><? you are leaving Ior England
I <N @AFG she returned Irom rance last week.
The present continuous
20. Meaning. The present continuous denotes an action which is in progress at the moment oI speaking.
Nowadays it is sometimes called "the present progressive".
21. Formation. All the Iorms oI the present continuous are analytic. They are Iormed by means oI the
present indeIinite oI the auxiliary to be and participle I oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the corresponding Iorm oI the auxiliary @A L> is placed beIore the subject and participle
I Iollows it.
In the negative the negation not is placed aIter the auxiliary.
The paradigm of the verb in the present continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative Negative
I am speaking
He (she, it) is speaking
We are speaking
ou are speaking
They are speaking
Am I speaking
Is he (she, it) speaking
Are we speaking
Are you speaking
Are they speaking
I am not (Im not) speaking
He (she, it) is not (isnt) speaking
We are not (arent) speaking
ou are not (arent) speaking
They are not (arent) speaking
Negative-interrogative
a) Am I not speaking
Is he (she, it) not speaking
Are we not speaking
Are you not speaking
Are they not speaking
b) Arent I speaking
Isnt he (she, it) speaking
Arent we speaking
Arent you speaking
Arent they speaking
In spoken English contractions are commonly used (Im, hes, its, were, etc.).
A reduced negative Ior the Iirst person singular is W_N HA@, but is replaced by <?>H_@ in the negative -
interrogative.
22. The present continuous is used with all actional and some statal verbs (with the reservations
destribed below):
1. To denote continuous actions going on at the moment of speaking.
ook, how happily they <?> JF<UEHC
Dont bother him, B>_= ;A?OEHC.
isten The telephone E= ?EHCEHC. Go and answer it.
- Can I see Mary - ou must wait a little while, she E= B<PEHC L?><OT<=@.
The present indefinite, not the present continuous, is used to denote actions which though going on at the
moment oI speaking, are important as simple Iacts, rather than as actions in progress.
Why dont you answer
Why dont you write Where is your pen
Stop talking Why dont you listen
I I t w o s i m u l t a n e o u s a c t i o n s are in progress at the moment oI speaking, three variants are
possible:
24
a) one action is expressed by the verb in the present indeIinite, the other - by the present continuous:
Do you B><? what I <N =<UEHC
b) both the actions are expressed by verbs in the present continuous:
`?> you FE=@>HEHC to what I <N =<UEHC
At home he E= always =F>>JEHC while I <N GAEHC DBA?>=.
c) both the actions are expressed by verbs in the present indeIinite:
Several students ;<@DB careIully while he ;?E@>= it on the board.
The use oI the present indeIinite instead oI the present continuous is due to the semantic peculiarities oI the
verb.
The present continuous is not generally used with some verbs - the verbs of sense perception, of mental or
emotional state and with relational verbs. Still exceptions may occur with these verbs too.
With the verbs oI sense perception the use oI the tense Iorm is closely connected with what kind oI
perception is meant - voluntary (deliberate) or involuntary. In case these verbs denote a voluntary action: to
listen (cnymt), to look (coet) or iI they may denote both an involuntary and a voluntary action, such as:
to feel (omyntnt), to smell (mxt), to taste (noont nyc), they can occur in continuous Iorms.
oluntary actions Involuntary actions
Why <?> you not FE=@>HEHC
Why <?> you FAAOEHC at me like that
The man must be blind, he is T>>FEHC his way with a stick.
Say it again, I GAH_@ B><? you.
d<H you =>> me now
Take care I T>>F the walls shaking.
In the same way verbs oI mental and emotional states can acquire a diIIerent meaning and occur in the
present continuous and other continuous Iorms.
I DAH=EG>? (believe) her to be a very good student.
I think (suppose) you are right.
I_N still DAH=EG>?EHC (studying) all the pros and cons.
I_N @BEHOEHC over (studying) your oIIer.
In some cases it is not so much a change oI meaning as a change in the quality or intensity oI the idea
expressed by the verb that makes it possible to use the continuous Iorm.
I <N TA?C>@@EHC things more and more now.
She E= MHG>?=@<HGEHC grammar better now.
Dont shout, I]N B><?EHC you perIectly well.
What <?> you =>>FEHC there in this complete darkness.
ou see, she E= OHA;EHC too mucht.
All this time I]N B<@EHC them.
I <N T>>FEHC quite all right.
The relational verbs (belong, cost, etc.) are not used in the continuous Iorm.
2. To denote actions characteristic of a certain period of present time, the moment of speaking
included. As a rule these actions are temporary.
They <?> =J>HGEHC their holidays at the sea-side this summer.
our behaviour E= OEFFEHC your wiIe.
It is autumn now. The birds <?> TFADOEHC together.
25
3. To denote (for the sake of emphasis) actions in progress referring to all or any time, the moment of
speaking included. In this case the adverbials >P>?, TA? >P>?, DAH=@<H@FU, <F;<U= are obligatory.
Our solar system together with the Milky Way E= constantly NAPEHC towards ega.
The olga E= Ior ever JAM?EHC its waters into the Caspian Sea.
Mankind E= always G>P>FAJEHC its mental Iaculties.
4. To denote actions characteristic of a certain person within more or less long periods of present time,
the moment of speaking included and provoking certain emotions in the speaker (inpatience,
irritation, disapproval, praise, etc.). Sentences with such Iorms are always emotionally coloured.
Oh, I have no patience with you. Why <?> you always FA=EHC your things
Though she is only ten, she is very kind-hearted, she E= always JE@UEHC everybody.
In such sentences the adverbials <F;<U= or DAH=@<H@FU are also obligatory.
5. To denote future actions.
a) With verbs oI motion @A <??EP>, @A DAN>, @A CA, @A F><P>, @A ?>@M?H, @A =<EF, @A =@<?@ and some others, usually
the actions are only intended or planned. The Iuture time is usually indicated by some adverbials:
She E= F><PEHC tomorrow.
The boat E= =<EFEHC next week.
He E= ?>@M?HEHC on Monday.
What <?> you GAEHC tomorrow
Though the present continuous oI the verb @A CA EHTEHE@EP> is commonly used to denote an intention or plan,
with some verbs the meaning is that oI apprehention or presentiment.
He= CAEHC @A C>@ EFF.
The Ilowers <?> CAEHC @A ;E@B>?.
It E= CAEHC @A =HA;.
He= CAEHC @A L> B<HC>G.
b) In adverbial clauses oI time and condition aIter the conjunctions ;B>H, ;BEF>, <= FAHC <=, ET, EH D<=>,
MHF>==, etc:
Ill ring you up at 2, while you <?> B<PEHC your break.
II he E= ;A?OEHC when I come, dont bother him, Ill wait.
As Iollows Irom the items enumerated above, the present continuous cannot occur in the context describing a
succession oI actions reIerring to the present. In such cases the present indeIinite is used:
He comes up to the piano, opens the lid, and begins to play the Iirst tune.
II several actions in a narrative have the Iorm oI the present continuous, it indicates that they are all
simultaneous (and usually perIormed by diIIerent persons):
The boys <?> JF<UEHC Iootball on the lawn, Nell E= ?><GEHC in her room, and ather is B<PEHC BE= ?>=@.
In all its uses the present continuous is rendered in Russian by means oI the present tense oI the imperIective
aspect.
The present perfect
26
23. Meaning. The present perIect Iorm denotes the action preceding the moment oI speaking, though it is
connected with it either directly or indirectly, that is: a) it continues up to the moment oI speaking or b) takes
place within a period oI time beIore and including the moment oI speaking, so it is relevant to the moment oI
speaking through its eIIect or virtually through its continuation at the moment oI speaking. In the Iirst case it is
called the exclusive present perfect (the moment oI speaking is excluded), in the second - the inclusive
present perfect (the moment oI speaking is included).
Formation. The present perIect is Iormed analytically, by means oI the auxiliary to have in the present
indeIinite and participle II oI the notional verb.
or the rules oI the Iormation oI participle II see 5-6.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI @A B<P> are used, participle II Iollows them.
The paradigm of the verb in the present perfect
AIIirmative Interrogative Negative
I have spoken
He (she, it) has spoken
We have spoken
ou have spoken
They have spoken
Have I spoken
Has he (she, it) spoken
Have we spoken
Have you spoken
Have they spoken
I have not (havent) spoken
He (she, it) has not (hasnt) spoken
We have not (havent) spoken
ou have not (havent) spoken
They have not (havent) spoken
Negative-interrogative
a) Have I not spoken
Has he (she, it) not spoken
Have we not spoken
Have you not spoken
Have they not spoken
b) Havent I spoken
Hasnt he (she, it) spoken
Havent we spoken
Havent you spoken
Havent they spoken
24. In all its uses the present perIect directly or indirectly reIers actions to the moment oI speaking. This
connection with the moment oI speaking predetermines its use; the present perIect is Iound in conversations and
communications dealing with the state oI things in the present and is never Iound in narratives reIerring to the
past.
The present perfect is used:
1. When the speaker means that he is interested in the mere fact that the action took place, but not in
the time when it took place, nor in the circumstances. The time oI the action is either not indicated at all, or
is indicated only vaguely, by means oI adverbs oI indeIinite time (U>@, <F?><GU, QM=@, F<@>FU, ?>D>H@FU, AT F<@>, >P>?,
H>P>?, <F;<U=, etc.).
I dont know what hes going to do, I B<P>H_@ =>>H him.
Has Mother ?>@M?H>G
I B<P>H_@ ?><G the letter yet.
Why are you so hard on him What B<= B> GAH>
ets go, it B<= already =@AJJ>G ?<EHEHC.
IP> never =>>H him in this play.
2. When the speaker means that, though the action is over, the period of time within which it was
performed is not yet over at the moment of speaking (with the words @AG<U, @BE= ;>>O, @BE= U><?, etc.).
IP> =>>H her today.
She= ?>@M?H>G Irom England this week.
IP> B<G < =JFE@@EHC B><G<DB> this morning.
27
II the period oI time is over or the action reIers to some particular moment oI time within that period the past
indeIinite, not the present perIect is used.
I B<G a bad headache this morning (said in the aIternoon, in the evening, etc.).
She ;<= at my party this month (at the time when the party was given).
In such cases (items 1 and 2) the exclusive present perIect is rendered in Russian by the past tense.
3. The present perfect is also used to denote actions still in progress, (the inclusive present perfect)
which began before the moment of speaking and go on up to that moment or into it. In this case either the
starting point oI the action is speciIied (by means oI the adverb =EHD>, a prepositional phrase with =EHD>, or an
adverbial clause with the conjunction =EHD>), or the period during which it continued (by various adverbs or
phrases with TA?). It is thus used in the Iollowing cases:
a) with statal verbs which do not normally take continuous Iorms:
We met by chance last year, and I B<P>H_@ =>>H her since.
IP> L>>H here since 8.
I love you. IP> FAP>G you ever since we met.
IP> OHA;H you all my liIe.
I B<P>H_@ =>>H you Ior ages.
b) with some actional (durative) verbs in which case the present perIect continuous is also possible. The
diIIerence between the two Iorms lies in the Iollowing: in the case oI the present perIect the logical stress
is laid rather on the fact than on the process, whereas in the case oI the present perIect continuous it is
the process that is important.
IP> ;A?O>G here since 1960.
He B<= JF<U>G Iootball Ior Iive years already.
In such cases the inclusive present perIect is rendered in Russian by the present tense.
4. The present perfect is also used in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition introduced
by the corresponding conjunctions to denote a future action taking place before a certain moment in the
future.
Ill stay with you until youP> TEHE=B>G everything.
Wait till IP> ;?E@@>H the notice.
Sometimes adverbials oI place and objects expressed by words describing situations may serve in an oblique
way as past time markers, connecting the activities not only with places and situations, but also with the time
when the actions took place, accordingly the past indeIinite is used.
Did you meet him in ondon (when you were in ondon)
Did you like his singing (when he sang)
The same is true oI special questions beginning with ;B>?>:
Where did you see him
Where did you buy this hat
28
Note 1:
In spesial questions with when only the past indefinite is possible, though the answer can be either in the
past indeIinite or in the present perIect depending on the actual state oI aIIairs:
- ^B>H GEG he DAN> - He D<N> U>=@>?G<U.
- He B<= QM=@ DAN>.
Note 2:
The present perfect, not the past indeIinite is used with the verb @A L> in the sense oI @A CA, @A PE=E@ even
though the adverbials oI place are used:
\<P> you L>>H to ondon
She says she= L>>H to Paris three times.
The meaning oI such statements is ;<= @B>?> <@ < D>?@<EH @EN>, LM@ E= @B>?> HA FAHC>?.
Although the time oI the actions denoted by the present perIect is not speciIied, it is generally understood as
more or less recent, not long past.
25. The ways oI translating the present perIect into Russian vary due to the peculiarities oI its time
orientation and the vagueness oI its aspective meaning. It can thereIore be translated into Russian either by the
past tense (iI it is exclusive present perIect) or by the present tense (iI it is inclusive present perIect). The latter
applies to statal verbs and some actional durative verbs.
She has gone home. yxe ymn oo.
(The past tense, perIective.)
The red ballon has burst. ct m nonyn.
(The past tense, perIective, momentary.)
He has hit me twice. yn ex n s.
(The past tense, perIective, iterative.)
Ive already seen him. ero yxe nen.
(The past tense, imperIective.)
She has seen the Iilm three times. coen +o ]nt s.
(The past tense, imperIective, iterative.)
Theyve lived here Ior seven years. xny sect cet ne.
Ive known her since 1975. sm ee c 1975 ro.
(The present tense, inaperIective, durative.)
The present perfect continuous
26. Formation. The present perIect continuous is Iormed analytically by means oI the auxiliary @A L> in
the present perIect (have/has been) plus participle I oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the Iirst auxiliary (have/has) comes beIore the subject, the second auxiliary (been) and
participle I Iollow the subject.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI the Iirst auxiliary (have) are used, the second auxiliary
(been) and participle I Iollow them.
29
The paradigm of the verb in the present perfect continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative
I have been speaking
He (she, it) has been speaking
We have been speaking
ou have been speaking
They have been speaking
Have I been speaking
Has he (she, it) been speaking
Have we been speaking
Have you been speaking
Have they been speaking
Negative Contracted negative
I have not been speaking
He (she, it) has not been speaking
We have not been speaking
ou have not been speaking
They have not been speaking
I havent been speaking
He (she, it) hasnt been speaking
We havent been speaking
ou havent been speaking
They havent been speaking
Negative-interrogative
a) Have I not been speaking
Has he (she, it) not been speaking
Have we not been speaking
Have you not been speaking
Have they not been speaking
b) Havent I been speaking
Hasnt he (she, it) been speaking
Havent we been speaking
Havent you been speaking
Havent they been speaking
The present perIect continuous is used mainly in conversation.
27. The present perfect continuous is used with actional verbs to denote:
1. Actions in progress which begin at a certain moment in the past and continue into the present. In
this case either the starting point oI the action or the period oI time during which it has been in progress is
usually speciIied.
IP> L>>H ;?E@EHC since morning, and so Ill soon stop.
TheyP> L>>H FEPEHC here since 1970. Now they are going to move to N.
It B<= L>>H ?<EHEHC ever since midnight, and it is still drizzling.
Shes a Iourth year student, so she= L>>H F><?HEHC English Ior at least 3 years already.
All these Iorms denoting actions continuing into the present (the so-called present perIect continuous
inclusive) are translated into Russian by the present tense, imperIective (in the sentences above: nmy, xny,
oxt e, yu).
2. Actions in progress which begin in the past and continue up to the moment of speaking or till just
before it. It is the present perIect continuous exclusive.
Oh, here you are at last IP> L>>H ;<E@EHC Ior you all day
It B<= L>>H =HA;EHC since morning, but now it has stopped.
ou look so sad. \<P> you L>>H D?UEHC
It B<= L>>H ?<EHEHC Ior at least two hours, but now the wind has driven the clouds away.
3. Actions in progress that both begin and end at some indeterminate time before the moment of
speaking, though connected with it through their importance for the present.
My brother B<= L>>H M=EHC my bicycle and has got the tyre punctured.
I B<P> L>>H @BEHOEHC over your oIIer, but still cant tell you anything deIinite.
I hear she B<= L>>H D<FFEHC on you again
30
The Iorms denoting actions that are over by the moment oI speaking (the so-called present perIect
continuous exclusive) are translated into Russian by means oI the past tense, imperIective (in the sentences in
items 2 and 3 they are: xn, cer men, nnn, oxt men, ncx, oytnn, nxon).
4. Future actions in progress before a certain moment in the future (in subordinate adverbial clauses oI
time and condition).
He will get accustomed to the surroundings aIter he B<= L>>H =@<UEHC here Ior a week or two.
28. As is seen Irom above, the present perIect continuous cannot be used to denote a succession oI actions
and thereIore cannot be used to describe the development oI events. II two actions denoted by the present
perIect continuous happen to come together it only means that they are simultaneous and are usually perIormed
by two diIIerent persons:
I B<P> L>>H FEPEHC here Ior two months while they B<P> L>>H @?<P>FFEHC all over Europe. Now they are
coming back, and Ill soon move back to my own place.
Past tenses
29. All the past tenses (the past indeIinite, the past continuous, the past perIect, the past perIect continuous)
reIer the actions they denote to the past. The diIIerence between them lies in the way they represent the I
categories oI aspect and perIect.
Owing to their past time reIerence all oI them are used both in the written language in narrative and
description, and in conversation, especially the past indeIinite.
The past indefinite
(The simple past)

30. Formation. The aIIirmative Iorms oI the past indeIinite are synthetic, the interrogative, negative and
negative-interrogative Iorms are analytic.
Affirmative (synthetic) forms are represented by the second oI the basic verb Iorms.
Interrogative forms are built by means oI the auxiliary @A GA in the past indeIinite (GEG), which is placed
beIore the subject, and the inIinitive stem oI the notional verb, which Iollows the subject.
Negative forms are built by means oI the negative Iorm oI the auxiliary, which has two varieties: a) GEGH_@
(used in the spoken language) and b) GEG HA@ (used in the written language) and the inIinitive oI the notional
verb that Iollows it.
The paradigm of the verb in the past indefinite
AIIirmative Interrogative
I
He (she, it)
We
ou
They
spoke (played) Did
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
speak (play)
Negative
I
He (she, it)
We
ou
They
did not (didnt) speak (play)
31
Negative-interrogative
a)
Did
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
Not speak (play)
b)
Didnt
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
speak (play)
The auxiliary GEG also occurs in aIIirmative Iorms in cases when the speaker wishes to emphasize his
statement, as in:
But I assure you, he GEG @>FF me oI it himselI.
Actually, I GEG =>> him once last week.
There are a Iew verbs which Iorm their past indeIinite diIIerently Irom the way described above. These are:
The verb @A L>, which has synthetic Iorms not only in the aIIirmative, but also in the interrogative, negative
and negative-interrogative. It also distinguishes the category oI number. The interrogative is Iormed by placing
the verb beIore the subject.
The verb @A B<P>, which also has synthetic Iorms Ior all structures.
When having meanings other than possess or when used as part oI a phrasal verb (to have a look), @A B<P>
Iorms its interrogative and negative in the ordinary way with the auxiliary @A GA.
31. The past indeIinite reIers actions to past time quite cut oII Irom the present, that is, these actions are in
no way connected with the present). The past indeIinite can thereIore be used only in contexts relating to the
past. The past reIerence oI the context can be shown:
This is very important Ior distinguishing the situations in which either only the past indeIinite or only the present perIect are to
be used.
a) by various adverbials oI time pointing to the past, Ior example, U>=@>?G<U, @B> G<U L>TA?> U>=@>?G<U, F<=@
(@B<@$ c<@M?G<U (cMHG<U$, etc., F<=@ (@B<@$ ;>>O (NAH@B, U><?$, <H BAM? <CA (and other adverbials with ago), EH
!e-, AH @B> =@ AT c>J@>NL>?, and many others denoting certain moments and periods oI time already past.
He leIt U>=@>?G<U.
They married EH !e#.
She returned @;A BAM?= <CA.
I saw them F<=@ fAHG<U.
YB<@ HECB@ nobody slept.
b) by some other past actions (denoted by the verb in the past indeIinite or past continuous).
He came ;B>H W ;<= <F?><GU <@ BAN>.
They started ;B>H @B> =MH ;<= ?E=EHC.
Thus the very Iact that the past indeIinite is used in a narrative or in a single sentence is generally an
indication that some past time not connected with the present is reIerred to.
32. The past indeIinite is the verb Iorm most Irequently used; its range oI application is immense,
especially in all kinds oI narratives.
The past indefinite is used:
1. To state simple facts in the past.
The house =@AAG on the hill.
She ;<= L><M@ETMF.
I GEG HA@ OHA; who the man ;<=.
32
I GEG HA@ B><? your question.
I GEG HA@ =>> you at the theatre.
What GEG you =<U
YB> J<=@ EHG>TEHE@>, never the present perIect, is used in questions beginning with ;B>H, even though no
indication oI past time is made, because ;B>H implies a certain moment in the past. The answer can be either in
the past indeIinite or in the present perIect, depending on the situation: ^B>H GEG UAM =>> BENg - W =<; BEN @;A
G<U= <CA. - W B<P> QM=@ =>>H BEN.
ikewise, @B> J<=@ EHG>TEHE@>, not the present perIect, is used in questions beginning with ;B>?> because in
such questions the reIerence to some past moment is implied: ^B>?> GEG UAM LMU @B<@ B<@g The implication is:
;B>H UAM ;>?> <@ @B> JF<D> ;B>?> @B> <D@EAH ;<= J>?TA?N>G.
2. To denote habitual actions in the past.
All summer I CA@ MJ at 7.
On Sunday evening he @AAO her to the pictures.
He usually @AAO the Iirst morning train.
Note:
Besides the past indeIinite there are other ways oI expressing habitual actions in the past:
a) by means oI the Iorm M=>G @A EHTEHE@EP>:
Some years ago he M=>G @A D<FF on me, now he never does.
The negative construction oI M=>G @A is Iormed in one oI two ways: GEGH_@ M=>G @A and GEGH_@ M=> @A.
She GEGH_@ M=> @A knit in the evenings.
The interrogative construction is: GEG (B>$ M=>G @A or did (he) use to...
hEG =B> M=>G @A write her articles at night
Did he use to do it
b) The other way to express habitual actions is by means oI the verb ;AMFG EHTEHE@EP> =@>N. But unlike M=>G
@A, ;AMFG always conveys an additional modal colouring oI will, insistance, perseverance.
This used to be my mothers room, and I ;AMFG sit there Ior hours.
3. To denote a succession of past actions.
He CA@ MJ, JM@ AH his hat, and F>T@.
The car =@AJJ>G, the door AJ>H>G, and a very pretty girl CA@ AM@ oI it.
4. To denote actions in progress at a certain moment in the past, with verbs that cannot be used in
continuous Iorms.
He was not listening but still B><?G what they were speaking about.
At that time he ;<= on the watch.
5. To denote future actions in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition depending on
principal clauses with the predicate verb in a past tense.
She said she would come when the Iilm ;<= AP>?.
She said she would do it iI nothing unexpected B<JJ>H>G.
33. The ways oI rendering the past indeIinite in Russian are varied, owing to its aspective vagueness.
Depending on the lexical meaning oI the verb and on the context, it can be translated by Russian verbs in the
past tense oI both perIective and imperIective aspects with all possible shades oI their meanings.
33
In the morning I wrote two letters. o x ncn n nct.
(A perIective (completed) action.)
I got up Irom my chair and bowed. ncn nononcx.
(Two perIective (completed) momentary actions.)
He breathed hard and stopped every Iew minutes. xxeno tmn ocnnnncx xte
econto y.
(ImperIective (incompleted) and iterative actions.)
She lay on the soIa reading detective story. nexn ne, ux een.
(ImperIective, durative action.)
On hearing it he laughed. cntmn +o, o scexncx.
(A perIective, inchoative action.)
The past continuous
34. Formation. The past continuous is Iormed analytically by the auxiliary verb to be in the past indeIinite
and participle I oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the auxiliary is placed beIore the subject and participle I Iollows the subject.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI to be are employed, and participle I Iollows them.
The paradigm of the verb in the past continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative
I
He (she, it)
was speaking Was I
he (she, it)
speaking
We
ou
They
were speaking Were
we
you
they
speaking
Negative
I
He (she it)
was not (wasnt) speaking
We
ou
They
were not (weren't) speaking
Negative-interrogative
a) Was I
He (she, it)
not speaking b) Wasnt I
He (she, it)
speaking
Were
we
you
they
not speaking
Weren't
we
you
they
speaking
35. The past continuous is used mostly in narrative although it may occur in conversation as well.
The past continuous is used with all actional verbs and some statal verbs:
1. To denote a continuous action in progress at a certain moment in the past.
34
At 10 it ;<= still ?<EHEHC.
When I called him up, he ;<= still B<PEHC L?><OT<=@.
The Iire began at midnight when everybody ;<= =F>>JEHC.
At that time she ;<= already J<DOEHC MJ.
In these examples the moment oI time is speciIied directly, by means oI adverbials oI time or indirectly by
some other past action mentioned in the same sentence. The moment oI time at which the action is in progress
can also be shown by the previous context, or understood Irom the situation:
He did not answer. His lips ;>?> @?>NLFEHC.
I stood motionless, as iI glued to the ground. The enormous black bull ;<= C<FFAJEHC towards me at Iull
speed.
I told him that Ralph ;<= =@<UEHC at the Three Boars.
2. To denote a continuous action in progress during a certain period of time in the past, marked by
adverbials - prepositional phrases (Irom ... till, Irom ... to) or adverbs (all day long, the whole night, etc.)
We ;>?> iM<??>FFEHC all day long yesterday.
She says she ;<= ;<=BEHC Irom six till eight.
When actional durative verbs take the Iorm oI the past continuous the actions thus described do not actually
diIIer Irom those in the Iorm oI the past indeIinite, as both denote continuous actions in progress at some
moment oI time in the past:
When I saw him, he ;<= =@<HGEHC by the door.
When I saw him he =@AAG by the door.
Both examples may reIer to the same situation. The diIIerence between the two is that the past indeIinite lays
stress on @B> T<D@, while the past continuous emphasizes @B> J?AD>==, thus presenting the action more vividly.
However in a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause oI time iI the predicate verbs both in the
principal and in the subordinate clauses express simultaneous continuous actions in progress it is usual (though
not obligatory) to use the past indeIinite in both the clauses:
While I <@> and G?<HO, I FAAO>G MJ the register.
She FAAO>G all the while at him as she =JAO> in her slow, deep voice.
But, the past continuous is rather Irequent in adverbial clauses, introduced by the conjunction ;BEF>, <=,
;B>H, <= FAHC <=, etc.:
While they ;>?> @<FOEHC, the boy waited outside.
As he ;<= DFENLEHC MJ, he all the while looked at the birds soaring high above him.
When I ;<= ;A?OEHC there, I played in the local jazz band.
She stayed in the car while I ;<= @<FOEHC to the nurse.
Sometimes the past continuous is Iound in the principal clause, while the past indeIinite is in the
subordinate:
They ;>?> @<FOEHC inside while he stood watching the path.
The verbs @A =@<HG, @A =E@, @A FE> expressing actions in progress at a certain moment, or during a certain period
oI time in the past are commonly used in the past indeIinite, iI they are Iollowed by participle I.
They =@AAG by the door, @<FOEHC loudly.
They =<@ beside their lorry, G?EHOEHC soda water and eating sardines Irom a tin.
35
He F<U in bed @?UEHC to Iorget what had happened.
However, the past continuous is also possible.
She ;<= =@<HGEHC, =@<?EHC at the open letter in her hand.
3. The past continuous is sometimes used to denote actions characteristic of certain persons in the
past. In such sentences the adverbials always and constantly are generally included.
She had rather poor health and ;<= constantly DANJF<EHEHC oI headaches.
As I remember her she ;<= always TM==EHC over something.
He seemed very absent-minded, he ;<= constantly FAA=EHC things.
4. To denote future actions viewed from the past, with verbs of motion (@A <??EP>, @A DAN>, @A CA, @A
F><P>, @A ?>@M?H, etc.), usually if the action is planned or expected. In this case adverbials oI Iuture time are
generally used, or the Iuture reIerence oI the verb is clear Irom the context or situation:
She said she ;<= F><PEHC in a week.
Then I understood that they ;>?> not ?>@M?HEHC either that year or the next.
The ship ;<= =<EFEHC in a Iew hours.
II no Iuture reIerence oI the action is evident, it implies that though the action was planned, it was not and
will not be carried out:
isten, I said. Ive brought a little cousin oI mine along. Joanna ;<= DANEHC MJ too but was
prevented.
I said quickly: She was coming to tea yesterday aIternoon. (was due to come, but did not).
36. As Iollows Irom the meaning oI the past continuous and Irom its uses described above, it cannot denote
a succession oI past actions. Two or more verbs having the Iorm oI the past continuous, whether used in the
same or in adjoining sentences, always denote simultaneous actions perIormed by diIIerent persons or non-
persons:
Nash made periodic appearances in the town but what he ;<= GAEHC and what traps the police ;>?> =>@@EHC, I
had no idea.
It was a glorious day. The sun ;<= =BEHEHC high in the sky. There was no wind. The larks ;>?> =EHCEHC in the
blue depth. Only Iar away, over the horizon, soIt milky clouds ;>?> NAPEHC placidly towards the east.
In all its uses the past continuous is translated into Russian by means oI the past tense oI the imperIective
aspect.
The past perfect
37. Formation. The past perIect is Iormed analytically by the auxiliary to have in the past indeIinite and
participle II oI the notional verb. The interrogative and negative Iorms and built in the way usual Ior all
analytic Iorms.
The paradigm of the verb in the past perfect
36
38. In all its uses the past perIect denotes actions the beginning oI which (always) and the end (usually)
precede a certain moment oI time in the past. The prepast period oI time to which the actions in the past perIect
reIer is unlimited, that is, they may take place either immediately beIore some moment in the past or in the very
remote past.
This tense is used with both actional and statal verbs. Its sphere oI application is mainly that oI narratives,
though it is also used in conversation.
The past perfect is used:
1. To denote an action of which both the beginning and the end precede some moment of time in the
past. This moment can be specified by an adverbial of time, or by another action, or else by the situation.
What should be borne in mind is that the use oI the past perIect Iorm is in itselI a suIIicient indication oI the
precedence oI the denoted action to some moment in the past which thereIore need not be speciIied.
He B<G TEHE=B>G his work by then.
I knew him a little: we B<G N>@ in Rome a year beIore.
She Ielt wretched. She B<G HA@ =F>J@ Ior two nights.
I opened the window. The rain B<G =@AJJ>G, but the sharp east wind was still blowing.
AIter everybody B<G F>T@, she rushed to her room and began packing hurriedly.
2. To denote an action in progress which began before a certain moment of time in the past and went
on up to that moment and sometimes into it. In such cases either the starting point oI the action is speciIied
(by means oI the adverb =EHD>, a prepositional phrase with =EHD> or an adverbial clause introduced by the
conjunction =EHD>), or the period during which the action was in progress (by various adverbials):
a) with statal verbs, which do not normally allow oI continuous Iorms:
He B<G L>>H <;<U for some months beIore his Iirst letter came.
They B<G @BAMCB@ it over and over again since that dinner.
I could not believe the rumour. I B<G OHA;H him for a good many years.
b) with some actional durative verbs (in the similar way as with the past perIect continuous).
When we Iirst met she B<G FEP>G in the country Ior two years and was quite happy.
And thus he B<G =<@ in his chair till the clock in the hall chimed midnight.
37
Since her mother's death she B<G =F>J@ in the comer room.
In this case the past perIect continuous can also be used, though with a slight diIIerence oI meaning: while
the past perIect lays the stress on @B> N>?> T<D@ that the action took place, the past perIect continuous
accentuates @B> GM?<@EAH oI the action.
3. To denote a succession of past actions belonging to the time preceding the narrative as a whole, thus
describing a succession of events in the prepast time.
I gave a slight shiver. In Iront oI me was a neat square oI grass and a path and the low gate. Someone B<G
AJ>H>G the gate, B<G ;<FO>G very correctly and quietly up to the house, and B<G JM=B>G a letter through the
letter-box.
39. The ways oI rendering the past perIect in Russian are varied, owing to its aspective meaning oI the
verb or the context. It can be translated by Russian verbs in the past tense oI both perIective and imperIective
aspects with all possible shades oI their meaning. These are mostly supported by lexical means:
I had admitted everything beIore. nce +o nsn eme tme.
(A perIective (completed) action.)
e had banged his Iist on the table two or three
times beIore they turned to him.
cyyn yno no cony n n s,
nexe ue o oeynct.
(A perIective, iterative action.)
OI late years I had sometimes Iound him at parties. nocnee rot x or nceun ero neuex.
(An imperIective, iterative action.)
He had looked scared during the prolonged
examination.
o nex +oro sxynmerocx +se o sncx
conce cnyrt.
(An imperIective, durative action.)
The past perfect continuous
40. Formation. The past perIect continuous is Iormed analytically by means oI the auxiliary to be in the
past perIect (had been) and participle 1 oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the Iirst auxiliary (B<G) comes beIore the subject, and the second auxiliary (L>>H) and
participle I Iollow the subject.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI the Iirst auxiliary (B<G) are used, the second auxiliary
(L>>H) and participle I Iollow the negation.
In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogative Iorms oI the Iirst auxiliary are used
Iirst, the second auxiliary and participle I Iollow the subject.
The paradigm of the verb in the past perfect continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative
I
He (she, it)
We
ou
They
had been speaking Had
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
been speaking
Negative
I
He (she, it)
38
We
ou
They
had not (hadnt) been speaking
Negative interrogative
a)
Had
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
not been speaking
b)
Hadnt
I
he (she, it)
we
you
they
been speaking
41. The past perfect continuous denotes an action which began before a given moment in the past,
continued for a certain period of time up to that moment and possibly still continued at that past
moment.
The moment oI time in the past beIore which the action begins is usually indicated by other past actions in
the past indeIinite or, rather rarely, by the past continuous. Sometimes it is indicated directly by adverbials (LU
@B<@ @EN>, LU @B> =@ AT `MCM=@, etc.).
The past perfect continuous is used with actional verbs to denote:
1. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued up to that
moment, but not into it. As a rule no indications oI time are present: the exact time oI the beginning oI the
action is more or less clear Irom the situation, while the end, closely precedes the given moment oI past time
(the exclusive past perIect continuous).
Dick, who B<G L>>H ?><GEHC aloud Pits letter, suddenly stopped.
I B<G L>>H T>>FEHC P>?U @E?>G, but now I grew alert.
They B<G L>>H ;<FOEHC rapidly and now they were approaching the spot.
Her eyes were red. I saw she B<G L>>H D?UEHC.
2. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued into it. In
this case either the starting point oI the action or its duration is indicated (the inclusive past perIect continuous).
Ever since his return he B<G L>>H FA=EHC strength and Ilesh.
She B<G L>>H <D@EHC Ior a long time without a rest and she badly needed one.
Even now he could not stop, though he B<G L>>H ?MHHEHC all the way Irom the village.
The past perIect continuous is usually rendered in Russian by the past tense, imperIective.
Future tenses
42. All the Iuture tenses (the Iuture indeIinite (the simple Iuture), the Iuture continuous, the Iuture perIect,
the Iuture perIect continuous) reIer the actions they denote to the Iuture. The diIIerence between them is due to
their diIIerent relation to the categories oI aspect and perIect.
Their speciIic time reIerence limits their use in comparison with the present and the past tenses.
Among the Iuture tenses the Iuture indeIinite is the most Irequently used, while the use oI the Iuture
continuous and the Iuture perIect is rather limited, because the situations to which they are applicable seldom
arise. As to the Iuture perIect continuous, it is hardly ever used.
The future indefinite
43. Formation. The Iuture indeIinite is Iormed analytically by means oI the auxiliary verb shall Ior the
Iirst person singular or plural and will Ior the second and third person singular or plural and the inIinitive oI the
notional verb without the particle to.
39
The modern tendency is to use will Ior all the persons.
In modern spoken English no person distinctions are Iound in Iuture tenses. The only marker Ior any Iuture tense is ll used Ior
all persons singular and plural (Ill speak, Hell speak). Historically ll is the contracted Iorm oI will.
The paradigm of the verb in the future indefinite
AIIirmative Interrogative
I shall speak
He (she, it) will speak
We shall speak
ou will speak
They will speak
(Ill speak)
Shall I speak
Will he (she, it) speak
Shall we speak
Will you speak
Will they speak
Negative
I shall not (shant) speak
He (she, it) will not (wont) speak
We shall not (shant) speak
ou will not (wont) speak
They will not (wont) speak
Negative-interrogative
a) Shall I not speak
Will he (she, it) not speak
Shall we not speak
Will you not speak
Will they not speak
b) Shant I speak
Wont be (she, it) speak
Shant we speak
Wont you speak
Wont they speak
44. The future indefinite is used to denote:
1. Simple facts in the future.
He ;EFF ?>@M?H tomorrow.
I =B<H_@ =@<U with them.
It ;EFF L> DAFG in the evening.
2. A succession of actions in the future.
HeFF ?EHC you MJ and @>FF you everything.
IFF @<O> her MJ to town, weFF do some =BAJJEHC, and B<P> FMHDB, so we =B<FF L> L<DO in late aIternoon.
3. Habitual actions in the future.
So IFF =>> you oIten in winter
He ;EFF =@<U with us as oIten as possible.
I hope you ;EFF ;?E@> regularly.
The Iuture indeIinite is not used in subordinate adverbial clauses oI time and condition introduced by the
connectives ;B>H, ;BEF>, @EFF, MH@EF, L>TA?>, <T@>?, <= =AAH <=, ET, MHF>==, EH D<=> (@B<@$, AH DAHGE@EAH @B<@,
J?APEG>G, etc. In such clauses the present indeIinite tense is used instead:
They will wait till it C?A;= dark.
When she DAN>=, ask her to type this letter.
Unless you?> D<?>TMF, you'll get into trouble.
40
Care should be taken to distinguish between the adverbial clauses oI time or condition and object clauses
introduced by the conjunctions ;B>H and ET, in the case oI object clauses any tense required by the sense can be
used:
I dont know when IFF DAN> again.
Ask him iI heFF GA it at all.
45. The uture indeIinite can express various shades oI aspective meaning, depending on the lexical
meaning oI the verb and the context. ThereIore the ways oI rendering it in Russian may be diIIerent. It can be
translated by the Iuture tense oI both perIective and imperIective aspects with all possible shades oI their
meanings. Here are some examples:
Ill write this letter on Sunday. nmy +o ncto n nocecete.
(A perIective action.)
She will stay with them Ior whole week. ye roct y x nenym eenm.
(An imperIective, durative action.)
I shall write to you every day. yy nct ee xt et
(An imperIective, iterative action.)
Dont be aIraid, I shant hit him. He ocx, x ero e ym.
(A perIective, momentary action.)
The future continuous
46. Formation. All the Iorms oI the Iuture continuous are analytic. They are Iormed with the Iuture
indeIinite oI the auxiliary to be (=B<FF L>, ;EFF L>) and participle I oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the corresponding Iorm oI the Iirst auxiliary (=B<FFj;EFF) is placed in Iront oI the subject,
the second auxiliary (L>) and participle I Iollow the subject.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI the Iirst auxiliary (=B<FFj;EFF) are used, the second
auxiliary (L>) and participle I Iollow them.
In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogativte Iorms oI the Iirst auxiliary
(=B<FFj;EFF) are used, the second auxiliary (L>) and participle I Iollow the subject.
The paradigm of the verb in the future continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative
I shall be speaking
He (she, it) will be speaking
We shall be speaking
ou will be speaking
They will be speaking
Shall I be speaking
Will he (she, it) be speaking
Shall we be speaking
Will you be speaking
Will they be speaking
Negative
I shall not (shant) be speaking
He (she, it) will not (wont) be speaking
We shall not (shant) be speaking
ou will not (wont) be speaking
They will not (wont) be speaking
Negative-interrogative
a) Shall I not be speaking
Will he (she, it) not be speaking
b) Shant I be speaking
Wont he (she, it) be speaking
41
Shall we not be speaking
Will you not be speaking
Will they not be speaking
Shant we be speaking
Wont you be speaking
Wont they be speaking
47. The future continuous is used to denote:
1. An action in progress at a certain moment of time or during a certain period of time in the future
(compare the corresponding use oI the past continuous).
At that time she ;EFF L> B<PEHC her early morning cup oI coIIee.
In an hour I'FF L> TFUEHC over the sea.
When she comes, I think IFF L> J<DOEHC already.
It will be too late. He ;EFF L> =F>>JEHC.
rom ten till twelve he ;EFF L> ;?E@EHC in his study.
As can be seen Irom the above examples, the moment (or period) oI time at which the action is taking place
is either indicated by special adverbials oI time, or is implied by another Iuture action, or else by the context or
situation.
2. An action the occurrence of which is expected by the speaker.
By the way, Megan ;EFF L> coming to lunch.
She says sheFF L> =>>EHC you tomorrow.
In all its uses the Iuture continuous is rendered in Russian by means oI the Iuture tense oI the imperIective
aspect (ye nt, yy neet, yy ynontntcx, etc.).
The future perfect
48. Formation. The Iuture perIect is Iormed analytically by means oI the auxiliary to have in the Iuture
indeIinite (=B<FFj;EFF B<P>) and participle II oI the notional verb.
In the interrogative the corresponding Iorm oI the Iirst auxiliary (=B<FFj;EFF) is used in the Iront position and
the second auxiliary (B<P>) and participle II Iollow the subject.
In the negative the corresponding negative Iorms oI =B<FFj;EFF are used and the second auxiliary (B<P>) and
participle II Iollow them.
In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogative Iorms oI =B<FFj;EFF are used in the
Iront position and the second auxiliary and participle II Iollow the subject.
The paradigm of the verb in the future perfect
AIIirmative Interrogative
I shall have spoken
He (she, it) will have spoken
We shall have spoken
ou will have spoken
They will have spoken
Shall I have spoken
Will he (she, it) have spoken
Shall we have spoken
Will you have spoken
Will they have spoken
Negative
I shall not (shant) have spoken
He (she, it) will not (wont) have spoken
We shall not (shant) have spoken
ou will not (wont) have spoken
They will not (wont) have spoken
49. The Iuture perIect is very rarely used either in conversation or in writing.
42
It is used to denote:
1. An action that both begins and ends before, a definite moment of time in the future (the exclusive
Iuture perIect).
"I have no doubt," I said, "that I =B<FF B<P> =>>H <HULAGU who is anybody by then."
ou ;EFF B<P> CA@ my cable and I =B<FF B<P> ?>D>EP>G your answer long beIore this letter reaches you.
The moment in the Iuture beIore which the action is to begin and end may be indicated by appropriate
adverbials or other verbs denoting Iuture actions, or by the whole context or situation.
2. An action that begins before a certain moment of time in the future and goes up to it or into it. This
is the case when the action in question is expressed by statal verbs, which do not admit oI continuous Iorms, or
else by certain actional durative verbs, such as @A FEP>, @A =@MGU, @A ;A?O, etc., which denote a process (the
inclusive Iuture perIect).
She will have been in your service IiIteen years next year.
The future perfect continuous
50. Formation. The Iuture perIect continuous is Iormed analytically by means oI the auxiliary to be in the
Iuture perIect (=B<FFj;EFF B<P> L>>H) and participle I oI the notional verb.
Their interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative Iorms are built similar to other Iuture Iorms.
The paradigm of the verb in the future perfect continuous
AIIirmative Interrogative
I
We
shall have been speaking Shall I
we
have been speaking
He (she, it)
ou
They
will have been speaking Will
he (she, it)
you
they
have been speaking
Negative
I
We
shall not (shan't) have been speaking
He (she, it)
ou
They
will not (won't) have been speaking
51. The Iuture perIect continuous is very rarely used, because situations which require it very seldom arise.
It denotes actions which begin before a certain moment of time in the future and go on up to that
moment or into it:
I =B<FF B<P> L>>H FEPEHC there Ior Iive years next ebruary.
Future in the past tenses
52. There are Iour more Iuture tense verb Iorms in English: the Iuture in the past indeIinite, the Iuture in
the past continuous, the Iuture in the past perIect, the Iuture in the past perIect continuous, which diIIer Irom
the previously discussed Iorms. They reIer the actions not to the actual Iuture, but to the Iuture viewed as such
43
Irom the standpoint oI past time.
The Iuture in the past Iorms are dependent, as they are used mainly in object clauses in reported speech aIter
verbs in the past tense Iorms.
The most Irequently used is the Iuture in the past indeIinite (the past simple).
53. Formation. All the Iuture in the past Iorms are analytical. They are Iormed by means oI the auxiliaries
=BAMFG and ;AMFG and the corresponding Iorm oI the notional verb (=BAMFG =J><O, =BAMFG L> =J><OEHC, =BAMFG
B<P> =JAO>H, =BAMFG B<P> L>>H =J><OEHC).
The contracted Iorm Ior both would and should is d: W_G =J><O...
The paradigms of the verb in the future in the past
The future in the past indefinite
AIIirmative Interrogative
I
We
should speak Should I
we
speak
He (she, it)
ou
They
would speak
Would
he (she, it)
you
they
speak
Negative
I
We
should not speak
He (she, it)
ou
They
would not speak
The interrogative Iuture in the past occurs only in sentences reproducing inner speech (conventional direct speech).
54. The Iuture in the past Iorms are mostly used in object clauses dependent on verbs in the past tense in
the principal clause. None oI them can be used in subordinate adverbial clauses oI time and condition
introduced by the conjunctions ;B>H, ;BEF>, L>TA?>, <T@>?, @EFF, MH@EF, <= =AAH <=, <= FAHC <=, ET, MHF>==, EH D<=>, AH
DAHGE@EAH @B<@, J?APEG>G, etc. In all these clauses the corresponding Iorms oI the past tense are used.
However the conjunctions ;B>H and ET may be used to open object clauses, then the Iuture in the past Iorms
can be used iI required by the sense:
She didnt know ;B>H I =BAMFG ?>@M?H.
I doubted ET we =BAMFG =>> him at all.
55. The future in the past indefinite is used to denote simple facts, habitual actions and successions of
actions in the future viewed from the past:
He said he ;AMFG soon T<O> up rench.
I knew she ;AMFG still =>> him as oIten as she could.
He said they ;AMFG =@<?@ at dawn, ?><DB the river in the aIternoon and in an hour or two ;AMFG J?AD>>G up
the road towards the cliIIs.
The sun was setting. In an hour it ;AMFG L> quite G<?O.
56. The future in the past continuous is used to denote an action in progress at a certain moment of
time, or an action that is expected by the speaker as a result of a naturally developing situation, both
reIerring to the Iuture considered as such at a certain moment oI time in the past:
And she thought, poor soul, that at this time next Sunday she ;AMFG L> <JJ?A<DBEHC her beloved Paris.
44
Then she mentioned in a rather matter-oI-Iact way, that Jack ;AMFG L> D<FFEHC the very next day.
57. The future in the past perfect is used to denote an action completed before a certain moment of
time in the future treated as such at some moment in the past:
He realized that he ;AMFG B<P> <DDANJFE=B>G his task long beIore midnight.
In subordinate adverbial clauses oI time and condition described above ( 54) the past perIect is used to
denote the same kind oI action:
He said he would do it aIter he B<G =>>H me.
58. The future in the past perfect continuous denotes an action in progress that begins before a
certain moment of time in the future viewed from the past and goes on up to that moment and into it. It is
an exceptionally rare Iorm, which is hardly ever Iound in any text.
He said lie ;AMFG B<P> L>>H FEPEHC here Ior ten years next year.
59. Though the Iuture in the past Iorm reIer the actions they denote to the Iuture (viewed Irom the past),
their actual time reIerence is broader than that oI the Iuture, Ior the actions thus expressed may reIer not only to
the actual Iuture but also to the actual present or the past:
He said he ;AMFG D<FF @ANA??A;, and Im going to stay in till he comes. (actual Iuture)
I said I =BAMFG DAN> @AG<U, and so Im here (actual present)
Im so upset. He said he ;AMFG DAN> the day beIore yesterday, but he didnt. (actual past)
The sequence of tenses
60. The rules oI the sequence oI tenses are one oI the peculiarities oI English. The sequence oI tenses is a
dependence oI the tense Iorm oI the predicate in a subordinate clause on the tense Iorm oI the predicate in its
principal clause. The rules mainly concern object clauses depending on principal clauses with the predicate
verb in one oI the past tenses, though it holds true also Ior some other subordinate clauses (such as subject,
predicative and appositive ones).
The rules are as Iollows:
1) a present (or future) tense in the principal clause may be followed by any tense in the subordinate
object clause:
1. I know
I say
I am just saying
I have always known
Ive just been telling her
I shall tell her
(that) he plays tennis well.
he is playing tennis in the park.
he has played two games today.
he has been playing tennis since morning.
he played tennis yesterday.
he was playing tennis when the storm began.
he had played two games beIore the storm began.
he had been playing tennis Ior some time when the storm began.
he will play tennis in summer.
he will be playing tennis all day long.
he will have played some games beIore you return.
he will have been playing tennis Ior some time beIore you come.
2) a past tense in the principal clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate object clause.
45
I knew
I said
I was just saying
I had never known
She had been telling
(that) he played tennis well.
he was playing tennis in the park.
he had played two games that day.
he had been playing tennis since morning.
he had played tennis the day beIore.
he had been playing when the storm began.
he had played two games beIore the storm.
he had been playing tennis Ior some time beIore the storm.
he would play tennis in summer.
he would be playing tennis all day long.
he would have played some games by the time you returned.
he would have been playing tennis Ior more than an hour beIore you
came.
Thus the past indeIinite or the past continuous tense in the subordinate clause denotes an action,
simultaneous with that oI the pripcipal clause. They are translated into Russian by the present tense.
or a moment she did not know where she was.
Joanna noticed suddenly that I was not listening.
Had she not hinted what was troubling her
He had thought it was his own son.
People had been saying he was a madman.
My Iirst thought was where they were now.
The past perIect or the past perIect continuous in the subordinate clause denotes an action prior to that oI the
principal clause. Both oI these Iorms are translated into Russian by the past tense.
I perceived that something had happened.
I wasnt going to tell her that Megan had rung me up.
I knew well enough what she had been doing.
Up to that moment I had not realized what they had been trying to prove.
The Iact was that his sister Rose had married beneath her.
She had a Ieeling that she had been deceived.
The Iuture in the past tenses in the subordinate clause denote an action Iollowing that oI the principal clause.
I hoped she would soon be better.
I told Caroline that I should be dining at ernley.
What she would say or do did not bother him.
The Iact remained that none oI us would see them till late at night.
The sudden thought that Nell would not come at all Ilashed through his head.
The Iact that the action oI the subordinate clause Iollows that oI the action in the principal clause may be
also indicated by other means.
She said she ;<= CAEHC to see him the same night.
61. The rules oI the sequence oI tenses concern subordinate clauses dependent not only on the predicate oI
the principal clause but also on any part expressed by a verb or verbal:
I received Irom her a letter =<UEHC that she ;<= J<==EHC through Paris and ;AMFG FEO> @A B<P> < DB<@ with
me.
She smiled again, =M?> that I =BAMFG DAN> MJ.
She turned her head slightly, well <;<?> that he ;<= ;<@DBEHC her.
46
In complex sentences containing more than two subordinate clauses the choice oI the tense Iorm Ior each oI
them depends on the tense Iorm oI the clause to which it is subordinated:
I guess you @AFG him where they B<G DAN> Irom and why they ;>?> BEGEHC.
As Iar as I D<H =>> he GEG HA@ ?><FES> that very soon all ;AMFG L> AP>?.
Besides the complex sentences described above the rules oI the sequence oI tenses are also Iound in all types
oI clauses and simple sentences reproducing inner speech (conventional direct speech).
62. As already stated the rules oI the sequence oI tenses concern object, subject and predicative clauses. In
all the other clauses (attributive and adverbial ones) the use oI tenses depends wholly on the sense to be
conveyed:
Clyde thought oI all the young and thoughtless company oI which he had been a part.
He liIted the heavy latch which held the large iron gate in place.
She only liked men who are good-looking.
I was thinking oI the day which will come only too soon.
He was standing where the creek turns sharply to the east.
At the moment he was standing where he always had stood, on the rug beIore the living-room Iire.
She Ielt gay as he had promised to take her to the pictures.
ou see, I could not Iollow them as Im rather shy.
Mr. Direcks broken wrist healed sooner than he desired.
He knew the job better than I do.
She had been a wiIe Ior even less time than you have.
In my youth liIe was not the same as it is now.
63. The rules oI the sequence oI tenses are not observed in the Iollowing cases:
1) when the subordinate clause describes the so-called general truth, or something which the speaker
thinks to be one.
Up to then Roy never realized that our Solar system E= but a tiny speck in the inIinite Universe.
The other day I read in a book that everything alive DAH=E=@= mostly oI water.
She was very young and - and ignorant oI what liIe really E=.
2) when the subordinate clause describes actions referring to the actual present, future, or past time,
which usually occurs in dialogues or in newspaper, radio, or TV reports.
Margaret, I was saying to you - and I beg you to listen to me that as Iar as I B<P> OHA;H Mrs. Erlynne,
she B<= DAHGMD@>G herselI well.
BeIore the Ilier crashed, the operator said ten minutes later, he gave me inIormation. He told me there
<?> still a Iew men alive in these mountains.
I did not know he ;EFF L> here tomorrow.
3) when the predicate verb of the subordinate clause is one of the modal verbs having no past tense
forms.
She said I NM=@ DAN> at once.
I thought you =BAMFG DAN> too.
The category of voice
64. oice is the grammatical category oI the verb denoting the relationship between the action expressed
by the verb and the person or non-person denoted by the subject oI the sentence. There are two main voices in
47
English: the active voice and the passive voice. There are also other voices which embrace a very limited
number oI verbs: reIlexive (wash oneselI), reciprocal (embrace one another), medial (the book reads well).
The active voice indicates that the action is directed Irom the subject or issues Irom the subject, thus the
subject denotes the doer (agent) oI the action:
We help our Iriends. - t noore m ystx.
The passive voice indicates that the action is directed towards the subject. Here the subject expresses a
person or non-person who or which is the receiver oI the action. It does not act, but is acted upon and thereIore
aIIected by the action oI the verb.
We were helped by our Iriends in our work. oe noorn m ystx.
The contrast between the two voices can be seen Irom the Iollowing examples:
I B<G <=O>G no questions, oI course; but then, on the
other hand, I B<G L>>H <=O>G none.
They =<; but ;>?> HA@ =>>H.
e snn nonocon, o, c yro coot, e
e snn nonocon.
nen, o x e nen.
The diIIerence in the meaning oI the Iorms B>FJ>G - ;>?> B>FJ>G, had <=O>G - B<G L>>H <=O>G, =<; - ;<=
=>>H illustrates the morphological contrast between the active and the passive voice.
OI all the verb categories voice is most closely related to the syntax oI the sentence. The interrelation oI the
active and the passive voice on the syntactical level can be presented in the Iollowing way:
Subject Predicate erb Object
John helped Pete
Pete was helped by John
A sentence containing a verb in the passive voice is called a passive construction, and a sentence containing
a verb in the active voice is called an active construction, especially when opposed to the passive construction.
The subject oI an active construction denotes the <C>H@ (GA>?) AT @B> <D@EAH, which may be a living being, or
any source oI the action (a thing, a natural phenomenon, an abstract notion).
The subject oI a passive construction has the meaning oI the ?>D>EP>? AT @B> <D@EAH, that is a person or non-
person aIIected by the action.
The object oI an active construction denotes the ?>D>EP>? oI the action, whereas the object oI the passive
construction is the <C>H@ oI the action. The latter is introduced by the preposition LU. II it is not the agent but the
instrument, it is introduced by the preposition ;E@B.
The cup was broken by Jim.
It was broken with a hammer.
Formation and the system of forms in the passive voice
65. The active voice has no special means oI Iormation. It is recognized by contrast with the passive voice,
which is composed oI the auxiliary verb to be and participle II. Thus the passive verb Iorms are analytical, the
tense oI the auxiliary verb @A L> varies according to the sense. The notional verb (participle II) remains
unchanged and provides the whole analytical Iorm with its passive meaning.
The category oI voice applies to the whole system oI English verb Iorms, both Iinite and non-Iinite.
Table II
The voice forms of the verb
48
PerIect Tense The active voice The Passive oice
Aspect Present Past uture Present Past uture
Non-perIect
Common takes took will take is taken was taken will be taken
Continuous is taking was taking will be taking is being
taken
was being
taken
-----------
PerIect
Common has taken had taken will have
taken
has been
taken
had been
taken
will have been
taken
Continuous has been
taking
had been
taking
will have been
taking
------------- ----------- -----------
Note:
The verb @A C>@ occurs as a passive voice auxiliary, emphasizing the result oI the action denoted by participle
II.
They CA@ N<??E>G last year.
I CA@ BM?@ in an accident.
The active voice
66. The active voice is widely used with all kinds oI verbs, both transitive and intransitive. The meaning oI
the active voice depends on the type oI verb and the syntactical pattern oI the sentence.
1. The active voice oI transitive verbs presents an action as directed Irom the subject and passing over to the
object, that is Irom the doer (agent) oI the action to its receiver.
John made a boat Ior his brother.
They are building a new railway.
We are talking about the new Iilm.
One oI the characteristic Ieatures oI English is that verbs which were originally intransitive may Iunction as
transitive verbs without changing their morphological structure, with or without changing their lexical meaning.
They ?<H @B> GE=@<HD> in Iive minutes.
rank ;EFF ?MH UAM? BAM=>.
James =@AAG @B> F<NJ on the table.
2. The active voice oI intransitive verbs shows that the action, directed Irom the subject, does not pass over
to any object, and thus the verb only characterizes the subject as the doer oI the action.
He came here yesterday.
The boy can run very Iast.
ou acted wisely.
He slept eight hours.
3. The Iorm oI the active voice oI some transitive verbs, oIten accompanied by an adverbial modiIier, does
not indicate that the subject denotes the doer oI the action. This speciIic use oI the transitive verb is easily
recognized Irom the meaning oI the subject, which is a noun denoting a non-person, and by the absence oI a
direct object aIter a monotransitive, non-prepositional verb. In such cases the verb is used in the medial voice.
The bell rang.
The door opened.
The newspaper sells well.
The novel reads easily.
49
Glass breaks easily.
The place was Iilling up.
It said on the radio (in the article) that the weather Iorecast is Iavourable.
The passive voice
The use of tense, aspect and perfect forms in the passive voice
67. As seen Irom table II, verbs in the passive voice may acquire almost all the aspect, tense and perIect
Iorms that occur in the active voice, >ID>J@ TA? @B> TM@M?> DAH@EHMAM= <HG J>?T>D@ DAH@EHMAM= TA?N=.
The examples below illustrate the use oI the passive voice in diIIerent aspect, tense and perIect Iorms.
Common aspect, non-perfect
Students <?> >I<NEH>G twice a year.
They ;>?> >I<NEH>G in June.
They ;EFF L> >I<NEH>G next riday.
Continuous aspect, non-perfect
Dont be noisy Students <?> L>EHC >I<NEH>G.
The students ;>?> L>EHC >I<NEH>G when the ProIessor came.
Common aspect, perfect
Our students have already L>>H >I<NEH>G.
They B<G L>>H >I<NEH>G by 2 oclock.
Everybody ;EFF B<P> L>>H >I<NEH>G by 3 oclock.
The passive voice of different verbs
68. The passive voice in English may be Iound with diIIerent types oI verbs (mostly transitive) in various
verb phrases; monotransitive (non-prepositional and prepositional) and ditransitive. The subject oI the passive
construction may correspond to a direct, an indirect object, or to a prepositional object in the active
construction. Accordingly we discriminate a direct passive construction, an indirect passive construction,
and a prepositional passive construction.
Monotransitive verbs are numerous and almost all oI them can Iorm a direct passive construction. These are
the verbs: @A @<O>, @A GA, @A N<O>, @A LMEFG, @A GE=DM==, @A @?<H=F<@>, @A B<@>, @A FAP>, @A N>>@ and a lot oI others.
A new railway E= L>EHC LMEF@ near our town.
A arewell to Arms ;<= JMLFE=B>G in 1929.
ou ;EFF L> N>@ at the station.
Phrasal transitive verbs, that is, such verbs as @A LFA; MJ, @A L?EHC EH, @A L?EHC MJ, @A D<??U AM@, @A JM@ AH, @A
=>> ATT, @A @M?H GA;H, etc. are also oIten used in the passive voice.
The plan ;<= successIully D<??E>G AM@.
The boats <?> L>EHC L?AMCB@ EH.
Originally intransitive verbs may Iorm a direct passive construction, as in these examples:
This distance B<= never L>>H ?MH in Iive minutes beIore.
He thought oI the lives, that B<G L>>H FEP>G here Ior nearly two centuries.
In the vast majority oI cases, English @?<H=E@EP> P>?L ALQ>D@ corresponds to the same type in Russian. There
50
are a number oI transitive verbs in English, however, which correspond to Russian verbs Iollowed by an
indirect or a prepositional object, or sometimes an adverbial modiIier. These verbs are:
To answer
To approach
To assist
To address
To admire
To aIIect
To attend
To believe
To contradict
To enjoy
To enter
to Iollow
to help
to inIluence
to join
to need
to obey
to speak
to succeed
to threaten
to trust
to watch
Sentences with these verbs are rendered in Russian by means oI the indeIinite personal constructions with
the verb in the active voice, or iI the doer oI the action is mentioned oI a personal construction with the verb in
the active voice.
We are not trusted, David, but who cares iI we are not
innocent.
The British bicycle was much admired.
In the spring oI 1925 Hemingway was approached by
two Americans.
e onexm...
rnc nenocneo nocxmnct.
eco 1925 ro ery+m noomn n
en.
A direct passive construction is used in the sentences oI the type:
1. J. . ennedy ;<= >F>D@>G J?>=EG>H@ in 1960.
The woman ;<= D<FF>G k?AN>.
We ;>?> O>J@ LM=U most oI the time.
The walls ;>?> J<EH@>G LFM>.
or details see in Syntax, 55.
2. He E= =<EG (L>FE>P>G, OHA;H, ?>JA?@>G$ @A L> in town.
He ;<= =>>H @A >H@>? the museum.
He ;<= =>>H F><PEHC the museum.
or details see in Syntax, 53.
3. The direct passive oI verbs oI speech, mental activity, and perception is used in complex sentences with
the Iormal subject E@.
It was suggested
It was reported
that he was still in town.
It was said
It was believed
It was known
It was settled
that we should meet once more.
Restrictions to the use of the passive voice
1. Though in many cases there is an evident correspondence oI the active and the passive voice construction
it is by no means a one-to-one correspondence. There is a certain group oI monotransitive verbs which are
never used in the passive voice at all, or in some oI their meanings; they are: @A B<P>, @A F<DO, @A L>DAN>, @A TE@,
51
@A =ME@, @A ?>=>NLF>.
There are semantic reasons Ior this constraint, as these verbs denote not an action or process, but a state or
relation.
John resembles his Iather. (John looks like his Iather.)
He lacks conIidence. (There is no conIidence in him.)
Will this suit you (Will it be suitable Ior you)
The verb @A BAFG can be used in the passive voice only with reIerence to human activity; Ior example: YB>
DAHT>?>HD> ;<= B>FG EH `J?EF. However, in a sentence like YB> <MGE@A?EMN BAFG= #--- J>AJF> the verb does not
denote human activity. The sentence means YB>?> D<H L> #--- J>AJF> EH @BE= <MGE@A?EMN.
2. No passive construction is possible, iI the object is a that-clause, an inIinitive or a gerund.
John said that everything was all right.
John enjoyed seeing his native town.
Passive constructions with ditransitive verbs
69. Ditransitive verbs take two objects, usually one indirect and one direct. Accordingly they admit oI two
passive constructions.
The reIeree gave Mary the Iirst prize .
Mary was given the Iirst prize by the reIeree.
The Iirst prize was given to Mary by the reIeree.
The subject oI the Iirst passive construction (f<?U) corresponds to the EHGE?>D@ ALQ>D@ oI the active
construction, and the construction is thereIore called the EHGE?>D@ J<==EP> DAH=@?MD@EAH. The direct object (@B>
TE?=@ J?ES>) is retained unchanged aIter the passive verb and thereIore, is called the ?>@<EH>G ALQ>D@.
The subject oI the second passive construction corresponds to the GE?>D@ ALQ>D@ oI the active construction. In
this case the indirect object becomes a prepositional one. The preposition @A may be omitted.
The agentive by-object corresponding to the subject oI the active construction is very rarely used in either
type oI construction. OI the two passive constructions the indirect passive is by Iar the most common. As there
is no indirect passive construction in Russian, sentences with this construction are translated into Russian by
means oI the indeIinite personal construction with the indirect object in the Iront position.
ou will be given another ticket.
I was allowed an hours rest.
y yro ne.
e semn ooxyt o uc.
The indirect passive construction gives greater prominence to the direct object, whereas the direct passive
construction emphasizes the indirect object: YB> TE?=@ J?ES> ;<= CEP>H @A f<?U implies that it was not given to
anybody else. The construction may be translated in two ways, by an indeIinite personal active construction or
by a passive construction: 5 5 [ or ' (Z$ [.
The presence oI the by-object makes it oI great communicative value.
I was given this watch LU NU T<@B>?.
The watch was given (to) me LU N T<@B>?.
ct + e non o oen.
Ditransitive verbs used in the passive construction
I II
to allow
to give
to grant
to lend
to oIIer
to ask
to answer
to envy
to Iorgive
to reIuse
52
to pay
to promise
to teach
to tell
erbs in group I Iollow the usage explained in the previous part oI this section. The same reIers to group II
with the diIIerence that all the verbs oI this group are Iollowed by two direct objects, though in the passive the
diIIerence is not so distinct.
I was asked a lot oI questions.
Restrictions on the use of the passive of ditransitive verbs
1. The indirect passive is impossible with verbs oI beneIaction, when the action is perIormed Ior the beneIit
oI somebody.
YB>U LAMCB@ N> < GED@EAH<?U.
The corresponding direct passive is:
They bought a dictionary TA? N>.
` GED@EAH<?U ;<= LAMCB@ TA? N>.
2. The same applies to the verbs with the obligatory @A oI the type @A >IJF<EH =AN>@BEHC @A =AN>LAGU (@A
G>=D?EL>, @A GED@<@>, @A =MCC>=@, etc.). With these only the direct passive is possible:
YB> ?MF> ;<= >IJF<EH>G @A @B>N AHD> NA?>.
3. In verb-phrases containing a non-prepositional and a prepositional object only the non-prepositional
passive is possible.
I was told about their victory.
Oliver was accused oI theIt.
4. The inIinitive cannot be used as the subject oI the passive construction with a ditransitive verb.
70. Passive constructions with prepositional monotransitive verbs
Active:
Passive:
The man ?>T>??>G @A this book.
This book ;<= ?>T>??>G @A by the man.
In the passive construction the subject oI the prepositional passive construction corresponds to the object oI
the active construction and denotes the receiver oI the action. The peculiarity oI the construction is that the
preposition sticks to the verb.
Most verbs oI this type denote the process oI speaking, mental and physical perception.
The prepositional passive construction has no equivalent in Russian and is translated by an indeIinite
personal active construction.
Caroline ;<= also =@EFF L>EHC @<FO>G <LAM@.
e B<G never L>>H =JAO>H @A that way in his liIe.
He= well =JAO>H AT as a man oI science.
+on oxe nce eme noonxn ronot.
or n xs e sronnn.
e xoomo ostnmcx o yueo.
When the prepositional passive construction contains a modal verb, an impersonal active construction is
used in Russian.
These pictures NM=@ L> FAAO>G <@ again and again with
sustained attention beIore they completely reveal their
beauty.
+ t o coet con con c
eocnenmm ne, nexe ue
nonoctm coecx x co.
53
Here are some of the most important prepositional monotransitive verbs:
I II III
to account Ior
to agree upon
to appeal to
to call on
to comment on (upon)
to deal with
to decide on
to depend (up)on
to dispose oI
to dwell upon
to hear oI
to insist on
to interIere with
to laugh at
to listen to
to look at
to look Ior
to look into
to object to
to pay Ior
to provide Ior
to put up with
to read to
to reIer to
to rely on
to send Ior
to speak about (oI)
to speak to
to talk about (oI)
to think about (oI)
to touch upon
to wait Ior
to wonder at
to catch sight oI
to lose sight oI
to Iind Iault with
to make Iun oI
to make a Iuss oI
to make use oI
to pay attention to
to put an end (a stop) to
to put up with
to set Iire to
to take notice oI
to take advantage oI
to take care oI
to arrive at
to come to
to live in
to sleep in
to sit in (on)
Group I in the list contains the majority (but not all) oI prepositional transitive verbs. The list could be
continued, Ior a number oI verbs oI the kind are used occasionally, but the pattern itselI is very productive.
Some prepositional monotransitive verbs have non-prepositional equivalents, e.g. @A <DDAMH@ TA? is a
synonym Ior @A >IJF<EH, @A FAAO AH - @A ?>C<?G, @A =J><O (@<FO$ <LAM@ - @A GE=DM==.
our absence must be accounted Ior. our absence must be explained.
Group II contains phraseological units based on the Iusion oI a monotransitive verb and a noun as direct
object. These units express one notion and Iunction as prepositional verbs. Many oI them have synonyms
among monotransitive verbs, prepositional and non-prepositional:
@A @<O> D<?> AT
@A TEHG T<MF@ ;E@B
@A JM@ <H >HG @A
@A JM@ MJ ;E@B
@A N<O> TMH AT
- @A FAAO <T@>?, @A @>HGV
- @A C?MNLF> <@, <LAM@, @A D?E@EDES>V
- @A =@AJV
- @A ?>DAHDEF> AH>=>FT @AV
- @A F<MCB <@, @A NADO.
ike single prepositional verbs the phraseological units with the verb in the passive voice are usually
rendered in Russian by means oI indeIinite personal or impersonal constructions.
In hospital patients <?> @<O>H C?><@ D<?> AT. rocnne s ontt xoomo yxxnm.
54
The boy was the only child and ;<= N<G> <
FA@ AT TM== AT.
Im not prepared to think that IN L>EHC N<G>
< TAAF AT.
ntu tn ecnet eeo n cete, c
oro nosnct.
e e xouecx yt, uo ex yu.
Sometimes a phraseological unit is split and the original direct object becomes the subject oI the passive
construction (the direct passive).
No notice was taken oI the boy at Iirst. - un ntu e seun.
Group III contains a short list oI intransitive verbs used with prepositional nominal groups Iunctioning as
prepositional objects or adverbial modiIiers. These may Iorm passive constructions by analogy with other verbs
used with prepositions:
No conclusion ;<= <??EP>G <@.
His bed B<=H_@ L>>H =F>J@ EH.
Such a dress D<H_@ L> =<@ GA;H EH.
He nmn oy snmuem.
ero nocen e cnn. ( e cx)
o nnte entsx ctcx.
The use of the passive voice
71. The passive voice is widely used in English. It is used alongside the active voice in written and spoken
English. Passive constructions are oIten used instead oI active constructions in sentences beginning with an
indeIinite pronoun, a noun or a pronoun oI indeIinite reIerence.
Somebody leIt the dog in the garden.
Has anybody answered your questions
People will laugh at you Ior your trouble.
They told me to go away.
The dog was leIt in the garden.
Have your questions been answered
ou will be laughed at Ior your trouble.
I was told to go away.
It is evident that in the process oI speech passive constructions arise naturally, not as a result oI conversion
Irom the active into the passive.
A passive construction is preIerable in case when the speaker is interested in what happens to the person or
thing denoted by the subject. The verb or the whole verb phrase is thus made more prominent. The agent or the
source oI the action is not mentioned at all, either because it is unknown or because it is oI no particular
importance in the utterance, or else it is evident Irom the context or the situation. The predicate verb with its
modiIiers contains a new and most important item oI inIormation and is oI great communicative value.
We were brought up together.
I am always being contradicted.
Thank you Ior your help, but it is no longer required.
ou will be met as you leave the airport, and you will be given another ticket.
In silence the soup was Iinished - excellent, iI a little thick; and Iish was brought. In silence it was
handed.
There are a number oI conventional expressions where the passive voice is constantly used.
The novel was published in 1929.
Shakespeare was born in 1564.
The use of the agentive by-obje!
72. The use oI the agentive by-object is highly restricted, it occurs in one case out oI Iive, and even less
Irequently in colloquial speech and imaginative prose. However, when it does occur, the by-object is oI great
communicative value, and its elimination would oIten make the meaning oI the verb incomplete and the
sentence devoid oI meaning.
55
The agent may be a living being, or any thing or notion that can be the source oI the action.
The whole scene was being enacted by puppets.
In some areas the picture has been barely touched by the brush.
I was wounded by a landmine.
The distant mountain had been Iormed by Iire and water.
How much was she inIluenced by that Iake idea
Besides a noun and very rarely a pronoun, a by-object may be a gerundial phrase or complex, or a
subordinate clause.
I was then awakened only by knocking on the window and Annie telling the person responsible to go oII.
She didnt really know anything about people, she was always being taken in by what they told her.
Owing to its communicative value and the Iinal position in the sentence, the by-object may be expanded, iI
necessary, to an extent that is hardly possible in the subject group, as in this commentary on Cezanne's painting:
The Card Players. The subject oI this painting oI two peasants playing cards was probably inspired LU <
=ENEF<? DANJA=E@EAH LU AH> AT @B> L?A@B>?= G> X<DO, l?>HDB J<EH@>?= AT @B> =>P>H@>>H@B D>H@M?U ;BA=> ;A?O
d>S<HH> <GNE?>G.
The category of mood
73. The meaning oI this category is the attitude oI the speaker or writer towards the content oI the
sentence, whether the speaker considers the action real, unreal, desirable, necessary, etc. It is expressed in the
Iorm oI the verb.
There are three moods in English - the indicative mood, the imperative mood and the subjunctive mood.
The indicative mood
74. The indicative mood Iorm shows that what is said must be regarded as a Iact, as something which has
occurred or is occurring at the moment oI speaking or will occur in the Iuture. It may denote actions with
diIIerent time-reIerence and diIIerent aspective characteristics. ThereIore the indicative mood has a wide
variety oI tense and aspect Iorms in the active and passive voice.
The imperative mood
75. The imperative mood expresses a command or a request to perIorm an action addressed to somebody,
but not the action itselI. As it does not actually denote an action as a real act, it has no tense category; the
unIulIilled action always reIers to the Iuture. Aspect distinctions and voice distinctions are not characteristic oI
the imperative mood, although Iorms such as, L> ;?E@EHC, L> ;<?H>G sometimes occur.
The imperative mood Iorm coincides with the plain stem oI the verb, Ior example: dAN> B>?>R cE@ GA;H.
The negative Iorm is built by means oI the auxiliary do the negative particle HA@ (the contracted Iorm is
GAH_@). This Iorm is always addressed to the second person.
hA HA@ @<O> it away.
hAH_@ ;A??U about the child.
hAH_@ L> a TAAF.
Note:
Do is also used in commands or requests to make them more emphatic: "o DAN> <HG =@<U with us. "o L>
iME>@.
In commands and requests addressed to a Iirst or third person (or persons) the analytical Iorm F>@
inIinitive without the particle @A is used. The verb F>@ Iunctions as an auxiliary, and it partly loses its lexical
56
meaning. The person addressed is expressed by the personal pronoun in the objective case.
m>@ M= CA together.
m>@ BEN TEHE=B his dinner Iirst.
m>@ `HG?>; GA it himselI.
In negative sentences the analytical Iorms take the particle not without an auxiliary.
m>@ M= HA@ <?CM> on the matter.
m>@ BEN HA@ AP>?>=@EN<@> his chances.
m>@ B>? HA@ CA any Iurther.
Note:
In sentences like hAH_@ F>@ BEN CA the negation reIers to the verb F>@, which in this case Iully retains its
original meaning oI permission.
The analytical Iorms diIIer in meaning Irom the synthetic Iorms, because their meaning is closely connected
with the meaning oI the pronoun included in the Iorm. Thus F>@ M= GA =N@B denotes an invitation to a joint
action, not an order or a request. m>@ BEN GA E@ retains to some extent the meaning oI permission. In the Iorm F>@
N> (F>@ N> GA E@$ the Iirst person singular does not convey any imperative meaning and should not thereIore be
regarded as the imperative. It conveys the meaning oI W <N ><C>? @A GA E@, <FFA; N> @A GA E@.
The imperative mood Iorm cant be used in questions.
The subjunctive mood
76. The subjunctive mood is the category oI the verb which is used to express non-Iacts: unreal or
hypothetical actions or states. A hypothetical action or state may be viewed upon as desired, necessary,
possible, supposed, imaginary, or contradicting reality.
DiIIerent Iorms oI the verb are employed Ior this purpose.
The synthetic forms
77. In Old English the subjunctive mood was expressed by a special system oI Iorms with a special set oI
inIlections, diIIerent Irom those oI the indicative. In the course oI time, however, most oI the inIlections were
lost, and the diIIerence between the Iorms oI the subjunctive and those oI the indicative has almost disappeared.
In Modern English there remain only two synthetic Iorms oI the old regular system oI the subjunctive, which
diIIer Irom the Iorms oI the indicative. Although their meaning and use have changed considerably, they are
oIten called by their old names: the present subjunctive and the past subjunctive.
I. The present subjunctive coincides with the plain verb stem (L>, CA, =>>) for all persons in both the
singular and the plural. It denotes a hypothetical action reIerring to the present or Iuture. OI these surviving
Iorms only L> is always distinct Irom the indicative Iorms and is thereIore rather current.
I
he
she
it
we
you
they
be, take, resent, etc.
He required that all L> kept secret.
57
Other verbs are rarely used in the subjunctive in inIormal style, because their subjunctive Iorms coincide
with the indicative except in the 3rd person singular. They are conIined mainly to Iormal style and Iormulaic
expressions - prayers, wishes, which should be memorized as wholes.
It is natural enough the enemy ?>=>H@ it.
Heaven TA?LEGR The devil @<O> him
ong FEP> Ireedom God =<P> the king
II. The past subjunctive is even more restricted in its usage; it exists in Modern English only in the Iorm
;>?>, which is used Ior all persons both in the singular and plural. It reIers the hypothetical action to the present
or Iuture and shows that it contradicts reality.
II I ;>?> you
II you ;>?> there
II it ;>?> true
The modem tendency, however, is to use was and were in accordance with the rules oI agreement (he was,
they were).
The non-factual forms of the tenses
78. Owing to the same process oI the obliteration oI distinctions between the old subjunctive and the
indicative the same Iorms have come to be used Ior both purposes in Modern English. To diIIerentiate those
used to express hypothetical actions or states (non-Iacts) Irom tenses in the indicative they will be called non-
factual forms of the tenses.
The non-Iactual past indeIinite and past continuous are used to denote hypothetical actions in the present or
Iuture; the non-Iactual past perIect and past perIect continuous denote hypothetical actions in the past. These
two pairs oI Iorms diIIer not only in their time-reIerence but also in their degree oI improbability: WT W B<G AHFU
OHA;H expresses greater improbability than WT W AHFU OH>; because it reIers to a time which has already passed.
In Russian this diIIerence is not reIlected in the Iorm oI the verb.
The wide use oI the non-Iactual past indeIinite (WT W OH>;, ET B> D<N>...) probably accounts Ior the strong
tendency in Modern English to substitute ;<= Ior the past subjunctive Iorm ;>?>, at least in less Iormal style.
This tendency makes the system oI subjunctive mood Iorms more similar and comparable to the system oI
indicative mood Iorms: ET W OH>;..., ET W ;<= (instead oI ;>?>), W ;E=B W OH>;..., W ;E=B W ;<= (instead oI ;>?>).
On the other hand, were is oIten used instead oI was in the non-Iactual past continuous.
He smiled as ET B> ;>?> >HQAUEHC the situation.
The analytical forms
79. Most oI the later Iormations are analytical, built by means oI the auxiliaries which developed Irom the
modal verbs should and would, plus any Iorm oI the infinitive. The auxiliaries, generally called NAAG
<MIEFE<?E>=, have lost their lexical meaning and are used in accordance with strict rules in certain patterns oI
sentences or clauses. In cases where =BAMFG and ;AMFG retain their original modal meaning or their use is not
determined by any strict rules, they should be regarded as modal verbs, Iorming a compound verbal (or
nominal) modal predicate. ou =BAMFG L> NA?> J<FE>H@ with the child.
Still, some modal verbs are regularly used to denote hypothetical actions in certain syntactic patterns -
may/might + infinitive, can/could + infinitive, but to a certain degree retain their original meaning. These will
be regarded as quasi-subjunctive Iorms.
However much you N<U <?CM>, he will do as he pleases (expresses possibility).
I wish I DAMFG B>FJ you (expresses ability).
II you ;AMFG <C?>> to visit my uncle, ... (expresses wish).
Analytic Iorms may be divided into three groups, according to their use and Iunction.
58
I. The Iorms should + infinitive (Ior the Iirst person singular and plural) and would + infinitive (Ior the
other persons). This system coincides in Iorm with the Iuture in the past. These Iorms may be used either in a
simple sentence or in the main clause.
There is a strong tendency in Modern English to use ;AMFG Ior all persons, in the same way as ;EFF is used
instead oI =B<FF in the indicative mood. Another tendency is to use the contracted Iorm oI ;AMFG KbG Ior all
person in inIormal style. (Compare this usage with that oI the contracted Iorm bFF in the indicative.)
These Iorms denote hypothetical actions, either imagined as resulting Irom hypothetical conditions, or else
presented as a real possibility.
I ;AMFG HA@ J?<E=> the boy so much.
^AMFG you B>FJ me iI I need your help
He ;AMFG =NAO> too much iI I didnt stop him now and again.
II. The Iorm would + infinitive for all persons, both singular and plural. This Iorm is highly specialised in
meaning; it expresses a desirable action in the Iuture. It may be used both in simple and complex sentences.
et us invite him. He ;AMFG CF<GFU <DD>J@ the invitation.
I wish you ;AMFG CA there too.
III. The Iorm should + infinitive for all persons. This Iorm stands apart in the system oI the verb, as
contrary to the general tendency to use either two Iorms - =BAMFG and ;AMFG, or else to use one Iorm - ;AMFG Ior
all persons. The meaning oI the Iorm is rather broad - it depends on the context.
It is important that all the students =BAMFG L> EHTA?N>G about it.
It is strange that we =BAMFG B<P> N>@ in the same place.
It can easily be seen that most oI the Iorms used to express hypothetical actions are homonymous with the
indicative mood Iorms, either with tense Iorms or with Iree combinations oI modal verbs with the inIinitive.
Hence most Iorms are recognizable as subjunctive only under certain conditions:
1) when they are used in certain sentence or clause patterns. We shall regard such cases as structurally
determined use oI the subjunctive mood;
2) when their use is determined by the lexical meaning oI the verb or conjunction (see below examples with
the verb ;E=B and the conjunction F>=@).
3) in some set expressions (Iormulaic utterances) which have to be learned as wholes and in which no
element oI the structure can be omitted or replaced. We shall regard these cases as @B> @?<GE@EAH<F M=> AT the
Iorms.
The Iirst two conditions very oIten overlap.
The subjunctive mood and the tense category
80. The category oI tense in the subjunctive mood is diIIerent Irom that in the indicative mood: unlike the
indicative mood system in which there are three distinct time-spheres (past, present, Iuture), time-reIerence in
the subjunctive mood is closely connected with the idea oI unreality and is based on the Iollowing opposition in
meaning:
Imagined, but still possible
(reIerring to the present or Iuture indiscriminately)
imagined, no longer possible
(reIerring to the past)
The diIIerence in meaning is expressed by means oI the Iollowing contrasting Iorms:
59
1) The common or continuous non-perIect inIinitive as contrasted with the perIect common or continuous
inIinitive in the analytical Iorms with =BAMFG, ;AMFG, and quasi-subjunctive Iorms with N<U (NECB@$.
Referring to the Present or Future
I Iear lest he =BAMFG >=D<J>.
He ;AMFG JBAH> you.
I suppose he =BAMFG L> ;A?OEHC in the library.
Referring to the Past
I Iear lest he =BAMFG B<P> >=D<J>G.
He ;AMFG B<P> JBAH>G you.
I suppose he =BAMFG B<P> L>>H ;A?OEHC in the library.
2) The Iorms oI the non-Iactual past indeIinite and past continuous contrast with the Iorms oI the non-Iactual
past perIect and past perIect continuous in time reIerence:
Referring to the Present or Future
II I OH>;.
I wish I ;>?> ;<?H>G when the time-table is changed.
Referring to the Past
II I B<G OHA;H.
I wish I B<G L>>H ;<?H>G.
In case these Iorms are used in subordinate clauses (as is usually the case) their time-reIerence is always
relative. The non-Iactual past indeIinite and past continuous indicate that the hypothetical action is regarded as
simultaneous with the action expressed in the principal clause; the non-Iactual past perIect and past perIect
continuous indicate actions prior to the action expressed in the principal clause.
We did things and talked to the people as iI ;> ;>?> ;<FOEHC in our sleep.
His Iace was haggard as iI he B<G L>>H ;A?OEHC the whole night.
The opposition oI the non-perIect continuous inIinitive and the perIect continuous inIinitive is less distinct,
as these Iorms are not so common: an imaginary action is usually presented as devoid oI any aspective
characteristics.
The old synthetic Iorms (B> L>, B> DAN>, B> ;>?>) have no corresponding oppositions in time-reIerence.
Structurally determined use of subjunctive mood forms
81. In Modern English the choice oI the subjunctive mood Iorm is determined by the structure oI the
sentence or clause even more than by the attitude oI the speaker or writer to what is said or written. There exist
strict rules oI the use oI the Iorms in diIIerent patterns oI sentences and clauses.
The subjunctive mood in subject clauses
82. 1. The use oI the subjunctive mood Iorms in subject clauses in complex sentences oI the type W@ E=
H>D>==<?U @B<@ UAM =BAMFG DAN>.
Subject clauses Iollow the principal clause, which is either Iormal or has no subject (exclamatory). The
predicate oI the principal clause expresses some kind oI modality, estimate, or some motive Ior perIorming the
action denoted by the predicate in the subordinate clause. This close connection between the two predicates
accounts Ior the nature oI the subordinate clause, which completes, or rather gives meaning to general situation
described in the principal clause.
cBAMFG EHTEHE@EP> or J?>=>H@ =MLQMHD@EP> is generally used in this pattern in the subject clause.
It is (was) necessary
It is (was) important
It is (was) only right
It is (was) curious
It is (was) Iunny
It is (was) good (better, best)
It is (was) cruel
It is (was) shameIul
It is (was) a happy coincidence
It is (was) considered strange
that he should say so.
(that he say so).
60
It is (was) recomended
It becomes (became) a custom
It seems (seemed) to me prophetic
How wonderIul
What a shame
How strange
etc.
It is sad that UAM =BAMFG B<P> B><?G oI it on the day oI your wedding.
It is a happy coincidence that ;> =BAMFG N>>@ here.
It shocked him that B> =BAMFG B<P> L>>H so blind.
It was suggested that =AN>LAGU =BAMFG EHTA?N the police.
It was more important that B> =BAMFG D<?> TA? her enough.
In American English the present subjunctive is predominant in this sentence pattern:
It is sad that you L> here.
In exclamatory complex sentences:
How wonderIul that she =BAMFG B<P> such a Ieeling Ior you
What a scandal that Palmer and Antonia =BAMFG CA to the opera together
II the principal clause expresses JA==ELEFE@U (E@ E= J?AL<LF>, JA==ELF>, FEO>FU$ N<U (NECB@$ HAH-J>?T>D@
EHTEHE@EP> is used, because the action is reIerred to the Iuture (nZ, ...V Z, ...V ...)
It is likely the weather N<U DB<HC>.
It is possible the key N<U L> FA=@.
In negative and interrogative sentences, however, =BAMFG EHTEHE@EP> is used:
It is not possible that he should have guessed it.
Is it possible that he should reIuse to come
eneoxo, uot...
osoxo n, uot...
Note:
II in sentences introduced by it the reIerence is made to an existing Iact or state oI things, the indicative
mood may be used in the subordinate clause.
It is strange that he L>B<P>= like that.
Is it possible that he B<= @<O>H the key
2. After the principal clause expressing time - E@ E= @EN>, E@ E= BECB @EN> -the past subjunctive or non-Iactual
Iorms are used.
It is time you ;>H@ to bed.
It is high time he ;>?> NA?> =>?EAM=.
It was hight time he B<G DAN> @A < G>DE=EAH.
The subjunctive mood in object clauses
83. The choice oI the subjunctive mood Iorm in object clauses depends on the meaning oI the verb
standing beIore the object clause.
1. In object clauses aIter verbs expressing order (@A A?G>?, @A DANN<HG, @A CEP> A?G>?=, @A CEP> EH=@?MD@EAH=,
61
@A G>N<HG, @A M?C>, @A EH=E=@, @A ?>iME?>), request (@A ?>iM>=@, @A <JJ><F, @A L>C), suggestion (@A =MCC>=@, @A
?>DANN>HG, @A J?AJA=>, @A NAP>, @A <GPE=>) either =BAMFG EHTEHE@EP> or @B> J?>=>H@ =MLQMHD@EP> is used, the Iirst
Iorm being more common than the second.
We urged that in Iuture these relations =BAMFG L> NA?> T?E>HGFU.
Mr. Nupkins commanded that the lady =BAMFG L> shown in.
In American English the present subjunctive in this sentence pattern is predominant.
People dont demand that a thing L> ?><=AH<LF> iI their emotions are touched.
I suggested that she CEP> MJ driving, but she looked too miserable.
The same Iorm is used aIter the predicative adjectives =A??U, CF<G, JF><=>G, P>I>G, ><C>?, <HIEAM=,
G>@>?NEH>G, etc., iI the action is regarded as an imagined one.
I am sorry she =BAMFG @<O> such needless trouble.
His brothers suggestion was absurd. He was vexed his relatives =BAMFG EH@>?T>?> into his private matters.
2. In object clauses aIter the verb wish and phrases expressing the same idea I had better, I would rather,
or the contracted Iorm I`d rather -diIIerent Iorms may be used, depending on the time-reIerence oI the action
in the object clause. II the action reIers to the present or Iuture, or is simultaneous with the action expressed in
the principal clause, the non-Iactual past indeIinite, past continuous, or past subjunctive is used. AIter W_G ?<@B>?
the present subjunctive is also possible.
I wish W OH>; something oI veterinary medicine. Theres a Ieeling oI helplessness with a sick animal.
I wish UAM D<N> here more oIten. I hardly ever see you.
I would rather UAM ;>H@ now.
Id rather you GEGH_@ B>FJ me, actually.
Note:
To express a ?><FES<LF> ;E=B an inIinitive, not a clause is generally used:
I want him to come.
I should like to discuss things in detail.
He wished it to be true.
II the action reIers to the past or is prior to the moment it is desired the non-Iactual past perIect or past
perIect continuous is used, no matter in what tense the verb in the principal clause is. Thus in both the sentences
W ;E=B W B<GH_@ DAN> and W ;E=B>G W B<GH_@ DAN> the non-Iactual past perIect denotes a prior imaginary action,
contradicting reality.
We wished ;> B<GH_@ F>T@ everything to the last minute.
I wish W B<G L>>H @<MCB@ music in my childhood.
II the desired action reIers to the Iuture the Iollowing subjunctive Iorms may be used:
#o$%d + i&'i&i!ive (only when the subject oI the subordinate clause and that oI the principal clause do not
denote the same thing or person). It denotes a kind oI request.
o$%d + i&'i&i!ive
may (mi)h!* + i&'i&i!ive
The Iorm #o$%d + i&'i&i!ive is used when the IulIilment oI the wish depends on the will oI the person
denoted by the subject oI the subordinate clause. II the IulIilment oI the wish depends more on the
circumstances, the quasi-subjunctive Iorm N<U (NECB@$ EHTEHE@EP> is preIerable, to show that the realization oI
62
the action is very unlikely.
I wish UAM ;AMFG @?><@ me better.
I wish W DAMFG B>FJ you.
I wish he NECB@ B<P> B>FJ>G me.
When rendering wish-clauses into Russian it is possible to use a clause with the opposite meaning,
introduced by the impersonal xnt, xnt, x xnoct or by the Iinite Iorm oI the verb
coxnet.
I wish I knew it.
I wish I didnt know it
I wish I had known about it
- nt, uo x +oro e sm.
- x xnoct, uo x +o sm
- nt, uo x e sn o +o
3. In object clauses aIter verbs expressing fear, apprehension, worry (@A T><?, @A L> <T?<EG, @A L> @>??ETE>G, @A
L> <HIEAM=, @A ;A??U, @A L> T><?TMF, @A L> @?AMLF>G, @A L> EH @>??A?, @A @?>NLF>, @A G?><G, etc.) two Iorms are used,
depending on the conjunction introducing the clause:
a) aIter the conjunction @B<@ or iI the clause is joined asyndetically, the quasi-subjunctive may+mi)h! +
i&'i&i!ive is used. The choice oI either N<U or NECB@ depends on the tense oI the verb in the main clause.
They trembled (that) they NECB@ L> GE=DAP>?>G.
I Iear (that) he N<U TA?C>@ about it.
oxn, uo x ory oyxt.
omct, t o e stn o +o.
b) aIter the conjunction F>=@ the Iorm sho$%d + i&'i&i!ive is used.
The passengers were terriIied lest the ship
=BAMFG D<@DB TE?>.
ccxon oxnn yxc, t ont e
sroencx.
The indicative Iorms are also possible in clauses oI this type iI the action is regarded as a real one:
She was aIraid that he B<G DB<HC>G his mind.
4. In object clauses aIter verbs and phrases expressing doubt (@A GAML@, @A GE=L>FE>P>, @A B<P> GAML@=, @A
C?>>@ ;E@B =D>J@EDE=N, etc.) and aIter some other verbs in the negative Iorm the past subjunctive may be used.
The subordinate clause is introduced by ET or ;B>@B>?.
We had doubts iI E@ ;>?> JA==ELF> to cross the river at this time oI the year.
I doubted she B<G even L>>H there.
5. In object clauses reIerring to the Iormal it + obje!ive ,redia!ive, expressing opinion oI some situation,
the choice oI the Iorm depends on the general meaning oI the principal clause:
We Iound i! s!ra&)e that he =BAMFG =J><O so calmly aIter the events (the principal clause expresses the
idea oI disbelieI, hence the Iorm =BAMFG =J><O is used).
We regard i! as hi)h%y ,robab%e that he N<U ?>@M?H soon (the principal clause expresses the idea oI
probability, hence the Iorm N<U ?>@M?H is used).
The subjunctive mood in appositive and predicative clauses
84. The choice oI the Iorm in these clauses is determined by the lexical meaning oI the words these clauses
Iollow or reIer to.
The order that ;> =BAMFG DAN> surprised me. (appositive clause)
The order was that ;> =BAMFG DAN>. (predicative clause)
63
His suggestion that ;> =@AJ and B<P> a look round the castle was rather sudden. (appositive clause)
His suggestion was that ;> =@AJ and B<P> a look round the castle. (predicative clause)
1. The Iorms =BAMFG EHTEHE@EP> or @B> J?>=>H@ =MLQMHD@EP> are used aIter nouns expressing ;E=B, <GPED>,
G>=E?>, J?AJA=<F, GAML@, B>=E@<@EAH, T><?, <JJ?>B>H=EAH, etc. AIter the last two nouns the conjunction lest is used.
Marys wish was that ;> =BAMFG =@<U at her place as long as possible. (predicative clause)
our advice that B> ;<E@ till next week is reasonable. (appositive clause)
Our fear lest B> =BAMFG CEP> <;<U our secret was great. (appositive clause)
Our fear was lest ;> =BAMFG C>@ FA=@ in the Iorest. (predicative clause)
2. In predicative clauses joined by the link verbs @A L>, @A =>>N, @A FAAO, @A T>>F, @A @<=@>, @A =N>FF, etc. the past
subjunctive or non-Iactual tense Iorms are used. In this case the clause has a comparative meaning and is
accordingly introduced by the comparative conjunctions <= ET, <= @BAMCB. II the action in the subordinate clause
is simultaneous with the action in the principal clause the past subjunctive or non-Iactual past indeIinite is used.
II the action is prior to that in the principal clause, the non-Iactual past perIect is used.
He looked <= ET B> ;>?> EFF (his being ill is simultaneous with the time when his looks are commented upon).
He looked <= ET B> B<G L>>H EFF (his being ill was prior to the time his looks are commented upon).
The house looked <= ET E@ B<G L>>H G>=>?@>G Ior years.
I Ielt <= @BAMCB W ;>?> @<FOEHC to a child.
It was <= ET W ;>?> L>EHC <@@<DO>G by an invisible enemy.
Note:
There is a tendency in inIormal style to use the indicative Iorms instead oI the subjunctive ones, especially iI
one is conIident oI the exactitude oI the comparison.
Ingrid looks <= ET =B> B<= < L<@B >P>?U NA?HEHC.
ou sound <= ET UAM_P> CA@ @B> ;BAF> ;A?FG AH UAM? =BAMFG>?=.
The subjunctive mood in complex sentences with adverbial clauses of condition
85. Complex sentences may include conditional clauses expressing real condition and unreal condition. In
the Iirst case the indicative mood is used, in the second the subjunctive. Both conditions may reIer to the past,
present or Iuture.
In sentences with real condition any Iorm oI the indicative may be used.
II she B><?G E@, =B> C<P> HA =ECH.
Why GEG B> =>HG us matches, WT B> OH>; there was no gas
WT I B<P> ATT>HG>G UAM, I <N P>?U =A??U.
ou N<U CA <;<U ET it LA@B>?= you.
Now it was serious. WT I B<G F<MCB>G <LAM@ E@ L>TA?>, I ;<=H_@ F<MCBEHC now.
WT he ;<= FUEHC, he ;<= < CAAG <D@A?.
Since the majority oI conditional clauses are introduced by ET they are oIten called ET-DF<M=>=. Other
conjunctions used to introduce conditional clauses are MHF>==, EH D<=>, =MJJA=EHC (@B<@$, =MJJA=> (@B<@$,
J?APEGEHC (@B<@$, J?APEG>G (@B<@$, AH DAHGE@EAH (@B<@$. Each oI them expresses a conditional relation with a
certain shade oI meaning, and their use is restricted either Ior semantic or stylistic reasons. Thus MHF>== has a
negative meaning, although it is not identical with ET HA@. Clauses introduced by MHF>== indicate the AHFU
DAHGE@EAH which may prevent the realization oI the action in the main clause. oHF>== can be rendered in Russian
by 'ecn onto e'.
He is ruined MHF>== B> D<H C>@ < NEFFEAH @A J<U ATT BE= G>L@=.
64
The Russian conjunction with negation ecn e cannot be rendered by MHF>== iI the negation reIers only to
the part oI the compound predicate. In this case ET HA@ should be used.
etcx ennee, ecn e xouemt sonet.
Put on a warm coat, ET UAM GAH_@ ;<H@ @A D<@DB DAFG.
The conjunction EH D<=> has a speciIic shade oI meaning, combining condition and purpose and may be
translated into Russian as o cnyu ecn'.
Take an umbrella EH D<=> ET ?<EH=.
The conjunctions =MJJA=> (@B<@$ and =MJJA=EHC (@B<@$ retain their original meaning oI supposition. The
conjunctions J?APEG>G (@B<@$ and J?APEGEHC (@B<@$ imply that the supposed condition is Iavourable or desirable.
cMJJA=> UAM C>@ FA=@ EH @B> DE@U, what will you do
X?APEGEHC (@B<@$ @B>?> E= HA AJJA=E@EAH we will hold the meeting here.
These conjunctions may also introduce clauses oI unreal condition.
In complex sentences containing an unreal condition the subjunctive mood is used in both the conditional
clause and in the principal clause, because the action expressed in the principal clause depends on the unreal
condition and cannot be realized either. The choice oI Iorms depends on the time-reIerence oI the actions.
1. II the unreal actions in both the iI-clause and the main clause reIer to the present or Iuture @B> HAH-T<D@M<F
J<=@ EHG>TEHE@>, or J<=@ DAH@EHMAM=, or @B> J<=@ =MLQMHD@EP> is used in the subordinate clause and =BAMFGj;AMFG
HAH-J>?T>D@ DANNAH A? DAH@EHMAM= EHTEHE@EP> in the main clause.
II I ;>?> a young man now, you ;AMFGH_@ L> FAAOEHC Ior a porter.
ou ;AMFGH_@ L> @<FOEHC that way unless you ;>?> BM?@.
I =BAMFGH_@ =J><O to you unless W ;>?> G>@>?NEH>G.
2. II both actions reIer to the past and contradict reality @B> HAH-T<D@M<F J<=@ J>?T>D@ or J<=@ J>?T>D@
DAH@EHMAM= is used in the iI-clause and =BAMFGj;AMFG J>?T>D@ or J>?T>D@ DAH@EHMAM= EHTEHE@EP> in the main
clause.
II he B<G HA@ EH=E=@>G upon her going there, nothing ;AMFG ever B<P> B<JJ>H>G.
oHF>== B> B<G L>>H C?EHHEHC happily at us, I =BAMFG B<P> =;A?H B> ;<= mortally ;AMHG>G.
Clauses oI unreal condition with the verb in the non-Iactual past perIect, past perIect continuous, past
subjunctive (also should inIinitive and could inIinitive, see below) may be introduced asyndetically. In this
case inversion serves as a means oI subordination.
\<G the world L>>H ;<@DBEHC, E@ ;AMFG B<P> L>>H =@<?@F>G.
^>?> you in my place UAM ;AMFG L>B<P> in the same way.
86. The actions in the main and subordinate clauses may have different time-reference, iI the sense oI the
clauses requires it. Sentences oI this kind are said to have split condition. The unreal condition may reIer to the
past and the consequence - to the present or Iuture.
II we B<GH_@ L>>H such Iools ;> =BAMFG <FF =@EFF L> @AC>@B>?.
How much better W =BAMFG ;?E@> now iI in my youth W B<G B<G the advantage oI sensible advice
I =BAMFGH_@ L> LA@B>?EHC you like this iI they B<GH_@ @AFG me downtown that he was coming up this way.
Split condition is possible Ior sentences with real condition as well:
II you saw him yesterday you know all the news.
65
II you live in this part oI the city you knew oI the accident yesterday.
The condition may reIer to no particular time, and the consequence may reIer to the past.
She ;AMFGH_@ B<P> @AFG me her story iI she GE=FEO>G me.
John ;AMFGH_@ B<P> FA=@ the key unless he ;>?> =A <L=>H@-NEHG>G.
87. There are three more types oI conditional clauses with reIerence to the Iuture.
1. In the Iirst type sho$%d + i&'i&i!ive Ior all the persons is used in the conditional clause and @B> TM@M?>
EHG>TEHE@> EHGED<@EP> or @B> ENJ>?<@EP> NAAG in the principal clause.
II UAM =BAMFG N>>@ him, CEP> him my best regards.
II UAM =BAMFG TEHG another way out, ;EFF UAM EHTA?N me
Conditional clauses oI this type are sometimes joined to the main clause asyndetically, by means oI
inversion.
cBAMFG B> <=O Ior reIerences, @>FF him to apply to me.
cBAMFG <HU@BEHC DB<HC>, UAM ;EFF ?>@M?H home.
In these sentences the action in the conditional clause is presented as possible, but very unlikely. Such
clauses are called clauses oI J?ALF>N<@ED DAHGE@EAH. They may be rendered in Russian as cnyuct , uo... ,
ecn cnyuo..., ecn cnyucx, uo..., nyr uo-yt, etc.
2. In the second type #o$%d - i&'i&i!ive Ior all the persons in the singular and plural is used in the
conditional clause and =BAMFGj;AMFG p EHTEHE@EP> or @B> EHGED<@EP> NAAG in the main clause. ^AMFG retains its
original meaning oI willingness or consent (ecn t nt corncnct, sxnn xene, sxoen t).
WT UAM ;AMFG AHFU DAN> to our place, ;>_FF L> P>?U CF<G (we should be very glad).
3. In the third type @B> J<=@ =MLQMHD@EP> oI the modal verb @A L> p (@A$ EHTEHE@EP> is used in the conditional
clause and sho$%d+#o$%d - i&'i&i!ive or @B> ENJ>?<@EP> NAAG in the principal clause. Both actions have Iuture or
present time-reIerence.
II you ;>?> @A MHG>?@<O> it, everything ;AMFG L> GETT>?>H@ (iI by chance you undertook it).
II I ;>?> @A @>FF you everything, you ;AMFG L> <N<S>G. - cn t e nmnoct ccst n nce, nt
t ynnct.
The Iorm ;>?> p @A implies greater remoteness and improbability oI the action, but does not imply a
rejection oI it.
Sentences and clauses of implied condition
88. An implied condition is not openly stated in a clause, but is suggested either by an adverbial part oI the
sentence, or else by the context -Irom the preceding or Iollowing sentence, or coordinated clause.
1. The Iorm sho$%d+#o$%d - i&'i&i!ive is used in simple sentences with an adverbial modiIier oI condition
introduced by LM@ TA?, >ID>J@ TA? ( ' ...$ which imply an unreal condition with an opposite meaning:
kM@ TA? FMDO he would be still living alone. - cn t e yu, o t nce eme xn n oouecne.
The implication is: iI it had not been Ior luck, he would be still living alone. (In Iact he was lucky and he is
not living alone.)
66
These people ;AMFG FAHC <CA B<P> L>>H TA?CA@@>H, LM@ TA? the artists genius.
Thats all I can remember. I ;AMFGH_@ B<P> ?>N>NL>?>G anything at all LM@ TA? UAM.
qID>J@ TA? the sound oI his breathing, I ;AMFGH_@ B<P> OHA;H he was there.
2. As stated above a condition may be implied by the preceding or Iollowing sentence or coordinated clause:
- What ;AMFG UAM GA iI UAM B<G money
- Oh, I =BAMFG GA many things
This was the sort oI thing B> ;AMFG B<P> FEO>G @A >IJF<EH to someone, only no one wanted to hear.
(II anyone had wanted to hear, he would have explained this sort oI thing to them.)
They had no desire to spread scandal. Otherwise they ;AMFG B<P> G>N<HG>G @B>E? GM>.
(Had they had the desire to spread scandal, they would have demanded their due.)
I ;AMFG B<P> CAH> too, but I was tied up to Joseph.
(II I had not been tied up to Joseph, I would have gone too.)
On the whole the non-Iactual use oI tenses is rather rare in simple sentences, although they do occasionally
occur.
As a child W_G CEP>H anything Ior that - ecne x t nce on s +o.
Modal verbs or phrases in conditional clauses
89. The modal verbs D<H, ;EFF, N<UjNECB@ are Ireely used in the non-Iactual past indeIinite to express
unreality in conditional and principal clauses. ike the mood auxiliaries =BAMFG, ;AMFG they may be combined
with diIIerent inIinitives:
a) in main clauses
II I had
time
I could go there
I would go there
I might go there
I should go there
b) in subordinate clauses
II I could translate this
article
II he might translate this
article
II I would translate this
article
(iI I consented to do it)
II I translated this article
it would be nice.
There may be a modal phrase in both clauses oI the sentence, or in one clause only.
II you ;AMFG L> T?<HO with me I NECB@ J>?B<J= L> AT NA?> B>FJ.
... and had he so desired he NECB@ B<P> L>>H J>?=AH< C?<@< with the diplomatic set.
II she DAMFG B<P> L>>H DANJ?>==>G to about three quarters oI her actual width, she would have been very
attractive.
Anselmo grinned in the darkness. An hour ago he DAMFG HA@ B<P> EN<CEH>G that he would ever smile
again.
67
I ;AMFG B<P> O>J@ AH CAEHC, iI I hadnt had to leave Paris.
The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of comparison
90. Several Iorms oI subjunctive are used in clauses oI comparison depending on the time-reIerence.
1. II the action in the comparative clause is simultaneous with that in the main clause, the non-Iactual past
indeIinite or past subjunctive is used.
2. II the action in the comparative clause is prior to that in the main clause, the non-Iactual past perIect is
used.
The usual conjunctions introducing comparative clauses are <= ET and <= @BAMCB.
His eyes wandered <= ET B> ;>?> <@ < FA==.
He paid no attention to us, <= @BAMCB ;> GEG HA@ >IE=@.
Miss HandIorth was holding a tea-pot <= ET E@ ;>?> < B<HG C?>H<G>.
And so we Iaced each other aIter three years oI letter-writing <= ET ;> B<G L>>H B<PEHC < L>>? every
aIternoon Ior years.
3. II the action in the subordinate clause is presented as Iollowing the action in the main clause #o$%d -
i&'i&i!ive is used.
He was whistling gaily <= ET BE= B><?@ ;AMFG L?><O Ior joy.
The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of purpose
91. In clauses oI purpose the Iorm used depends on the conjunction introducing the clause.
1. AIter the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, so the quasi-subjunctive Iorms N<U (NECB@$ p
EHTEHE@EP> or D<H (DAMFG$ p EHTEHE@EP> are used. Only NECB@ and DAMFG are used iI the action in the subordinate
clause, though Iollowing the action in the main clause, reIers to the past. But when the action reIers to the
present or Iuture, both Iorms oI each verb are possible (N<U or NECB@, D<H or DAMFG).
I tell you this =A @B<@ UAM N<U MHG>?=@<HG the situation.
She leIt the lamp on the window-sill, =A @B<@ B> NECB@ =>> it Irom aIar.
She gave him the book @B<@ B> NECB@ B<P> something to read on the journey.
2. AIter the negative conjunction lest (uot e) sho$%d - i&'i&i!ive is generally used.
The girl whispered these words F>=@ =AN>LAGU =BAMFG AP>?B><? her.
He was aIraid to look behind F>=@ B> =BAMFG =>> something there which ought not to be there.
The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of concession
92. Concessive clauses may either be joined to the main clause asyndetically, or else be introduced by a
connective (BA;>P>?, ;BA>P>?, ;B<@>P>?, ;B>H>P>?), a conjunction (@BAMCB, <F@BAMCB, >P>H ET, >P>H @BAMCB$;
also by a phrase, such as HA N<@@>? BA;, HA N<@@>? ;B>H.
II the action reIers to the present or Iuture the quasi-subjunctive Iorm may - i&'i&i!ive or ,rese&!
s$bj$&!ive is used in the subordinate clause. II the action reIers to the past may - ,er'e! i&'i&i!ive or ,er'e!
o&!i&$o$s i&'i&i!ive, or mi)h! - i&'i&i!ive is used. orms with sho$%d - i&'i&i!ive, #o$%d - i&'i&i!ive, and
non-Iactual tense Iorms are also possible, though less typical.
He can be right, HA N<@@>? ;B>@B>? BE= <?CMN>H@= L> DAHPEHDEHC A? HA@.
YE?>G <= B> N<U L> he will always help me.
68
YBAMCB B> NECB@ B<P> L>>H =M=JEDEAM= he gave no sign.
aA N<@@>? BA; B> NECB@ @?U he couldnt do it.
fMDB <= W ;AMFG FEO> @A B>FJ, I didnt dare to interIere.
When a concessive clause is joined asyndetically, there is usually inversion. The Iront position is occupied
by the part, that states the circumstance despite which the action in the main clause is carried out. Thus it lends
a concessive meaning to the clause. In the Iollowing sentences the concessive meaning is Iocused on the part oI
the predicate:
dAN> ;B<@ N<U, we shall remain here.
dA=@ ;B<@ E@ N<U, Ill give you the sum you ask.
YE?>G <= B> NECB@ L>, he continued his way.
- ot cnyunoct ...
- onto t +o cono...
- t o ycn ...
The Iocus oI the concessive meaning may Iall on the nominal or adverbial part oI the clause.
^BA>P>? B> N<U L>, he has no right to be rude.
^B<@>P>? UAM N<U =<U, our decision remains unchanged.
^BEDB>P>? AT @B> @;A ?A<G= ;> N<U @<O>, the distance is great.
^B>?>P>? ;> NECB@ CA, we Iound the same gloomy sight.
^B>H>P>? W N<U <=O BEN < iM>=@EAH, he always has a ready answer.
e will not convince us BA;>P>? B<?G B> =BAMFG @?U.
- o t o tn ...
- ot t ronon ...
- o o t s nyx oor t
nomn ...
- y t t nomn ...
- or t x sn ey nonoc ...
- ... t cnto o ntncx.
Concessive clauses introduced by >P>H ET, >P>H @BAMCB are built up on the same pattern as conditional clauses
and the same subjunctive mood Iorms are used in the subordinate clause.
qP>H ET E@ ;>?> @?M>, he couldnt say so.
qP>H @BAMCB B> B<G J?AJA=>G, nothing has changed since that day.
Concessive meaning may be rendered by the indicative mood in the same patterns oI clauses, iI the Iact
despite which the action is carried out is a real one.
dAFG <= E@ E=, we shall go out. (it is really cold)
YE?>G <= B> ;<=, he continued his work.
YBAMCB B> ;<= .&, he looked very old.
It was not meant to oIIend you, no N<@@>? BA; E?AHED E@ =AMHG>G.
The subjunctive mood in simple sentences
93. Besides cases when the subjunctive mood Iorms are used in simple sentences to express an unreal
action as a consequence oI an implied condition (see 88), these Iorms are also used in simple sentences oI the
Iollowing kind:
1. In exclamatory sentences beginning with if only to express a wish. They Iollow the same pattern as
conditional clauses, and ;AMFG p EHTEHE@EP>, J<=@ =MLQMHD@EP>, non-Iactual tense Iorms are used.
WT AHFU E@ ;>?> @?M>R
WT AHFU W OH>; ;B<@ @A GAR
WT AHFU W B<G FE=@>H>G @A NU J<?>H@=R
WT AHFU E@ ;AMFG =@AJ ?<EHEHCR
WT AHFU ;> DAMFG B<P> =@AJJ>G BENR
2. In exclamatory sentences to express an emotional attitude oI the speaker to real Iacts (surprise and
disbelieI). Here =BAMFG p EHTEHE@EP> is used.
69
`HG @BE= =BAMFG B<JJ>H QM=@ AH @BE= G<UR
YB<@ E@ =BAMFG L> UAM AT <FF J>AJF>R
3. In questions expressing astonishment or indignation the analytical Iorm =BAMFG p EHTEHE@EP> is used:
^BU =BAMFG UAM <HG W @<FO <LAM@ E@g
\A; =BAMFG W OHA;g
^BU =BAMFG UAM =M=J>D@ N>g
^BU =BAMFG UAM HA@ GA E@g
The traditional use of the subjunctive mood in formulaic expressions
94. These Iorms remained as survivals oI old usage and they are used as wholes, in which no element oI
structure can be omitted or replaced.
Most oI them have a religious origin and express a wish or a prayer: rAG LF>== UAMR (kF>== UAMR$ rAG =<P>
@B> OEHCR \><P>H TA?LEGR YB> h>PEF @<O> BENR
In many cases, however, Iormulaic expressions may be expanded by variable elements (parts oI the sentence
or clauses), thus making productive patterns in Modern English. They vary in their meaning, although mostly
express a wish. Among them are:
1. Forms used in slogans: mAHC FEP> @B> `?NUR mAHC FEP> J<@?EA@E=NR mAHC FEP> @B> TECB@>?= TA? J><D>R mAHC
FEP> B>?A>=RV
2. Forms used in oaths, curses, and imprecations: f<HH>?= L> B<HC>GR dAHTAMHG your ideas dAHTAMHG
the politics
l<? L> E@ T?AN N> to spoil the Ian
l<? L> E@ T?AN N> to conceal the truth
l<? L> E@ T?AN N> to argue with you
l<? L> E@ T?AN N> to talk back
- ot x xoen cnot n coee
- ot x ctnn nny
- ot x cn cnot
- ot x ryn
orms with N<U p EHTEHE@EP>, unlike modern Iorms with the same verb, retain the old word order:
f<U =MDD>== <@@>HG UAMR f<U UAM L> B<JJUR f<U B> ;EHR
The subjunctive mood Iorms with B<G L>@@>?, B<G L>=@, ;AMFG ?<@B>?, ;AMFG =AAH>? are used in sentences
denoting wish, admonition, preIerence, advice. ery oIten they are used in a contracted Iorm: sAM_G L>@@>? go at
once. sAM B<G L>=@ take note oI my direction iI you wish to make sure oI it.
ormulaic expressions with concessive meaning are used in complex sentences as concessive clauses:
Happen what may,
Come what will,
Come what may,
Cost what it may,
we shall not yield.
The Iormulaic expression <= E@ ;>?> ( cst) is used as parenthesis, emphasizing that the content oI the
sentence is highly Iigurative or non-real:
... there is, <= E@ ;>?>, a transparent barrier between myselI and strong emotion.
He is my best Iriend, my second selI, <= E@ ;>?>.
Table III
The subjunctive mood forms
Types oI Sentences Synthetic orms Analytical orms Non-actual
Tense orms
Simple sentence Ideas be hanged May it come true II I only knew
70
II only that were true I should like to see this Iilm.
Complex sentence with a
subject clause
It is required that all be
present.
It is important that all should
come.
It is likely he may come.
It is time the boy came.
Complex sentence with a
predicative clause
He looks as iI he were
surprised.
It looks as iI the weather may
change.
The order is that we should
move.
It seems as iI everybody
knew.
It looks as iI he had known
it long ago.
Complex sentence with an
appositive clause
The order that we should move
surprised us.
Complex sentence with an
object clause
I wish he were here. He ordered that we should
come.
We Ieared lest he should Iind it
out.
I wish he would come.
I wish I knew it.
I wish I had never met him.
Complex sentence The stranger looked He glanced at me as iI he
with an adverbial at me as iI he were knew.
clause oI comparison surprised. The girl spoke as iI she
had learned it all by
heart.
Complex sentence with It is true whether it be Tired as he might be, he
an adverbial concessive convincing or not. continued his way.
clause Though he might be tired, he
his way.
He will not manage it
however hard he should try.
Whatever Iaults the book may
have, it is interesting enough.
He would not have come even iI we had warned
him.
Complex sentence with I tell you this so that you may
an adverbial clause oI understand the situation.
purpose We put the matches away lest
the baby should Iind the box.
Complex sentence with II I were you ... I should not object to it.
an adverbial conditional I should come ... iI I knew the address
clause I should have called on you
yesterday ... iI I had known the address
Should I meet him, I shall tell
him about it.
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS)
95. There are Iour non-Iinite Iorms oI the verb in English: the inIinitive (to take), the gerund (taking),
participle I (taking), participle II (taken). These Iorms possess some verbal and some non-verbal Ieatures. The
main verbal Ieature oI the inIinitive and participles I and II is that it can be used as part oI analytical verbal
Iorms (E= =@<HGEHC, E= LMEF@, B<P> DAN>, ;EFF GA, etc.)
exically non-Iinites do not diIIer Irom Iinite Iorms. Grammatically the diIIerence between the two types oI
Iorms lies in the Iact that non-Iinites may denote a secondary action or a process related to that expressed by the
Iinite verb.
Non-Iinites possess the verb categories oI voice, perIect, and aspect. They lack the categories oI person,
number, mood, and tense.
None oI the Iorms have morphological Ieatures oI non-verbal parts oI speech, neither nominal, adjectival or
adverbial. In the sphere oI syntax, however, non-Iinites possess both verbal and non-verbal Ieatures. Their non-
verbal character reveals itselI in their syntactical Iunctions. Thus, the inIinitive and the gerund perIorm the main
syntactical Iunctions oI the noun, which are those oI subject, object and predicative. Participle I Iunctions as
attribute, predicative and adverbial modiIier; participle II as attribute and predicative. They cannot Iorm a
predicate by themselves, although unlike non-verbal parts oI speech they can Iunction as part oI a compound
71
verbal predicate.
Syntactically the verbal character oI non-Iinites is maniIested mainly in their combinability. Similarly to
Iinite Iorms they may combine with nouns Iunctioning as direct, indirect, or prepositional objects, with adverbs
and prepositional phrases used as adverbial modiIiers, and with subordinate clauses.
Non-Iinites may also work as link verbs, combining with nouns, adjectives or statives as predicatives, as in:
@A L>jL>EHC < GAD@A? (UAMHC, <T?<EG$. They may also act as modal verb semantic equivalents when combined
with an inIinitive: @A B<P>jB<PEHC @A ;<E@, @A L> <LF>jL>EHC <LF> @A =@<U. So the structure oI a non-Iinite verb
group resembles the structure oI any verb phrase.
All non-Iinite verb Iorms may participate in the so-called predicative constructions, that is, two-component
syntactical units where a noun or a pronoun and a non-Iinite verb Iorm are in predicative relations similar to
those oI the subiect and the predicate: I heard t<H> =EHCEHC; We waited Ior @B> @?<EH @A J<==; I saw BEN ?MH, etc.
The Infinitive
96. The inIinitive is a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb which names a process in a most general way. As such, it
is naturally treated as the initial Iorm oI the verb, which represents the verb in dictionaries (much in the same
way as the common case singular represents the noun).
In all its Iorms and Iunctions the inIinitive has a special marker, the particle to. The particle to is generally
used with the inIinitive stem and is so closely connected with it that does not commonly allow any words to be
put between itselI and the stem. Occasionally, however, an adverb or particle may be inserted between them:
She doesnt want @A eve& =>> me once more.
The inIinitive thus used is called the split infinitive, and is acceptable only to give special emphasis to the
verb.
Although the particle to is very closely connected with the inIinitive, sometimes the bare infinitive stem is
used. The cases where the inIinitive loses its marker are very Iew in number.

The use of the Infinitive without the Particle to
(Bare Infinitive)
Words and phrases The rest oI the
Iollowed by a bare Bare inIinitive sentence
inIinitive
1 2 3 4
Auxiliary verbs:
I hAH_@ like Jogging.
They ^EFF see you to-morrow.
Modal verbs:
(>ID>J@ AMCB@ @A,
B<P> @A, L> @A$
ou D<H_@ play Iootball in the street.
I NM=@ go there to-morrow.
ou H>>GH_@ worry.
Modal expression:
ou B<G L>@@>?
I ;AMFG ?<@B>?
;AMFG =AAH>?
She bG =AAH>? die than come back
ou B<G L>@@>? come at once.
Verbs of sense
72
I
He
perception:
(=>>, ;<@DB, AL=>?P>,
HA@ED>, B><?, FE=@>H @A,
T>>F, etc.)
Ielt somebody
heard the door
touch
close.
me.
Verbs of inducement:
(F>@, N<O>, B<P>, LEG)
What et me
makes you
help
think
you.
so
Phrases with but:
D<HHA@ LM@,
GA <HU@BEHC LM@
GA HA@BEHC LM@
DAMFGH_@ LM@
Did you do anything but ask questions
Why-not sentences:
^BU HA@ begin at once
ike other non-Iinite Iorms oI the verb the inIinitive has a double nature: it combines verbal Ieatures with
those oI the noun.
The verbal features oI the inIinitive are oI two kinds: morphological and syntactical.
1) Mo r p h o l o g i c a l : the inIinitive has the verb categories oI voice, perIect and aspect:
The evening is the time @A J?<E=> the day. (active)
YA L> J?<E=>G Ior what one has not done was bad enough. (passive)
She did not intend @A O>>J me long, she said. (non-perIect)
I am so distressed @A B<P> O>J@ you waiting, (perIect)
She promised @A L?EHC the picture down in the course oI ten minutes. (common)
At that time I happened @A L> L?EHCEHC him some oI the books borrowed Irom him two days beIore,
(continuous)
2) S y n t a c t i c a l : the inIinitive possesses the verb combinability:
a) it takes an object in the same way as the corresponding Iinite verbs do;
b)it takes a predicative iI it happens to be a link verb;
c) it is modiIied by adverbials in the same way as Iinite verbs:
Infinitive Finite verb
<$ YA @>FF BEN <LAM@ E@ the same night was out oI the
question.
She did not mean @A G>J>HG AH B>? T<@B>?.
L$ She wanted @A L> < @><DB>?.
I dont want @A FAAO J<F> tonight.
c) To draw his attention I had @A =J><O P>?U FAMGFU.
She @AFG N> <LAM@ E@ only yesterday.
ou see, W G>J>HG AH BE= ;A?G only.
He ;<= < @><DB>? oI rench.
She FAAO>G J<F> and B<CC<?G.
He =JAO> FAMGFU, turning his head Irom side to side.
The nominal Ieatures oI the inIinitive are revealed only in its Iunction:
YA MHG>?=@<HG E= @A TA?CEP>. (subject, predicative)
Thats what I wanted @A OHA;. (object)
I saw the chance @A >=D<J> into the garden. (attribute)
I merely came back @A ;<@>? the roses, (adverbial modiIier oI purpose)
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The Grammatical Categories of the Infinitive
97. As has already been stated the inIinitive has three grammatical categories, those oI perIect, voice, and
aspect.
The system oI grammatical categories oI the inIinitive is shown in the table below.
Table I
PerIect oice Active Passive
Aspect
Non-PerIect Common to go
to take
-
to be taken
Continuous to be going
to be taking
-
(to be being taken)
PerIect Common to have gone
to have taken
-
to have been taken
Continuous to have been going
to have been taking
-
-
It is seen Irom the table, that the passive voice is Iound only with transitive verbs and there are no perIect
continuous Iorms in the passive voice. As Ior the non-perIect continuous passive, Iorms similar to the one in
brackets, do sometimes occur, although they are exceptionally rare.
The category of perfect
98. The category oI perIect Iinds its expression, as with other verb Iorms, in the opposition oI non-perIect
and perIect Iorms.
The non-perIect inIinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that oI the Iinite verb (I am glad to take part
in it, I am glad to be invited there),
The perIect inIinitive always denotes an action prior to that oI the Iinite verb - the predicate oI the sentences.
The meaning oI priority is invariable with the perIect and perIect continuous inIinitive.
I am glad
I was glad
I shall be glad
to have seen you again.
The non-perIect inIinitive is vaguer and more Ilexible in meaning and its meaning may easily be modiIied by
the context. Thus, it may denote an action preceding or Iollowing the action denoted by the Iinite verb. It
expresses succession, that is indicates that the action Iollows the action denoted by the Iinite verb, as in the
Iollowing cases:
1) When used as an adverbial modiIier oI purpose:
She bit her lip @A O>>J L<DO a smile.
I came here @A B>FJ UAM, HA@ @A iM<??>F with you.
2) When used as part oI a compound verbal predicate:
ou must GA it at once.
ou know, she is beginning @A F><?H eagerly.
3) When used as an object oI a verb oI inducement:
He ordered the man @A DAN> at three.
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She always asks me @A B>FJ her when she is busy.
He will make you AL>U.
The category of aspect
99. The category oI aspect Iinds its expression in contrasting Iorms oI the common aspect and the
continuous aspect. The diIIerence between the category oI aspect in Iinite verb Iorms and in the inIinitive is that
in the inIinitive it is consistently expressed only in the active voice:
to speak
to have spoken
- to be speaking
- to have been speaking
The passive voice has practically no aspect oppositions. (See Table I). The semantics oI the category oI
aspect in the inIinitive is the same as in the Iinite verb: the continuous aspect Iorms denote an action in progress
at some moment oI time in the present, past, or Iuture; the meaning oI the common aspect Iorms is Ilexible and
is easily modiIied by the context.
The two aspects diIIer in their Irequency and Iunctioning; the continuous aspect Iorms are very seldom used
and cannot perIorm all the Iunctions in which the common aspect Iorms are used. They can Iunction only as:
1) subject (YA L> =@<UEHC ;E@B @B>N was a real pleasure.);
2) object (I was glad @A L> ;<OEHC.)
3) part oI a compound verbal predicate (Now they NM=@ L> C>@@EHC L<DO; The leaves L>CEH @A L> C?A;EHC
U>FFA;E=B.)
The continuous aspect Iorms do not occur in the Iunction oI adverbial - modiIiers and attributes.
The category of voice
100. The inIinitive oI transitive verbs has the category oI voice, similar to all other verb Iorms:
to say
to have said
- to be said
- to have been said
The active inIinitive points out that the action is directed Irom the subject (either expressed or implied), the
passive inIinitive indicates that the action is directed to the subject:
Active Passive
He expected to Iind them very soon. They expected to be Iound by night Iall.
She was born to love . She born to be loved.
I know I ought to have told you everything long ago. She ought to have been told oI what had actually
happened.
However, there are cases where the active Iorm oI the non-perIect inIinitive denotes an action directed
towards the subject, that is although active in Iorm it is passive in meaning:
His to blame.
75
The house is to let.
The question is diIIicult to answer.
There was only one thing to do.
The active inIinitive thus used is called retroactive.
The retroactive inIinitive is rather productive although in nearly all cases it can be replaced by the
corresponding passive Iorm:
He is to blame He is to be blamed.
There was only one thing to do There was only one thing to be done.
Syntactical functions of the infinitive
101. The inIinitive perIorms almost all syntactical Iunctions characteristic oI the noun, although in each oI
them it has certain peculiarities oI its own. In all syntactical Iunctions the inIinitive may be used:
1) alone, that is, without any words depending on it:
She would like @A G<HD>.
2) as the headword oI an inIinitive phrase, that is, with one or more words depending on it:
She would like @A G<HD> ;E@B BEN @AHECB@.
3) as part oI an inIinitive predicative construction, that is, as a logical predicate to some nominal element
denoting the logical subject oI the inIinitive:
She would like BEN @A G<HD> ;E@B B>?.
She waited Ior BEN @A G<HD> TE?=@.
As to the Iunctioning oI single inIinitives and inIinitive phrases, they are identical in this respect and
thereIore will be used without distinction in illustrations. However it should be noted that in Iact the inIinitive
phrase is much more common than the single inIinitive.
The infinitive as subject
102. The inIinitive Iunctioning as subject may either precede the predicate or Iollow it. In the latter case it
is introduced by the so-called introductory E@, which is placed at the beginning oI the sentence:
YA L> CAAG is to be in harmony with oneselI.
Its so silly @A L> TM==U <HG Q><FAM=.
The second oI these structural patterns is more common than the Iirst, and the subject in this pattern is more
accentuated (compare Ior example: W@_= ENJA==ELF> @A GA E@ and YA GA E@ E= ENJA==ELF>). The other diIIerence is
that in the second case the sentence can be both declarative and interrogative, while in the Iirst one the sentence
can only be declarative:
D e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s
Its nice @A =>> UAM <C<EH.
It was not a good idea @A L?EHC B>? B>?>
YA TEHG BEN =@EFF <@ BAN> was a relieI.
YA =>> B>? <C<EH did not give him the usual pleasure.
76
I n t e r r o g a t i v e s e n t e n c e s
Is it bad @A FAP> AH> =A G><?FU
Wasnt it a waste oI time @A =E@ @B>?>
The inIinitive subject in both structural patterns is a to - inIinitive. II there are two or more homogeneous
inIinitive subjects in a sentence, all oI them keep the particle to:
YA L> <FAH>, @A L> T?>> T?AN @B> G<EFU EH@>?>=@= <HG D?M>F@U would be happiness to Asako.
It was awIully diIIicult @A GA or even @A =<U HA@BEHC <@ <FF.
The Iunction oI the subject can be perIormed by the inIinitive oI any voice, aspect and perIect Iorm,
although the common aspect non-perIect active Iorms are naturally Iar more Irequent.
YA >IJ>D@ @AA NMDB is a dangerous thing.
YA L> ;<FOEHC @B?AMCB @B> TE>FG= <FF <FAH> seemed an almost impossible pleasure.
YA B<P> =>>H B>? was even a more painIul experience.
YA L> ?>DACHES>G, @A L> C?>>@>G LU =AN> FAD<F J>?=AH<C> aIIorded her a joy which was very great.
YA B<P> L>>H EH@>??AC<@>G EH =MDB < ;<U was a real shock to him.
103. The predicate oI the subject expressed by an inIinitive always takes the Iorm oI the .?G J>?=AH
=EHCMF<?. As to its type, it is usually a compound nominal predicate with the link verb @A L>, although other link
verbs may also occur, as well as a verbal predicate.
To acquire knowledge and to acquire it unceasingly E= @B> TE?=@ GM@U oI the artist.
To understand E= @A TA?CEP>.
To talk to him LA?>G me.
To see the struggle T?ECB@>H>G him terribly.
To write a really good book ?>iME?>= more time than I have.
The infinitive as part of the predicate
The inIinitive is used in predicates oI several types, both nominal and verbal.
.he i&'i&i!ive as ,redia!ive
104. In the Iunction oI a predicative the to-inIinitive is used in compound nominal predicates aIter the
link verb to be:
His dearest wish was to have a son.
With homogeneous predicatives the use oI the particle to varies. II the inIinitives are not linked by
conjunctions, the particle is generally used with all oI them:
My intention was to see her as soon as possible, to talk to her, to calm her.
II they are linked by the conjunctions <HG or A? the particle to is generally used with the Iirst inIinitive only:
our duty will be to teach him rench and play with him.
His plan was to ring her up at once, or even call on her.
The use oI the inIinitive as a predicative has some peculiarities.
1) In sentences with an inIinitive subject the predicative inIinitive denotes an action that Iollows, or results
Irom, the action oI the subject inIinitive.
77
YA =>> B>? was @A <GNE?> B>?.
YA DAN> there at this hour was @A ?E=O AH>_= FET>.
Sentences in which both the inIinitives are used without any modiIiers are usually oI aphoristic meaning:
YA B><? is @A AL>U.
YA =>> is @A L>FE>P>.
YA G>TEH> is @A FENE@.
The predicative Iunction is generally perIormed by the common non-perIect active Iorms oI the inIinitive.
Still passive Iorms sometimes occur:
YA L> LA?H in poverty was @A L> GAAN>G to humiliation.
2) The set oI nouns that can Iunction as the subject oI a compound nominal predicate with an inIinitive
predicative is very limited. It includes about 50 nouns describing situations:
action
advice
aim
ambition
attempt
business
consequence
custom
desire
diIIiculty
duty
experience
Iunction
habit
happiness
hope
idea
ideal
instruction
intention
job
method
need
object
order
plan
principle
problem
purpose
reason
risk
role
rule
task
thing
wish, etc.
A predicative inIinitive phrase may be introduced by the conjunctive, adverbs and pronouns BA;, ;B>H,
;B>?>, ;B<@, ;BAN, the choice depending on the lexical meaning oI the noun:
Now the question was ;B<@ to tell him.
The problem was BA; to begin.
3) The Iunction oI the subject may be also perIormed by the pronoun <FF or the substantivized superlatives
@B> NA=@ and @B> F><=@ with an attributive clause attached to them:
`FF he wanted was to be leIt alone.
YB> F><=@ I can expect is to have this day all to myselI.
In such cases the predicative inIinitive can lose its marker to:
All I can do is get you out oI here.
4) Occasionally the Iunction oI the subject can be perIormed by a gerund or a what-clause:
mEPEHC ;E@B B>NAJBEFE< was to live oII balance all the time.
u^B<@ ;> ;<H@ @A GA,u said Brady, is to Iight a world.
The infinitive as simple nominal predicate
105. The inIinitive as simple nominal predicate may be used in exclamatory sentences expressing the
78
speakers rejection oI the idea that the person to whom the action oI the inIinitive is ascribed is likely to
perIorm this action, or belong to such sort oI people, as in:
or details see Syntax 41.
ou - oI all men - @A =<U =MDB < @BEHCR
Me - @A L> UAM? FAP>?R
As a rule the inIinitive in exclamatory sentences is used with the particle to, although it occasionally occurs
without it:
Me - N<??U BEN Never
The inIinitive may be also used as predicate in interrogative inIinitive why-sentences, both aIIirmative and
negative, where it expresses a suggestion:
Why F>@ him =F>>J so long
Why HA@ CA <;<U
In such sentences the inIinitive is always used without the particle to.
The infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate
106. The inIinitive is used in compound verbal predicates oI three types.
I. In a compound verbal modal predicate aIter the modal verbs D<H, N<U, NECB@, AMCB@, NM=@, =B<FF,
=BAMFG, ;EFF, ;AMFG, H>>G, G<?>, @A L>, @A B<P>, and expressions with modal meaning B<G L>@@>?, ;AMFG ?<@B>?.
I D<H @>FF you nothing at all about him.
She AMCB@ @A B<P> @AFG me beIore.
II. In a compound verbal phasal predicate aIter verbs denoting various stages oI the action, such as its
beginning, continuation, or end. These verbs (@A L>CEH, @A DAN>, @A =@<?@, @A DAH@EHM>, @A CA AH, @A D><=>, etc.)
Iollowed by a to-inIinitive Iorm a compound verbal phasal predicate.
Now I L>CEH @A MHG>?=@<HG UAM.
Then she D<N> @A ?><FES> what it all meant.
They DAH@EHM>G @A ;BE=J>?.
The verbs @A L>CEH, @A DAH@EHM> and @A =@<?@ can also be Iollowed by a gerund, although with a certain
diIIerence in meaning. Thus the verb @A =@AJ Iollowed by a gerund means @A JM@ <H >HG @A <H <D@EAH, @A
EH@>??MJ@, whereas Iollowed by an inIinitive means @A J<M=> EH A?G>? @A GA =AN>@BEHC. So the inIinitive aIter the
verb @A =@AJ is used in the Iunction oI an adverbial modiIier oI purpose.
He =@AJJ>G @A =>> what it was.
oconncx, uot nocoet, uo +o oe.
He =@AJJ>G =>>EHC her.
neecn c e nceutcx.
III. The compound verbal predicate of double orientation has no analogy in Russian. The three subtypes
oI this predicate can be distinguished according to the expression oI the Iirst part:
or details see Syntax 53.
1. The Iirst part is expressed by one oI the Iollowing intransitive verbs in the active voice: @A =>>N -
stcx; @A <JJ><? - ostcx, stcx; @A J?AP>, @A @M?H AM@ - ostcx; @A B<JJ>H, @A DB<HD> - cnyutcx.
AIter the verbs @A J?AP> and @A @M?H AM@ the inIinitive is mostly nominal, that is presented by @A L> p HAMH A?
<GQ>D@EP>. AIter the verbs @A =>>N, @A <JJ><?, @A B<JJ>H all types and Iorms oI the inIinitive are possible.
Simple sentences with this type oI predicate are synonymous with complex sentences oI a certain pattern:
79
He seems to be smiling.
She appeared to have said all.
It seems that he is smiling.
It appeared that she had said all.
Sentences with compound verbal predicates oI double orientation are translated into Russian in diIIerent
ways depending on the meaning oI the Iirst verbal element:
The strange little man =>>N>G @A ?><G my thoughts.
The man =>>N>G @A B<P> DAN> Irom Iar oII.
Nothing <JJ><?>G @A L> B<JJ>HEHC there.
e <JJ><?>G @A B<P> L>>H ?MHHEHC all the way.
e J?AP>G @A L> < B><F@BU DBEFG.
The night @M?H>G AM@ @A L> DAFG.
hAH_@ you B<JJ>H @A OHA; B>?
t uenoneue, snoct, un o tcn.
snoct, +o uenone nexn oy-o sne.
snoct, uo sect uero e nocxo.
snoct, uo o noexn ncm oory ero.
osncx soont eeo.
out osnct xonoo.
t ee cnyuo e semt
2. The Iirst part oI the predicate is expressed by the passive voice Iorms oI certain transitive verbs. They are:
a) verbs oI saying: @A <HHAMHD>, @A G>DF<?>, @A ?>JA?@, @A =<U, @A =@<@>, etc.
She ;<= <HHAMHD>G @A L> @B> ;EHH>?.
e E= =<EG @A B<P> ?>@M?H>G at last.
tno oxnneo, uo noen o.
onox, uo o oen neyncx.
b) verbs oI mental activity: @A L>FE>P>, @A DAH=EG>?, @A >IJ>D@, @A TEHG, @A OHA;H, @A N><H, @A J?>=MN>,
@A ?>C<?G, @A =MJJA=>, @A @BEHO, @A MHG>?=@<HG, etc.
He= =MJJA=>G @A L> F><PEHC tonight.
She E= L>FE>P>G @A L> < DF>P>? CE?F.
Her Iather ;<= @BAMCB@ @A B<P> GE>G long ago.
enonrm (nenonrecx), uo o yesxe
cerox neueo.
e cum yo enymo. (uecx, uo o
yx enym.)
unoct (cun, yn, nonrn), uo ee
oen nt-no ye.
D$ verbs oI sense perception: @A T>>F, @A B><?, @A =>>, @A ;<@DB.
Soon he ;<= B><?G @A AJ>H the Iront door.
She ;<= oIten =>>H @A ;<FO all alone.
coe ycntmn, o otn nym net.
co nen, o rynxe conce o.
d) the verb @A N<O>.
He ;<= N<G> @A O>>J =EF>H@. ro scnn onut.
3. The Iirst part is expressed by the phrases: @A L> FEO>FU, @A L> MHFEO>FU, @A L> =M?>, @A L> D>?@<EH. In this case
only the non-perIect Iorms oI the inIinitive are used, with Iuture reIerence.
She E= FEO>FU @A L> F<@>.
He E= =M?> @A L>DAN> UAM? T?E>HG.
They <?> =M?> @A L> ;<H@>G <= >PEG>HD>.
In all these three subtypes the to - inIinitive is always used.
The infinitive as object
107. The inIinitive can have the Iunction oI object aIter verbs, adjectives, adjectivized participles and
statives.
80
AIter verbs the inIinitive may be either the only object oI a verb or one oI two objects.
1. erbs that take only one object are: @A <C?>>, @A <??<HC>, @A <@@>NJ@, @A D<?> (to like), @A DBAA=>, @A DF<EN,
@A DAH=>H@, @A G>DEG>, @A G>=>?P>, @A G>@>?NEH>, @A >IJ>D@, @A T<EF, @A T><?, @A TA?C>@, @A B>=E@<@>, @A BAJ>, @A EH@>HG,
@A F><?H, @A FEO>, @A FAHC, @A FAP>, @A N<H<C>, @A N><H, @A H>CF>D@, @A ANE@, @A JF<H, @A J?>T>?, @A J?>@>HG, @A ?>TM=>,
@A ?>C?>@, @A ?>N>NL>?, @A =;><?, @A @>HG, etc.
She agreed @A DAN> <@ @>H.
He planned @A =J>HG @B> G<U in town.
oull soon learn @A ?><G, sonny.
Among these verbs two groups can be distinguished:
a) the verbs @A DF<EN, @A T<EF, @A TA?C>@, @A B<@>, @A FEO>, @A ANE@, @A ?>C?>@, @A ?>N>NL>?, @A =;><?, with which
the perIect inIinitive denotes actions prior to those oI the Iinite verbs. It can be accounted Ior by the Iact that
semantically these verbs denote an action or state Iollowing or resulting Irom that oI the inIinitive (you can
regret only what was or has been done).
I regret @A B<P> =<EG E@ @A B>?.
I remembered @A B<P> N>@ BEN AHD>.
She claims @A B<P> =>>H BEN L>TA?>.
b) The verbs @A <@@>NJ@, @A >IJ>D@, @A BAJ>, @A EH@>HG, @A N><H, @A JF<H, @A @?U, when Iollowed by the perIect
inIinitive imply that the action oI the inIinitive was not IulIilled.
I hoped @A B<P> TAMHG BEN <@ BAN>.
He intended @A B<P> ?><DB>G @B> DA<=@ FAHC L>TA?>.
In this case the Iinite verb can be used only in the past tense.
Note:
As most oI these verbs (item la) and b)) denote an attitude to the action expressed by the inIinitive, the verb
inIinitive may be treated syntactically as one whole. Thus the succession oI two verbs (... FEO> @A B>FJ ..., ...
>IJ>D@ @A <??EP> ..., ... JF<H @A GA ...) allow oI two modes oI analysis, as a verb its object or as a compound
verbal predicate with the Iirst element expressing attitude.
Besides the above-mentioned verbs there are also some rather common phrases used with the inIinitive-
object. They are the phrases D<H <TTA?G, D<H L><? in the negative or interrogative and such phrases as @A N<O>
=M?>, @A N<O> MJ AH>_= NEHG, @A @<O> D<?>, @A @<O> @B> @?AMLF>.
Can you aIIord @A LMU E@ UAM?=>FT
I cant bear @A B><? AT E@ <C<EH.
At last he made up his mind @A <H=;>? cELUF_= F>@@>?.
2. erbs that take two objects, the Iirst oI which is a noun or a pronoun and the second an inIinitive. These
are @B> P>?L= AT EHGMD>N>H@V they all have the general meaning @A J>?=M<G>, @A D<M=> @A GA =AN>@BEHC.
to advise
to allow
to ask
to beg
to cause
to command
to direct
to encourage
to Iorbid
to Iorce
to have
to impel
to induce
to instruct
to invite
to leave
to let
to make
to permit
to persuade
to recommend
to request
to require
to tell
81
to compel to implore to order to urge
Tell him @A BM??U.
He asked her @A O>>J <H >U> AH @B> DFADO.
What would you recommend me @A GA
With all these verbs, except @A B<P>, @A F>@ and @A N<O>, a to- inIinitive is used. AIter the verbs @A B<P>, @A
F>@ and @A N<O> it loses the particle to.
Shell B<P> you GA it at once.
Dont F>@ it LA@B>? you.
Soon she N<G> me =>> where I was wrong.
The object, which is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case, denotes a person (or,
very seldom, a non-person) who is to perIorm the required action expressed by the inIinitive.
The verb @A B>FJ can be used either with one or with two objects:
She helped @A J<DO.
She helped N> @A N<O> MJ NU NEHG.
In either case a to- inIinitive or a bare inIinitive can be used.
And she actually B>FJ>G TEHG it.
IFF B>FJ you GA it.
With some verbs the Iunction oI object may be perIormed by a conjunctive inIinitive phrase. These verbs are
very Iew in number and Iall into two groups:
a) erbs that can take either an inIinitive or a conjunctive inIinitive phrase as their object. These are: @A
<GPE=>, @A G>DEG>, @A TA?C>@, @A F><?H, @A ?>N>NL>?.
They advised me to go on.
He decided to begin at once.
I Iorgot to tell you about the last incident.
He advised me at last how to settle the matter.
He could not decide whether to come at all.
I Iorgot how to do it.
b) erbs that can take only a conjunctive inIinitive phrase as their object: @A OHA;, @A =BA;, @A ;AHG>?.
She did not know ;B<@ @A =<U.
I know well enough ;B>?> @A =@AJ.
Will you show me BA; @A GA E@g
The inIinitive can have the Iunction oI object aIter certain adjectives (adjectivized participles), mostly used
as predicatives. Semantically and structurally these Iall into two groups.
1. The most Irequent adjectives oI the Iirst group are: <HIEAM=, <J@, LAMHG, D<?>TMF, DM?EAM=, G>@>?NEH>G,
GETTEDMF@, ><C>?, ><=U, >H@E@F>G, TE@, T?>>, B<?G, ENJ<@E>H@, EHDFEH>G, EH@>?>=@>G, O>>H, FE<LF>, JA;>?F>==, J?>J<?>G,
iMEDO, ?><GU, ?>FMD@<H@, ?>=AFP>G, =>@, =FA;, ;A?@BU.
Shes determined @A CA AH.
I am powerless @A GA <HU@BEHC.
Hes Iully prepared @A N>>@ @B>N any time they choose.
I was so impatient @A =@<?@.
When used with these adjectives, the inIinitive denotes actions either simultaneous with, or posterior to, the
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states expressed by the predicates, and cannot thereIore be used in perIect Iorms.
2. The most Irequent adjectives (adjectivized participles) oI the second group are: <NM=>G, <HHAU>G,
<=@AHE=B>G, G>FECB@>G, GE=@?>==>G, T?ECB@>H>G, TM?EAM=, CF<G, C?<@>TMF, B<JJU, BA??ETE>G, JF><=>G, J?AMG, JMSSF>G,
?>FE>P>G, =D<?>G, =A??U, =M?J?E=>G, @B<HOTMF, @AMDB>G.
He was amused @A B><? E@.
Im delighted @A =>> UAM <C<EH, darling.
She is proud @A B<P> C?A;H =MDB < =AH.
Mother was furious @A =>> @B>N @AC>@B>? <C<EH.
These adjectives and participles express certain psychological states which are the result oI the action
expressed by the inIinitive object, so the latter thereIore always denotes an action slightly preceding the state
expressed by the predicate, and can have both non-perIect and perIect Iorms. The non-perIect Iorms are used to
express immediate priority, that is, an action immediately preceding the state:
Im CF<G @A =>> UAM (I see you and that is why I am glad).
The perIect Iorms are used to show that there is a gap between the action and the resulting state.
I am glad @A B<P> =>>H UAM (I saw/have seen you and that is why I am glad).
3. AIter certain statives denoting psychological states, such as <T?<EG, <CAC, <=B<N>G1
He was ashamed @A @>FF M= @BE=.
Id be aIraid @A =@>J EH=EG> < BAM=> that Rupert had designed all by himselI.
In such cases the inIinitive points out the source oI the state expressed by the stative.
The infinitive as attribute
108. The English inIinitive Iunctioning as an attribute is Iar more Irequent than the Russian inIinitive. This
is because in Russian the inIinitive attribute can combine with abstract nouns only, while in English it is used
with a much wider range oI words. In this Iunction the inIinitive always denotes a not yet IulIilled action, which
is regarded as G>=E?<LF>, JA==ELF>, <GPE=<LF>, H>D>==<?U, etc. The modal meaning oI the inIinitive attribute is
generally rendered in Russian by modal verbs or expressions, as is shown by the translations below.
The inIinitive attribute can modiIy:
1 . n o u n s , b o t h a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e :
Because oI his quarrel with his Iamily he was in no JA=E@EAH @A C>@ the news. (... e or nonyut
snec)
The best @BEHC @A GA would be to go back. (coe nyumee, uo oxo tno cent ...)
e is just @B> N<H @A GA E@. (o s o uenone, oot oxe/onxe +o cent)
I suppose there was HA@BEHC @A B> GAH>, LM@ G>J<?@. (uero entsx tno cent, ocnnoct onto
yntcx)
2 . i n d e I i n i t e , n e g a t i v e a n d u n i v e r s a l p r o n o u n s i n - L A G U , - @ B E H C , -
A H > ( o n e ) :
Have you <HU@BEHC @A ATT>? N> (t oxee e uo-yt nenoxt)
e was =AN>AH> @A <GNE?>. (... o, e oxo nocxmtcx)
e had >P>?U@BEHC @A N<O> BE= FET> < B<JJU AH>. (...uo orno cent ero cucnnt)
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Occasionally the inIinitive can have the Iunction oI an attribute to personal negative and reIlexive pronouns
or pronominal adverbs:
Ive only UAM @A FAAO @A.
Oh, but you have only UAM?=>FT @A J?<E=>.
Now I had HALAGU @A =>>, HA;B>?> @A CA.
3 . s u b s t a n t i v i z e d A ? G E H < F H M N > ? < F = (especially TE?=@),
= M L = @ < H @ E P E S > G < G Q > D @ E P > = (H>I@ and F<=@).
Jack was @B> TE?=@ @A DAN>.
She was @B> F<=@ @A ?><DB the hall.
4 . s u b s t a n t i v i z e d q u a n t i t a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s NMDB, FE@@F>, (HA$ NA?>,
(HA$ F>==, FE@@F> NA?>, >HAMCB1
A man in your position has =A NMDB @A FA=>.
Ive HA NA?> @A <GG.
5 . t h e n o u n - s u b s t i t u t e A H > :
I am not @B> AH> @A ?MH <LAM@ <HG GE=DM== NU <TT<E?= ;E@B A@B>? J>AJF>. (... o oxe ...)
109. The most common Iorm oI the inIinitive Iunctioning as an attribute is the non-perIect common aspect
active voice Iorm and non-perIect common aspect passive Iorm.
When perIorming the Iunction oI an attribute a to- inIinitive is always used. II there are two or more
homogeneous attributes the second (and the Iollowing) retain to iI joined asyndetically, but drop it iI joined by
conjunctions.
There was, however, my little Jean @A FAAO <T@>?, @A @<O> D<?> AT.
Did he give you any small parcel @A L?EHC L<DO <HG G>FEP>? @A <HUAH> EH qHCF<HGg
110. The inIinitive as an attribute may be introduced by conjunctive pronouns or adverbs:
He had sought in vain Ior inspiration BA; to awaken love.
I had now an idea ;B<@ to do.
The conjunctive inIinitive phrase may be preceded by a preposition:
They had no knowledge AT how to live on.
Hes got no inIormation <LAM@ when to start.
The infinitive as adverbial modifier
111. The inIinitive can be used as an adverbial modiIier oI: JM?JA=>, =ML=>iM>H@ >P>H@=, DAH=>iM>HD>,
<@@>HG<H@ DE?DMN=@<HD>=, DANJ<?E=AH, DAHGE@EAH, >ID>J@EAH, @EN>, D<M=>, A? NA@EP<@EAH. In all these Iunctions but
that oI the adverbial modiIier oI exception, a to- inIinitive is used.
1. The adverbial modifier of purpose. In this Iunction the action denoted by the inIinitive is always a
hypothetical one Iollowing the action denoted by the predicate. As such it can be expressed only by non-perIect
common aspect Iorms oI the inIinitive (both active and passive):
I think I will go to England @A ENJ?AP> NU qHCFE=B.
We stood in the rain and were taken out one at a time @A L> iM>=@EAH>G <HG =BA@.
84
In this Iunction a to- inIinitive is used, but iI there are two or more homogeneous adverbials oI purpose
joined by <HG, usually, though not necessarily, only the Iirst oI them has the particle to. Compare the Iollowing
sentences:
Mary, looking pale and worried, leIt him @A CA GA;H to the kitchen <HG =@<?@ breakIast.
Then I went upstairs @A =<U BA;-GA-UAM-GA to Emily, <HG into the kitchen @A =B<O> B<HG= with Mary-Ann,
<HG out into the garden @A =>> the gardener.
The position oI the inIinitive used as an adverbial modiIier oI purpose varies. It usually stands aIter the
predicate, though the position at the beginning oI the sentence is also possible:
YA ADDMJU B>? NEHG, however, she took the job given her.
In both positions the inIinitive may be preceded by the conjunction EH A?G>?, =A <= or by limiting particle
(just, only):
I keep a diary EH A?G>? @A >H@>? @B> ;AHG>?TMF =>D?>@= AT NU FET>.
WH A?G>? @A =>> B>? L>@@>? he had to turn his head.
Im here QM=@ @A =>> UAM ATT.
He came down AHFU @A =<U CAAG-HECB@ @A UAM.
2. The adverbial modifier of subsequent events. In this Iunction the inIinitive denotes an action that
Iollows the one denoted by the predicate. The position oI this adverbial in the sentence is Iixed - it always
Iollows the predicate. The only Iorms oI the inIinitive occurring in this Iunction are those oI the non-perIect
common aspect, usually active.
He arrived at three oclock @A B><? @B<@ lF>M? B<G CAH> AM@ ;E@B @B> D<? <@ @>H. (He arrived and heard ...)
I came down one morning @A TEHG X<J< >IDE@>G @A @B> JAEH@ AT <JAJF>IU. (I came down and Iound ...)
He hurried to the house only @A TEHG E@ >NJ@U. (He hurried and Iound ...)
In this Iunction the inIinitive may be preceded by the particles AHFU, N>?>FU, =ENJFU, which change the
meaning oI the whole sentence: the action denoted by the inIinitive preceded by these particles makes the
action denoted by the predicate pointless or irrelevant.
She returned to ondon in a Iew days, AHFU @A F><?H @B<@ k>== had gone to the continent. (She returned ...,
and learnt...)
3. As an adverbial modifier of consequence the inIinitive depends on a) adjectives and adverbs modiIied
by @AA; b) adjectives, adverbs and nouns modiIied by >HAMCB; c) adjectives modiIied by =A, and nouns modiIied
by =MDB. In the last two cases the inIinitive is introduced by <=1
a) e was @AA @E?>G @A <?CM>. ( He was so Iired, that is why he couldnt arque)
The story was @AA EH@>?>=@EHC @A L> J<==>G AP>? FECB@FU.
He had gone @AA T<? @A G?<; L<DO.
b) Hes AFG >HAMCB @A F><?H @BE=. ( He is old enough, so he can learn this)
I thought I liked etty ;>FF >HAMCB @A N<??U B>?. (1 liked etty, so I wanted to marry her)
He was TAAF >HAMCB @A >HQAU @B> C<N>.
He had seen >HAMCB LF<=@>G, LM?H>G AM@ @<HO= @A B<P> HA EFFM=EAH=.
c) She was =A OEHG <= @A <DD>J@ NU J?AJA=<F. ( She was so kind, thereIore she accepted my proposal)
Do you think I am =MDB < TAAF <= @A F>@ E@ AM@ AT NU B<HG=
In all these cases the inIinitive denotes an action, which would become or became possible (enough, so,
such) or impossible (too) due to the degree oI quality or quantity expressed in the words it reIers to.
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The position oI the inIinitive is Iixed, it always Iollows the words it modiIies. The Iorm oI the inIinitive is
non-perIect, common aspect, usually active. .
4. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances shows what other actions take
place at the same time as the action oI the predicate.
He leIt the house never to come back.
I am sorry to have raised your expectations only to disappoint you.
The inIinitive thus used always Iollows the predicate verb it modiIies. As to its Iorm, it is a non-perIect,
common aspect, active voice Iorm.
5. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of comparison reIers to predicate groups including
adjectives or adverbs in the comparative degree. The inIinitive itselI is introduced by @B<H:
To give is more blessed @B<H @A ?>D>EP>.
Soon she realized, that it was much more pleasant to give @B<H @A L> CEP>H.
He knew better @B<H @A ?>FU AH B>?.
Although the inIinitive oI comparison is generally used with to, it may also occur without it:
I was more inclined to see her saIely married @B<H CA AH ;<@DBEHC AP>? B>?.
6. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of condition denotes an action which pre-conditions the
action expressed by the predicate.
YA FAAO <@ fAH@NA?>HDU you would imagine that he was an angel sent upon earth ... (II you looked ...,
you would imagine ...)
YA @AMDB E@ one would believe that it was the best oI Iurs. (II one touched it, one would believe ...)
Ill thank you to @<O> UAM? B<HG= ATT N>. (Ill thank you, iI you take ...)
The position oI this inIinitive as can be seen Irom the examples above varies; it may either precede or Iollow
the predicate verb it modiIies. The only possible Iorm oI the inIinitive is the non-perIect, common aspect, active
voice Iorm.
7. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of exception denotes the action which is the only possible
one in the situation. The inIinitive is generally used without @A and is introduced by the prepositions LM@ and
>ID>J@. It is Iound in H>C<@EP> and EH@>??AC<@EP> sentences:
I had nothing to do LM@ ;<E@.
What could I do LM@ =MLNE@g
There is nothing to do >ID>J@ @M?H L<DO.
8. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of time denotes an action which marks out the moment oI
time up to which or at which the action oI the predicate is perIormed. ery oIten it has a secondary meaning oI
condition.
His Iather lived @A L> HEH>@U. (lived till he was ...)
I may not live @A ?><DB @B> <E?=@?EJ @BE= <T@>?HAAH. (may not live till I reach ...)
Go away I shudder @A =>> UAM B>?>. (I shudder when I see ..., iI I see ...)
The position oI the inIinitive is Iixed, it always Iollows the predicate it modiIies. Its Iorm is non-perIect,
common aspect, active.
9. The inIinitive used as an adverbial modifier of cause or motivation reIers to a compound nominal
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predicate with the predicative expressed by an adjective, a noun, or a prepositional phrase denoting someone's
qualities (intellectual qualities, morals, etc.)
The inIinitive denotes an action which serves as a cause or a motivation on which this or that charaterisation
is based.
What an idiot I was HA@ @A B<P> @BAMCB@ AT E@ L>TA?>R (I had not thought oI it beIore, thereIore I can justly
be called an idiot.)
She was silly @A DAN> B>?>. (She came here, and it was silly oI her.)
Theyre out oI their mind @A B<P> =>H@ UAM B>?>R (They have sent you here, so one can think them out oI
their minds.)
The inIinitive in this Iunction Iollows the predicate. All the Iorms oI the inIinitive are possible.
The infinitive as parenthesis
112. The inIinitive used as parenthesis is usually part oI a collocation, as in: @A L>CEH ;E@B, @A L> (iME@>$
T?<HO, @A L> =M?>, @A N<O> N<@@>?= ;A?=>, @A JM@ E@ NEFGFU, @A =<U @B> F><=@, @A @>FF @B> @?M@B, H>>GF>== @A =<U,
=@?<HC> @A =<U, =A @A =J><O, @A N<O> < FAHC =@A?U =BA?@, @A D?A;H <FF, @A L> NA?> J?>DE=>, @A =<U HA@BEHC AT ..., etc.
YA L>CEH ;E@B, you have been lying to me all the time.
YA L> iME@> T?<HO, I dont like him at all.
He was, =@?<HC> @A =<U, just an ordinary little chap.
Predicative constructions with the infinitive
113. The inIinitive is used in predicative constructions oI three types: the objective with the infinitive
construction, and the so-called for-to-infinitive construction. Traditionally they are called the complex
subject, the complex object, and the Ior-to-inIinitive complex.
It is possible, however, to distinguish one more inIinitive construction generally called the subjective inIinitive construction or
the nominative inIinitive construction. (See 123 on the Subjective predicative construction).
In all these constructions the inIinitive denotes an action ascribed to the person or non-person, though
grammatically this relationship is not expressed in Iorm: the doer oI the action may be represented by < HAMH EH
@B> DANNAH D<=>, < J?AHAMH EH @B> ALQ>D@EP> D<=> (I saw him D?A== the street, it is for him @A G>DEG> this) and
the verbal element which is HA@ EH < TEHE@> TA?N. Still, due to their semantics and because oI the attached position
the nominal and the verbal elements are understood as Iorming a complex with subject-predicate relationship.
The for-to-infinitive construction
114. In the Ior-to-inIinitive construction the inIinitive (usually an inIinitive phrase) is in predicate relation
to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case introduced by the preposition TA?. The
construction is used where the doer oI the action (or the bearer oI the state), expressed by the inIinitive, is
diIIerent Irom that oI the Iinite verb (the predicate):
The doer of the action of the finite verb and of the
infinitive is the same:
The doer of the action of the finite verb and of the
infinitive is not the same:
He longed to see the truth. -
ouet xoen yst nny.
All I want is to get out oI here Ior good. -
cneoe, uero x xouy, - +o ncer yext
ocm.
He longed Ior me to see the truth.-
ouet xoen, uot x ysn nny.
All I want is Ior 1ack to get out oI here Ior good. -
cneoe, uero x xouy, - +o uot xe
ncer yexn ocm.
The Ior-to-inIinitive construction has the same Iunctions as a single inIinitive, though with some restrictions.
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1. Subject. The Ior-to-inIinitive construction in the Iunction oI the subject usually occurs in sentences with
the introductory it, though it is occasionally placed at the head oI the sentence:
It was diIIicult TA? BEN @A GA <HU@BEHC >F=>.
lA? N> @A B><? BEN was disturbing.
2. Predicative. In this Iunction the construction is mostly used with the link verb to be:
The best thing is TA? UAM @A GA E@ HA;.
3. Object. The construction Iunctions as object oI both verbs and adjectives:
a) She watched TA? @B> GAA? @A AJ>H.
I dont think I should care TA? E@ @A L> OHA;H.
b) His Iamily were anxious TA? BEN @A GA =AN>@BEHC.
Im so glad TA? UAM @A B<P> DAN> <@ F<=@.
4. Attribute:
There was no need TA? BEN @A L> >DAHANED<F.
5. Adverbial modifier of purpose and consequence:
She paused TA? BEN @A DAH@EHM>.
The wall was too high TA? <HU@BEHC @A L> PE=ELF>.
He had said enough TA? N> @A C>@ <F<?N>G.
In all its uses this construction is generally rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause.
The objective with the infinitive construction
115. In the objective with the inIinitive construction the inIinitive (usually an inIinitive phrase) is in
predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case (hence the name oI the
construction). The whole construction Iorms a complex object oI some verbs. It is rendered in Russian by an
object clause.
The objective with the inIinitive construction is used in the Iollowing cases:
1. After verbs of sense perception (@A =>>, @A B><?, @A T>>F, @A ;<@DB, @A AL=>?P>, @A HA@ED> and some others).
In this case t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e I o r m o I t h e i n I i n i t i v e i s t h e n o n - p e r I e c t
c o m m o n a s p e c t a c t i v e v o i c e I o r m , used ;E@BAM@ the particle to:
No one B<= ever B><?G B>? D?U.
I paused a moment and ;<@DB>G @B> @?<N-D<? =@AJ.
The verb @A FE=@>H @A, though not a verb oI sense perception, is used in the same way, with a bare inIinitive:
He ;<= FE=@>HEHC attentively @A @B> DB<E?N<H =J><O.
II the verb @A =>> or @A HA@ED> is used with the meaning @A ?><FES>, or the verb @A B><? with the meaning @A
F><?H, the objective with the inIinitive construction cannot be used. Here only subordinate object clause is
possible:
I =<; @B<@ B> GEG HA@ OHA; <HU@BEHC. ($, uo o uero e se.
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I B><? UAM B<P> G?AJJ>G @B> EG>< AT F><PEHC BEN.
e only had time @A HA@ED> @B<@ @B> CE?F ;<= MHM=M<FFU
J?>@@U.
'v ($, uo t osnct o tcn
y o ero.
onto ycnen set (ocost), uo enym
tn eotuo xoometo.
2. After verbs of mental activity (@A @BEHO, @A L>FE>P>, @A DAH=EG>?, @A >IJ>D@, @A MHG>?=@<HG, @A =MJJA=>, @A
TEHG and some others). Here the inIinitive is used in any Iorm, though the non-perIect Iorms are the most
Irequent (always with the particle @A).
I know BEN @A L> <H BAH>=@ N<H.
She believed BEN @A B<P> F>T@ TA? c<H l?<HDE=DA.
I believed B>? @A L> OHE@@EHC EH @B> H>I@ ?AAN.
I should expect NU G>PA@>G T?E>HG @A L> G>PA@>G @A N>.
3. After verbs of emotion (@A FEO>, @A FAP>, @A B<@>, @A GE=FEO> and some others). Here non-perIect, common
aspect Iorms oI the to- inIinitive are the most usual.
I always liked BEN @A =EHC.
She hated B>? =AH @A L> =>J<?<@>G T?AN B>?.
Id love UAM @A DAN> ;E@B N> @AA.
I hated BEN @A B<P> L>>H =>H@ <;<U.
4. After verbs of wish and intention (@A ;<H@, @A ;E=B, @A G>=E?>, @A EH@>HG, @A N><H and some others). AIter
these verbs only non-perIect common aspect Iorms oI the inIinitive with the particle to are used:
He only wished UAM @A L> H><? BEN.
I dont want BEN @A L> JMHE=B>G.
5. After verbs of declaring (@A G>DF<?>, @A J?AHAMHD>):
I declare UAM @A L> AM@ AT UAM? NEHG.
He reported @B> LA<@ @A B<P> L>>H =>>H HA@ T<? <;<U.
6. After verbs of inducement (@A B<P>, @A N<O>, @A C>@, @A A?G>?, @A @>FF, @A <=O, etc.) oI which the Iirst two
take a bare inIinitive. In the construction some oI them acquire a diIIerent meaning: N<O> - scnt, C>@ -
otcx, B<P> - scnt (cst, uot ...)
I cant get BEN @A GA E@ J?AJ>?FU.
She made N> AL>U B>?.
7. The objective with the inIinitive construction also occurs aIter certain verbs requiring a prepositional
object, Ior example @A DAMH@ (MJ$AH, @A ?>FU (MJ$ AH, @A FAAO TA?, @A FE=@>H @A, @A ;<E@ TA?1
I rely on UAM @A DAN> EH @EN>.
Cant I count upon UAM @A B>FJ N>
The gerund
116. The gerund is a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb with some noun Ieatures. It is Iormed by adding the suIIix
-EHC to the stem oI the verb.
The grammatical meaning oI the gerund is that oI a process. Thus to some extent it competes with nouns oI
verbal origin, e.g. @?<H=F<@EHC -@?<H=F<@EAH, G>=D?ELEHC - G>=D?EJ@EAH, <??EPEHC - <??EP<F, J>?D>EPEHC - J>?D>J@EAH,
B>FJEHC - B>FJ. Nouns, however, tend to convey the Iact or the result oI an action, which in certain
circumstances may be something material, whereas gerunds convey the idea oI action or process itselI.
89
Show me your @?<H=F<@EAH: it is neatly done, and there, are no mistakes in it.
ou will enrich your vocabulary by @?<H=F<@EHC Irom English into Russian and vice versa.
II the meaning oI the gerund is nearly the same as that oI the noun, the Iormer emphasizes the process, and
the latter - the Iact:
Thank you Ior B>FJEHC me.
Thank you Ior your B>FJ.
It is natural that the verbal character oI the gerund is more prominent in transitive verbs, owing to their
combinability and their passive Iorms.
Morphologically the verbal character oI the gerund is maniIested in the categories oI voice and perIect (see
table ) and syntactically in its combinability. Thus the gerund may combine: a) with a noun or pronoun as
direct, indirect or prepositional object, depending on the verb it is Iormed Irom; b) with an adjective or a noun
as a predicative; c) with an inIinitive.
Gerunds can be modiIied by adverbs and prepositional phrases Iunctioning as adverbial modiIiers.
Gerund Finite verb
I remember your @>FFEHC me the story Iive years ago.
Its no use <?CMEHC about triIles.
John dreams oI L>DANEHC a sailor.
There is some chance oI his L>EHC <LF> to join us.
We enjoyed ;<FOEHC =FA;FU <FAHC @B> =EF>H@ =@?>>@=.
ou @AFG me the story Iive years ago.
I never <?CM> about triIles.
John L>D<N> a sailor.
We hope he ;EFF L> <LF> to join us.
We ;<FO>G slowly along the silent streets.
The nominal character oI the gerund reveals itselI syntactically, mainly in its syntactical Iunction, partly in
its combinability.
ike a noun, it can Iunction as subject, object, or predicative.
c>>EHC UAM is always a pleasure. (subject)
I remember =>>EHC UAM =AN>;B>?>. (object)
I am thinking AT =>>EHC @B> TEFN <C<EH. (prepositional object)
Peters hobby is =>>EHC <FF H>; TEFN=. (predicative)
When it is an attribute or an adverbial modiIier, a gerund, like a noun is preceded by a preposition.
There is a chance AT D<@DBEHC @B> @?<EH.
Dont Iorget to call me up L>TA?> F><PEHC mAHGAH.
I reached my goal EH =JE@> AT @B>?> L>EHC >P>?U ?><=AH <C<EH=@ E@.
The Iact that the gerund can associate with a preposition is a sure sign oI noun Ieatures.
ike a noun, but unlike the other non-Iinites, it can combine with a possessive pronoun and a noun in the
genitive case denoting the doer oI the action expressed by the gerund.
Excuse NU EH@>??MJ@EHC UAM.
I insist on tABH_= =@<UEHC ;E@B M=.
It combines with the negative pronoun no in the idiomatic construction oI the type: YB>?> E= HA C>@@EHC AM@ AT
E@.
90
The grammatical categories of the gerund
117. As already stated the gerund has only two grammatical categories, those oI voice and perIect.
Table
The Grammatical Categories of the Gerund
oice
PerIect
Active Passive
Non-PerIect running
taking
-
being taken
PerIect having ran
having taken
-
having been taken
The category of perfect
118. The category oI perIect Iinds its expression, as with other verb Iorms, in the contrast oI non-perIect
(indeIinite) and perIect Iorms.
The non-perIect gerund denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the Iinite verb.
Students improve their pronunciation
John improved his pronunciation
ou will improve your pronunciation
LU FE=@>HEHC to tape recordings.
The perIect gerund denotes an action prior to the action denoted by the Iinite verb.
I regret
I regretted
I will always regret
B<PEHC M@@>?>G these words.
The perIect gerund is invariable in indicating priority, whereas the meaning oI the non-perIect gerund is
vaguer and more Ilexible and may easily be modiIied by the context. Thus according to the context the action
denoted by the non-perIect gerund may precede or Iollow the action denoted by the Iinite verb. The non-perIect
gerund may denote a prior action thanks to the lexical meaning oI the verb or the preposition suggesting
priority, so the non-perIect gerund is generally used <T@>? P>?L= AT ?>DAFF>D@EAH, C?<@E@MG>, LF<N>, ?>J?A<DB,
JMHE=BN>H@ <HG ?>;<?G.
I shall never Iorget @<OEHC @BE= >I<N.
I remember @<FOEHC @A BEN AHD>.
Thank you TA? B>FJEHC N>.
The non-perIect gerund is to be Iound in gerundial phrases introduced by the prepositions AH and <T@>?. The
preposition on suggests immediate priority and an instantaneous action.
wH ?><DBEHC @B> >HG AT @B> =@?>>@ we turned towards the river.
Tom, <T@>? ?>TF>D@EHC < FE@@F>, gave a long sigh.
The lexical meaning oI the above-mentioned verbs and prepositions makes the use oI the perIect Iorm
redundant. It is used, however, when the priority is emphasized, as in Iollowing examples:
And all oI a sudden David remembered B<PEHC B><?G the name beIore.
He came back <T@>? B<PEHC L>>H <;<U Ior about ten years.
91
The non-perIect gerund expresses a succeeding action aIter verbs, adjectives and prepositions implying
reIerence to a Iuture event (such as @A EH@>HG, @A EH=E=@, @A ALQ>D@, @A =MCC>=@, @A FAAO TA?;<?G @A) and aIter the
preposition L>TA?>1
I insist on UAM? =@<UEHC ;E@B M=.
We are looking Iorward to PE=E@EHC H>; JF<D>=.
Ann suggested CAEHC @A @B> DEH>N<.
Im not keen on C>@@EHC NU=>FT EH@A @?AMLF>.
We met once more L>TA?> J<?@EHC.
The same Iorm occurs aIter nouns suggesting Iuturity such as JF<H, EH@>H@EAH, BAJ>, J?A=J>D@1
There is some hope oI D<@DBEHC @B> F<=@ @?<EH.
The category of voice
119. The gerund oI transitive verbs possesses voice distinctions. ike other verb Iorms, the active gerund
points out that the action is directed Irom the subject (whether expressed or implied), whereas the passive
gerund indicates that the action is directed towards the subject.
Active gerund Passive gerund
I hate EH@>??MJ@EHC J>AJF>.
I am not used @A @<FOEHC in that way.
wH @>FFEHC me the time, he turned away.
He entered ;E@BAM@ B<PEHC OHADO>G at the door.
- I hate L>EHC EH@>??MJ@>G.
- I am not used @A L>EHC @<FO>G @A in that way.
- On L>EHC @AFG some impossible hour, he turned away.
- The door opened ;E@BAM@ B<PEHC L>>H OHADO>G AH.
The perIect passive gerund is very rarely used.
There are some verbs (@A H>>G, @A ;<H@, @A ?>iME?>, @A G>=>?P>$ and the adjective worth which are Iollowed by
an active gerund with passive meaning.
our hair H>>G= DM@@EHC.
This house ;<H@= J<EH@EHC.
our suggestion E= ;A?@B @<FOEHC AP>?.
Syntactical Functions of the Gerund
120. The gerund can perIorm any syntactical Iunction typical oI a noun, although in each case it has
peculiarities oI its own. It may Iunction (a) alone, without modiIiers, or (b) as the headword oI a gerundial
phrase, or (c) as part oI a gerundial predicative construction. Since the Iunctions oI gerundial constructions are
identical with those oI single gerunds or gerundial phrases, we shall treat them together. The gerundial
constructions are usually translated by clauses.
a) I like G?EPEHC.
b) I like JF<UEHC @B> JE<HA.
c) I like tABH_= (BE=$ JF<UEHC @B> JE<HA.
A gerundial phrase consists oI a gerund as headword and one or more words depending on it.
A gerundial construction contains some nominal element denoting the doer oI the action expressed by the
gerund and the gerund itselI with or without some other words depending on it. The nominal element can be a
noun in the genitive case or a possessive pronoun (iI it denotes a living being), or a noun in the common case (iI
it does not denote a living being).
I remember tABH_= @>FFEHC N> @B<@ =@A?U AHD>.
I remember @B> ;><@B>? L>EHC >I@?>N>FU TEH> @B<@ =MNN>?.
92
We are absolutely against C?A;H-MJ DBEFG?>H L>EHC @?><@>G <= L<LE>=.
There is a growing tendency, especially in inIormal speech, to use the pronoun in the objective case and a
noun in the common case to denote the doer oI the action expressed by the gerund with reIerence to living
beings too.
They were all in Iavour oI YANNU JF<UEHC @B> N<EH J<?@.
The gerund as subject
121. As a rule the gerund as subject stands in Iront position.
tABH(b=$ DANEHC @ANA??A; will make all the diIIerence.
r?A;EHC ?A=>=, DAFF>D@EHC JA=@<C> =@<NJ= A? AFG =;A?G= are hobbies.
The subject stands in postposition in sentences opening with an introductory E@, which happens when the
meaning oI the subject is accentuated and the predicate is a phrase such as @A L> (AT$ HA M=> (HA CAAG, M=>F>==$,
@A N<O> <FF @B> (HA$ GETT>?>HD>.

II you want me to help, its no good L><@EHC <LAM@ @B> LM=B.
It will make no diIIerence UAM? L>EHC iME>@.
In American English the pattern YB>?> E= HA M=> i& GAEHC E@ is preIerable to W@ E= HA M=> GAEHC E@. In sentences
with the introductory @B>?> the gerund is preceded by the negative pronoun HA. Such sentences are usually
emphatic.
Well, theres HA <PAEGEHC him now.
There is HA <DDAMH@EHC Ior his strange behaviour.
The gerund as part of the predicate
The gerund is used in compound predicates oI both types - verbal and nominal.
.he )er$&d as ,ar! o' !he om,o$&d &omi&a% ,redia!e (,redia!ive*
122. As predicative the gerund expresses either characterization or identity. In the latter case the predicate
reveals the meaning oI the subject.
Johns hobby is DAFF>D@EHC <FF =A?@= AT LMC= <HG LM@@>?TFE>=.
.he )er$&d as ,ar! o' !he om,o$&d verba% ,redia!e
123. In combination with phasal verbs the gerund Iorms a compound verbal phasal predicate. The Iinite
phasal verb denotes a phase oI the action expressed by the gerund. The most common phasal verbs Iollowed by
the gerund are: @A L>CEHx,x @A LM?=@ AM@, @A =@<?@x, @A D><=>, @A DAH@EHM>x, @A CEP> MJ, @A CA AH, @A TEHE=B, @A O>>J
AH, @A F><P> ATT, @A =@AJ.
The verbs marked by an asterisk may also be Iollowed by the inIinitive.
Again you =@<?@ <?CMEHC.
On hearing the joke everybody LM?=@ AM@ F<MCBEHC.
They O>J@ AH <?CMEHC.
our health will improve as soon as you CEP> MJ =NAOEHC.
This is the only Iunction oI the gerund that is not characteristic oI the noun, Ior it is caused by the verbal
character oI the gerund.
93
A gerundial predicative construction cannot Iorm part oI a compound verbal predicate.
The gerund as object
124. The gerund can be used as a direct or a prepositional object. As a direct object it Iollows a number oI
monotransitive verbs, some oI which take only the gerund, while others may be Iollowed either by the gerund
or by the inIinitive. The gerund is also used aIter the adjective ;A?@B.
The following verbs are followed only by the gerund:
to admit
to appreciate
to avoid
to deny
to detest
to enjoy
to excuse
to Iancy
to imagine
to mention
to mind
to miss
to postpone
to practise
to put oII
to recollect
to resent
to resist
to risk
to suggest
to understand
cant help
cant stand
We all appreciate UAM? B>FJEHC M=.
Avoid M=EHC P>?U FAHC =>H@>HD>=.
ancy M= (AM?$ B<PEHC @A ;<FO < NEF> EH < ;EHG FEO> @BE=R
Im sorry that I missed =>>EHC UAMR
Do you mind `HH_= QAEHEHC M=g
Practise FE=@>HEHC @A @<J> ?>DA?GEHC=. Its good practice
I Iind the book worth ?><GEHC.
Verbs followed by either the gerund or the infinitive.
to have
to Iorget
to intend
to like (dislike)
to plan
to preIer
to remember
to regret
cant bear
cant aIIord
On the diIIerence between the use oI the gerund and the inIinitive with some verbs see 127.
I cant bear UAM? (UAM$ L>EHC =A =<G.
We cant aIIord CAEHC @A @B> DEH>N< too oIten now, we are revising Ior our exams.
I preIer ;<FOEHC BAN> (to taking a bus).
AIter verbs taking an object and an objective predicative the gerund, or rather a gerundial phrase or
construction, is preceded by an introductory object E@.
I Iind E@ strange AM? CAEHC ;E@BAM@ UAM.
I think E@ no use UAM? (UAM$ <?CMEHC <LAM@ @?ETF>=.
As a prepositional object the gerund may Iollow (a) monotransitive prepositional verbs, (b) ditransitive verbs
taking a direct and a prepositional object, (c) adjectives and statives and (d) participle II, generally when used
as a predicative.
a) to agree to count
94
to object
to look Iorward
to to depend
to rely
on
to hear
to learn
to think
oI
to persist
to consist
to succeed
in
We all agree @A UAM? AJ>HEHC @B> GE=DM==EAH.
Happiness consists largely EH B<PEHC @?M> T?E>HG=.
All depends AH @B> GAD@A? L>EHC =>H@ TA? EH @EN>.
They are thinking AT GAEHC =AN>@BEHC TA? BEN.
b) to accuse
to suspect
oI to thank
to blame
to praise
to punish
to sentence
Ior to prevent
to stop
Irom
to assist
to help in
to have no diIIiculty
in
to congratulate smb. on
Roy accused me AT GE=FEOEHC BEN.
What prevented you T?AN L>DANEHC < J?AT>==EAH<F <D@A?g
Who will help me EH B<HCEHC @B>=> JED@M?>=g
ou should blame yourselI TA? C>@@EHC =MDB < FA; N<?O.
I had no diIIiculty EH C>@@EHC @B> @EDO>@= TA? @B> DAHD>?@.
Note:
As is seen Irom above a prepositional TA?-ALQ>D@ has a shade oI causal meaning.
c) to be aIraid
to be aware
to be conscious
to be capable
to be Iond
oI
to be ignorant
to be proud
to be sure
oI
to be responsible Ior
to be sorry about
to be keen on
I dont have the T too loud, because Im aIraid AT GE=@M?LEHC @B> H>ECBLAM?=.
We are all proud AT AM? DE@ES>H_= C>@@EHC @B> TE?=@ J?ES>.
Ned will be responsible TA? <??<HCEHC @B> T<?>;>FF J<?@U.
Dont be sorry <LAM@ NE==EHC @B> TE?=@ =D>H>, it was rather dull.
d) to be accustomed
to be used
to to be (dis)pleased with (at)
to be surprised at
to be tired oI to be absorbed
to be engrossed
in
Im not used @A L>EHC @<FO>G @A EH @B<@ ?MG> ;<U.
95
The teacher was displeased ;E@B @B> LAU= L>EHC HAE=U.
We were surprised <@ UAM? F><PEHC @B> J<?@U.
A teacher shouldnt get tired AT >IJF<EHEHC @BEHC= @A BE= JMJEF=.
The gerund as attribute
125. When used as an attribute, the gerund modiIies nouns, mainly abstract nouns. It is always preceded by
a preposition, in the vast majority oI cases by AT, as in the Iollowing combinations: @B> <?@ AT @><DBEHC, @B> B<LE@
AT =J><OEHC, < D>?@<EH ;<U AT ;<FOEHC, < DB<HD> AT =>>EHC =AN>LAGU, < BAJ> AT C>@@EHC < @EDO>@, <H EG>< AT CAEHC
@A @B> DEH>N<, <H EH@>H@EAH AT F><?HEHC <HA@B>? TA?>ECH F<HCM<C>, etc.
There is a chance AT D<@DBEHC @B> @?<EH.
ProIessor N spoke about new methods AT @><DBEHC qHCFE=B @A TA?>ECH =@MG>H@=.
The idea AT BEN L>EHC EH X<?E= was not a pleasant one.
ucy had the impression AT L>EHC D<??E>G MJ=@<E?=.
Isnt there any hope AT UAM? L>EHC <LF> @A CA ;E@B M= <@ <FF
In some cases the choice oI the preposition depends on the requirements oI the modiIied noun, as in =M?J?E=>
<@, >IJ>?E>HD> EH, =OEFF EH, <JAFACU (>IDM=>$ TA?, ALQ>D@EAH @A.
The boy showed his skill EH LMEFGEHC NAG>F LA<@=.
Imagine his surprise <@ =>>EHC N>.
When a gerund modiIies a concrete noun it is preceded by the preposition TA? and the whole gerundial phrase
as attribute expresses the purpose or destination oI the thing mentioned.
The barometer is an instrument TA? N><=M?EHC @B> J?>==M?> AT @B> <E?.
A gerund as attribute may precede the noun it modiIies in phrases bordering on a compound noun. A
premodiIying attribute is used without a preposition, as in < G<HDEHC N<=@>?, < GEPEHC =ME@, < ?><GEHC F<NJ, <
=J>HGEHC B<LE@, < ;A?OEHC N>@BAG, < ;?E@EHC D<?>>?, < =;ENNEHC JAAF, < ;<FOEHC =@EDO, etc.
See 132.
The gerund as adverbial modifier
126. Owing to the variety oI prepositions which may precede the gerund in the Iunction oI an adverbial
modiIier, a gerund may have diIIerent meanings.
1) As an adverbial modifier of time it may characterize the main verb Irom the viewpoint oI priority,
simultaneity, or posteriority. It may also indicate the starting point oI the action. The prepositions used are AH,
<T@>?, EH, L>TA?>, =EHD>.
One day, AH ?>@M?HEHC @A BE= BA@>F, he Iound a note in his room.
At Iirst he couldnt understand. `T@>? @BEHOEHC E@ AP>? he hit upon the explanation.
And Ill wash the dishes and clean MJ L>TA?> DANEHC @A L>G.
I had had a lot oI thoughts =EHD> F><PEHC @B> ATTED>.
2) As an adverbial modifier of reason it is introduced by the prepositions L>D<M=> AT, TA?, T?AN, TA? T><? AT,
AH <DDAMH@ AT, @B?AMCB.
So you see I couldnt sleep TA? ;A??UEHC.
We lost ourselves @B?AMCB HA@ OHA;EHC @B> ;<U.
He (Jolyon) took care not to Iace the Iuture TA? T><? AT L?><OEHC MJ BE= MH@?AMLF>G N<HH>?.
3) As an adverbial modiIier oI manner the gerund generally occurs with the prepositions LU or ;E@BAM@.
96
ou will achieve a lot LU T>FFEHC @B> @?M@B.
She dressed ;E@BAM@ N<OEHC < =AMHG.
4) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances it requires the preposition ;E@BAM@.
They danced ;E@BAM@ =J><OEHC. ( They danced and didnt speak)
The door opened ;E@BAM@ B<PEHC L>>H OHADO>G AH.
5) As an adverbial modifier of concession it is preceded by the preposition EH =JE@> AT:
I dont ask any questions EH =JE@> AT @B>?> L>EHC < FA@ AT iM>=@EAH= @A <=O.
6) As an adverbial modifier of condition it takes the prepositions ;E@BAM@, LM@ TA?, EH D<=> AT.
ou wont enrich your vocabulary ;E@BAM@ N<OEHC M=> AT <H qHCFE=B GED@EAH<?U. ( iI you dont make use
oI...)
kM@ TA? N>>@EHC tABH, I shouldnt have become an English teacher.
7) As an adverbial modifier of purpose it is introduced by the preposition TA?, though this pattern is rather
rare.
They took her to the station TA? iM>=@EAHEHC.
The gerund and the infinitive compared
127. The gerund and the inIinitive have much in common since they both have some nominal and some
verbal Ieatures. However, in the inIinitive the verbal nature is more prominent, whereas in the gerund the
nominal one.
The basic diIIerence in their meaning is that the gerund is more general, whereas the inIinitive is more
speciIic and more bound to some particular occasion. When they combine with the same verb the diIIerence in
their meaning and use should be Iully realized.
1. With the verbs @A FEO>, @A B<@>, @A J?>T>? the gerund expresses a more general or a habitual action, the
inIinitive a speciIic single action:
I FEO> =;ENNEHC (I am Iond oI swimming).
I B<@> EH@>??MJ@EHC people.
They J?>T>? =@<UEHC indoors when the weather is cold.
I =BAMFGH_@ FEO> @A =;EN in this lake.
I B<@> @A EH@>??MJ@ you, but I have to.
IG J?>T>? @A =@<U at home in this cold weather.
2. With the verbs @A L>CEH and @A =@<?@ either Iorm may generally be used, but again the gerund is preIerable
when the action is more general.
She L>C<H =EHCEHC when a child. She went over to the piano and L>C<H @A =EHC.
No gerund is used:
a) when the Iinite verb is in the continuous Iorm.
He E= L>CEHHEHC @A =@MGU rench.
W@_= L>CEHHEHC @A ?<EH.
b) with the verbs @A MHG>?=@<HG and @A =>> (meaning @A MHG>?=@<HG).
He began @A MHG>?=@<HG how it was done.
97
c) when the subject denotes a thing, not a living being.
The doors began @A D?><O.
The clock began @A =@?EO>.
3. The verb @A ?>N>NL>? is Iollowed by a gerund when it means a prior action (@A ?>D<FF, @A O>>J EH AH>_=
N>NA?U =AN> J<=@ >P>H@), and by an inIinitive when it means a simultaneous action (the working oI ones
memory).
I ?>N>NL>?>G JA=@EHC the letters.
( non, uo onycn ncto).
I ?>N>NL>?>G @A JA=@ @B> letters.
I remembered and posted.
( e stn onyct ncto).
The same reIers to the verb @A TA?C>@.
I shall never TA?C>@ B><?EHC him sing
( or e syy o nen).
hAH_@ TA?C>@ @A JA=@ the letters
(e syt onyct nct).
I GEGH_@ TA?C>@ @A JA=@ the letters.
( e stn onyct nct).
4. The verb @A ?>C?>@ is Iollowed by the gerund to suggest priority, whereas the inIinitive suggests a
simultaneous action.
I ?>C?>@ HA@ B<PEHC ;A?O>G harder at the language as a boy.
( coxnem, uo e yun cneye xst n ecne).
I ?>C?>@ TAFFA;EHC his advice.
( coxnem, uo nocneonn ero coney).
I ?>C?>@ @A EHTA?N you.
( coxnee coomm n +o).
I ?>C?>@ @A B<P> @A EHTA?N you.
(oxnem, uo ntyxe coomt n +o).
5. a) aIter @A =@AJ the gerund is used when it suggests the end oI the action denoted by the gerund, whereas
the inIinitive is used as an adverbial oI purpose.
c@AJ <?CMEHCR
(eect cnot)
I =@AJJ>G @<FOEHC.
( sonun).
I =@AJJ>G @A @<FO to a Iriend oI mine
( oconnct, uot noronot c yro).
b) The phrasal verb @A CA AH with a gerund suggests the continuation oI the action, denoted by the gerund
and Iorms part oI a compound verbal predicate; an inIinitive points out a new stage in the sequence oI actions.
The teacher ;>H@ AH >IJF<EHEHC the use oI verbals
(continued).
(... noonxn oxcxt ...)
The teacher ;>H@ AH @A >IJF<EH he use oI the gerund
aIter some verbs.
(... oxcxn oo nnno s yr .... . e.
ynoenee reyx nocne stx rnronon).
6. The verb @A <FFA; is used with a gerund when it is not Iollowed by an indirect object.
They GAH_@ <FFA; =NAOEHC here.
(ect yt snemeo).
They <FFA;>G M= @A =NAO>.
( semn yt).
The gerund and the verbal noun compared
128. Although Iormed in the same way as the gerund, the verbal noun is another part oI speech and has no
verbal Ieatures at all. The Iollowing table shows the main diIIerences between the gerund and the verbal noun.
98
Table I
The characteristics of the gerund and the verbal noun
orms
Grammatical
characteristics
The gerund The verbal noun
M
o
r
oice and perIect being done, having done -
I
o
l
o
g
y
The plural Iorm - suIIerings, comings and goings
S
y
n
t
a
x
Direct object W FEO> GAEHC NA?HEHC >I>?DE=>=. -
OI-phrase and
adjectival attributes
- YB> GAEHC AT NA?HEHC
qI>?DE=>= was very good Ior me.
The ?>CMF<? doing oI morning exercises
Adverbs as a modiIier Doing morning exercises ?>CMF<?FU
will improve your health.
-
Articles - The doing oI morning exercises.
The acting was perIect.
rom the table we can see that the distinctive Ieatures oI the gerund are its verbal categories in the sphere oI
morphology and its verbal combinability. The distinctive Ieatures oI the verbal noun are its nominal category oI
number and its noun combinability. It must be taken into consideration that a verbal noun is an abstract noun,
and the use oI the article and the plural Iorm is determined by the requirements oI the meaning and context.
It is more diIIicult to discriminate between a gerund and a verbal noun in cases where the verbal
characteristics oI the gerund are not apparent. This happens mainly when an -EHC Iorm is used as a single word
without any modiIiers or with such modiIiers as occur with both the gerund and the verbal noun (\E= DANEHC
;<= MH>IJ>D@>G. \>? <D@EHC ;<= J>?T>D@). In such cases the meaning oI the Iorm should be taken into account.
Thus a gerund suggests a process, an activity, whereas a verbal noun denotes kinds oI occupation (=O<@EHC as
compared to hockey), an art Iorm (<D@EHC, J<EH@EHC), a branch oI knowledge (>HCEH>>?EHC, =J>FFEHC as opposed
to pronunciation and as a synonym Ior orthography).
It goes without saying that an -EHC Iorm is a pure noun when it denotes an object, oIten the result oI activity
(a LMEFGEHC - a house; a G?<;EHC, a J<EH@EHC - a picture). In such cases a noun unlike a gerund, may also
combine with numerals, as in @;A G?<;EHC=, TAM? LMEFGEHC=, etc.
The participle
The participle is a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb. There are two Iorms oI the participle - participle I and
participle II.
/ar!ii,%e 0
129. Participle I is a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb with some adjectival and adverbial Ieatures. It is Iormed
by adding the suIIix -EHC to the stem oI the verb.
or rules oI spelling and pronunciation see 7. 138
The verbal character oI participle I is maniIested morphologically in the categories oI voice and perIect (see
table II) and syntactically in its combinability. Thus, like the other non-Iinites, it may combine: a) with a noun
or a pronoun as direct, indirect or prepositional object; b) with an adverb or a prepositional phrase as an
adverbial modiIier; c) with a noun or adjective as a predicative.
99
a) c>>EHC t<H>, I rushed to greet her.
We didnt utter a word while FE=@>HEHC @A @B> =@A?U.
b) yE=EHC ><?FU, youll make your days longer.
Do you know the man =E@@EHC EH @B> NEGGF> AT @B> TE?=@ ?A;
c) k>EHC <L=>H@-NEHG>G, he went into the wrong room.
Participle I is used as a pure verb Iorm in the Iormation oI the continuous aspect Iorms.
The adjectival and adverbial Ieatures oI participle I are manitested in its syntactical Iunctions as an attribute
and an adverbial modiIier.
`??EPEHC <@ @B> =@<@EAH, she saw him at once, F><HEHC <C<EH= @B> ?<EFEHC.
(adverbial modiIier oI time, detached attribute).
Non-perIect participle I active has synonymous adjectives Iormed Irom the same verb stem, such as
?>=MF@EHC - ?>=MF@<H@, DAHPMF=EHC - DAHPMF=EP>, <LAMHGEHC - <LMHG<H@, G>D>EPEHC - G>D>J@EP>. Some participles
border on adjectives when used as attributes or predicatives, and have qualitative adjectives as synonyms; Ior
example <NM=EHC - TMHHU, LA?EHC - GMFF, G><T>HEHC - (very) FAMG. There are even some deverbal adjectives that
have completely lost their verbal meaning, Ior example EH@>?>=@EHC, DB<?NEHC.
When they lose their verbal character, participles may be modiIied by adverbs oI degree used with
adjectives, such as P>?U, =A, @AA, <= in P>?U (C?><@FU, >ID>>GEHCFU, etc.) <NM=EHC, @AA LA?EHC, NA=@ >IDE@EHC.
My job is with one oI the ministers - @AA LA?EHC <HG GE=@<=@>TMF @A GE=DM==.
All this was >I@?>N>FU C?<@ETUEHC.
ike an adjective, participle I Iorms adverbs with the suIIix -ly: F<MCBEHCFU, QAOEHCFU, =M?J?E=EHCFU,
<GNE?EHCFU, <JJ><FEHCFU, T>>FEHCFU.
ou surprise me, she said T>>FEHCFU.
The grammatical categories of participle I
Table II
The category of perfect
The category oI perIect in participle I Iinds its expression in the contrast oI the non-perIect and perIect
Iorms.
The non-perIect Iorm suggests that the action denoted by participle I is simultaneous with that oI the Iinite
verb. Thus the time-reIerence oI the action expressed by participle I can be understood only Irom the context,
that is it is not absolute, but relative.
m><?HEHC Ioreign languages
you know your native tongue better.
I used to begin my day with repeating new words.
you will learn a lot about your native tongue.
100
The perIect Iorm oI participle I indicates that the action denoted by the participle is prior to that denoted by
the Iinite verb.
\<PEHC F><?H@ the elements
oI English
I shall start upon rench.
our students start upon rench or German.
we started upon rench.
The meaning oI priority may be accompanied by the notion oI completion or duration, depending on whether
the meaning oI the verb is terminative or durative.
Dinny took the little packet, and B<PEHC L?AMCB@ no bag, slipped it down her dress.
\<PEHC ;<E@>G several hours in the snow to see me, he was not likely to show much patience when the
house was thrown into darkness.
ike that oI the other non-Iinites, the perIect Iorm oI participle I invariably expresses priority, whereas non-
perIect participle I varies in its meaning according to the context, expressing either a prior or a simultaneous or
a posterior action.
Non-perIect participle I regularly expresses immediate priority and denotes an instantaneous action iI it is
Iormed Irom terminative verbs, such as verbs oI motion (@A DAN>, @A >H@>?, @A <??EP>, @A @M?H, @A F><P>), oI sense
perception (@A =>>, @A B><?, @A TEHG) and verbs oI certain speciIic actions associated with motion (@A JM@, @A JM@
AH, @A @<O>, @A @<O> ATT, @A =>ES>, @A C?<=J, @A AJ>H).
`??EPEHC at the station, he Iound his train gone.
m><PEHC the house, Andrew continued his round.
YM?HEHC the comer, youll see the house you are looking Ior.
\><?EHC a noise in the garden, I looked out oI the window.
Y<OEHC ATT AM? shoes, we tiptoed into the nursery.
The perIect participle oI the same verbs is used when there is a lapse oI time between the two actions, or
when the action denoted by the participle is durative. Compare the Iollowing examples:
c>>EHC Jane, I rushed to greet her. But: \<PEHC =>>H tine girl only once, I didnt recognize her.
aA@ B<PEHC =>>H her Ior a long time, I didnt recognize her.
Sometimes the perIect participle is used to emphasize priority. Compare these examples:
Her husband, TEHGEHC @B> ?ECB@ O>U, Iits it into the lock oI the bureau.
\<PEHC TAMHG @B> JF<D> B> =AMCB@, Bateman sent in his card to the manager.
Non-perIect participle I may denote a posterior action, immediately Iollowing the Iirst action, Iorming its
part or being its result, as in:
izzy leIt the room, L<HCEHC @B> GAA? =BM@.
John Iell, BM?@EHC BE= OH>>.
There may be a lapse oI time between the Iirst and the second (posterior) action. This is evident Irom the
context.
I then hired a car and went home, <??EPEHC QM=@ L>TA?> @;>FP> ]DFADO.
We leIt at dawn, ?>@M?HEHC F<@>.
As seen Irom the above examples non-perIect participle I denoting a prior action usually precedes the
predicate verb. When it denotes a posterior action, it stands always aIter the predicate verb. In both cases it
corresponds to the Russian perIective adverbial participle (eenuce) (nexn, noneyn, ycntmn,
101
cxn, noxnmct, x, xnonyn, neynmct).
The category of voice
130. Participle I oI transitive verbs, both non-perIect and perIect, has voice distinctions, which are realized
in the contrast oI active and passive Iorms:
Y?<H=F<@EHC Irom English into Russian, she should
know well both languages.
\<PEHC @?<H=F<@>G the text into Russian, we handed it
to the teacher.
k>EHC @?<H=F<@>G into many languages, the novel is
known all over the world.
\<PEHC L>>H @?<H=F<@>G long ago, the novel is likely to
be re-translated.
Participle I active denotes an action directed Irom the doer oI the action, while participle I passive denotes an
action directed towards it.
The carrier oI the action may coincide with the subject oI the sentence, as in the above examples. It may also
be a noun modiIied by participle I used attributively, in whatever Iunction the noun is used:
Do you know @B> =@MG>H@= @?<H=F<@EHC the text
Have you read @B> @>I@ L>EHC @?<H=F<@>G by the students
The doer oI the action may be expressed by the nominal element oI a predicative construction:
I heard =AN>AH> N>H@EAHEHC UAM? H<N>.
I heard UAM? H<N> L>EHC N>H@EAH>G at the conIerence.
Non-perIect participle I active oI transitive verbs can be contrasted not only with participle I passive, but
also with participle II:
taking
mentioning
teaching
holding
- being taken
- being mentioned
- being taught
- being held
- taken
- mentioned
- taught
- held
According to the syntactical Iunction oI participle I and the aspectual character oI the verb, non-perIect
participle I passive may denote process, as in:
Have you heard anything oI the conIerence L>EHC B>FG at the University (oI the conIerence which is
being held at the University)
The phrase YB> DAHT>?>HD> B>FG <@ @B> oHEP>?=E@U is ambiguous, because it might be understood as YB>
DAHT>?>HD> @B<@ B<= L>>H B>FG or -;<= B>FG or E= L>EHC B>FG.
Syntactical functions of participle I
131. Participle I perIorms the syntactical Iunctions characteristic oI the adjective and the adverb, and can
thereIore be used as attribute, predicative, or as adverbial modiIier.
It may be used (a) alone or (b) as headword oI a participial phrase, or else (c) as part oI a predicative
construction:
a) et =F>>JEHC dogs lie.
He drank his coIIee =@<HGEHC.
b) There are some other people ;<E@EHC TA? UAM.
102
The youth looked at him curiously, H>P>? B<PEHC =>>H < lA?=U@> ;E@B < L><?G.
c) We Iound BEN ;A?OEHC EH @B> C<?G>H.
Participle I as attribute
132. This Iunction is peculiar to non-perIect participle I in its main sense, that oI a process simultaneous
with the action denoted by the main verb or with the moment oI speech. It corresponds to the Russian
imperIective participle, usually active: F><GEHC - neym, <=OEHC - cnmnmm, =F>>JEHC - cnxm. The
passive participle I corresponds to the Russian imperIective passive participle: L>EHC <=O>G - cnmnet,
L>EHC @?<H=F<@>G -neenot, L>EHC LMEF@ - coxmcx.
When a participial phrase is used as attribute it Iollows the modiIied noun. Its verbal character is evident
Irom its verbal combinability and sometimes Irom the passive Iorm itselI. A participial phrase may be (a) non-
detached or (b) detached:
a) We went along the street F><GEHC @A @B> =><=BA?>.
Emma sat in the armchair T<DEHC @B> GAA?.
Another Iactor concerns the Iormality oI the language L>EHC @<MCB@.
b) Once a month Tommy, <??EPEHC =>J<?<@>FU, came in Ior a brieI drink.
A detached participial phrase is set oII Irom the modiIied noun by a comma (or commas) in writing and by a
pause (or pauses) in speech.
When a single participle is used as attribute, it generally Iunctions as a premodiIier. Here we usually Iind
only participle I active oI intransitive verbs. Its verbal character is clear Irom the processual meaning oI the
verb itselI: FEPEHC J>AJF>, < =F>>JEHC GAC.
Participle I as a premodiIying attribute diIIers Irom the gerund in the same Iunction. The noun serves as the
subject oI the action expressed by the participle, as in < FEPEHC N<H z < N<H ;BA FEP>=, < LM?HEHC BAM=> z <
BAM=> @B<@ E= LM?HEHC, < G<HDEHC CE?F zz < CE?F ;BA E= G<HDEHC (or dances). The gerund suggests the destination
oI the object or a persons occupation, as in ;?E@EHC J<J>? zJ<J>? TA? ;?E@EHC, G<HDEHC B<FF z < B<FF TA?
G<HDEHC, < =EHCEHC @><DB>? z < @><DB>? AT =EHCEHC. Note also the diIIerence in stress patterns. There are two
stresses in the pattern with the participle (< ]LM?HEHC ]BAM=>), the second being the main stress, while in the
pattern with the gerund only the Iirst (gerundial) element is stressed (< ] G<HDEHC B<FF); iI there are two stresses,
the Iirst component has the main stress, as in < ]=J><OEHC ]B<LE@, < ];?E@EHC ]D<?>>?.
When a prior action is meant no participle I can be used as attribute, only an attributive clause is used. Thus
when we translate sentences with the Russian perIective participle active with the suIIix-nm into English we
must use an attributive clause: cnocnm - ;BA B<= <=O>G, neenonm (ee) - ;BA B<= @?<H=F<@>G or
;BA B<= (B<G$ L>>H @?<H=F<@EHC, yexnm -;BA B<= CAH>, neynmcx - ;BA B<= (B<G$ ?>@M?H>G or ;BA
?>@M?H>G, depending on the context or situation:
sronnn co cye, neynmcx c n. Ive just talked to the students ;BA B<P>
DAN> L<DO T?AN @B>E? @><DBEHC J?<D@ED>.
sronnn co cye, neynmcx c n nomno eene. Ive talked to the
students ;BA D<N> L<DO T?AN @B>E? =DBAAF J?<D@ED> F<=@ ;>>O. .
em, coxnmx tntne, nomn n o. - The woman ;BA B<G L>>H =@<HGEHC AH @B> JA?DB went
into the house, (the action expressed by the participle is prior to that oI the Iinite verb) But: oncx
xeme, coxnme tntne. - I addressed the woman =@<HGEHC on the porch (simultaneous actions).
Participle I as adverbial modifier
133. All the Iour Iorms oI participle I can Iunction as adverbial modiIiers oI diIIerent semantic types (time,
reason, manner, attendant circumstances, and sometimes condition, concession, comparison).
The semantic type oI the adverbial modiIier is clear Irom the context and the predicate group, as in:
k>EHC < H>;DAN>?, he Ielt ill at case. (adverbial modiIier oI reason)
103
In some cases, however, the Iunctional meaning is not so obvious. or example, there may be a
combination of causal and temporal meaning as in:
c>>EHC B>?, he stopped (he stopped L>D<M=> he saw her, or ;B>H he saw her).
or of causal and conditional meaning:
mEPEHC alone, one becomes selI-centred (<= one lives alone, or ET one lives alone).
ery oIten to make the semantical relationship clearer, certain conjunctions are employed, such as: ;B>H,
;BEF>, @BAMCB, <= ET, <= @BAMCB, ET.
1) Participle I as adverbial modifier of time may denote a simultaneous or a prior action. Here it
corresponds to the Russian <GP>?LE<F J<?@EDEJF> (eenuce).
Non-perIect participle I active, when used as an adverbial modiIier oI time, usually conveys the meaning oI
the motion or state. Most oIten it is a participle oI the verbs oI motion (DAN>, ;<FO, CA), or position in space
(=E@, FE>, =@<HG).
^<FOEHC <FAHC @B> @?<DO, Bowen burst into song.
y>@M?HEHC @A mAHGAH, Arthur had thrown himselI into the work.
c@<HGEHC @B>?> HA; AH @B> DA?H>? AT @B> =@<C>, he went on as beIore.
mUEHC EH @B> BA=JE@<F ;E@B BE= ?A@@EHC ;AMHG, he dictated his Iarewell letter to his brother.
The notion oI simultaneity may be expressed more explicitly by the conjunctions ;B>H and ;BEF>.
He Ielt horrible ;BEF> =<UEHC @BE=.
Dont Iorget articles ;B>H =J><OEHC qHCFE=B.
Participle I passive in this Iunction usually denotes priority.
He enquired hurriedly whether Mrs. orsyte was at home and L>EHC EHTA?N>G @B<@ =B> ;<= HA@, heaved a
sigh oI relieI.
k>EHC F>T@ <FAH>, Paulina and I kept silence Ior some time.
PerIect participle I as adverbial modiIier oI time, always denotes a prior action.
They wrote because they had to, and having written, thought only oI what they were going to write next.
2) Participle I as adverbial modifier of reason can be expressed by all the Iour Iorms. The most Irequently
used non-perIect participles I are those oI verbs denoting mental perception and emotions, Ior example,
OHA;EHC, ?><FESEHC, ?>N>NL>?EHC, >IJ>D@EHC, BAJEHC, T><?EHC; also the participles L>EHC and B<PEHC.
\AJEHC @A D<@DB @B> @?<EH, we took a taxi.
She knew that we were guilty. `HG OHA;EHC E@, the child in her was outraged.
k>EHC @B>?>, I could see all.
Hes very conceited, you know, B<PEHC J<?<G>= <HG @BEHC= <FF @B> @EN>.
\<PEHC G>DEG>G AH @BE= DAM?=> AT <D@EAH =AN> @EN> <CA, I was unable to stay at home.
Another characteristic Ieature oI participles Iunctioning as adverbials oI reason consists in their
combinability with negation (no matter what it is expressed by).
I turned back, HA@ OHA;EHC ;B>?> @A CA.
Even then he hadnt been able to watch her, HA@ B<PEHC >U>= EH @B> L<DO AT BE= B><G.
104
3) The adverbial modiIier of attendant circumstances is one oI the most characteristic oI participle I - it is
considered to be the main grammatical meaning oI non-perIect participle I. In this case participle I denotes
some action or event parallel to the action or state denoted by the Iinite verb.
Deb was silent, TEGC>@EHC ;E@B @B> =JAAH EH B>? =<MD>?.
I laughed, and =@EFF F<MCBEHC turned away eastward.
4) Participle I as an adverbial modifier of manner is akin to an adverbial modiIier oI attendant
circumstances. The diIIerence consists in the Iact that an adverbial modiIier oI manner characterizes the action
oI the Iinite verb, whereas that oI attendant circumstances denotes a parallel action or event.
He came in D<??UEHC < LEC J<?D>F.
5) Occasionally participle I occurs as an adverbial modifier of comparison, concession or condition.
As an adverbial oI comparison the participle is always preceded by the conjunction <= ET, <= @BAMCB1
`= ET AL>UEHC BEN, I turned and stared into his Iace.
When participle I is used as an adverbial modiIier oI concession the conjunction is not obligatory and then
the idea oI concession may be understood Irom the context. However the conjunction @BAMCB will make the
semantic relationship clearer.
Somebody was waiting: a man who, @BAMCB NAPEHC E??>CMF<?FU, was making quite a speed in my direction.
In the same way participle I as an adverbial modiIier oI condition is recognized by its syntactical
surroundings. It is either the subjunctive mood or the Iuture tense Iorm which allows a participial phrase to
Iunction as an adverbial modiIier oI condition:
She ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but L>EHC @B>?> she wouldnt know what to say (o,
ecn t o tn ... , ... o yyu ...).
Well, well be in Scotland aIore we know where we are, CAEHC <@ @BE= =J>>G (... ecn ye nrtcx c
o cooctm).
Participle I as part of the compound verbal predicate
134. Non-perIect participle I can be part oI a compound verbal predicate oI double orientation. Within this
type oI predicate participle I Iollows verbs oI sense perception, such as @A =>>, @A B><?, @A T>>F, @A TEHG, @A D<@DB,
also some causative verbs, such as @A O>>J, @A F><P> in the passive voice.
Jane ;<= B><?G JF<UEHC the piano.
Paul ;<= TAMHG ;A?OEHC in the garden.
The boy ;<= D<MCB@ @><=EHC the cat.
I ;<= O>J@ ;<E@EHC an hour or so.
I ;<= F>T@ =@<HGEHC on the stage.
In this type oI predicate participle I active is generally used, though occasionally non-perIect participle I
passive is to be Iound.
He Ilicks the switch and Roll Out the Barrel E= B><?G L>EHC ;BE=@F>G.
The predicate oI double orientation consists oI two parts: the Iirst is oriented on somebody implied, and the
second reIers semantically to the doer oI the action expressed by the subject. Thus the Iirst example means that
somebody heard that Jane was playing the piano. ThereIore sentences with this type oI predicate are translated
into Russian by indeIinite personal or impersonal sentences, complex or simple, depending on the verb in the
passive voice.
105
See p. II Syntax, 53 The compound verbal predicate oI double orientation; also 123 Predicative complexes (the subjective
predicative construction).
%'v (cntmo tno), xe re oxne.
ex xt nou nent uc.
Participle I as predicative
135. In the position oI predicative only non-perIect participle I active occurs, its adjectival character being
predominant. Although keeping the Iorm oI the participle, it is treated as an adjective, or a deverbal adjective.
The participle in this position gives the qualitative characterization to the person or thing used as subject (or
object, in the case oI the objective predicative).
The story is <NM=EHC.
our answer is =M?J?E=EHC.
We Iound him GUEHC
- I Iind the story <NM=EHC.
- I consider your answer =M?J?E=EHC.
- We Iound that he was GUEHC.
Participle I as predicative may be used with other linkverbs, in which case it may keep its verbal character,
as in:
Isadora ?>N<EH>G =@<HGEHC.
Participle I as independent element (parenthesis)
136. Participle I as parenthesis Iorms the headword oI a participial phrase, the meaning oI which is a
comment upon the contents oI the whole sentence or sometimes part oI it. The comment may take the Iorm oI a
logical restriction or personal attitude. Here we Iind such participial phrases as C>H>?<FFU (J?AJ>?FU, ?AMCBFU,
F>C<FFU, =@?ED@FU$ =J><OEHC, JM@@EHC E@ NEFGFU, QMGCEHC LU (T?AN$, <FFA;EHC TA?, @<OEHC >P>?U@BEHC EH@A
DAH=EG>?<@EAH, etc.
tMGCEHC T?AN ;B<@ UAM =<U, he ought to succeed.
c@?ED@FU =J><OEHC, this is illegal.
Predicative constructions with participle I
137. Participle I may Iunction as part oI a predicative construction, entering into a predicative relationship
with some nominal element and Iorming a syntactical unit with it.
The objective participial construction
The objective participial construction consists oI a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective
case and participle I Iorming a syntactical complex, the two main components oI which are in predicative
relationship. Since the construction always Iollows transitive verbs, its syntactical Iunction is that oI a complex
object. Thus in its meaning it corresponds to a subordinate clause and is usually translated into Russian by a
subordinate object clause:
or details see p. II Syntax. The Predicative Constructions (The Complex Object).
I saw tABH JF<UEHC @>HHE=
I saw BEN JF<UEHC @>HHE=
We heard @B>N =EHCEHC
- nen, xo re n ec.
- nen, o re n ec.
- t cntmn, o nom.
In many cases, however, the translation depends on the verb it reters to and on the requirements oI the
Russian usage.
The nominal element usually reIers to a person or a thing diIIerent Irom that denoted by the subject oI the
sentence. II it reIers to the same person as the subject, a reIlexive pronoun is to be used, as in:
106
He heard BEN=>FT M@@>?EHC @B> ;A?G=.
The construction is generally used with non-perIect participle I active, and occasionally it occurs with
participle I passive:
I could see @B> LAAO= L>EHC @<O>H away.
Some oI the verbs Iollowed by the objective participial construction occur also with the objective inIinitive
construction (such as @A =>>, @A ;<@DB, @A B><?, @A T>>F). The diIIerence between these two constructions concerns
the meaning suggested by an inIinitive or participle I; the Iormer emphasizes the Iact oI an action being
completed, the latter its processual character, as in:
I saw @B> D<? =@AJ at the gate.
I saw @B> D<? =@AJJEHC.
- nen, uo m, oconnct y noo.
- nen, m oconnct (ocnnnnct) y noo.
II the homogeneous inIinitives are used, they denote two actions in succession. II two participles I are
homogeneous, they suggest two simultaneous actions.
I heard BEN F><P> @B> ?AAN <HG FADO @B> GAA?.
Soames saw kA=EHH>U ;<@DBEHC B>? <HG =NEFEHC @A
BEN=>FT.
- cntmn, o ntmen s ot sne ee.
- oe ynen, uo oc nmn s e
yntncx c cee.
The objective participial construction is used:
a) with verbs oI sense perception,
b)with various verbs oI causative meaning, or inducement.
c) occasionally with verbs expressing wish.
a) to see
to hear
to Ieel
to watch
to notice
to observe
to perceive
to smell
to Iind
to catch
to discover
to look (at)
to listen (to)
We saw (watched, heard, listened to) @B> @?<EH <JJ?A<DBEHC @B> =@<@EAH.
Do you smell =AN>@BEHC LM?HEHCg
I could Ieel @B> GAC F><HEHC <C<EH=@ NU T>>@.
We Iound BEN ;A?OEHC EH @B> C<?G>H.
b) to have
to get
to keep
to leave
to start
to set
I wont have UAM =NAOEHC <@ UAM? <C>R
They soon got (started) @BEHC= CAEHC.
Dont keep N> ;<E@EHC. Im in a hurry.
our words set N> @BEHOEHC.
Can you start (set) @B<@ >HCEH> CAEHCg
Note:
The verbs @A B<P>, @A C>@ may be used in the construction without their causative meaning, as in:
I have some students waiting Ior me.
Ive got my grandson staying Ior a week.
107
Sentences with the verbs oI this group are usually translated into Russian by simple sentences.
c) to want, to like
I dont want UAM @<FOEHC L<DO @A N>.
They didnt like N> F><PEHC =A ><?FU.
138. The nominative absolute participial construction.
This construction consists oI two interdependent elements, nominal and verbal, which are in a predicative
relation. The nominal element is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The verbal
element is participle I in any oI its Iorms. The nominal and the verbal elements make a syntactical complex
Iunctioning as a detached adverbial modiIier. Unlike the objective participial construction it does not depend on
a verb:
tABH B<PEHC F>T@ @B> ?AAN @A ?EHC TA? < @<IE <= <??<HC>G, Mary sat down again to wait Ior him.
The diIIerence between a participial phrase and a nominative absolute participial construction may be
illustrated as Iollows:
Having read the novel Jane (she) put it aside.
The novel having been read, Jane (she) put it aside.
In a participial phrase the subject oI the sentence is as a rule related both to the predicate verb and to the
participle. In a sentence with a nominative absolute participial construction the subject oI the sentence is related
only to the predicate verb, and the nominal element is related to the participle.
The nominative absolute participial construction Iunctions syntactically as an adverbial modiIier: an
adverbial modifier of a) attendant circumstances, b) reason, c) occasionally time.
a) lewellyn looked through the window, BE= CF<HD> @?<P>FFEHC @A;<?G= @B> L?EGC>.
Mabel hurried out oI the car and walked away, @><?= =@?><NEHC GA;H B>? T<D>.
We were both standing leaning against the mantelpiece, =B> <GNE?HC B>? T<H AT LFA@@EHC J<J>?, W =@<?EHC
<@ B>?.
A nominative absolute participial construction as an adverbial oI attendant circumstances usually stands in
postposition, and is widely used in literature.
It is translated into Russian by a coordinate clause: ' V 5*
* , .
b) But I was a little on edge, @B>?> L>EHC =AN>@BEHC @A ?>JA?@.
The ships band did not play in the morning, E@ L>EHC cMHG<U.
c) YB> ;A?O L>EHC TEHE=B>G, the two girls went into the shop.
Sentences with a nominative absolute participial construction as an adverbial oI reason or time are translated
by complex sentences with the corresponding subordinate clauses: 2 , '
*... 7 ' , v v 5.
As well as in sentences with participial phrases causal and temporal meanings may be combined, as in:
WD> B<PEHC @BM= L>>H L?AO>H, the two Iormer rivals grew still more aIIectionate.
108
Prepositional absolute participial construction with participle I
A prepositional absolute construction diIIers Irom a non-prepositional participial construction in that it is
introduced by the preposition ;E@B. Its nominal part is usually a noun in the common case, or very rarely a
personal pronoun in the objective case. It is not necessarily set oII by a comma:
Andrew went into the house ;E@B BE= B><?@ L><@EHC T<=@.
The main syntactical Iunction oI the construction is an adverbial modiIier oI attendant circumstances, as
in:
The oIIicer sat ;E@B BE= FAHC TEH> B<HG= FUEHC AH @B> @<LF> J>?T>D@FU =@EFF.
The meaning oI attendant circumstances may be combined with temporal or causal ones:
I wont speak ;E@B BEN =@<?EHC <@ N> FEO> @B<@.
Just now, ;E@B @B> B<?P>=@ DANEHC AH, everything looks its richest.
It (St. Johns Wood) is ever so pretty ;E@B <FF @B> @?>>= DANEHC AM@.
The construction is usually translated into Russian by a coordinate or a subordinate clause, and sometimes
by means oI a prepositional phrase, or an adverbial participle (eenuce).
(7$ {5 v , cene ero cnto noct ( *5 )).
enet, Z Z', nce cno.
/ar!ii,%e 0 a&d !he )er$&d om,ared
139. Participle I and the gerund are alike in their verbal characteristics, both morphological (the categories
oI voice and perIect) and syntactical (verbal combinability).
The diIIerence between the two lies in their non-verbal characteristics, that is in their syntactical Iunctions
and non-verbal combinability. Participle I, unless substantivized, cannot be used as subject or object, whereas
such use is typical oI the noun and thereIore oI the gerund. When used as adverbial modiIier or attribute,
participle I like an adjective or an adverb is never preceded by a preposition. On the other hand when the
gerund is used as attribute or adverbial modiIier it is preceded by a preposition like a noun in these Iunctions.
The diIIerence between the two is also to be Iound in the nominal tendencies oI the gerund and the adjectival
tendencies oI participle I. This is most evident in their Iunction oI a predicative and an attribute.
As predicative participle I gives qualitative characteristics to the subject, thus tending towards an adjective,
as in:
The sound oI the thunder was G><T>HEHC.
The gerund does not qualiIy the subject, it rather identiIies the subject by revealing its meaning, as in:
His Iavourite occupation is DAFF>D@EHC =@<NJ= (or JF<UEHC TAA@L<FF or QM=@ TAA@L<FF).
When a gerund or a participle is used as an attribute, the diIIerence between them does not lie only in the
absence, or presence oI the preposition, but also in their relationship to the modiIied noun. (or details see
132 on premodiIying attributes). Participle I denotes an action that the person or thing perIorms or experiences:
What is the name oI the man @<FOEHC with your sister
Thus the modiIied noun denotes the doer oI the action expressed by the participle.
The gerund usually reveals the meaning oI the modiIied noun, which never denotes the perIormer oI the
action.
109
What the use AT D?UEHC =A
That was my last chance AT =>>EHC BEN.
There was no hope AT =<PEHC B>?.
When used as an adverbial modiIier, the gerund is more varied in its application than the participle because it
is used with diIIerent prepositions.
The participle and the gerund are interchangeable when used as adverbials oI time characterizing the verb
through simultaneous or prior events:
hE=DM==EHC @B> JF<H
WH GE=DM==EHC @B> JF<H we heard a lot oI helpIull suggestions.
qH@>?EHC @B> ?AAN
wH >H@>?EHC @B> ?AAN he closed the door.
`T@>? GE=DM==EHC @B> JF<H
\<PEHC GE=DM==>G @B> JF<H we started carring it out.
Only the gerund is possible when the starting or the Iinal point oI the action is meant, as in:
He has never been at his native town =EHD> F><PEHC E@ EH !&|.
ou must get your parents permission L>TA?> F><PEHC TA? @B> NAMH@<EH=.
et there are a number oI cases, especially among predicative constructions, where the -EHC Iorm may be
treated either as a participle or a gerund, the diIIerence between them being neutralized, as in:
I dont count on BEN =D<?EHC ><=EFU.
Then he was aware oI YA=D<@A =B<OEHC @B> GAA? AT @B> LAI.
I remember @B>N =@<UEHC ;E@B M= AHD>.
ancy BEN =<UEHC =AR
/ar!ii,%e 00
140. Participle II is a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb with verbal and adjectival Ieatures. Participle II stands
apart Irom the other non-Iinites in that it does not possess their morphological categories. Nevertheless, being a
verb Iorm, it possesses the potential verbal meaning oI voice, aspect and correlation, which depend upon the
meaning oI the verb it is Iormed Irom and which are realized in the context.
The main meanings oI participle II are those oI a state as a result oI some action or an action itselI. One oI
the most essential characteristics oI participle II is that when it is used as part oI the sentence, participle II oI a
transitive verb is passive in meaning, participle II oI an intransitive verb is active.
Thus the participles EHPE@>G, @AFG, @<O>H are semantically passive and correspond to the Russian passive
participles nrnmet, ccst, nsxt. The participles <??EP>G, CAH>, ?E=>H are semantically active
and correspond to the Russian active participles ntnm, ymem, noxnmcx (nsomem).
141. The adjectival nature oI participle II maniIests itselI in its Iunction in the sentence, which is usually
that oI either attribute or predicative. It may combine with adverbs oI degree typical oI adjectives, such as P>?U,
@AA, =FECB@FU, =A, NMDB, NA?>, as in:
I am P>?U JF><=>G with you.
The children were @AA >IDE@>G to notice the newcomer.
No man has ever had a NA?> G>PA@>G sister than I.
Instead oI the negation not, which we Iind with the other non-Iinites, participle II is oIten negated with the
preIix un-, as in MHTEHE=B>G, MH<H=;>?>G.
Participle II may turn into adjectives with qualitative meaning synonymous with other adjectives, as in
D>F>L?<@>G - T<NAM=, @E?>G - ;><?U.
110
Similar to adjectives and participle I, participle II may Iorm adverbs with the help oI the suIIix -ly: TEI>GFU,
MHBM??E>GFU, <GNE@@>GFU.
The adjectival nature oI participle II is traced in adjectivized participles with a Iorm diIIerent Irom the verbal
participle II. These Iorms occur as attributes in such phrases as AH L>HG>G OH>>=, < G?MHO>H N<H, < FECB@>G
N<@DB (D<HGF>, @A?DB$, NAF@>H F<P< (F><G, =@>>F$, ?A<=@ N><@, < ?A@@>H <JJF>, < =B<P>H B><G, < ;>FF-=B<P>H N<H,
=AGG>H DFA@B>=, =MHO>H >U>=, < =;AFF>H ?EP>?. Some Iorms are used predicatively: @A L> ;>FF-=@?EDO>H EH U><?=, @A
L> J<HED-=@?EDO>H, JAP>?@U-=@?EDO>H (but thunder-struck, theatre-struck).
142. The verbal character oI participle II is maniIested in its combinability. Thus participle II oI transitive
verbs easily combines with a by-object denoting the doer oI the action as in t<H> >H@>?>G @B> ?AAN TAFFA;>G LU
B>? L?A@B>?.
Participles II oI phrasal verbs retain their composite structure: a LAU L?AMCB@ MJ EH < @><DB>?_= T<NEFU.
Participles II oI prepositional transitive verbs are Iollowed by the appropriate prepositions: < LAAO AT@>H
<=O>G TA?, @B> <?@EDF> ?>T>??>G @A, < N<H NMDB =JAO>H AT.
Ditransitive verbs keep their second object as in: YB<@ ;<= @B> N<EH iM>=@EAH <=O>G B>? <@ @B> ;>GGEHC.
Participle II may be accompanied by an adverbial modiIier expressed by adverbs or phrases combining with
verbs: < BAM=> LMEF@ @;A U><?= L>TA?>, N<H BEGG>H EH @B> LM=B, < JF<U ;>FF <D@>G, < =@A?U FAHC TA?CA@@>H.
One oI the main verbal Ieatures oI participle II is revealed in its Iunctioning as part oI the compound verb
Iorms oI the passive voice and the perIect.
Voice peculiarities of participle II
143. Participle II oI t r a n s i t i v e verbs, when it is not part oI a perIect Iorm, is always passive in
meaning. Depending on the verb and the context it may correspond to any passive participle in Russian: LMEF@
-nocoet, conmcx, coxmcx; L>CMH - ut, uet, ummcx; @?<H=F<@>G -
neenoxmcx, neenonmcx, neenot, neeneet.
Having a passive meaning participle II oI transitive verbs is opposed to participle I active: <=OEHC - <=O>G,
FAPEHC - FAP>G, =>>EHC - =>>H, ;?E@EHC -;?E@@>H, @><DBEHC - @<MCB@, ;<@DBEHC - ;<@DB>G, etc.
The doer oI the action or state denoted by participle II is to be Iound in the subject or object oI the sentence,
in the noun or pronoun modiIied by participle II, in the Iirst (nominal) element oI a predicative construction.
The passive meaning oI participle II may be oI three types:
1) denoting an action directed towards the person or non-person expressed by the subject or object. This is
peculiar to durative (non-terminative) transitive verbs, such as @A <DDANJ<HU, @A TAFFA;, @A ;<@DB, @A D<??U, @A
@><DB, @A FE=@>H (@A$, @A F<MCB (<@$, @A FAAO (<@, TA?, AH$, @A =J><O (AT, @A$, @A FAP>, @A B<@>, as in:
Spanish is one oI the Ioreign languages @<MCB@ at our Institute.
I wont have my Iriend F<MCB>G at.
2) denoting a state, which is the result oI an action. This is typical oI terminative transitive verbs, such as @A
L?EHC, @A D<@DB, @A GA, @A TEHG, @A N<O>, @A JM@, @A =AFP>, @A LMEFG, @A ?><FE=>, @A AJ>H, @A DFA=>, etc.
The problem is =AFP>G. The door is =BM@.
Occasionally, in a certain context, participle II oI the above-mentioned verbs may denote action, as in:
Brightmans place was an old English Iarm-house, LMEF@ @;A U><?= L>TA?>.
3) denoting a pure state. This is the case with verbs denoting psycological states and emotions, such as @A
<NM=>, @A <HHAU, @A ATT>HG, @A =M?J?E=>, @A JF><=>, @A >IDE@>.
W T>F@ <HHAU>G when he reIused to help me.
W_N P>?U (NMDB$ JF><=>G with what he has done.
Participle II oI i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs is always active in meaning. The use oI these participles is
restricted. Only participles II oI verbs denoting motion or change oI state can be used as attributes. These are
111
participles II oI the verbs @A <??EP>, @A T<FF, @A CA, @A ?E=>, @A G>J<?@, @A G>D><=>, @A ?>@E?>, @A T<G>, @A ;E@B>?, @A
P<HE=B, @A G>D<U and some others. Participles II oI these verbs correspond to the Russian active participle oI the
perIective aspect: <??EP>G - ntnm, vanished - cuesynm, T<G>G - ynxm, G>D<U>G - crnm, as
in <??EP>G CM>=@=, @B> ?E=>H NAAH, @B> P<HE=H>G DEPEFE=<@EAH, @B> T<FF>H F><P>=, @B> ?>@E?>G J?>=EG>H@.
Among these participles we Iind some which can be used either transitively or intransitively, such as BEGG>H,
EHD?><=>G, GENEHE=B>G, ?>@M?H>G. They correspond to the Russian perIective active participles with the suIIix -cx
(cnxnmcx, ynenunmcx, neynmcx): @B> N<H BEGG>H L>BEHG @B> @?>>, <H EHD?><=>G JAJMF<@EAH, <
?>@M?H>G @?<P>FF>?.
The aspectual meaning of participle II and perfect
144. The original aspectual meaning oI participle II is perIectivity. It is evident in terminative verbs and
verbs oI double aspectual meaning.
I n t r a n s i t i v e t e r m i n a t i v e verbs the passive meaning oI participle II is combined with
perIectivity. Thus participle II can be opposed to participle I in their aspectual meanings oI
perIectivity/imperIectivity: @<OEHC - @<O>H, <=OEHC - <=O>G, ;?E@EHC - ;?E@@>H, @>FFEHC - @AFG (eym - nsxt,
cnmnmm - cnomet, etc.).
The original meaning may be modiIied by the context, as can be seen by comparing the Iollowing sentences:
YB> =@A?U @AFG LU @B> BA=@>== <NM=>G >P>?ULAGU (cox, ccsx xosxo...). ^BU GAH_@ ;> L>FE>P>
=@A?E>= @AFG LU BMH@>?= <HG TE=B>?N>Hg (co, ccstnete oxo, . e. oote ccstnm
oxo)
There is a growing tendency in present-day English to use participle I passive as an attribute to emphasize
the processual character oI the action. Thus we may paraphrase the last sentence, saying, Why don't we believe
stories being told by hunters
Participle II oI intransitive verbs or verbs used intransitively is always perIective in meaning and can be
opposed to non-perIect participle I: ?E=EHC - ?E=>H, G>D<UEHC - G>D<U>G, CAEHC - CAH>, <??EPEHC - <??EP>G, ?>@E?EHC
-?>@E?>G, as in1 @B> ?E=EHC NAAH - @B> ?E=>H NAAH, @B> ?>@E?EHC GE?>D@A?} @B> ?>@E?>G GE?>D@A?. The same in the
auctioneers Iormula: rAEHCR rAEHCR rAH>R (oecx oecx oo)
The meaning oI perIectivity/imperIectivity results in the potential meaning oI perIect. The idea oI priority
and simultaneity is suggested by the aspectual character oI the verb and is realized in the given context.
In many cases, however, the ideas oI priority and simultaneity become Iused, since the action is prior to, and
the resulting state is simultaneous with, the action oI the Iinite verb or the moment oI speech. Thus in the
sentence lE?=@ AT <FF =B> ;>H@ @A @B> LANL>G LMEFGEHC the action oI bombing is prior to the action oI the Iinite
verb went, but the resulting state oI the action is simultaneous with it.
Syntactical functions of participle II
145. As part oI the sentence participle II may stand alone or be the headword oI a participial phrase. It may
Iunction as an attribute (close or detached), predicative, or as an adverbial modiIier.
/ar!ii,%e 00 as a!!rib$!e
146. Participle II usually Iunctions either as premodiIier when it stands alone or Iorms a very short
participial phrase containing an adverb. The verbal character oI the participle in the Iirst case is made clear only
by its lexical meaning:
irst oI all she went to the LANL>G LMEFGEHC.
Our minds should meet in a serious, mutually H>>G>G =><?DB Ior common understandings.
It was a H><@FU ;?E@@>H letter.
Sometimes the preposition is kept:
The room even had a Iaint perIume about it which gave it a FEP>G-EH <E?.
As a JA=@NAGETE>? participle II maniIests its verbal character more explicitly, even when it stands alone. It
112
may be accompanied by a preposition, by an agentive by-object, an adverb and prepositional phrases as
adverbial modiIiers.
Things =>>H are mightier than things heard.
The dictionary ?>T>??>G @A is to be Iound in our library.
These are cities EHB<LE@>G LU @B>E? D?><@A?=.
Two women GENFU =>>H EH @B> =B<GA; are talking soItly.
When participle II or a participial phrase is detached, its position is not Iixed. It may occupy the initial
position, the mid-position or the Iinal position in the sentence. Detached attributes are separated Irom the noun
by a comma (or commas) in writing and by a pause in speech. They are conIined to literary style only.
r?><@FU >IDE@>G, the children Iollowed her into the garden.
Johnson, F>T@ EH DB<?C> AT LA@B ATTED>?=, marched about Ior a little while.
And people hurried by, BEGG>H MHG>? @B>E? G?><GTMF MNL?>FF<=.
/ar!ii,%e 00 as ,redia!ive
147. In this Iunction participle II denotes a state, as in:
The ada road E= TEHE=B>G, the great idea E= ?><FES>G.
ou =>>N =M?J?ES>G.
He FAAO= J>?JF>I>G <HG @?AMLF>G.
He T>F@ @BA?AMCBFU GE=<JJAEH@>G.
The door ?>N<EH>G FADO>G.
Occasionally we come across a participle II with an active meaning used predicatively:
The sun E= HA@ ?E=>H.
Everybody E= CAH>.
Evening E= DAN>.
/ar!ii,%e 00 as adverbia% modi'ier
148. The adverbial Iunction and meaning oI participle II can be seen only Irom the general meaning oI the
sentence. In the vast majority oI cases, when used adverbially, participle II is preceded by a conjunction, which
explicitly indicates the semantic type oI the adverbial modiIier.
Participle II may serve as an adverbial modiIier oI:
time, usually with the conjunction ;B>H or MH@EF1
He is very aIIable ;B>H =JAO>H @A, but naturally silent.
He wont stop arguing MH@EF EH@>??MJ@>G.
reason:
h>J?EP>G AT BE= ;ET> <HG =AH LU @B> cJ<HE=B <GP>H@M?>, Jolyon Iound the solitude at Robin Hill intolerable.
condition, mostly with the conjunction ET or MHF>==1
I shall certainly give evidence on your behalI, ET ?>iME?>G.
John will speak Ior hours, MHF>== EH@>??MJ@>G.
concession, with the conjunction @BAMCB or <F@BAMCB1
YBAMCB <=O>G EH GE=<?NEHC =ADE<LEFE@U, Haldones question was loaded.
comparison, with the conjunction <= ET or <= @BAMCB1
I get oII the train, he repeated <= ET BUJHA@ES>G.
113
Predicative constructions with participle II
149. Participle II Iorms the second (verbal) element oI the objective with the participle construction and oI
the absolute participial construction in two variants: non-prepositional and prepositional.
150. The objective participial construction with participle II.
The objective participial construction with participle II consists oI a noun in the common case or a personal
pronoun in the objective case and participle II Iorming a syntactical complex, in which the two components are
in a preducative relationship.
I must have NU ;<@DB N>HG>G.
I never heard BEN =JAO>H AT L<GFU.
e yxo nout uct.
or e cntmn, uot o e nnoxo ostnnct.
The construction Iunctions as a complex object to transitive verbs, mainly verbs (a) oI causative meaning,
(b) oI physical perception, (c) oI wish:
a) @A B<P>, @A C>@, @A N<O>
ou must have UAM? JBA@A @<O>H.
Where did you have UAM? B<E? GAH>g
I wont have NU L>=@ T?E>HG F<MCB>G <@.
We must get AM? @EDO>@= ?>CE=@>?>G.
The speaker made BEN=>FT B><?G ;E@B @B> B>FJ AT < NED?AJBAH>.
Besides the causative meaning suggesting inducement, sentences the verb @A B<P> may occasionally express
experience or possess participle II emphasizing the resulting state, as in:
The patient B<= <H <?N L?AO>H.
I have NU @<=O GAH>.
II the action is emphasized, the perIect Iorm is preIerable:
The patient B<= L?AO>H <H <?N.
I B<P> GAH> my task.
Notice the diIIerence in translation:
ontoro cno y. onto cnon yy.
oe se ntnoneo. ntnonn se.
b) @A =>>, @A B><?, @A T>>F, @A TEHG
I saw t<H> <GG?>==>G LU < =@?<HC>?.
Have you ever heard @B> ;?E@>?_= H<N> N>H@EAH>G L>TA?>g
We Iound @B> GAA? FADO>G.
c) @A ;E=B, @A ;<H@, @A FEO>, @A J?>T>?
I want @B> <H=;>? =>H@ <@ AHD>.
We preIer @B> F>@@>? <H=;>?>G LU @B> DBE>T.
Sentences with causative verbs are usually translated into Russian by simple sentences, the causative
meaning being evident Irom the context or the situation. In other cases a complex sentence with an object
114
clause is preIerable.
151. The nominative absolute participial construction with participle II.
The construction consists oI the nominal element (a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
nominative case) and participle II which Iorm a syntactical complex, the nominal element and the participle
being in subject-predicate relation. YB> J?>J<?<@EAH DANJF>@>G, we started oII.
The nominative absolute participial construction with participle being has the syntactical Iunction oI a
detached adverbial modiIier oI attendant circumstances (a), manner (b), time (c), reason (d), condition (e).
a) The next day I observed you - NU=>FT MH=>>H - Ior halI an hour.
She was smoking now, B>? >U>= H<??A;>G @BAMCB@TMFFU.
b) He sat on the soIa, BE= F>C= D?A==>G.
D$ YB> GM=@>? ?>TAFG>G <HG ?>=@A?>G, he threw his legs across the saddle. Give it to Harriet, please, was
then the direction, and she can put it away. YBE= =<EG, he turned and Iixed his eyes on Mrs. Bretton.
d) We began to talk, but NU <@@>H@EAH GE=@?<D@>G LU NU =M??AMHGEHC=, I took small notice oI him.
e) He was a gentleman, but he was passionate, @B> DMJ AHD> =EJJ>G, would he consent to put it down
152. The prepositional absolute construction with participle II.
This construction diIIers Irom the discussed above in that it is introduced by the preposition with and its
nominal element is hardly ever presented by a pronoun; it is more closely related to the predicate verb and is
seldom set oII by a comma.
She went on reading ;E@B B>? >U>= TEI>G AH @B> J<C>= AT @B> LAAO.
It is unhealthy to sleep ;E@B @B> ;EHGA;= =BM@.
The main syntactical Iunction oI the construction is that oI an adverbial modiIier oI manner or attendant
circumstances.
An additional idea oI time, reason, or condition may be prompted by the context, as in: I cant ;<FO ;E@B NU
F>C L?AO>H (reason).
MODAL VERBS
153. Modal verbs, unlike other verbs, do not denote actions to states, but only show the attitude oI the
speaker towards the action expressed by the inIinitive in combination with which they Iorm compound modal
predicates. Thus modal verbs may show that the action (or state, or process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker
as JA==ELF>, ALFEC<@A?U, GAML@TMF, D>?@<EH, J>?NE==ELF>, <GPE=<LF>, ?>iM>=@>G, J?ABELE@>G, A?G>?>G, etc. Modal
verbs occur only with the inIinitive. This or that meaning is to a great degree determined by the comminicative
type oI the sentence and the Iorm oI the inIinitive.
There are 12 modal verbs in English. They are: can, may, must, should ought, shall, will, would, need,
dare, to be, to have (to have got). The latter two are modal only in one oI their meanings.
Ten oI them (that is, all but @A L> and @A B<P>) are also called deIective or anomalous verbs as they lack some
Ieatures characteristic oI other verbs, that is:
1) they do not take -= in the third person singular;
2) they have no verbals, so they have no analytical Iorms;
3) they have (except Ior D<H and N<U) only one Iorm and no past tense;
4) they are Iollowed (except Ior AMCB@) by a bare inIinitive (that is by the inIinitive without the particle @A);
5) they need no auxiliary to build up the interrogative and negative Iorms.
115
All modal verbs have 2 negative Iorms, Iull and contracted.
full form
may not
must not
would not
should not
need not
contracted form
maynt
mustnt
wouldnt
shouldnt
neednt
Some oI them have peculiarities both in spelling and pronunciation:
cannot
shall not
will not
Cant |ka:nt|
Shant |a:nt|
Wont |wount|
Can
154. This modal verb has two Iorms: D<H - Ior the present tense and DAMFG - Ior the past tense and Ior the
subjunctive mood.
I D<H_@ dance now but I DAMFG when I was young.
I wish I DAMFG go with you.
I. d<H Iollowed by the non-perfect common aspect infinitive expresses:
1. Physical and mental ability or capacity.
The notion oI ability is also expressed by u@A L> <LF> @A~.
Mary D<H =J><O qHCFE=B quite well but she D<H_@ ;?E@> it at all (can to be able, to know how to...).
John D<H O>>J < =>D?>@ iI he wants to (can to be capable oI).
I D<H G?EP> a car I know how to...
I DAMFGH_@ MHG>?=@<HG him when he spoke very Iast ( was unable to, was incapable oI...).
He DAMFG (was able to) =J><O qHCFE=B very well when he was twelve.
The meaning oI ability is expressed only by u@A L> <LF> @A~ when the reIerence is to the Iuture, as D<H,
having no inIinitive, has no Iuture tense Iorm.
Soon he ;EFF L> <LF> @A =J><O qHCFE=B quite Iluently.
d<H is interchangeable with @A L> <LF> @A when it denotes mere capacity,
I DAMFGH_@j;<= HA@ <LF> @A GA that new job; it was too diIIicult.
This man DAMFGj;<= <LF> @A DM?> all diseases.
But only @A L> <LF> @A is used to express attainment or achievement oI something through some capacity.
Thus @A L> <LF> @A oIten combines the idea oI ability and achievement. In this case ;<= <LF> @A means
managed to or succeeded in, and DAMFG is impossible.
The Iire brigade ;<= <LF> (succeeded in putting, managed) @A JM@ AM@ the Iire beIore it destroyed the other
buildings. oxte cyen, ynoct ...
I ;<= <LF> @A CA to the mountains yesterday as I had a day oII (I could and went).
I ;<= <LF> @A TEHE=B my work in an hour (I managed, I could and did it).
2. Possibility.
116
a) possibility due to circumstances:
Anybody D<H N<O> < NE=@<O>. mtcx oxe xt.
ou D<H hardly LF<N> him Ior that. x n oxo ero s +o nt.
I DAMFGH_@ @<O> your coat without paying you Ior it.
b) possibility due to the existing rules oI laws:
In old days a man DAMFG L> =>H@>HD>G to death Ior a small crime. cte nee oxo tno
nronot uenone ce s eontmoe necynnee.
The ower House alone D<H initiate Iinancial measures. onto n necnene oxe
ntoct ccoee ]conte nonoct.
c) possibility oI the idea (the so-called theoretical possibility):
The railways D<H L> ENJ?AP>G. (It is possible Ior the railways to be improved, as they are not yet
perIect.)
In general statements oI possibility D<H has roughly the same meaning as sometimes.
The sea D<H L> ?AMCB. The sea is sometimes rough. Mope or tne yt.
d<H is generally used in questions about possibility and in statements about impossibility.
d<H this L> @?M> (Is it possible that this is true) eyxen +o nn
This D<H_@ L> @?M>. (It is impossible that this is true.)
3. Permission.
d<H we CA home, Miss oxo oo, cc
e D<H go now. enet o oxe .
The teacher said we DAMFG CA home. uent semn oo.
d<H E= now more common than N<U (or might) to express the idea permission.
4. Prohibition (it is Iound only with the negative Iorm oI the modal verb, as prohibition may be understood
as @B> H>C<@EAH AT J>?NE==EAH - HA@ @A L> <FFA;>G @A...). It corresponds to the Russian *, .
ou D<H_@ D?A== the street here. ect * neexot ynny.
ou D<H_@ @AMDB the exhibits in a museum (it is not allowed).
- d<H ;> =@<U here - No, Im aIraid UAM D<H_@. (Its not allowed.)
5. Request.
d<H you BAFG AH a minute, please
d<H I B<P> =AN> ;<@>?
d<H you JM@ the meat in salted water
dAMFG suggests a greater degree oI politeness:
dAMFG you DAN> again tomorrow
II. d<H Iollowed by any form of the infinitive may express:
117
1. Strong doubt, improbability, incredulity. This meaning occurs only with the negative Iorm oI the modal
verb J>?T>D@ EHTEHE@EP>, DAH@EHMAM= EHTEHE@EP>, A? L>.
He D<H_@ L> ;A?OEHC at this time
(its impossible that he is working...)
He D<H_@ B<P> =>>H it (its impossible that he saw it).
He D<H_@ L> @B>?>.
- He oxe tt, uot o on ceuc.
- He oxe tt, uot o nen +o.
- He oxe tt, uot o tn .
dAMFG is used instead oI D<H to express greater doubt. Thus the diIIerence between D<H and DAMFG is in the
degree oI expressiveness, DAMFG showing a greater degree oI doubt or incredulity. The time-reIerence is
indicated not by the Iorm oI the verb but by that oI the inIinitive.
He Cant
Couldnt
be so old. - He oxe tt, uo o c.
e Cant
Couldnt
be telling the truth. - e oxe tt, uo o rono nny.
He Cant
Couldnt
have told the truth. - e oxe tt, uot o csn nny.
2. Surprise, when D<HjDAMFG is used in questions. It corresponds to the Russian Z ...
d<H it be =A F<@> as all that eyxen yxe noso
o reIer the action to the past a perIect inIinitive is used.
dAMFG B> B<P> OHA;H her beIore eyxen o sn ee tme
dAMFG B> B<P> L>>H @>FFEHC her the truth
d<H (DAMFG$ B> B<P> F>@ you down
The verb D<H expressing surprise is not used in the negative Iorm.
ThereIore the Russian negative questions oI the type - >UZ> ... is translated into English in
diIIerent ways:
a) by complex sentences:
d<H ET L> @B<@ UAM B<P>H_@ =>>H BENg
eyxen nt e nen ero
b) by diIIerent lexical means:
d<H UAM B<P> 'ai%ed @A =>> BENg
eyxen nt e nen ero
d<H UAM dis%i1e @B> LAAOg
eyxen n e ncx + r
d<H &obody B<P> =>>H BENg
eyxen o e nen ero
d<H B> B<P> &ever ;?E@@>H @B<@ F>@@>?g
eyxen o e ncn ncto
3. Reproach, implying that a person should have done something, or behaved in a certain way, but didnt do
it. This meaning is Iound only with the Iorm DAMFG.
ou DAMFG at least B<P> N>@ me at the station, DAMFGH_@ UAMg
118
In this sense DAMFG is interchangeable with NECB@.
4. Purpose. This meaning occurs only with the Iorm DAMFG in clauses oI purpose.
I wrote down the telephone number so that I DAMFG ?>N>NL>? it.
Note some set expressions with the modal verb a&2
3a&&o!+a&4! he%, doi&) sm!h. - He ory e ent uo-o
When I saw him I DAMFGH_@ B>FJ F<MCBEHC. - or x ynen ero, x e or e scextcx.
3a&&o!+a&4! b$! do sm!h. - e ory e ...
W D<HHA@ LM@ =MCC>=@... - e ory e nenoxt ...
^> D<HHA@ LM@ BAJ> B> E= ?ECB@. - ocecx onto extcx, uo... (e oxe e extcx...)
5&e a&&o! b$! #o&der - entsx e sytcx
as a& be - an intensiIying expression
They are <= JF><=>G <= D<H L>. - ouet (cmo) onontt.
W@_= <= MCFU <= D<H L>. - o eotuo yonno (yo cee necnt uo-no onee
onentoe).
May
155. This modal verb has two Iorms: may Ior the present tense and might Ior the past and as the
subjunctive mood Iorm. Thus the Iorm NECB@ is used:
a) in indirect speech according to the rules oI the sequence oI tenses (though the verb DAMFG is preIerable in
this case).
He told me that I NECB@ CA.
The librarian told the man that he NECB@ @<O> the book home.
b) in some syntactical patterns requiring the subjunctive mood Iorms:
However hard B> NECB@ (or N<U) @?U, he will never manage to do the same.
Ive brought you the book so that UAM N<U ;?E@> your paper.
I. f<U followed by the non-perfect common infinitive expresses:
1. Permission. In this usage it expresses the meaning @A B<P> J>?NE==EAH @A, @A L> <FFA;>G @A, @A L>
J>?NE@@>G @A.
ou N<U CA now (you are allowed to go).
f<U we F><P> this with you (Are we allowed to... Is it all right iI we leave it here)
In polite requests Ior permission NECB@ is used.
fECB@ I M=> your telephone, please
I wonder iI I NECB@ LA??A; your book.
d<H is now more common than N<U or NECB@ to express inIormally the idea oI permission, but may is oIten
used when talking oI ourselves.
f<UjNECB@ I help you
119
When the action was permitted and perIormed the expression ;<= <FFA;>G @A is preIerable.
When translating the story we ;>?> <FFA;>G to use a dictionary, so I took a ongman new dictionary.
2. Possibility of the fact (the so-called Iactual possibility).This meaning occurs only in aIIirmative
sentences.
ou N<U TEHG all the books you want in the National ibrary. (It is possible that you will Iind...)
The railways N<U L> ENJ?AP>G. (It is possible that the railways will be improved.)
The above sentence could suggest that there are deIinite plans Ior improvement.
f<U expressing possibility is avoided in questions and in negative sentences, instead D<H is used.
3. Prohibition (only with the negative Iorm oI the modal verb).
ou N<U HA@ CA =;ENNEHC. (ou are not allowed to ...) - He ce...
ou N<U HA@ >H@>? the room until I say so. - He ce...
The contracted Iorm N<UH_@ is also very rare.
There are other ways oI expressing the idea oI prohibition which are more common. They are NM=@H_@, D<H_@,
and GAH_@. fM=@H_@ and D<H_@ are oIten Iound in negative answers to express prohibition instead oI N<U HA@.
II. f<U (NECB@$ followed by any form of the infinitive denotes:
1. Supposition, uncertainty. f<U in this sense is synonymous with J>?B<J= or N<UL>, and occurs in
aIIirmative and negative statements.
This news is so strange that you N<U HA@ L>FE>P> it. (Perhaps you wont believe it.)
He N<U DAN> or he N<U HA@. (oxe tt, o ne, oxe e.)
She N<U HA@ OHA; that you are here. (Perhaps she doesnt know that you are here.)
Why hasnt he come He N<U B<P> L>>H BM?@. (Perhaps he has been hurt. We still dont know whether he
has or has not.)
Why arent you at the station They N<U L> <??EPEHC.
The non-perIect inIinitive indicates reIerence to the present or Iuture, that is, it expresses supposition or
uncertainty about a present or Iuture action.
They N<U <??EP> tonight or tomorrow.
The perIect inIinitive indicates reIerence to the past.
f<U (NECB@$ in the sense oI supposition or uncertainty is not used in questions, instead some other means are
used: Is it (he) likely ... or Do you think ...
W= Mary FEO>FU @A <??EP> tonight
hA you @BEHO he has already come
Note:
The diIIerence between the meaning oI the negative Iorms oI can and N<U1
He N<U HA@ L> EFF.z
It is possible that he isnt ill.
He N<U HA@ L> ;A?OEHC. z
He D<H_@ L> EFF. z
It is not possible that he is ill.
He D<H_@ L> ;A?OEHC. z
120
It is possible that he isnt working. It is impossible that he is working.
d<H p H>C<@EAH in these sentences denotes doubt, incredulity on the part oI the speaker, whereas N<U
expresses uncertainty about a negation oI some Iact.
2. Reproach. This meaning is Iound only in positive statements and only with the Iorm NECB@ as it is a
reproach made about something that has not been done and thus implies some unIulIilled action.
ou NECB@ at least ATT>? to help.
In combination with the perIect inIinitive it renders irritation (annoyance) that the action was not carried
out.
ou NECB@ B<P> AJ>H>G the door Ior me.
3. f<UjNECB@ partly loses its meaning when used in certain sentence patterns and is in such cases a quasi-
subjunctive auxiliary (see 80):
a) in clauses oI purpose:
Sit here so that I N<U =>> your Iace more clearly.
He died so that others NECB@ FEP>.
b) in clauses oI concession:
Y?U as he N<U he will never be top oI his class.
However hard he NECB@ @?U, he never managed it.
c) in object, predicative and appositive clauses aIter verbs or nouns expressing hope, wish, fear:
The doctor has Iears that she N<U HA@ FEP> much longer.
The prisoner had hopes that he NECB@ L> =>@ T?>>.
Here are some expressions with the modal verb may/might:
I may/might as well + infinitive is a very mild and unemphatic way oI expressing an intention.
I N<U <= ;>FF take you with me.
It can be used with other persons to suggest or recommend an action.
ou N<U <= ;>FF CEP> him the letter.
Might just as well means it would be equally good to and is used to suggest alternative actions. Though
the meaning is basically the same as in three previous sentences, just makes the sentence more emphatic.
- Ill go on Monday by a slow train.
- ou NECB@ QM=@ <= ;>FF ;<E@ till Tuesday and go by the Iast one.
- Ill do it at six.
- Thats Iar too late. ou NECB@ QM=@ <= ;>FF HA@ GA it at all.
Must
156. The modal verb must has only one Iorm Ior the present tense. It may also be used in reported speech,
aIter the verb in the past tense in the principal clause.
121
I knew I NM=@ go there too.
I. fM=@ Iollowed by the non-perfect common infinitive may express:
1. Immediate obligation or necessity, or an obligation referring to the future. This meaning occurs in
positive statements and questions.
We NM=@ L>CEH beIore Iive, or we shant Iinish in time Ior our supper.
He NM=@ NAP> the Iurniture himselI. I cant help him.
fM=@ you really CA so soon
In this sense the verb NM=@ corresponds to the Russian , Z, Z.
Do it iI you NM=@ (ecn yxo, ene).
I NM=@ CA now (e yxo ).
fM=@ expresses obligation or compulsion Irom the speakers viewpoint (unlike have to, which involves
some other authority than the speaker, such as oIIicial regulations, etc.).
ou NM=@ L> L<DO at 2 oclock. I want you to do some cooking.
ou NM=@ D<FF me Sir (I like it that way).
Obligations expressed by NM=@ reIer to the present or Iuture, in reported speech they may reIer to the past.
James said we NM=@ EHPE@> the Stewarts to dinner.
uture obligations can be made more precise with the Iuture indeIinite oI the verb B<P> @A.
W_FF B<P> @A ?><G it again.
We =B<FF B<P> @A CEP> you a new copy oI the book.
Since the negative Iorm oI NM=@ denotes a negative obligation or sometimes prohibition (sec item 2), it
cannot express absence of necessity which is expressed by H>>GH_@.
- fM=@ I CA - No, you H>>GH_@, iI you dont want to.
fM=@ is used interchangeably with @A L> @A Ior instructions, notices, or orders.
Passangers NM=@ D?A== the lines by the Iootbridge (the railway company instructs them to).
Applications Ior admission to the Students Room oI the Department oI Manuscripts NM=@ L>
<DDANJ<HE>G by a letter oI recommendation.
This card NM=@ L> =M??>HG>?>G with your room key on vacating Astor College.
All rooms NM=@ L> P<D<@>G by 11 a.m. and the keys handed to the porter on the day oI departure.
Guests NM=@ L> AM@ oI the building by midnight.
In all the above cases NM=@ is preIerable.
With a 2nd person subject NM=@ expresses an obligation which has the same eIIect as a command.
sAM NM=@ GA as you are told.
sAM NM=@ L> D<?>TMF.
sAM NM=@ CA now. I want to go to bed.
sAM NM=@ DB<HC> your shoes, I wont have you in here with muddy Ieet.
122
2. Prohibition. Such sentences are sometimes negative commands, corresponding to the Russian sentences
with *, v.
The girl NM=@H_@ CA home alone.
Its very late.
Cars NM=@ HA@ L> J<?O>G in Iront oI this gate.
ou NM=@H_@ GA that
ou NM=@H_@ DAN> into the ward, its against
the rules.
- enoue entsx oo oo.
- He semecx ocnnxt mt nee noo.
- He ene +oro
- entsx sxot n nny, +o snemeo.
3. Invitations.
ou NM=@ DAN> <HG =>> me sometime. - t oxsento onxt nect ex -yt.
ou NM=@ DAN> <HG B<P> GEHH>? with us.
ou NM=@ DAN> <HG =>> our picture gallery.
This use oI NM=@ renders emphasis to the sentence.
II. When combined with any form of the infinitive NM=@ expresses probability, near certainty. It has the
same meaning as the modal words J?AL<LFU, >PEG>H@FU. In this sense NM=@ occurs only in positive statements and
corresponds to the Russian modal words , Z '*.
He NM=@ L> N<G (it seems certain that he is mad).
He NM=@ L> FAH>FU (probably he is lonely).
With verbs which admit oI the continuous aspect, the continuous inIinitive should be used Ior reIerence to
the present.
Wheres Nell She NM=@ L> =ECB@=>>EHC HA; (she is probably sightseeing).
John isnt here. He NM=@ L> ;A?OEHC in the garden.
Jane is busy. She NM=@ L> J<DOEHC Ior the trip.
The perIect inIinitive indicates a past action.
Did you always live with your Iather ou NM=@ B<P> F>G iME@> < LM=U =ADE<F FET> (evidently you led...).
The perIect continuous inIinitive indicates the duration oI the past action, a process in the past.
It NM=@ B<P> L>>H ?<EHEHC when you leIt (evidently it was raining when you leIt).
They NM=@ B<P> L>>H ;A?OEHC all the lime. They look very tired (evidently they have been working all the
time).
6$s! expressing probability is not used:
a) with reIerence to the Iuture. Instead oI the modal verb the adverbs J?AL<LFU and >PEG>H@FU are used.
He will J?AL<LFU Ieel lonely.
b) in negative and interrogative Iorms. There are several ways oI expressing the negative meaning oI
probability in such sentences: by negative aIIixes, or negative pronouns, or lexically.
1. ou NM=@ B<P> misMHG>?=@AAG me.
2. They NM=@ B<P> L>>H i&<@@>H@EP>.
3. She NM=@ B<P> 'ai%ed @A ?>DACHES> you.
4. He NM=@ B<P> B<G &o DB<HD> to warn you.
5. The letter NM=@ B<P> &ever ?><DB>G them.
123
6. The letter NM=@ B<P> L>>H %e'! $&<H=;>?>G.
7. No one NM=@ B<P> =>>H him there.
8 . He NM=@ L> iME@> $&<;<?> oI the circumstances.
Besides the above mentioned shades oI meaning, sometimes accompanied by emphasis, the modal verb NM=@
may be used solely Ior the sake oI emphasis. In this case NM=@ is not translated into Russian, it merely
emphasises some action or idea.
Just when we were ready to go away Ior the holidays, the baby NM=@ D<@DB N><=F>= (eeo nyr
sonen otm, eeo nost sone otm).
OI course aIter I gave her my advice she NM=@ CA <HG GA @B> AJJA=E@>= (... o nyr no cen
ooo).
As we were starting ;B<@ NM=@ B> GA LM@ DM@ BE= TEHC>? (... o nost noext cee nnen).
At a time when everybody is in bed he NM=@ @M?H AH @B> ;E?>F>== (... o nyr nnmue ne).
To have to, have got to
157. As a modal verb to have to diIIers Irom the others in that it is not deIective. It can have the category
oI person and number and all tense-aspect Iorms, as well as verbals. It is Iollowed by a @A-EHTEHE@EP> and
combines only with the non-perfect form oI it.
As there is no through train to our town we B<P> @A DB<HC> in Moscow.
We B<G @A FAAO all over town beIore we Iound what we wanted.
She ;AH_@ B<P> @A ;<FO the whole way, will she
\<PEHC @A CA so soon we were aIraid oI missing the man.
\<P> @A builds up its interrogative and negative Iorms with the help oI the auxiliary verb @A GA.
hA UAM B<P> @A ;A?O so hard
hA UAM B<P> @A F><P> already
He GA>=H_@ B<P> @A L> B>?> beIore riday.
ou GAH_@ B<P> @A GA what your sister tells you.
Why GA>= B> B<P> @A CA there
The modal verb @A B<P> @A expresses:
I. Obligation or necessity arising out oI circumstances. It is similar in its meaning to NM=@ (1). It
corresponds to the Russian , 'Z.
She is usually short oI time so she B<= @A CA by air (e nxocx neet, o ntyxe neet).
My sister has a lot oI Iriends in diIIerent parts oI the country, so she B<= @A ;?E@> lots oI letters (e
nxocx...).
In the past tense B<P> @A indicates a IulIilled obligation.
We B<G @A GA a lot oI things during the week we stayed in the country (were obliged and did it).
They made such a noise that I B<G @A =>HG one oI the boys to make inquiries (it was necessary and I did
it).
\<P> @A replaces NM=@ where NM=@ cannot be used: a) to express past necessity or obligation, b) to express
absence oI necessity (in the sense oI H>>GH_@), since NM=@ HA@ means prohibition, and c) to express a Iuture
obligation, since the Iuture tense oI the verb B<P> @A makes the obligation more precise.
a) We B<G @A GA it again.
They B<G @A GA what they were told.
124
b) ou GAH_@ B<P> @A N<O> another copy oI the document, Miss Black; this copy will be quite satisIactory.
c) sAM_FF B<P> @A @<O> < @<IE iI you mean to catch the train.
\<P> @A as a modal verb can be used together with the modal verb N<U1
We N<U B<P> @A ;<E@ long here. - nosoxo necx onro sect xt.
Have got to has the same basic meaning as B<P> @A. The diIIerence lies in that B<P> @A usually denotes a
habitual action and B<P> CA@ @A denotes a particular action.
hA you B<P> @A C>@ MJ early every morning
\<P> you CA@ @A C>@ MJ early tomorrow morning
To be to
158. To be to as a modal verb is used in the present and past indeIinite tenses.
YA L> @A expresses:
1. An obligation arising out oI an arrangement or plan. It is Iound in statements and questions.
We <?> @A DANJF>@> this work by tomorrow. (Somebody expects it.)
I <N @A CA down in my car and pick up the parcels.
When E= the wedding @A L>g
When <N I @A DAN>g
Who E= @A L> @B> TE?=@g
The ship ;<= @A GADO on Sunday.
I ;<= @A N>>@ Mother at the dentists at 11.
The last two sentences in which @A L> is in the past indeIinite do not indicate whether the action did or did
not take place.
On the other hand this Iorm is the only way to indicate a IulIilled action in the past.
I ;<= @A N>>@ Mother at 11 (and I did).
The prize ;<= @A BAHAM? him Ior his great discoveries.
To emphasize that the action did not take place the perIect inIinitive is used aIter the past indeIinite oI the
verb @A L> @A.
She ;<= @A B<P> C?<GM<@>G in June, but unIortunately Iell ill.
The present indeIinite may signiIy an arrangement (especially oIIicial) Ior the Iuture, or reIerring to no
particular time.
The German Chancellor E= @A PE=E@ rance.
A kniIe E= @A DM@ ;E@B.
2. A strict order or an instruction given either by the speaker or (more usually) by some oIIicial authority.
He E= @A ?>@M?H to iverpool tomorrow (he has been given orders to return to iverpool).
ou <?> @A =@<U here until I return (I tell you to ...).
ou <?> @A GA it exactly the way you are told.
125
Note the diIIerence between to be to and to have to:
Soldiers B<P> @A =<FM@> their oIIicers (such is customary obligation, the general rule).
All junior oIIicers <?> @A ?>JA?@ to the colonel at once (an order).
3. Strict prohibition (only in the negative Iorm).
ou <?> HA@ @A GA that.
ou <?> HA@ @A @>FF anybody about it.
We <?> HA@ @A F><P> the place until we are told to.
ou <?> HA@ @A =NAO> in this room.
4. Something that is destined to happen or is unavoidable. It corresponds to the Russian Z,
.
I didnt know at the time that she ;<= @A L> NU ;ET> (uo e cyxeo tno ct oe xeo).
As a young man he didnt know that he ;<= @A L>DAN> < T<NAM= =DE>H@E=@ (ey cyxeo tno ct
set yuet).
II we <?> @A L> H>ECBLAM?= Ior liIe we should be on Iriendly terms (ecn neco ncm xst tt
cocex...).
e ;<= H>P>? @A =>> her again (ey ontme or e cyxeo tno ee ynet).
It ;<= HA@ @A L> (+oy e cyxeo tno cttcx).
Sometimes it may be translated by the Russian verb *, especially aIter the conjunction ET.
II we <?> @A C>@ @B>?> AH @EN>, we must start at once (ecn t xo n nonex, o csy
onnnxtcx).
5. Impossibility. In negative sentences or in sentences containing words with negative meaning the verb @A
L> @A implies impossibility. In this case the passive Iorm oI the non-perIect inIinitive is used, unless it is a
question beginning with the interrogative adverbs BA;, ;B>?>.
They <?> HA@ @A L> @?M=@>G.
Nothing ;<= @A L> GAH> under the circumstances.
He ;<= HA;B>?> @A L> TAMHG.
Where E= the man @A L> TAMHGg
How <N I @A ?>J<U you Ior your kindness
This meaning is similar to the meaning oI D<H and N<U.
Here are some set expressions with the verb !o be !o2
What am I to do? o e ent e tt
What is to become of me? o co om cecx (ye)
Where am I to go? y xe e entcx
Need
159. The modal verb need may be either a deIective or a regular verb. As a deIective verb H>>G has only
one Iorm and combines with a bare inIinitive. In reported speech it remains unchanged. As a regular verb it has
the past indeIinite Iorm H>>G>G and regular negative and interrogative Iorms.
There is a slight diIIerence in the usage oI regular and irregular Iorms. The regular Iorm is used mainly when
the Iollowing inIinitive denotes habitual action. The deIective Iorm is more common when one particular
occasion is reIerred to:
126
a>>G I GA it
ou H>>GH_@ GA it just now.
The teacher said that we H>>GH_@ DAN>.
hA I H>>G @A =BA; my pass every time
ou GAH_@ H>>G @A =<U it every time you see him.
a>>G I =BA; you my pass now
The deIective Iorm is mainly restricted to negative and interrogative sentences, whereas the regular verb can
be used in all types oI sentences and is thereIore more common.
a>>G expresses necessity. It is mainly used in questions and negative statements, where it is a replacement
Ior NM=@ or Ior B<P> (CA@$ @A.
hA you H>>G @A ;A?O so hard (GA you B<P> @A ;A?O so hard \<P> you CA@ @A...$.
It corresponds to the Russian Z.
ou H>>GH_@ GA it now. euc e yxo +oro ent.
a>>G she DAN> tomorrow yxo sn nxot
The negation is not always combined with the verb, but may be expressed by other parts oI the sentence.
I do&7! !hi&1 we H>>G N>H@EAH him at all.
I H>>G hard%y =<U that you are to blame.
In questions H>>G is used when there is a strong element oI negation or doubt or when the speaker expects a
negative answer.
a>>G she CA there (hoping Ior a negative answer)
I wonder iI I H>>G CA there, (statement oI doubt)
In negative statements H>>G Iollowed by a ,er'e! i&'i&i!ive indicates that the action expressed by the
inIinitive was perIormed but was not necessary. It implies a waste oI time or eIIort, and is thereIore translated
by , , '.
ou H>>GH_@ B<P> =J>H@ all the money. Now we've got nothing leIt.
x t non nce etr, e uey tno t ... .
We H>>GH_@ B<P> ;<E@>G Ior her because she never came at all.
euero tno ee xt. nce no e nmn.
The diIIerence between the two Iorms oI H>>G in negative sentences is as Iollows: the regular verb indicates
that the action was not done because it was unnecessary, whereas the deIective verb shows that the action,
although unnecessary, was carried out. Compare the Iollowing examples:
Didn`t need to do smth It wasnt necessary, so probably not done.
We GEGH_@ H>>G @A =<U anything at all, which was a great comIort.
She GEGH_@ H>>G @A AJ>H the drawer because it was already open.
Needn`t have done smth. It was not necessary, but done nonetheless.
ou H>>GH_@ B<P> =<EG anything. Then he would never have known about it.
She H>>GH_@ B<P> AJ>H>G the drawer. She Iound it empty when she did.
Ought to
160. The modal verb ought has only one Iorm. It is not changed in reported speech.
127
wMCB@ combines with the @A-EHTEHE@EP>. When Iollowed by the non-perIect or continuous inIinitive it indicates
reIerence to the present or Iuture. In indirect speech it may also reIer the action to the past.
ou AMCB@ @A L> <=B<N>G AT yourselI.
I told him that he AMCB@ @A GA E@, so he did it.
She told him he AMCB@ HA@ @A CA <;<U.
wMCB@ expresses:
1. Moral duty, moral obligation (which is not always IulIilled). It corresponds to the Russian .
ou AMCB@ @A FAAO aIter your children better (you dont always do it).
cneye ontme sotcx o exx.
I wonder whether I AMCB@H_@ @A =J><O to him.
He AMCB@ @A L> JMHE=B>G, AMCB@H_@ B>g
When used ;E@B !he ,er'e! i&'i&i!ive AMCB@ means that something right has not been done, a desirable action
has not been carried out, and it, thereIore, implies reproach.
ou AMCB@ @A B<P> B>FJ>G him (but you didnt).
cneonno t ey noout.
e AMCB@ @A B<P> L>>H more careIul (he was not careIul enough).
y cneonno t tt onee ocooxt.
Ought not + perfect infinitive means that something wrong has been done and it is now too late to change
it. It may also be viewed as a reproach.
She told him he AMCB@ HA@ @A B<P> GAH> it (but he had done it).
ou AMCB@H_@ @A B<P> F<MCB>G at his mistakes.
The opposite to AMCB@ @A is H>>GH_@ used to mean that the action is unnecessary.
We AMCB@ @A ;<=B the dishes, but we H>>GH_@ G?U them, because they will dry themselves.
2. Advisability (which is sometimes understood as desirability).
ou AMCB@ @A =>> a doctor.
We really AMCB@ @A LMU a new car, AMCB@H_@ ;>g
3. Probability, something that can be naturally expected. It corresponds to the Russian Z '*,
.
ou AMCB@ @A L> BMHC?U by now (you probably are, but Im not certain).
t, neoe, yxe norononct.
Apples AMCB@ @A C?A; well here.
ect onxt xoomo c xno.
II he started at nine he AMCB@ @A L> here by Iour (he will probably be here by Iour).
There AMCB@H_@ @A L> any diIIiculty (its unlikely that there will be).
Black Beauty is the horse that AMCB@ @A ;EH the race(... is likely to win ...).
In this sense AMCB@ is a weaker equivalent oI NM=@ when the latter denotes near certainty.
Ought to inIinitive is used when describing something exciting, funny or beautiful in the meaning oI W
;E=B UAM DAMFG.
ou AMCB@ @A B><? the way he plays the piano
128
Should
161. Historically should was the past Iorm oI =B<FF and both the Iorms expressed obligation. But in
present-day English they have developed diIIerent meanings and are treated as two diIIerent verbs.
cBAMFG Iollowed by the non-perIect inIinitive may be used with reIerence to the present and Iuture and is not
changed in reported speech.
ou =BAMFG L> NA?> D<?>TMF.
cneye tt nentee.
I told him he =BAMFG L> NA?> D<?>TMF.
cBAMFG is nearly always interchangeable with AMCB@ @A, as their meanings coincide.
It expresses:
1. Moral obligation, moral duty, which may not be IulIilled. cBAMFG is Iound in this sense in all kinds oI
sentences. However AMCB@ @A is preIerable in this sense:
All students =BAMFG =MLNE@ their work by present date (but some oI them dont).
yet onxt ct oy ceroxmey m.
Private Iirearms =BAMFG L> L<HH>G. Huoe oyxe cneye snet.
e =BAMFG JBAH> his parents tonight, but lie probably wont have time.
onxe nosnot, o, neoxo, y ero e ye nee +o.
II you see anything strange you =BAMFG D<FF the police.
cn t ynmt uo-o coe, t onxe ntsnt nonnm.
When used in the negative Iorm =BAMFG denotes a weakened prohibition, NA?> like &e)a!ive advie.
He =BAMFGH_@ L> =A impatient.
When combined with the perfect infinitive =BAMFG denotes criticism, faultfinding; the statement indicates
that something desirable has not been done.
our shoes are wet. ou =BAMFG B<P> =@<U>G at home.
ou =BAMFG B<P> JM@ more sugar in the pie. It isnt sweet enough.
He hasnt brought the book back, though he =BAMFG B<P> L?AMCB@ it last week.
A negative statement indicates that something wrong has been done.
ou =BAMFGH_@ B<P> GAH> that. It was stupid.
( e cneonno +o ent).
They =BAMFG H>P>? B<P> N<??E>G. They are so unhappy.
noome e cneonno (e yxo tno) xetcx.
e =BAMFGH_@ B<P> @<O>H the corner at such speed.
y e cneonno nonount s yron o cooc.
2. Advice, desirability. This meaning is more common with AMCB@ @A than with =BAMFG.
ou =BAMFG =@<U in bed.
yxo (cneye) next n nocen.
I think you =BAMFG ?><G this book.
ym, uo ee cneye (co) nouect +y ry.
129
ou =BAMFG DAH=MF@ a doctor.
osncx t t nuy. (ee cneye nostcx nuy.)
As is seen Irom the above examples, it is sometimes diIIicult to discriminate between the Iirst and the second
meaning.
3. Probability, something naturally expected (only with reIerence to the present or Iuture).
The eIIect oI the tax =BAMFG L> T>F@ in high prices (will probably be Ielt).
We neednt get ready yet. The guests =BAMFGH_@ DAN> Ior another hour.
oc nx n ny tme, ue uees uc.
Shall
162. In present-day English shall is not a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning oI
obligation with the Iunction oI an auxiliary verb in the Iuture tense.
As a modal verb =B<FF is not translated into Russian, usually its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.
cB<FF combined with only a non-perfect infinitive expresses:
1. Promise, oath, or strong intention. In this meaning =B<FF is used with the 2nd or 3rd person with a weak
stress.
It =B<FF L> GAH> as you wish.
ou =B<FF H>P>? OHA; a sad moment, enny, iI I can help it.
He =B<FF C>@ his money.
I want this luggage taken to my room.
It =B<FF L> @<O>H up at once, sir. - ro ceuc xe oecy nex, c+.
In the 1st person =B<FF in this sense acquires a strong stress.
I want that prize and I =B<FF ;EH it.
2. Threat or warning (=B<FF is used in this meaning in the 2nd and 3rd person).
That day =B<FF DAN>.
She =B<FF J<U Ior it, she =B<FF.
The child =B<FF L> JMHE=B>G Ior it. I wont allow it.
Anyone Iound guilty =B<FF L> =BA@ at once.
In the Iirst two senses =B<FF is used in aIIirmative and negative sentences.
3. A suggestion or offer
It is used in questions (and oIIers) in the 1st person singular and plural. Such sentences are translated into
Russian by the inIinitive.
ucB<FF W C>@ you a chair es, please. ec n cyn - oxnyc.
cB<FF ;> L>CEHg - s>=, lets. () ut - ne.
cB<FF W ?><Gg - Please, do. e ut - e, noxnyc.
The above three meanings are closely connected with the old meaning oI obligation which is at present not
common in spoken English and which is normally conIined to Iormal or archaic style (oIIicial regulations or
other documents).
130
The Societys nominating committee =B<FF HANEH<@> the person Ior the oIIice oI president (...onxt
ntcnt ...).
This meaning is Iound in subordinate clauses.
It has been decided that the nomination =B<FF HA@ B> AJJA=>G.
Will
163. ike =B<FF, will is not a purely modal verb. It almost always combines its modal meaning with its
Iunctioning as an auxiliary verb expressing Iuturity. ^EFF has two Iorms: ;EFF Ior the present tense and ;AMFG Ior
the past tense. Thus ;EFF and ;AMFG are looked upon as Iorms oI the same verb, although in a Iew cases their
meanings diIIer.
I. ^EFF combined with the non-perfect infinitive expresses:
1. Willingness, intention, determination. It is oIten rendered into Russian by , *,
. Would in this meaning shows reIerence to the past.
I ;EFF ;?E@> as soon as I can. ( eneeo nmy, onto cory.)
I ;EFF L> there to help. ( oxsento yy noory.)
I can and ;EFF F><?H it. ( ory ntyut oxsento +o ntyuy.)
When he was young, he was so poor that he ;AMFG GA anything to earn some money. (... o cornce tn
nmym oy, uo nosot.)
This meaning is oIten Iound in conditional sentences.
II you ;EFF B>FJ me we can Iinish by six.
cn nt corncect e noout, t oxe out 6 uc.
II you ;EFF ;<E@ Ior me Ill be very grateIul.
When used in the negative it denotes a reIusal to do something.
I ;AH_@ <DD>J@ your oIIer (I reIuse to ...).
They ;AMFGH_@ FE=@>H to me (they reIused to listen to me).
He ;AMFGH_@ <H=;>? my question (he reIused to answer ...).
2. A polite request or an offer. This meaning occurs only in questions.
^EFF UAM J<== the salt, please
^EFF UAM B<; some tea
In comparison with ;EFF the Iorm ;AMFG renders a greater degree oI politeness.
^AMFG UAM JF><=> pass the salt
^AMFG UAM JF><=> lend me your pencil
It is still more polite to use the combinations: ^AMFG UAM NEHG (p -ing Iorm), ^AMFG UAM L> =A OEHG <= to...
^AMFG UAM L> =A OEHG <= to lend me your book
3. A command (in military contexts it is a strict command).
OIIicers ;EFF ?>JA?@ Ior duty at 06.00.
ou ;EFF GA exactly as I say.
131
ou ;EFF CA in there and tell him that the game is up.
An impatient command can begin with ;EFF UAM.
^EFF UAM L> quiet - onumt, n t oen
^EFF UAM in the tag aIter a negative command can tone down the command (and is pronounced with the
Ialling tone).
Dont be late, ;EFF UAMg
But aIter a positive command ;EFF UAM has a rising intonation and expresses impatience.
Sit down, ;EFF UAMg
Shut the door, ;EFF UAMg
Shut the door, ;AH_@ UAMg
^AMFG is never used in this meaning.
4. Insistence, resistence. ^EFF and ;AMFG are stressed when used in this sense.
He ;EFF @?U to mend it himselI (he insists on mending it himselI).
With reIerence to inanimate objects ;EFF and ;AMFG show that a thing Iails to perIorm its Iunction. It occurs
in negative statements and corresponds to the Russian .
The door ;EFF HA@ AJ>H.
The orange ;AH_@ J>>F.
The engine ;AMFGH_@ =@<?@.
The wound ;AMFGH_@ B><F.
- net e otnecx.
- nentc e ouct.
- oo e snoncx
- e sxnn.
5. Inevitability, characteristic behaviour, quality, or something naturally expected.
What ;EFF L> ;EFF L>.
Accidents ;EFF B<JJ>H.
Boys ;EFF L> LAU=.
Truth ;EFF AM@.
- ey tt, oro e ont.
- ecucte cnyu esext (ecuct cnyu oxe noso
c xt).
- ntum ncer ocmcx ntum.
- ct e ymt.
This sort oI inevitability or prediction oIten occurs in sentences with conditional clauses.
II people study they ;EFF F><?H. (II people study they learn)
II litmus paper is dipped in acid, it ;EFF @M?H ?>G (it turns red).
This meaning cannot be rendered in Russian by any analogous modal verb.
Oil ;EFF TFA<@ on water.
Children ;EFF AT@>H L> TMFF AT FET> when their parents are tired.
This car ;EFF BAFG six people comIortably.
Thats exactly like Jocelyn - she ;AMFG FA=> the key.
6. Disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only ;AMFG is used. It is Iound mainly in responses.
It corresponds to the Russian [ Z*, Z.
I know she attended the place.
132
Oh, yes, =B> ;AMFG.~ - 7, uo eme oxo oxt.
He reIused to interIere. \> ;AMFG.~ } 6 ero noxoxe.
I dont like it and I dont visit the place. No, UAM ;AMFGH_@.~ (I didnt expect you would.)
ou ;AMFG L> F<@>R - 7, t onxt onosn.
ou ;AMFG TA?C>@. - oeuo xe, nt stn.
II. ^EFFj;AMFG combined with different forms of the infinitive can express prediction, a certainty about
the present or the Iuture (in a similar way as NM=@$.
YBE= ;EFF L> QM=@ ;B<@ =B> ;<H@=.
That ;EFF L> NU ;ET>.
This ;EFF L> AM? @?<EH.
That ;AMFG L> B>R
John ;EFF B<P> <??EP>G LU HA; (by
tomorrow).
- o, oueno, o, uero o xoue.
- o, oeuo, ox xe.
- o, neoe, m noes.
- o, neoe, o.
- xo nex yxe nee +oy nee (
snmey m).
In the latter case NM=@ is impossible as with a perIect inIinitive it has a reIerence to the past.
That ;AMFG L> EH !-, I think.
Why are you asking him
e ;AMFGH_@ OHA; anything about it.
Who is the man ou ;AMFGH_@ OHA; him.
- ym, +o, neoe, tno n 1910 roy.
- ue nt ero cnmnee
- x n o uo-no o +o se.
- x n nt ero see.
Note the expression:
You would, would you? - Ax, t
Dare
164. The modal verb dare may be deIective or regular.
As a deIective verb G<?> has two Iorms: G<?> Ior the present tense and G<?>G Ior the past tense. It is used
chieIly in interrogative and negative sentences. It has the meaning - @A B<P> @B> DAM?<C> or EHG>J>HG>HD> @A GA
=AN>@BEHC, @A P>H@M?>.
How G<?> he =J><O to you like that (I wonder at such impudence.)
How G<?> you =H><O into my room like this
He G<?>H_@ ;?E@> anything in case it isn't good (he hasnt got the courage).
h<?> you <=O him (Are you brave enough to ask him)
Thats as much as I G<?> =J>HG on it.
As a regular verb G<?> has a limited paradigm oI Iinite Iorms and no verbals. It may have two meanings:
1. To venture, to have the courage or impudence (like the deIective G<?>$. In this sense it is used mainly in
negative statements.
He GEGH_@ G<?> to stop me (he didnt have the courage).
She GA>=H_@ G<?> to answer.
hAH_@ you G<?> to touch me.
2. To challenge, to defy.
I G<?>G BEN @A QMNJ (I challenged him to do it).
I G<?> UAM @A =<U this straight to her Iace. - onoy, cx e +o nxo n nno.
Note the following combinations with the modal verb dare.
133
I dare say I suppose, no doubt.
I dare say you are right. - uet nosoxo, uo nt nnt.
I dare say he will come later. - onrm (noxny), o ne nosxe.
THE NOUN
165. The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things (book, table), living beings
(man, tiger), places (valley, ondon, England), materials (iron, oil), processes (liIe, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness, courage).
Semantic characteristics
166. Semantically all nouns Iall into J?AJ>? HAMH= and DANNAH HAMH=.
167. Proper nouns are geographical names (New ork, the Thames, Asia, the Alps), names oI individual
(unique) persons (John, Byron, Brown), names oI the months and the days oI the week (January, Sunday),
names oI planets (the Moon, the Sun, the Earth), names oI ships, hotels, clubs (Shepherd's Hotel), oI buildings,
streets, parks, bridges (Buckingham Palace, TraIalgar Square, Regent Street, Charing Cross Road, Piccadilly
Circus, ensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Waterloo Bridge), oI institutions, organizations, magazines and
newspapers (the United Nations, the New Times, the Guardian). They are written with capitals.
168. Common nouns can be classiIied into nouns denoting objects that can be counted and those that
cannot. So there are DAMH@ and HAH-DAMH@ and DAFF>D@EP> common nouns. The Iormer are inIlected Ior number,
whereas the latter are not. urther distinction is into DAHD?>@> nouns, <L=@?<D@ nouns and HAMH= AT N<@>?E<F.
Semantic classiIication oI English nouns is shown in the Iollowing scheme:
Concrete nouns semantically Iall into three subclasses.
1. Nouns denoting living beings - persons and animals:
LAU, CE?F, GAC, D<@.
2. Nouns denoting inanimate objects:
@<LF>, DB<E?.
3. Collective (coentte) nouns denoting a group oI persons:
134
T<NEFU, D?A;G.
There are some nouns which may be classiIied both as count and non-count. They oIten have considerable
diIIerence in meaning in the two classes.
Count nouns
Non-count nouns
He used to read <H >P>HEHC J<J>?.
She was < L><M@U.
They hoped to have JF><=<H@ >IJ>?E>HD>=.
I saw him in a group oI UAM@B=.
They wrappped up the present in L?A;H J<J>?.
k><M@U is to be admired.
He has a great deal oI >IJ>?E>HD>.
E> was speaking with the enthusiasm AT UAM@B.
A noun oI material used as a count noun undergoes a semantic change so as to denote: OEHG AT, @UJ> AT1 \>
TAMHG B>? G?EHOEHC 3hi&ese !ea8 ;BEDB =B> GEGH]@ FEO> LM@ ;B<@ DAMFG AH> GA, o!her !eas ;>?> DANNAH. The
same can be seen in the title A. Conan Doyle devised Ior a story /oJAH @B> hE=@EHD@EAH k>@;>>H @B> 9shes o'
!he :ario$s .obaos;.
Morphological composition
169. According to their morphological composition nouns can be divided into simple, derived, and
compound.
Simple nouns consist oI only one root-morpheme: GAC, DB<E?, ?AAN, ?AAT, F><T.
Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed oI one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes
(preIixes or suIIixes).
The main noun-Iorming suIIixes are those Iorming abstract nouns and those Iorming concrete, personal
nouns.
Abstract nouns Concrete nouns
-<C>1 leakage, vicarage
-<F1 betrayal, portrayal, reIusal
-<HDUj->HDU1 vacancy, tendency
-GAN1Ireedom kingdom
-BAAG1 brotherhood, childhood
-EHC1 meaning, cleaning
-EAHj=EAHj-@EAHj-<@EAH1 operation, tension,
examination
-E=N1 darvinism, patriotism
-N>H@1 agreement, unemployment
-H>==1 darkness, weakness
-=BEJ1 Iriendship, membership
-@U1 cruelty, sanity, banality
-@B1 growth, strength
-U1 diIIiculty, honesty
-(E$<H1 physician, Parisian, republican
-<H@j->H@1 assistant, student, inIormant
-<?E<H1 vegetarian
-1 reIugee, employee, payee
->?1 teacher, worker, singer
-EDE<H1 musician, politician
-E=@1 socialist, artist
-A?1 visitor, actor
-F>@1 booklet, leaIlet
->==1 actress, tigress, waitress
-EH>1 heroine
-EI1 proprietrix
->@@>1 usherette
The Iour suIIixes ->==, -EH>, ->@@> are Ieminine.
Sometimes nouns Iormed by abstract noun suIIixes may come to denote concrete things or persons as in
@?<H=F<@EAH (a process and its result), L><M@U (may denote an abstract notion and a beautiIul woman).
Compound nouns consist oI at least two stems. The meaning oI a compound is not a mere sum oI its
elements. The main types oI compound nouns are:
noun stem noun stem: =><N<H ($,
<E?N<EF ($
adjective stem noun stem: LFM>L>FF (*$,
LF<DOLE?G (' $
verb stem noun stem: JEDOJADO>@ (' $
gerund noun stem: FAAOEHC-CF<== ($,
135
G<HDEHC-B<FF ()*' $
noun stem prepositions noun stem: T<@B>?-EH-F<; (, *$
NA@B>?-EH-F<; (*, $
N<H-AT-;<? (' *$
substantivised phrases: TA?C>@-N>-HA@ ($,
JEDO-N>-MJ (5 $
Morphological characteristics
170. Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories oI number and case.
Gender does not Iind regular morphological expression. The distinction oI male, Iemale, and neuter may
correspond to the lexical meaning oI the noun:
masculine (names oI male beings) - LAU, N<H, BM=L<HG, L<DB>FA?, AI, DADOV
feminine (names oI Iemale beings) - CE?F, ;AN<H, ;ET>, N<EG, DA;, B>HV
neuter (names oI inanimate objects) - @<LF>, BAM=>.
The distinction may be also expressed by word-Iormation oI diIIerent types:
a) Ieminine suIIixes
->== (<D@?>==, BA=@>==, JA>@>==, @EC?>==$,
-EH> (B>?AEH>$,
->@@> (M=B>?>@@>$V
b) compounds oI diIIerent patterns:
noun noun stem pronoun noun stem
YAN-D<@
GAD@A?
GAC-A@@>?
N<F>-T?AC
DADO-
JB><=<H@
- Y<LLU-D<@
- ;AN<H-GAD@A?
- LE@DB-A@@>?
- T>N<F>-T?AC
- B>H-JB><=<H@
B>-;AFT
B>-DAM=EH
- =B>-;AFT
- =B>-DAM=EH
There are also some traditional associations oI certain nouns with gender. These are apparent in the use oI
personal or possessive pronouns:
a) NAAH and ><?@B are reIerred to as feminine, =MH as masculine:
It is pleasant to watch @B> =MH in BE= chariot oI gold and @B> NAAH in B>? chariot oI pearl.
At Iirst @B> ><?@B was large, but every moment =B> grew smaller.
b) @B> H<N>= AT P>==>F= (ship, boat, steamer, ice-breaker, cruiser, etc.) are reIerred to as feminine:
The new ED>-L?><O>? has started on B>? maiden voyage.
cB> is equipped with up-to-date machinery.
c) @B> H<N>= AT P>BEDF>= (car, carriage, coach) may also be reIerred to as feminine, especially by their
owners, to express their aIIectionate attitude to these objects:
cB> E= a Iine D<?.
d) @B> H<N>= AT DAMH@?E>=, iI the country is not considered as a mere geographical territory, are reIerred to as
136
feminine:
qHCF<HG is proud oI B>? poets.
But: II the name oI the country is meant as a geographical one the pronoun E@ is used. WD>F<HG is an island, E@
is washed on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean.
The category of number
171. English nouns that are inIlected Ior number (count nouns) have singular and plural Iorms.
Singular denotes one, plural denotes more than one. Most count nouns are variable and can occur with
either singular or plural number. In Modern English the singular Iorm oI a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural
Iorm is marked by the inIlexion -(>$=. The spelling and the pronunciation oI the plural morpheme vary.
172. Regular plurals
I. Nouns ending in vowels and voiced consonants have the plural ending pronouced as |z|:
bee - bees |bi:z|, dog - dogs |dgz|
II. Nouns ending in voiceless consonants have a voiceless ending:
book - books |buks|
III. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -as, -ch, -x, -z, (sibilants) have the ending |iz|:
actress - actresses |'ktrsz|
bush - bushes |'buz|
watch - watches |'wotzj
box - boxes |'boksz|
I. Nouns ending in -o have the ending |z|:
hero - heroes |'hrouz|
photo- photoes |'Ioutouz|
The regular plural inIlexion oI nouns in -o has two spellings; -os which occurs in the Iollowing cases:
a) aIter a vowel - L<NLAA=, >NL?UA=, TAFEA=, O<HC<?AA=, ?<GEA=, =@MGEA=, SAA=V
b) in proper names - yAN>A=, q=OENA=, lEFEJEHA=V
c) in abbreviations, OEFA= (kilogramme), JBA@A= (photograph), J?A= (proIessional);
d) also in some borrowed words: JE<HA=, DAHD>?@A=, GUH<NA=, iM<?@A=, =AFA=, @<HCA=, @AL<DDA=.
In other cases the spelling is -oes: @AN<@A>=, >DBA>=, a>C?A>=, JA@<@A>=, P>@A>=, @A?J>GA>=, >NL<?CA>=
Note:
Some nouns may Iorm their plural in either way:
oes/os: D<?CA(>$=, L<HQA(>$=, B<FA(>$=.
. The letter -y usually changes into -i:
=OU =OE>= |skaiz|
137
But the letter -y remains unchanged -ys:
a) aIter vowels:
G<U= (except in nouns ending in -quy: soliloquy - soliloquies).
b) in proper names:
@B> @;A r>?N<HU=, @B> >HH>GU=, @B> r<@=LU=V
c) in compounds:
=@<HG-LU=, F<U-LU=.
The word J>HHU has two plural Iorms:
J>HD> (irregular) - in British currency to denote a coin oI this value or a sum oI money:
Here is @>H J>HD> (in one coin or as a sum oI money);
J>HHE>= (regular) - Ior individual coins.
Here are @>H J>HHE>=.
I. Thirteen nouns ending in -f(e) Iorm their plural changing -f(e) into -v(e): the ending in this case is
pronounced |z|:
calI - calves
elI - elves
halI - halves
kniIe - knives
leaI - leaves
liIe - lives
loaI - loaves
selI - selves
sheaI - sheaves (cont)
shelI shelves
thieI - thieves
wiIe - wives
wolI - wolves
Other nouns ending in -f(e) have the plural inIlexion -s in the regular way: J?AAT - J?AAT=, DBE>T - DBE>T=, =<T>
- =<T>=, DFETT - DFETT=, CMFT - CMFT=, G;<?T - G;<?T=, ?>>T- ?>>T=, C?E>T - C?E>T=V the ending is pronounced |s|.
In a Iew cases both -fs and -ves Iorms are possible:
scarI - scarIs/scarves,
dwarI - dwarIs/dwarves,
hooI - hooIs/hooves.
II. Nouns ending in -th aIter a short vowel have the ending -s |s|:
month months |mns|.
Nouns ending in -th aIter a long vowel or a diphthong have |9z| in the plural: baths |ba:z|, paths |paz|,
oaths |ouz|.
But: youths |ju:s|, births |b:s|.
III. The plural oI abbreviations is sometimes Iormed in spelling by doubling a letter:
Ms (manuscript)
p. (page)
Mr (Mister)
M.P. (Member oI Parliament)
M.D. (Doctor oI Medicine)
- fcc
- JJ.
- f>==?= |'mesz|
- M.P.s |'em'pi:z|
- M.D.s |'em'di:z|
138
Co. (Company) - Co.s |kouz|
In a phrase like "Miss Brown" two diIIerent Iorms are used Ior the plural. We may either say "the Miss
Browns" or "the Misses Brown", the latter being generally considered more correct.
Irregular plurals
173. or historical reasons certain nouns Iorm their plural diIIerently.
1. Seven nouns distinguish plural Irom singular by vowel change:
man - men
woman - women
tooth - teeth
Ioot Ieet
goose - geese
mouse - mice
louse - lice
2. Two nouns have -en to mark the plural:
ox - oxen, child - children.
k?A@B>? has two plural Iorms: L?A@B>?= and L?>@B?>H, the latter being used as a religious term or in elevated
style to denote people oI the same creed, not relations.
3. With some nouns the plural is identical with the singular form (for details see 176, II):
a) sheep-sheep (onn/t);
swine - swine (cntx/);
deer - deer (onet/);
grouse - grouse (yon/).
This =B>>J looks small. All those =B>>J are good.
I bought < C?AM=> (three C?AM=> Ior dinner).
Therere so N<HU TE=B, they splinter the paddles.
Note:
There, are some animal names that have two plurals:
TE=B - TE=BjTE=B>=, JEO> - JEO>jJEO>=, @?AM@ - @?AM@j@?AM@=, D<?J KD<?JjD<?J=, =<FNAH - =<FNAHj=<FNAH=.
The zero plural is more common to denote hunting quarries (We caught only < T>; TE=B. We caught TEP>
=<FNAH. He shot iM<EF (neeneno) to make money), whereas the regular plural is used to denote diIIerent
individuals, species, kinds oI animal, especially Iish with the same name or insects or other small animals
which cause disease or damage.
The plant was covered in C?>>HTFU.
This animal is inIected with BAAO;A?N.
There are @B?>> C?>>HTFE>= on my hand.
Y;A F<?C> BAAO;A?N= were Iound in his stomach.
There were @;A iM<EF= Ior sale.
b) identical singular and plural Iorms are also typical oI nationality nouns in -ese, -ss: dBEH>=>, t<J<H>=>,
XA?@MCM>=>, c;E==.
We met < t<J<H>=>. We met N<HU t<J<H>=> on our holiday.
Note:
139
The word Ior people oI the country is the same as the plural noun; the other way is to use substantivized
adjectives in this sense:
Englishmen - the English Dutchmen - the Dutch.
c) two nouns borrowed Irom atin and one Irom rench also have identical Iorms Ior singular and plural:
series - series (x, cex);
species - species (n, noo, o)
corps |ko:| - corps |ko:z| (onyc, o noc).
d) names, indicating number, such as:
J<E?, DAMJF>, GAS>H, =DA?> (n ecx),
=@AH> (e nec: 14 rn. ]yon 6,35 r) and
B><G (ronon - norononte co)
have the same Iorm Ior both the singular and plural when they are preceded by a numeral, that is, they
Iunction as an indication oI a kind oI measure: @;A GAS>H AT B<HGO>?DBE>T=, TEP> GAS>H AT >CC=. YB> DBEFG
;>ECB= @;A =@AH>. wH> @BAM=<HG B><G AT D<@@F>.
But when they have no number as predeterminer they take the usual plural Iorm: GAS>H= AT @EN>=, @A CA EH
J<E?=.
4. A number oI Ioreign (particularly atin and Greek) nouns have retained their original plural endings.
Loans of Greek origin
Singular Plural
-is |s|
basis
crisis
analysis
thesis
parenthesis
axis
hypothesis
diagnosis
-on |n|
criterion
phenomenon
- ||
miasma
-es |i:z|
bases
crises
analyses
theses
parentheses
axes
hypotheses
diagnoses
- ||
criteria
phenomena
-ata |t|
miasmata
Loans of Latin origin
-us |s|
stimulus
nucleus
radius
corpus
genus
-i |ai|
- |r|
-era |r|
stimuli
nuclei
radii
corpora
genera
140
- ||
Iormula
antenna
vertebra
-um |m|
datum
stratum
erratum
-es,-ix |ks|
index
appendix
matrix
-e |i:|
Iormulae (or regular - Iormulas)
antennae
vertebrae
-a ||
data
strata
errata
-ices |si;z|
indices
appendices
matrices
|i:z|
or indexes
or appendixes
or matzixes

Other loan nouns
r. -ean |ou|
tableau
bureau
It.-o |ou|
tempo
-eaux |ouz|
tableaux
bureaux (or bureaus)
-i |i|
tempi (or tempos)
As can be seen Irom the above list some loan nouns may have two plural Iorms: the English plural and the
original Ioreign one:
memorandum memoranda
memorandums
Iocus Ioci
Iocuses
curriculum curricula
curriculums
Iormula Iormulae
Iormulas
cherub cheribum
cherubs
There is a tendency to use the regular English plural Iorms in Iiction and colloquial English and the Ioreign
plural in academic or learned language.
Sometimes diIIerent plural Iorms have diIIerent meanings:
index indexes (list oI contents oI books)
indices (a mathematical term - *$
genius geniuses (men oI talent)
genii (Iabulous spirits guarding a place - , ')
174. Plural in compound nouns
1. As a rule in compounds it is the second component that takes the plural Iorm:
BAM=>;EP>=, @AA@B-L?M=B>=, LAU-=DAM@=, N<EG-=>?P<H@=.
141
2. Compounds in -ful have the plural ending at the end oI the word:
B<HGTMF=, =JAAHTMF=, NAM@BTMF=, (though =JAAH=TMF and NAM@B=TMF are also possible).
3. Compounds in which the Iirst component is man or woman have plurals in both Iirst and last
components:
N>H-=>?P<H@=, ;AN>H-GAD@A?=, C>H@F>N>H-T<?N>?=.
4. Compounds ending in -man change it into -N>H in spelling. In pronunciation, however, there is no
diIIerence between the singular and plural Iorms, both having ||:
policeman |n| - policemen |n|.
Such nouns as r>?N<H, yAN<H, aA?N<H are not compounds, and thereIore they have regular plurals:
r>?N<H=, yAN<H=, aA?N<H=.
5. In compounds originating Irom a prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element
only the Iirst noun takes the plural Iorm:
>GE@A?=-EH-DBE>T, NA@B>?=-EH-F<;, DANN<HG>?=-EH-DBE>T, DA<@=-AT-N<EF, N>H-AT-;<? (noete on).
6. In compounds with a conjunction as a linking element the plural is taken by the second noun:
CEH-<HG-@AHED=.
7. In compound nouns Iormed by a noun plus a preposition, or an adverb, or an adjective only the Iirst
element takes the plural:
J<==>?=-LU, FAAO>?=-AH, DAM?@=-N<?@E<F, <@@A?H>U=-C>H>?<F.
8. When the compound is a substantivized phrase which does not contain a noun, the last element takes the
plural ending -s:
TA?C>@-N>-HA@=, L?><OGA;H=, =@<HG-LU=, C?A;H-MJ=, DFA=>-MJ=,
JEDO-MJ= (cnyute socn),
G?AJ-AM@= (eset),
CA-L>@;>>H= (noce).
Invariable nouns
Invariable nouns cannot change their number, some oI them are always singular in meaning (linguistics,
news), some denote plurality (cattle, police).
175. Singular invariable nouns.
1. Here belong all non-count nouns:
a) material nouns - @><, =MC<?, CAFG, =EFP>?, AEF, LM@@>?, =<EF. (As has been mentioned they may become
count nouns with a speciIic meaning: DB>>=>= - kinds oI cheese, L>>?= - portions oI beer, as @;A CF<==>=
A? D<H= AT L>>?, @;A DATT>>=, ED>D?><N=.$
b) absrract nouns - NM=ED, <HC>?, TAAFE=BH>==.
142
2. Proper nouns:
YB> YB<N>=, \>H?U.
3. Some nouns ending in -s:
a) H>;= - Here is the 10 oclock news;
N><H= - by this means (+ cecn)
C<FFA;= - They Iixed up a gallows (ncenny).
b) some diseases - N><=F>= (ot), NMNJ= (cn), rickets (x), shingles (cyx);
However sometimes the usage varies: fMNJ= E=j<?> < N>GED<F J?ALF>N.
c) some games - LEFFE<?G=, LA;F= (ront]), GANEHA>=, G?<MCB@= (mm);
But when used attributively no plural is used: < LEFFE<?G @<LF>.
d) some proper nouns - `FCE>?=, `@B>H=, k?M==>F=, lF<HG>?=, f<?=>EFF>=, a<JF>=, ^<F>=, @B> oHE@>G
a<@EAH=, @B oHE@>G c@<@>=.
|. Nouns ending in -ics:
DF<==ED=, FEHCME=@ED=, N<@B>N<@ED=, JBAH>@ED=, <@BF>@ED=, D>?<NED=, >@BED=, CUNH<=@ED=, JAFE@ED=, @<D@ED=.
Nouns oI this group are occasionally understood as plurals:
Their tactics ?>iME?>=j?>CME?> concentration oI troops.
Politics B<=jB<P> always interested me.
Plural invariable nouns
176. Plural invariable nouns comprise two types - marked and unmarked plurals.
I. In the Iirst type the Iorm oI the noun itselI shows plurality. These nouns are rather numerous. Semantically
they Iall into several groups:
a) names oI tools or articles oI dress consisting oI two equal parts which are joined: L>FFA;=, LEHADMF<?=,
L?>>DB>=, L?<D>=, TF<HH>F=, CF<==>=, J<H@=, JEHD>?=, JFE>?=, JUQ<N<=, =D<F>=, =DE==A?=, =BA?@=, =J>D@<DF>=,
=M=J>HG>?=, @ECB@=, @AHC=, @?AM=>?=, @;>>@>?=V
These nouns can be made singular and countable by means oI < J<E? AT1 < J<E? AT @?AM=>?=, < J<E? AT =DE==A?=.
Accordingly they are used with the verb-predicate in the singular (this pair oI trousers is ...)
b) miscellaneous nouns: <HH<F=, <H@ED=, <?DBEP>=, <?N=, <=B>=, @B> dANNAH= (@B> \AM=> AT dANNAH=$,
DAH@>H@=, DM=@AN=, DM=@AN=-GM@U, DM=@AN=-BAM=>, ><?HEHC=, CAAG=, CAAG= @?<EH, C?>>H=, BAFEG<U=, =MNN>?-
BAFEG<U=, N<HH>?=, NEHM@>= (AT @B> N>>@EHC$, AM@=OE?@=, iM<?@>?=, B><GiM<?@>?=, =@<E?=, =MG=, =M??AMHGEHC=,
@B<HO=, @?AAJ=, ;<C>=, ;B>?><LAM@=, @B> fEGGF> `C>=V
c) some proper nouns: @B> q<=@ WHGE>=, @B> ^>=@ WHGE>=, @B> \>L?EG>=, @B> \ECBF<HG=, @B> fEGF<HG=, @B>
a>@B>?F<HG=.
II. In the second type oI the plural invariable nouns the meaning oI plurality is not marked in any Iorm
(hence the term unmarked plural invariables). They are usually treated as collective nouns (coentte).
English collective nouns denote only living beings (T<NEFU, JAFED>, DF>?CU, D<@@F>, JAMF@?U, etc.) and have two
143
categorical meanings: the Iirst - p l u r a l i t y a s i n d i v i s i b l e w h o l e and the second - d i s c r e t e
p l u r a l i t y , that is plurality denoting separate beings. In the latter case these nouns are called nouns of
multitude. Thus, one and the same noun may be a c o l l e c t i v e n o u n p r o p e r and a n o u n o I
m u l t i t u d e .
The diIIerence in two categorical meanings is indicated by the number oI the verb-predicate (singular in the
Iirst case and plural in the second), as well as by possessive and personal pronouns. The meaning oI the
predicate is also important: predicates denoting physiological processes or states, emotional or psychic
reactions, states always imply separate beings involved into it. Compare the Iollowing examples:
Collective nouns proper Nouns oI multitude
The Iamily #as %ar)e
The cattle is in the mountains
The crew on the ship #as e<e%%e&!.
The crowd #as e&ormo$s.
The committee #as $&a&imo$s.
The Iamily #ere 'o&d AT !heir house.
The cattle are )rasi&) there.
The crew have !a1e& !heir posts.
The crowd #ere #a!hi&) the scene spell-bound.
The committee #ere divided in !heir opinion.
Discrete plurality is also expressed by substantivized adjectives denoting people:
@B> B>FJF>==, @B> H>>GU, @B> JAA?, @B> =EDO, @B> ;><?U, @B> ?EDB.
177. Ways of showing partition.
Many non-count nouns combine with a set oI nouns showing some part oI material or abstract notion. Here
are some typical partitives Ior material and abstract nouns:
a slice oI bacon
a slice oI cake
a piece
a lump
oI coal
a piece
a loaI
oI bread a piece
a lump
oI sugar
a piece
a stick
oI chalk a blade oI grass
a piece
a bar
oI chocolate a piece
a block
oI ice
a piece
a sheet
oI paper a piece
a strip
oI land
a grain oI rice a piece
an article
oI Iurniture
a pile
a heap
oI rubbish
a piece oI evidence
a Iit oI passion
a piece oI research
a piece
a word
oI advice
a piece
an item
oI inIormation, news
178. In some cases there is no obvious logical reason Ior the assignment oI various English nouns to the
count or non-count class. In Russian and English the attribution oI the corresponding nouns may be diIIerent.
Here are some cases when the classes oI nouns in English and Russian do not coincide:
English non-count nouns Russian count nouns
144
advice (they gave us some valuable advice)
news
progress (they are making slow progress)
research (do some research)
knowledge (you have a Iairly good knowledge oI the
subject)
cone/conet
onoct/onoc
ycnex/ycnex
ccneone/ccneonx, yux o
se/sx
English singular invariable nouns Russian plural invariable nouns
ink
cream
yeast
money
hair
Iruit
applause
chess
uen
cnn
oxx
etr
nonoct
]yt
nnocet
mxt
Note:
\<E? is a count noun in the sense oI , . l?ME@ as a count noun means OEHG= AT T?ME@1 G?E>G T?ME@=
O>>J FAHC.
English plural invariable nouns Russian singular invariable nouns
sweepings
clothes
greens
contents
odds
cop
oex
senet (onom)
coexe
neymecno (cnonoe)
The category of case
179. Case is a grammatical category which shows relation oI the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the Iorm oI the noun.
English nouns have two cases: the common case and the genitive case. However, not all English nouns
possess the category oI case; there are certain nouns, mainly nouns denoting inanimate objects, which cannot be
used in the genitive case.
YB> DANNAH D<=> is unmarked, it has no inIlexion (zero inIlexion) and its meaning is very general.
YB> C>HE@EP> D<=> is marked by the apostrophe s (s).
180. In writing there are two Iorms oI the genitive: Ior most nouns it is s (mothers) and Ior nouns ending
in -s and regular plural nouns only the apostrophe (mothers).
In speech there are Iour ways oI pronunciation oI the genitive case.
1. |z| aIter vowels and voiced consonants: a>C?A_=, GAC_=V
2. |s| aIter voiceless consonants: =@MG>H@_=V
.. |Iz| aIter sibilants: J?EHD>_=, QMGC>_=V
4. zero endings: CE?F=_, LAU=_.
The zero Iorm is used:
a) with regular plural nouns =@MG>H@=_, G?EP>?=_, GAD@A?=_V
b) with Greek nouns in -s oI more than one syllable:
Socrates |'sokrati:z| wiIe,
erxes |]S ksi: z| army,
145
Euripides ju'rpdi:z| plays.
In many other names ending in the voiced sibilant |z| the normal spelling oI the genitive case is with the
apostrophe only (though sometimes 's occurs too): kM?H=_ (kM?H=_=$ JA>N=, hEDO>H=_ (hEDO>H=_=$ HAP>F=.
Names ending in sibilants other than |z| have the regular |z| in the genitive:
Marxs |sz| ideas,
Tesss |sz| misIortunes.
Irregular plural nouns Iorming their plural by vowel change also have the regular |z| in the genitive:
Childrens games,
womens Iaces.
Compound nouns have s joined to the Iinal component:
the editor-in-chieIs oIIice,
my mother-in-laws garden,
a passer-bys comment.
181. A speciIic Ieature oI the English genitive case is the so-called group genitive when s can be joined:
1) to a group oI two coordinated nouns iI such a group reIers to a single idea (when two persons possess or
are related to something they have in common):
Mum and Dads room.
John and Marys car.
2) to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a clause:
the Duke oI NorIolks sister,
the secretary oI states private room,
the man I saw yesterdays son.
3) to a noun (pronoun) a pronoun group:
someone elses beneIit.
4) to a group ending in a numeral:
in an hour or twos time.
182. The main meaning oI the genitive case is that oI possession, hence the traditional term @B> JA==>==EP>
D<=>_. This general sense undergoes a number oI modiIications under the inIluence oI the lexical meaning oI
both the noun in the genitive case and the noun it modiIies.
The main modiIications oI this meaning are:
1. The idea of belonging: tABH_= DA<@, f<?U_= D<?.
2. DiIIerent kinds oI relations, such as:
a) relation of the whole to its parts: tABH_= F>C, @B> D<@_= @<EFV
b) personal or social relations: tABH_= ;ET>, tABH_= T?E>HG.
146
Besides the genitive case retains some oI its old meanings:
subjective relations:
dB>OBAP_= AL=>?P<@EAH z Chekhov observed;
@B> GAD@A?_= <??EP<F z- the doctor arrived;
authorship:
kU?AH_= JA>N, cB<O>=J><?>_= @?<C>GUV
objective relations:
d<>=<?_= NM?G>? Caesar was murdered;
tMF>_= <??>=@ z Jule was arrested;
measure:
<H BAM?_= @?EJ, < NEF>_= GE=@<HD>.
In some cases the Iorm s completely loses the meaning oI possession and comes to denote a quality, as in
N<H_= LFAAG, ;AN<H_= ;A?O (serving in works canteen or a transport caIe, is generally regarded as ;AN<H_=
;A?O$, his sly EGEA@_= =NEF> - ocx ynt, youve got <HC>F_= >U>= -rentce rns, this is a ;AN>H_=
DAFF>C> - xec onnex.
The use of the genitive case and its equivalent of-phrase
183. The genitive case is used:
1. With nouns denoting persons and animals.
tABH_= EG><, @B> =;<FFA;_= H>=@, @B> N<?>_= L<DO.
With other nouns (denoting inanimate objects or abstract notions) the of + noun phrase is used: @B> L<DO AT <
@?<EH, @B> F>C= AT < @<LF>.
2. With nouns denoting time and distance, such as NEHM@>, NAN>H@, BAM?, G<U, ;>>O, NAH@B, U><?, EHDB,
TAA@, NEF> and substantivized adverbs: @AG<U, U>=@>?G<U, @ANA??A;, etc.
a moments delay
an hours drive
todays newspaper
a weeks time
a nights rest
a months absence
a miles distance
a Iew minutes silence
yesterdays telephone conversation
With these nouns the oI-phrase is either impossible, as in the Iirst three examples, or iI it is possible the two
variants are not interchangeable.
todays papers - ceroxme rset
the papers oI today - rset ceroxmero x
3. With the names of countries and towns.
Britains national museums
Canadas population
ondons ambulance services
4. With the names of newspapers and nouns denoting different kinds of organizations.
147
The rM<?GE<H_= <H<FU=E=, @B> Y?ELMH>_= ?AF>, @B> DANJ<HU_= JF<H=, @B> TE?N_= >HG><PAM?=, @B> dA<F kA<?G_=
wTT>?, @B> CAP>?HN>H@_= JAFEDU, @B> A?C<HE=<@EAH_= >I>DM@EP> LA<?G, @B> r>AC?<JBED<F cADE>@U_= CAFG N>G<F.
5. OIten with the nouns ;A?FG, H<@EAH, DAMH@?U, DE@U, @A;H1
@B> ;A?FG_= @AJ CME@<?E=@=, @B> H<@EAH_= ;><F@B.
&. With the nouns =BEJ, LA<@, D<?1
@B> =BEJ_= D?>;, @B> D<?_= ;B>>F.
7. With nouns denoting planets: =MH, NAAH, ><?@B1
@B> =MH_= ?<U=, @BE= ><?@B_= FET>.
8. With some inanimate nouns in the Iollowing set expressions:
@A AH>_= B><?@_= DAH@>H@ (desire), <@ G><@B_= GAA?, <@ <?N_= F>HC@B, AM@ AT B<?N_= ;<U, < B<E?_= L?><G@B, <
H>>GF>_= >U>, <@ < =@AH>_= @B?A;, @A NAP> <@ < =H<EF_= J<D>, <@ @B> ;<@>?_= >GC>.
184. The syntactical Iunction oI the genitive case is that oI an attribute. It is always used as a premodiIier
oI a noun and is sometimes called the dependent genitive.
However there are some cases when the noun in the genitive case is not Iollowed by the headword and then
it stands Ior the whole noun phrase. This is the so-called absolute genitive. It is used:
1. To avoid repetition:
wM? BAM=> E= L>@@>? @B<H f<?U_= (than Marys house).
2. AIter the preposition of:
<H AFG T?E>HG AT NU NA@B>?_=, @B<@ DAM=EH AT NU BM=L<HG_=.
3. To denote shops such as @B> LM@DB>?_=, @B> L<O>?_=, @B> C?AD>?_=, @B> DB>NE=@_=, or institutions, where the
genitive is usually a saint's name:
c@ X<MF_= (Cathedral), c@ t<N>=_= (Palace),
or places oI residence:
<@ YENA@BU_=, <@ wFG tAFUAH_=, <@ NU MHDF>_=.
There are also cases (though rare) when a noun is modiIied by two successive nouns in the genitive case. It
is the so called double genitive, as in fU NA@B>?_= T<@B>?_= J>AJF>. The Iirst in such structures has as a rule the
meaning oI possession (@B> T<@B>? AT NU NA@B>?$, while the second may either have the same meaning (@B>
J>AJF> AT NU T<@B>?$ or other meanings as in: the boy's halI-hours run.
Syntactical functions of the noun
185. A noun may be used in the Iunction oI almost any part oI the sentence, although its most typical
Iunctions are those oI the subject and the object. It may Iunction as
1. Subject:
YB> =BEJ got under way.
2. Predicative:
He was certainly @B> L>=@ B<@>G N<H in the ship.
3. Object:
I gave him < JAMHG. Twelve dollars are enough Ior @B> N<H.
4. Objective predicative:
148
I Iound him <H excellent FE=@>H>?.
5. Attribute:
A dog is < N<H_= best Iriend.
6. Adverbial modiIier (usually as part oI a prepositional phrase):
\ECB <LAP> @B> DE@U, AH < @<FF DAFMNH, stood the statue oI the Happy Prince.
THE ARTICLE
186. The article is a Iorm word that serves as a noun determiner. It is one oI the main means oI conveying
the idea oI definiteness and indefiniteness.
There are two articles in English: the deIinite article the |i:| and the indeIinite article a |ei|.
D e I i n i t e n e s s suggests that the object presented by the Iollowing noun is individualized and singled
out Irom all the other objects oI the same kind, whereas i n d e I i n i t e n e s s means a more general reIerence
to an object. Thus when saying YB> LAAO E= < BE=@A?ED<F HAP>F or YB> LAU B<= < GAC or YB> @>F>JBAH> E= AM@ AT
A?G>?, the speaker treats the objects LAAO, LAU, @>F>JBAH> as speciIic objects, while saying < GAC, < BE=@A?ED<F
HAP>F the speaker characterizes the objects in a more general way, pointing out what kind oI novel the book is
and what kind oI pet animal the boy has.
The notion oI deIiniteness/indeIiniteness determines the important role oI the article in the process oI
communication. The deIinite article usually presents the notion as something already known, whereas the
indeIinite article introduces a new item of information. The presentation oI objects as deIinite or indeIinite, as
already known or as new, depends on the speaker or the writer, who by using articles establishes mutual
understanding between the speaker and the listener, the writer and the reader.
Since the article is a noun determiner and the noun is the headword in a noun phrase, the syntactical role oI
the article consists in marking oII a noun or a noun phrase as part oI the sentence.
The morphological value oI the article lies in indicating the substantivization oI other parts oI speech,
mainly adjectives or participles (see examples 1 and 2 below), also pronouns (examples 3 and 4), adverbs
(example 5), numerals (example 6):
1. More nurses were required to tend @B> =EDO and @B> ;AMHG>G.
2. Her hair was < L?ECB@ L?A;H.
3. It wasnt < B>.
4. He is such < HA@BEHC.
5 . There is < k>UAHG.
6. She was only just IiIty and looked < B<HG=AN> @BE?@U-TEP>.
Both articles have originated Irom notional parts oI speech, whose inIluence may be traced in their meaning
and use.
The d e I i n i t e a r t i c l e developed Irom a demonstrative pronoun, which accounts Ior its meaning oI
deIiniteness. The demonstrative Iorce remains in many phrases, such as <@ @B> @EN>, AT @B> OEHG, in its use beIore
restrictive attributes, and in some situational uses.
The i n d e I i n i t e a r t i c l e developed Irom the cardinal numeral AH>, The numerical meaning is
evident in such phrases and sentences as <@ < @EN>, EH < NAN>H@, ;<E@ < NEHM@>, HA@ < =AMHG ;<= B><?G.
The pronunciation oI the articles and the spelling oI the indeIinite article depend upon the initial sound oI the
Iollowing word. The indeIinite article is spelled as a beIore consonant and as an beIore vowel sounds. When
stressed it is pronounced respectively as |e| or |n|. However, since the articles are usually unstressed, the
pronunciation oI the indeIinite article is generally reduced to the neutral vowel || beIore consonants, and to
|n| beIore vowel sounds, which depends entirely on the pronunciation and not the spelling oI the Iollowing
word, as can be seen in the table below.
149
The deIinite article is pronounced as |i:| when stressed. When unstressed, it is pronounced as || beIore
consonants and || beIore vowels:
|| ||
the dog
the house
the European
the unit
the manuscript
the apple
the hour
the x-ray
the uncle
the MP
Since the article is the opening element oI a noun phrase, it is placed beIore the noun it reIers to or beIore all
the other noun premodiIiers. The exceptions to this rule are as Iollows:
a) the deIinite article may be preceded by the predeterminers <F@ and LA@B1
Are you going to cook <FF @B> D<O>= yourselI
kA@B @B> <H=;>?= were good.
b) the indeIinite article may be preceded by the predeterminers ;B<@, =MDB, iME@>1
^B<@ < =ECB@ I am in this hat
ou were =MDB < iM>>H, and I was =MDB < HA@BEHCR
ou are iME@> < =DBAF<?.
c) the indeIinite article is placed aIter adjectives preceded by the adverbs @AA, <=, =A1
That was @AA GETTEDMF@ < J?ALF>N Ior the child to solve.
Its <= CAAG <H >IDM=> as any Ior breaking it up.
Ive never seen =A NE=>?<LF> < D?><@M?> as Jane was at the moment.
The use of the indefinite article
The main Iunctions oI the indeIinite article are classifying, generic and numerical.
187. In its classifying function the article serves to reIer an object to the class or group oI objects oI the
same kind.
We saw < =J>DO in the distance. It was < =BEJ.
I am < =DBAAF @><DB>?.
Somewhere < @>F>JBAH> began to ring.
The door opened and < N<H entered.
Janet lived alone in < =N<FF =B<LLU BAM=>.
He was < N<H I would be glad to spend halI my time in hell with.
The noun preceded by the classiIying indeIinite article may be accompanied by pre- or postmodiIying
attributes. The indeIinite article is used so long as the reIerence to the class is preserved, as can be seen Irom the
examples below.
Ive read < HAP>F.
150
It is < P>?U EH@>?>=@EHC HAP>F.
It is < HAP>F by < NAG>N ;?E@>?.
It is < @>>H<C>? HAP>F about American boys.
It is <H >IDE@EHC HAP>F which is very suitable Ior staging.
But: It is !he novel our teacher mentioned at the last lesson.
Though mostly used with counts the indeIinite article may be used in the classiIying Iunction with non-
counts, unique and proper nouns.
or details see 192, 198, 201.
YB> NAAH ?A=> ><?FU. W@ ;<= < P>?U J<F> =EP>? NAAH.
188. In its generic function the indeIinite article implies that the object denoted by the noun is spoken oI
as a representative oI the class, and thereIore what is said about the thing, animal, person, or notion mentioned,
reIers to any object oI the same kind, as in:
`H ALFAHC has Iour sides, < @?E<HCF> has three sides.
` @?<N runs on rails, a LM= does not.
` BA?=> has Iour legs.
` =AHH>@ E= < JA>N AT Iourteen lines.
` FEL?<?U is < DAFF>D@EAH oI books.
The noun preceded by the generic indeIinite article may be modiIied by an attribute which restricts the class
represented by the object mentioned or narrows the scope oI reIerence, but does not individualize it.
` DANJF>I =>H@>HD> has two or more clauses.
` N<H ;BA FAAO= <T@>? @B> LAAO= EH < FEL?<?U is called a librarian.
The indeIinite article in its generic Iunction is oIten used in proverbs and sentences expressing a general
truth.
` T?E>HG in need is a Iriend indeed.
`H >F>JB<H@ never Iorgets.
As < N<H sows, so he shall mow.
With the nouns in the plural in this case no article is used. It should be noted that the generic Iunction oI the
indeIinite article, though akin to the classiIying Iunction, is diIIerent not only in its meaning, but also in its role
in the process oI communication. In the majority oI cases a noun with the indeIinite article in its generic
Iunction is the starting point oI the utterance, whereas a noun with the indeIinite article in its classiIying
Iunction used as subject or predicative presents a new item oI inIormation, which is the most important part oI
the utterance.
189. In its numerical function the indeIinite article retains its original meaning oI the cardinal numeral
AH>.
The Indian summer returned Ior < G<U.
OI course I wont say < ;A?G.
`H <JJF> < G<U keeps the doctor away.
` =@E@DB in time saves nine.
The numerical Iunction oI the indeIinite article is evident with nouns denoting units oI measure (time,
distance, length, weight, etc.): &- NEF>= <H BAM?, @>H =BEFFEHC= < U<?G. YB> ;E?>F>== B<G L>DAN> < @AH ;>ECB@. ^>
;<FO>G < NEF> A? @;A.
The Iunction oI the indeIinite article is also numerical in noun phrases with an ordinal numeral as
151
premodiIier, where the article suggests the meaning AH> NA?>, <HA@B>?1
In this Iinal chapter, we come to < @BE?G ;<U in which one may view these parts oI the sentence.
The indeIinite article in its numerical Iunction may signal a change in the meaning oI a non-count making it
a count. Thus <H ED>-D?><N, < DATT>>, < @><, < L>>?, < ;BE=OU, etc. mean < JA?@EAH AT, < CF<== AT, < JEH@ AT, etc.:
h<PEG B<= A?G>?>G < =>DAHG ;BE=OU.
The three main Iunctions oI the indeIinite article are interrelated, one oI them predominating in the context.
Thus in the sentence W_P> LAMCB@ < H>; GED@EAH<?U the Iunction oI the article is classiIying. The numerical idea
is implied, but it is not conspicuous enough. II the speaker is interested in number he must say: W_P> LAMCB@ AH>
GED@EAH<?U or W ;<H@ AHFU AH> GED@EAH<?U.
On the other hand when the article is used in its numerical sense, the classiIying Iunction coexists with the
numerical Iunction. Thus in the proverb `H <JJF> < G<U O>>J= @B> GAD@A? <;<U the idea oI number (AH> <JJF>,
AH> G<U$ goes together with the idea oI class (a kind oI Iruit, a unit oI time),
In the generic Iunction the ideas oI oneness and class are combined, but there is no reIerence to a speciIic
existing thing, person or notion. II we say ` @?E<HCF> B<= @B?>> =EG>= we mean AH> @?E<HCF> and < D>?@<EH DF<==
oI geometrical Iigures, but we do not reIer the Iigure drawn on the blackboard to the class mentioned. To
express the latter idea we must say YB> TECM?> E= < @?E<HCF>. The same applies to the Iollowing sentences: W
;<H@>G @A L> < GAD@A? where we deal with a classiIying meaning oI the article, but ` GAD@A? E= <H EH@>FFEC>H@
N<H - with generic.
190. There are a number oI set expressions with the indeIinite article. In most oI them the main Iunctions
oI the indeIinite article can be seen.
at a time
at a glance
as a result (oI)
as a whole
to be (to Ieel) at a loss
to have a mind (to do something)
to have a good time
to have a headache (a toothache, a sore throat)
in a good (evil) hour
in a hurry (but: in haste)
in a Iury
in a low voice
in a whisper
It is a pity
It is a pleasure
It is a shame
What a shame
What a pity
at a distance oI...
(but: in the distance)
at a depth (but: in the depth)
at a speed oI...
They were much oI a size
Birds oI a Ieather Ilock together.
many a time (not once, on many occasions)
many a man (not one)
The use of the definite article
191. The deIinite article implies that the speaker or the writer presents a person, a thing or an abstract
notion as known to the listener or the reader, either Irom his general knowledge, or Irom the situation, or Irom
the context. Hence, the two main Iunctions oI the deIinite article are specifying and generic.
192. The deIinite article in its specifying function serves to single out an object or a group oI objects Irom
all the other objects (things, persons, animals, abstract notions) oI the same kind. The speciIication is carried
out by means oI (1) a restrictive attribute, oI (2) the preceding context, (3) the situation or (4) the meaning oI
the noun.
1) A ?>=@?ED@EP> <@@?ELM@> is most useIul in singling out or individualizing an object (such attributes are also
called =J>DETUEHC or FENE@EHC$. It may be expressed by a single word, a prepositional phrase, a participial phrase,
or by a clause, all Iunctioning as postmodiIiers.
152
Somebody moved in @B> ?AAN <LAP>.
Im convinced Davis is @B> N<H ;> <?> FAAOEHC TA? (the very man).
YB> =@MG>H@= EH @B> H>I@ ?AAN are taking an examination.
That was @B> >HG AT NU TE?=@ QAM?H>U into the enchantment oI the past.
YB> N<H =@<HGEHC LU @B> ;EHGA; is my uncle.
I said nothing to Mr Smith. I think he was already rehearsing @B> =@A?U B> ;AMFG T>FF @A f?= cNE@B.
There are also postmodiIying attributes which reIer the object they modiIy to a class oI similar objects, and
in this case they require the indeIinite article beIore the modiIied noun.
` F>@@>? ;?E@@>H EH J>HDEF is diIIicult to read.
` F>@@>? ;BEDB E= ;?E@@>H EH J>HDEF is diIIicult to read.
In like Iashion premodiIying attributes, especially expressed by adjectives, have either descriptive Iorce in
which case they do not inIluence the use oI articles, or a restrictive Iorce due to their meaning. Those are the
limiting adjectives P>?U, ?ECB@, F>T@, ;?AHC, AHFU, AH>, AJJA=E@>, F<=@, H>I@ (TAFFA;EHC$, the pronominal adjective
=<N>, ordinal numerals. Their meaning speciIies the object well enough to exclude a possibility oI choice or
change within a class.
We got into @B> ;?AHC @?<EH.
Are we on @B> ?ECB@ ?A<Gg
He is @B> AHFU N<H Ior this position.
Morning light ... touched @B> AJJA=E@> =><@.
Thats @B> C?><@ yE@<. YB> AH> and AHFU yE@<.
My Iirst job was not a success. But @B> =>DAHG QAL was a sensational success.
Apparent exceptions to the rule are caused by a certain shiIt in the meaning oI premodiIiers, which may
acquire a new qualitative tinge. Thus <H AHFU DBEFG means < DBEFG ;BA B<= HA L?A@B>?= A? =E=@>?=, < TE?=@
ENJ?>==EAH or < TE?=@ <@@>NJ@ has its own qualitative peculiarities, a F<=@ FAAO is < T<?>;>FF FAAO, < =>DAHG, <
@BE?G, < @>H@B means AH> NA?>, <HA@B>?. In such cases the classiIying Iorce oI the article prevails. See the
examples below, the last oI which also suggests reIerence to a class, namely to the class oI books in their Iirst
edition.
I havent got Iour brothers. Im <H AHFU =AH.
Alec turned up as iI Ior < F<=@ FAAO at the retreating Iigure.
It was < CAAG TE?=@ ENJ?>==EAH.
What made him spot Boot Its < =EI@B =>H=>
He picked up < TE?=@ >GE@EAH oI The Torrents oI Spring.
Note:
There is no article iI the numeral is part oI a proper name: iIth Avenue, Sixty-Sixth Street.
2) An object or a group oI objects may be =J>DETE>G LU ?>T>?>HD> @A TEF> J?>D>GEHC DAH@>I@ (backward
reIerence). This use oI the deIinite article is qualiIied as anaphoric. The noun with the deIinite article may be a
mere repetition oI the noun mentioned beIore (see examples a) and b) below); it may be reIerred to the words or
statement just mentioned (ex. c, d), or may be a Iinal statement prompted by the context (e):
a) My wiIe always had < J<==EAH Ior owls. YB> J<==EAH_= grown since our marriage.
b) YB?>> FE@@F> OE@@>H= lost their mittens ... YB> @B?>> FE@@F> OE@@>H= they Iound their mittens.
c) My wiIe has leIt me. Dirk could hardly get @B> ;A?G= out.
d) Dainty spoke aloud. YB> B<LE@ was certainly growing.
153
e) My daughters getting married at the week-end, but I don't think I shall go.
ou dont like @B> N<Hg
3) One oI the most usual ways oI singling out an object or a group oI objects is =E@M<@EAH<F =J>DETED<@EAH.
Though the object is mentioned Ior the Iirst time, no attribute or context is necessary Ior the speaker (or the
writer) to point it out and Ior the listener (or the reader) to understand what object is meant.
AIter visiting a theatre we may say: W FEO>G !he <D@EHC <HG W >HQAU>G !he NM=ED @AA. AIter a Ilower exhibition:
.he TFA;>?= ;>?> =JF>HGEG. In many everyday situations: rA @A !he OE@DB>H. wJ>H !he GAA?. X<== !he LM@@>?.
>>J ATT !he C?<==.
When we say m>@_= CA @A !he ?EP>?, depending on the place we live in, it may be the Neva, the Thames, the
Amazon, etc. With reIerence to a certain school we may say: .he L>FF ?<HC <HG !he @><DB>? D<N> EH, or fE== ,
cNE@B D<N> EH.
II the situational reIerence is not clear enough to the listener, the speaker should employ another speciIier as
in the Iollowing: \EF<?U, ;AMFG UAM NEHG ET ;> TEI>G @B> G<Ug~ u^B<@ G<Ug~ =.he G<U TA? N> <HG d?U=@<F @A
C>@ N<??E>G.~
4) The deIinite article in its speciIying Iunction is used with MHEiM> ALQ>D@= or HA@EAH=. They are @B> =MH, @B>
NAAH, @B> ><?@B, @B> =><, @B> ;A?FG, @B> MHEP>?=>, @B> BA?ESAH, @B> >iM<@A?, @B> =AM@B, @B> HA?@B, @B> ;>=@, @B>
><=@.
YB> =MH sank below the horizon.
YB> =OU had cleared...
YB> NAAH is the heavenly body that moves round @B> ><?@B.
He sailed round @B> ;A?FG.
The use oI the deIinite article with nouns denoting unique objects is similar to the situational use, only
unique objects suggest situations on a larger scale. Nouns denoting unique objects are also similar to proper
nouns, especially to those originated Irom common nouns, such as @B> YA;>?, @B> \>?NE@<C>, @B> k?E@E=B
fM=>MN.
Though in the majority oI cases proper nouns are used without an article, thanks to their origin, various
historical processes and traditional usage, there are a number oI proper nouns which are preceded by the
deIinite article (Ior more examples see the list in 194).
Nouns denoting unique objects may be preceded by the indeIinite article in its classiIying Iunction when
some aspect or phase oI the object is meant or the word is used Iiguratively.
Its < BECB =OU tonight, big and pale.
The sun shone in <H MHDFAMG>G =OU.
Night had Iallen and I was guided by < TMFF NAAH.
She in turn had discovered in Cal inley < ;A?FG oI which she had never dreamed beIore.
It has always been < G?><N AT B>? FET>.
193. The deIinite article in its )e&eri '$&!io& reIers the Iollowing noun to the whole class oI objects oI
the same kind.
YB> FEAH is @B> OEHC oI the animals.
YB> @?AM@ - oh @B> @?AM@ K hes @B> ?><F OEHC oI Iish.
Only @B> JA>@ or @B> =<EH@ can water an asphalt pavement in the conIident anticipations that lilies will
reward his labour.
Since 1925 Mr Warren has made an outstanding contribution to American letters in @B> TE>FG= AT
>GMD<@EAH, JA>@?U, D?E@EDE=N, and @B> HAP>F.
The generic article suggests a very high degree oI abstraction in a count noun, the next stage oI abstraction
being achieved by the absence oI the articles, as with the words N<H and ;AN<H when used in a generic
meaning.
154
^AN<H is physically weaker than N<H.
This was more than N<H can be expected to bear.
Observe the diIIerence between the generic use oI the word N<H without an article (the class as a whole) and
the generic use oI the same word with the indeIinite article (a representative oI the class) in this quotation:
f<H is not made Ior deIeat. ` N<H can be destroyed, but not deIeated.
In many cases either the generic deIinite or the generic indeIinite article may be used. The generic deIinite
article expresses the idea oI the whole class, whereas the indeIinite article emphasises the idea oI any
individuals belonging to the class, e.g. YB> BA?=> E= < GAN>=@ED <HEN<F. ` BA?=> E= < GAN>=@ED <HEN<F. The
generic indeIinite article is oIten preIerable when a detailed description Iollows: ` J>?=AH ;BA J?>J<?>=
=AN>LAGU >F=>_= ;?E@EHC= TA? < JMLFE=B>? E= D<FF>G @B> >GE@A?. ` D?<H> E= < F<?C> LE?G ;E@B < FAHC H>DO <HG L><O.
There are certain contexts, however, where the use oI the generic indeIinite article is logically impossible, as
in:
YB> @EC>? is in danger oI becoming extinct.
YB> FEAH is the king oI the animals.
YB> <@AN was known to the ancient Greeks.
Singular nouns preceded by the generic deIinite or the generic indeIinite article correspond to plural nouns
with no article.
The tiger lives in the jungle. Tigers live in the jungle.
The generic use oI the deIinite article occurs with nouns denoting social classes (both singular and plural
Iorms), Ior example: @B> J?AF>@<?E<@, @B> LAM?C>AE=E>, @B> <?E=@AD?<DU, @B> C>H@?U, @B> ;A?O>?=, @B> JMLFED, @B>
J><=<H@=, @B> EH@>FFEC>H@=E<. The same applies to people belonging to some school or movement in literature or
art, Ior example: @B> ?AN<H@EDE=@=, @B> ENJ?>==EAHE=@=.
The use oI the deIinite article beIore substantivized adjectives in their collective or abstract meaning is also
generic: @B> JAA? z- all who are poor, @B> =@?AHC z all who are strong, @B> ALPEAM= z all that is obvious, @B>
L><M@ETMF z all who are beautiIul or all that is beautiIul, beauty:
Take Charley, Ior example. He has associated with @B> F><?H>G, @B> C>H@F>, @B> FE@>?<@> and @B> ?><=AH<LF>
both in rance and America. Three things will never be believed - @B> @?M>, @B> J?AL<LF> and @B> FACED<F.
194. Set expressions with the definite article:
the other day
the day aIter tomorrow
by the dozen (the score, the hundred)
by the hour
in the morning
in (during) the night
in the aIternoon
in the evening
in (the) summer
in (the) springtime
in the singular
in the plural
in the past, in the present
in the Iuture (but: in Iuture Irom this time on)
on the whole
out oI the question
all the same
just the same
by the by
by the way
to take (seize) smb by the shoulder
(by the arm)
to pull smb by the hair
to kiss smb on the cheek
(on the Iorehead, etc.)
to be wounded in the knee
(in the arm, etc.)
to keep the house (but: to keep house)
to play the piano (the guitar, etc.)
to tell the truth
to tell the time
155
to pass the time
195. List of proper nouns regularly used with the definite article.
I. Astronomical names.
The Milky Way, the Great Bear, the ittle (esser) Bear.
II. Geographical names.
1. The North Pole, the South Pole, the Arctic, etc.
2. Mountain ranges:
the Alps, the Pennines, the Urals. But single mounts take no article.
3. Rivers:
the Thames, the Hudson, the Amazon, the Rein, the Nile, the Neva, the Danube, etc.
4. Seas and oceans:
the North Sea, the Red Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic (Sea), the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the
PaciIic (Ocean), etc.
5. Canals:
the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, etc.; also the English Channel.
6. Some countries, areas, provinces:
the USA (the United States oI America), the United ingdom, the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the
Crimea, the Caucasus.
7. Deserts:
the Sahara (Desert), the Gobi (Desert), the arakum (Desert).
8. Parts oI towns:
the West End, the East End, the Soho, the City (oI ondon), the Bronx (in New ork).
9. The de Iacto capital oI the Netherlands:
the Hague.
III. Names oI public institutions (museums, theatres, hotels, restaurants), unique buildings and monuments:
the Tate (Gallery), the National Gallery, the Metropolitan Museum (Opera), the British Museum, the
ouvre, the Hermitage, the Prado, the Grand (Hotel), the Savoy,the remlin, the White House, the
Bronze Horseman, the Sphinx.
I. Names oI vessels:
the Discovery, the Titanic, the ueen Elisabeth, the Dolores, etc.
. Names oI most newspapers (in English-speaking countries):
the Times, the Washington Post, the Canadian Tribune, etc.
Absence of the article
196. The absence oI any article, which is sometimes reIerred to as the zero article, is as meaningIul as their
156
actual use. It is regularly observed with count nouns in the plural, with non-counts used in a general sense, with
proper nouns.
197. The indeIinite article has no plural Iorm and thus it cannot be used with nouns in the plural in any oI
its Iunctions.
The plural Iorm without an article corresponds to the classiIying and generic uses oI the indeIinite article and
sometimes to the generic use oI the deIinite article.
Jane is a student.
A dog barks.
A man who has nothing to say has no words.
The tiger lives in the jungle.
Jane and Mary are students.
Dogs bark.
Men who have nothing to say have no words.
Tigers live in the jungle.
II the idea oI number is retained, an indeIinite pronoun (=AN>, <HU, HA$, adjectives (=>P>?<F, < FA@ AT, N<HU$,
or a cardinal numeral accompanies the plural noun.
Have you a record teaching English pronunciation
There grew a cherry-tree once.
Have you <HU records teaching English pronunciation
They have =AN> (=>P>?<F, N<HU, @>H$ records oI the
kind.
There grew @B?>> (=AN>, < FA@ AT$ cherry-trees once.
198. Non-count nouns, abstract or material, when used in a general sense, are not preceded by any article,
as in:
YEN> will show who is right.
He has such BMC> J?EG>.
She said ;E@B <=@AHE=BN>H@, Where are you, Maurice
We walked Iorward EH =EF>HD>.
They greeted him ;E@BAM@ >H@BM=E<=N.
PremodiIiers oI abstract non-count nouns do not inIluence the use oI articles, they only restrict the meaning
oI the noun, as in: history - qHCFE=B BE=@A?U, N>GE>P<F qHCFE=B BE=@A?UV music - TAFO NM=ED, JAJ NM=ED, DF<==ED<F
NM=EDV art - NAG>?H <?@, <L=@?<D@ <?@V weather - H<=@U ;><@B>?, TEH> ;><@B>?V advice - P<FM<LF> <GPED>.
He doesnt love <L=@?<D@ <?@.
The same reIers to material non-counts L><M@ETMF =EFO, >H>@E<H CF<==, =@<EH>G CF<==.
However the indeIinite article is used with both kinds oI noun iI the classiIying idea predominates (`H
qHCFE=B C?<NN<? - a kind oI it, a soil oI it); with words denoting Ieeling the indeIinite article suggests a
maniIestation oI that Ieeling, with nouns oI material a particular kind oI the substance mentioned. In contexts oI
the kind non-counts are usually accompanied by descriptive attributes.
That, sir, was < J?ATAMHG OHA;F>GC> oI man.
He always had < FAP> TA? @B> DAHD?>@>.
I cant remember < @EN> ;B>H W ;<=H_@ J<EH@EHC ;E@B NU T<@B>? =@<HGEHC L>=EG> N>.
I was no good at Iootball, but does it make <H MHB<JJU LAUBAAGg
It is incredible to me that there should be <H <T@>? FET>.
She put down the mirror with < T>>FEHC AT BAJ>F>==H>==.
In nouns which may Iunction as both counts and non-counts the absence oI the article indicates a non-count
with general meaning, whereas the indeIinite article shows that it is a count noun, abstract or concrete.
Compare the meanings in such pairs oI nouns as:
m<HCM<C> E= < N><H= AT DANNMHED<@EAH.
157
W@ E= <F;<U= EH@>?>=@EHC @A =@MGU < TA?>ECH F<HCM<C>.
mECB@ E= H>D>==<?U TA? FET>.
YB>U =<; < FECB@ EH @B> GE=@<HD>.
Absence oI the article beIore an originally count noun may suggest a shiIt in its meaning. Thus in @A @><DB
JE<HA (PEAFEH$ the noun JE<HA means a subject to be taught, just as BE=@A?U, FE@>?<@M?>, etc., whereas in @A JF<U @B>
JE<HA the noun JE<HA denotes a musical instrument with the article in its generic Iunction. In such expressions
as @A CA @A =DBAAF, @A L> <@ =DBAAF the adverbial meaning predominates and the noun loses its nominal quality.
II partition or indeIinite amount is meant, it is expressed by an indeIinite pronoun (=AN>, <HU$ or a partitive
noun (< JE>D>, <H E@>N, < LE@$. With material nouns partitive meaning is also expressed with the help oI nouns
denoting measure or amount (< DMJ AT @><, < CF<== AT NEFO, < JEH@ AT L>>?, < =FED> AT L?><G, < FA<T AT L?><G, <
=JAAHTMF AT N>GEDEH>, < =<DO AT DA<F, etc.).
All non-counts can be preceded by the deIinite article in its speciIying Iunction. Thus we say @B> <?@ AT @B>
HEH>@>>H@B D>H@M?U, @B> NM=ED AT @B> y>H<E==<HD>, @B> BE=@A?U AT qHCF<HG, (but: English history) @B> BE=@A?U AT
@B> fEGGF> `C>=, and also: ^B<@_= @B> ;><@B>? FEO> @AG<Ug \A; GEG UAM FEO> @B> NM=EDg
Note the diIIerence between qHCFE=B (rench, Spanish) FE@>?<@M?> and @B> qHCFE=B (rench, Spanish)
F<HCM<C>. Here FE@>?<@M?> is a non-count, whereas the word F<HCM<C> is used as a count noun. The adjectives
operate as speciIiers restricting the abstract notion oI language to one particular language.
Compare also the use oI EH G<?OH>==, EH @B> G<?OH>==. The Iirst suggests the state oI darkness as such, the
second is situationally or contextually determined, as in these two examples: YB> U<?G <HG @B> F<H> AM@=EG> E@
;>?> EH G<?OH>==. WH @B> G<?OH>== B> DAMFG GE=D>?H @B> TECM?> AT @B> ;<@DBN<H.
199. Proper names point out individual objects. Their individualizing meaning makes the use oI an article
unnecessary. All proper names oI living beings are =E@M<@EAH<FFU =J>DETE>G (when we say YAN, f<?U, f?=
k?A;H, f? ^EF=AH, etc.), Ior there are hundreds iI not thousands oI people bearing the same name.
When a proper name is preceded by a modiIier no article is used in case the latter denotes a title,
relationship, or rank, or iI the proper name is accompanied by adjectives which sometimes Iorm part oI it:
=ENJF> cENAH, FMDOU tEN, AFG tAFUAH, UAMHC tAFUAH, JAA? cNE@B, fE== hAG=AH, fE=@>? k?A;H, dAFAH>F
XEDO>?EHC, M>>H qFE=<L>@B, X?AT>==A? tAH>=, X?>=EG>H@ >HH>GU, hAD@A? f<H=AH.
When modiIied by other adjectives, not commonly used, proper names may take the deIinite article.
Use of the definite article before proper names
200. The deIinite article is necessary:
1. When additional speciIication is needed. This is realized with a restricting attribute, usually Iormed as an
oI-phrase or a clause, or with the deIinite article alone, or a premodiIier operating as one:
Gloria at twenty-six was still @B> rFA?E< oI twenty.
Did Bait understand @B> qHCF<HG oI today
Thats not @B> r>A?C> m<NL I knew.
ou are @B> f? fM?G=@AH> who married the widow oI my late nephew said my aunt.
Why, shes Sue Courtenay, Gladys inIormed her uncle impressively.
YB> cM> dAM?@>H<UR Why, dont you know her
Capn it, thats my name. What YB> d<J@<EH E@g Ocourse Ive heard oI him.
2. When the speciIying premodiIier denotes a proIession or points out some peculiar Ieature or temporary
state (oIten expressed by a participle): @B> JF<U;?ECB@ XEH@>?, @B> J<EH@>? y>UHAFG=, @B> >F>D@?EDE<H cNE@B, @B>
MH=AJBE=@ED<@>G E@@U, @B> =M=D>J@ELF> f? cHAGC?<==, @B> JMSSF>G \>H?U, @B> D<FDMF<@EHC k>DOU, @B> L?EFFE<H@
r>A?C> w=LA?H>, @B> ATT>HG>G cA<N>=.
158
3. BeIore a group oI objects or persons bearing the same name and Iorming one whole: YB> X>HHEH>=, @B>
`FJ=, @B> yADOE>=, @B> o?<F= - a group oI mountains, a mountain range; @B> k?E@E=B W=F>=, @B> XBEFEJJEH>=, @B>
d<H<?E>=, @B> \>L?EG>=, @B> cB>@F<HG= - < group oI islands, an archipelago; @B> k?A;H=, @B>YMFFEP>?= - a Iamily, a
clan, as in: @B> hAL=AH= ;>?> < P>?U ?>=J>D@<LF> T<NEFU EHG>>G.
The absence oI the article beIore a plural proper name suggests a mere plurality, as in: YB>?> <?> < FA@ AT
^EF=AH=, k?A;H= <HG cNE@B= EH qHCF<HG.
4. BeIore proper nouns Iormed by means oI substantivized adjectives: @B> X<DETED (ocean), @B> `@F<H@ED
(ocean), @B> f>GE@>??<H><H (Sea), @B> `?C>H@EH> (Republic), but `?C>H@EH< (because it is a proper name).
5. BeIore nicknames: @B> r<GTFU, @B> cDAM@.
Use of the indefinite article before proper names
201. The indeIinite article is necessary:
1. When the person mentioned belongs to the Iamily bearing the same name:
Mrs Tulliver had been a fE== hAG=AH...
No daughter oI the house could be indiIIerent oI having been born < hAG=AH, rather than < rEL=AH or a
^<@=AH.
2. When nothing is known about the person mentioned but the name.
This usage corresponds to the Russian word e.
Theres a young American girl staying at the hotel. Shes < fE== y>HG>?.
3. When an originally proper name comes to be used as a common noun (usually as a result oI metonymy or
metaphor), as in:
This man doesnt know < yML>H= Irom < y>NL?<HG@ (pictures oI these painters).
There is in Garys work the naturalness and zest oI a h>TA>, the generosity oI < lE>FGEHC (like that oI
DeIoe, like that oI ielding).
Everybody isnt < f<?U XEDOTA?G (a Iilm star like Mary PickIbrd).
He was < d?M=A> with no need to look Ior Iootprints in the sand (a man like Crusoe).
Have a cigar. II it is < ?><F \<P<H<._
4. When some phase, aspect, or state is meant, whether it reIers to a living being or a geographical place:
John was inside, < P>?U GETT>?>H@ tABH Irom the lad he had known seven years ago.
And now here was Gullivers girl Barbara, that mournIul-eyed waiI Irom <H MHB<JJU l?<HD>.
So at night Castle dreamt oI < cAM@B `T?ED< reconstructed with hatred.
(Compare with the same use oI the indeIinite article beIore unique and non-count nouns.)
202. Absence of the articles in set expressions
at dinner (breakIast, etc.)
at Iirst notice
at Iirst sight
at night
at table
at war
in search oI
in spite oI
159
by airmail
by letter
by telegram
by air
by car
by land
by plane
by sea
by ship (boat)
by train
by tram
by tube
by water
out oI date
out oI order
out oI place
out oI sight
arm in arm
day aIter day
day by day
hand in hand
night aIter night
night by night
a kind oI
a sort oI
place,
book,
task, etc.
by accident
by chance
by mistake
by name
by sight
on account oI
on condition that
to be in
to go to
bed
Irom beginning to end
Irom day to day
Irom east to west
Irom head to Ioot
Irom morning to (till) night
Irom side to side
in debt
in demand
in secret
in sight
in time
to be at
to go to
to come to
to come Irom
to leave
school,
college,
(the) university
to be at
to leave
to take to
hospital
to be at
to go to sea
in addition to
in (on) behalI oI
in care oI
in case oI
in charge oI
in reIerence to
to be in
to go to church
to be at
to put to prison
to be in
to be out oI
to go to
town
to ask (Ior) permission
to catch (lose) sight oI
to give oIIence (permission)
to give way to
to keep house (to do housework)
to keep time
to lose touch with
to lose track oI
to make Iun oI
to make use oI
to pay attention to
to set Iire to
to shake hands with
to take care oI
to take notice oI
In these set expressions nouns combine with prepositions or verbs and acquire a new shade oI meaning,
expressing an adverbial relation, a state or a process. Concrete count nouns lose their nominal meaning. Thus
\> E= i& bed may mean \> E= EFF, or \> E= <=F>>J, or \> E= HA@ MJ. But we say: YB>?> ;>?> HA DB<E?= >HAMCB <HG
;> =<@ AH !he bed.
160
fU L?A@B>? CA>= !o shoo% (college) means \> F><?H= @B>?>. However, iI we mean the building or the
institution, we use an article according to the general rules, as in: ^> =B<FF N>>@ <@ !he shoo%. .he shoo% E=H]@
T<? T?AN AM? BAN>. wM?= E= < P>?U )ood shoo%. X<?>H@= <?> ?>CMF<?FU EHPE@>G @A !he shoo%.
The noun @A;H without an article means the nearest big centre oI population as contrasted to the country or a
smaller town, it may also denote the central part oI a big town, as opposed to its suburbs.
YA L> <@ =>< may mean "Iar away Irom the land" or (Iiguratively) "to Ieel puzzled"; @A CA @A =>< is "to
become a sailor". But we say: YB> =;ENN>? QMNJ>G EH@A @B> =><. ^> FEP>G H><? @B> =><, etc.
No article is used as a rule when two notions, very closely related, are mentioned, as in:
They looked like NA@B>? <HG G<MCB@>?.
We are no longer LAU <HG CE?F.
Its no use interIering into a quarrel between BM=L<HG <HG ;ET>.
203. Notes on the use of nouns denoting time and meals.
Nouns denoting time are treated as abstract nouns bordering on proper names. No article is used with
reIerence to J<?@= AT @B> G<U or AT @B> U><?, FECB@ A? G<?OH>==, as in:
qP>HEHC came. aECB@ Iell. h<U broke. Well wait till HECB@. Y;EFECB@ is the Iaint light just beIore =MH=>@ and
just aIter =MH?E=>. ^EH@>? set in. II ^EH@>? comes, can cJ?EHC be Iar behind
It was ><?FU NA?HEHC (F<@> <T@>?HAAH, l?EG<U NA?HEHC, c<@M?G<U HECB@, etc.).
It was ><?FU =J?EHC (F<@> <M@MNH, etc.).
They met <@ HAAH (<@ =MH=>@, <@ NEGHECB@$.
However articles may occur with such words according to the common usage oI the articles in their (a)
speciIying, (b) generic, (c) classiIying or (d) numerical Iunctions.
a) YB> >P>HEHC was calm. YB> ;EH@>? is severe this year.
YB> @;EFECB@ was sad and cloudy.
We stayed at my aunts Ior @B> HECB@. (o outm, n y out)
We watched @B> =MH?E=> Irom the balcony.
YB> ;EH@>? oI 1978 was severe.
It happened on @B> NA?HEHC oI April 12th.
b) Evening is the latest part oI @B> G<U.
Tell me the Iour seasons oI @B> U><?R
c) It was a ;AHG>?TMF G<U (< BA@ =MNN>?, < ;<?N NA?HEHC, < CFAANU <T@>?HAAH, < CFA?EAM= =MH?E=>, etc.).
That was < ?>=@F>== HECB@.
d) Ill ring you up in < G<U or two.
When names oI meals denote simply an occasion or process oI taking Iood, they are used without an article
in phrases and patterns, such as:
to have (take, serve, cook) GEHH>?, L?><OT<=@, FMHDB, =MJJ>?V
to go to (to be at) GEHH>?, FMHDB, etc.;
mMHDB is at two p.m.
hEHH>? E= ?><GU (served, laid).
What have you bought Ior FMHDB (GEHH>?, =MJJ>?$
What shall we have Ior =MJJ>? (GEHH>?$g
An article is used mainly when a Iormal meal is meant or when the notion reIerred to is speciIied or
classiIied.
161
They gave < GEHH>? (FMHDB>AH, =MJJ>?$ in honour oI the ambassador (a kind oI reception)
YB> GEHH>? you cooked was beyond all expectations It was a N<?P>FFAM= GEHH>?.
Note on the use of &e<! and %as! as noun premodifiers
204. Nouns with these premodiIiers are not preceded by any articles when counting Irom the moment oI
speaking, as in;
Well speak about it H>I@ @EN> (H>I@ l?EG<U, H>I@ NAH@B, H>I@ =J?EHC, H>I@ U><?$1
We spoke about it F<=@ @EN> (F<=@ l?EG<U, F<=@ NAH@B, etc.).
The deIinite article occurs when the situation is viewed Irom some moment in the past or in the Iuture and
when the noun is modiIied by a speciIying attribute or attributive clause.
We spent (or: well spend) a week in the Crimea, and @B> H>I@ @;A ;>>O= in the Caucasus.
YB> F<=@ @EN> W =<; f<?U she looked a picture oI health.
We shall resume our talk @B> H>I@ @EN> W =>> UAM.
Omission of the articles
205. The omission oI an article diIIers Irom the absence oI an article in that it is stylistically or traditionally
determined. It occurs in cases where economy oI expression is required and is oIten accompanied by other
ellipses, such as omission oI prepositions, auxiliaries, etc.
1. In newspaper headlines:
brE?F =<; lF<N>_, bdY E= ;EHHEHC lE?>=EG> k<@@F>_.
(Cp. the text oI the newspaper report that Iollows the headline: Commercial television is winning the
battle oI the Iireside.)
2. In telegrams:
`@@>HGEHC DU@AFACED<F DAHC?>== yAN> ;EFF =@AJ T>; G<U= AH ;<U FAP> tABH.
3. In newspaper announcements:
`HH< mEHG>H, G<MCB@>? AT < f<HDB>=@>? >HCEH>>?, N<G> B>? G>LM@...
4. In stage directions:
`@ ?E=> AT DM?@<EH... CA>= @A @>F>JBAH>V =@<HG= <@ GAA?.
5. In reIerence entries or notes:
c>> @<LF> Y<IAHANED dF<==ETED<@EAH AH TAFFA;EHC J<C>.
\>FFN<H, mEFE<H, `N>?ED<H G?<N<@E=@, <M@BA? AT < =MDD>==EAH AT G?<N<= ...
Use of the articles with nouns in some syntactical functions
206. 1. A noun in the subject position is usually preceded by the deIinite article in its speciIying Iunction,
or by either oI the articles in their generic Iunction. In these cases the noun denotes some notion Iorming the
starting point oI the utterance and thereIore is presented as known to both the speaker and the addressee.
YB> ;<U was long. YB> ;EHG was cold.
YB> NEH=@?>F was inIirm and old.
The indeIinite article in its classiIying Iunction occurs to express the idea oI novelty or unexpectedness, no
matter what the position oI the subject is:
162
On the opposite side oI the landing < CE?F was standing.
` CE?F was standing on the opposite side oI the landing.
Such sentences are translated into Russian with inverted word order:
yro cooe nnom coxn enym.
A similar use oI the indeIinite article occurs in sentences with the existential construction YB>?> E= (DAN>=,
<JJ><?=, etc.), as in:
There is <H >ID>J@EAH to the rule.
2. When used as a predicative the noun is usually preceded by the indeIinite article in its classiIying
Iunction. The position oI the predicative is most suitable Ior the maniIestation oI the classiIying Iunction and
Ior giving some new inIormation:
This is < BAM=>.
George is < @>F>JBAH> >HCEH>>?.
The deIinite article beIore a noun in this position suggests the identity oI the object expressed by the
predicative noun with that expressed by the subject:
This is @B> BAM=> that Jack built.
He is @B> @>F>JBAH> >HCEH>>? (the one we have sent Ior).
The absence oI the article beIore predicative count nouns indicates:
a) that the noun has lost its original meaning and suggests some social position, post or title:
Mrs MantoIIle was J?>=EG>H@ oI all sorts oI societies and committees.
With this knowledge he can be OEHC.
He was on the programme as <==E=@<H@ =@<C> f<H<C>?.
J. . ennedy was elected X?>=EG>H@ in I960.
b) that the idea oI quality or state predominates over the idea oI thingness (usually when the noun is
preceded by more or Iollowed by enough).
lAAF, TAAF that she was to get into such a state.
But youll be N<H enough to tell me the truth.
Randal was in the end more <?@E=@ than =DE>H@E=@.
3. With the noun Iunctioning as objects any article can be used depending on how the speaker Iormulates his
thought; the indeIinite article is preIerable aIter verbs oI possession and obligatory in verb-object phrases
denoting a single action such as @A B<P> < =NAO>, @A CEP> < FAAO, etc.
4. The use oI the articles with nouns in the Iunction oI an adverbial modifier depends partly on the type oI
adverbial modiIier.
In adverbial modifiers of place the deIinite article is used in its speciIying Iunction to identiIy the exact
place:
Jane is in @B> C<?G>H.
The indeIinite article in its classiIying Iunction is preIerable when the attention is Iocused on a
description oI the place rather than on its identiIication, as in: d?U=@<F FEP>G <FAH> EH < =N<FF =B<LLU BAM=>.
In adverbial modifiers of comparison the indeIinite article is preIerably used in its classiIying Iunction with
163
the generic tinge since comparison is drawn with a representative oI the class: e.g. I D<H ?><G UAM FEO> < LAAO.
It is used also in phraseological combinations <= =@?AHC <= < FEAH, <= B<?G <= < H<EF, <= N>>O <= < NAM=>, >@D.
5. In attributes the indeIinite article is used to emphasize the importance and novelty oI the notion mentioned.
ThereIore we Iind the indeIinite article in such phrases as @B> =AH AT < @><DB>?, @B> G<MCB@>? AT < GAD@A?, or
< GAD@A?]= G<MCB@>?, it may be paraphrased as \>? T<@B>? E= < GAD@A?. cB> E= @B> G<MCB@>? AT @B> GAD@A? uggests
reIerence to a deIinite person known Irom the situation equal to AM? GAD@A?, @B> GAD@A? B>?>.
6. In apposition either oI the articles can be used, depending on whether the noun in apposition
serves to classiIy or to identiIy the notion expressed by the noun:
I've got acquainted with Mr Smith, <H <?DBE@>D@.
We've got acquainted with Mr Smith, @B> <?DBE@>D@.
There is a substantial diIIerence in the communicative value oI the apposition depending on the use oI
the articles. The indeIinite article implies that the listener (reader) does not know anything about the person
or thing denoted by the head-noun and requires some new knowledge about it. Here the indeIinite article has a
classiIying Iunction:
Have you ever heard oI 'Caesar's WiIe', < JF<U LU f<MCB<Ng
Paul ong, < H>ECBLAM? AT UAM?=, will be visiting us this evening.
The deIinite article implies that the listener (reader) is supposed to be Iamiliar with the person or thing
mentioned Irom his general knowledge or the situation
I want to speak to Mr Smith, @B> >F>D@?EDE<H.
"Hamlet", @B> @?<C>GU LU cB<O>=J><?>, has been screened many a time.
Note a restrictive appositions in noun phrases oI the kind: @B> (T<NAM=$ HAP>FE=@ r?. r?>>H>, @B> HAP>F
/YB> \><?@ AT @B> f<@@>?/, @B> HMNL>? @>H () *$ (LM@1 J<C> HMNL>? -$, @B> HAMH /=@A?U/ @B> F>@@>?
/>/.
THE AD1ECTIVE
Semantic characteristics
207. According to their way oI nomination adjectives Iall into two groups - qualitative and relative.
Q u a l i t a t i v e adjectives denote properties oI a substance directly (C?><@, DAFG, L><M@ETMF, etc.).
R e l a t i v e adjectives describe properties oI a substance through relation to materials (;AAFF>H, ;AAG>H,
T><@B>?U, F><@B>?H, TF<I>H$, to place (aA?@B>?H, qM?AJ><H, kMFC<?E<H, W@<FE<H$, to time (G<EFU, NAH@BFU, ;>>OFU,
U><?FU$, to some action (G>T>H=EP>, ?A@<@A?U, J?>J<?<@A?U$, or to relationship (T<@B>?FU, T?E>HGFU$.
ualitative adjectives in their turn may be diIIerentiated according to their meaning into descriptive,
denoting a quality in a broad sense (;AHG>?TMF, FECB@, DAFG, >@D.$ and limiting, denoting a speciIic category, a
part oI a whole, a sequence oI order, a number (@B> J?>PEAM= J<C>, <H >iM>=@?E<H =@<@M>, N>GED<F <EG, @B> F>T@
B<HG$.
imiting adjectives single out the object or substance, impart a concrete or unique meaning to it, speciIy it,
and thereIore can seldom be replaced by other adjectives oI similar meaning.
Among limiting adjectives there is a group of intensifiers, which oIten Iorm a phraseological unit with their
head-word, Ior example: <H ALPEAM= T<EFM?>, < G>TEHE@> FA==, < =M?> =ECH, < DANJF>@> TAAF, <L=AFM@> HAH=>H=>,
JF<EH HAH=>H=>, @B> <L=AFM@> FENE@.
Relative adjectives are also limiting in their meaning.
Many adjectives may Iunction either as descriptive or limiting, depending on the head-word and the context.
Thus < FE@@F> TEHC>? may denote either a small Iinger or the last Iinger oI a hand. In the Iirst case FE@@F> E=
descriptive, in the second it is limiting. ikewise NM=ED<F EH < NM=ED<F PAED> is descriptive, while it is limiting in
164
< NM=ED<F EH=@?MN>H@.
Adjectives also diIIer as to their Iunction. Some oI them are used only a t t r i b u t i v e l y and cannot be
used as p r e d i c a t i v e s (< @AJ LAU EH @B> DF<==, but not x@B> LAU ;<= @AJ$1 some are used only as predicatives
and never as attrubutes (\> E= ;>FF <C<EH, but not xYB> ;>FF LAU$.
The change in the position and, accordingly, oI the syntactic status oI the adjective may also result in the
change in the meaning oI the adjective. Thus in < T<=@ @?<EH the adjective is limiting and denotes a speciIic kind
oI train (cot noes), whereas in @B> @?<EH ;<= T<=@ the adjective is descriptive, as it describes the way the
train moved (noes men ontmo cooc).
Morphological composition
208. According to their morphological composition adjectives can be subdivided into simple, derived and
compound.
In the case oI simple adjectives such as OEHG, H>;, T?>=B, we cannot always tell whether a word is an
adjective by looking at it in isolation, as the Iorm does not always indicate its status.
Derived adjectives are recognizable morphologically. They consist oI one root morpheme and one or more
derivational morphemes - suIIixes or preIixes. There are the Iollowing adjective-Iorming suIIixes:
-<LF>
-<F
-<?U
->G
->H
-iM>
-TAFG
-TMF
-ED
-EG
-E=B
-EP>
-F>==
-FEO>
-FU
-NA=@
-A?U
-AM=
-=AN>
-U
understandable
musical, governmental
documentary
beaded, barbed
wooden, silken, shrunken
picturesque
twoIold, maniIold
careIul, sinIul
pessimistic, atomic
torpid, morbid
Ieverish, bluish
eIIective, distinctive
careless, spotless
manlike, warlike
kindly, weekly, homely
uttermost
observatory
glorious
lonesome, troublesome
handy, messy
Some adjectives are Iormer participles and thereIore retain participial suIIixes: DB<?NEHC, EH@>?>=@EHC,
DMHHEHC, G<?EHC.
The suIIixes -FU, ->G, -TMF, -<?U, -<F, -U are not conIined to adjectives only. Thus, many adverbs are derived
Irom adjectives hy means oI the suIIix -FU (=@?AHCFU, LE@@>?FU, iMEDOFU$. Most oI the verbs Iorm their past tense
and participle II with ->G. There are many nouns with the suIIixes -<F (T>=@EP<F, =D<HG<F, D?ENEH<F$, -<?U
(LAMHG<?U, NE==EAH<?U$, -TMF (NAM@BTMF, B<HGTMF$, -U (=AHHU, GACCU$, etc.
Compound adjectives consist oI at least two stems. They may be oI several patterns:
a) consisting oI a noun an adjective:
DAFAM?-LFEHG, C?<==-C?>>HV
b) consisting oI an adjective an adjective:
G><T-NM@>V
165
c) consisting oI an adverb a participle:
;>FF-OHA;H, H>;FU-?>J<E?>G, NMDB-J?<E=>GV
d) Consisting oI a noun/pronoun a verbal:
<FF-=>>EHC, B><?@-L?><OEHC, BECB-LA?H, BECB-TFA;H, N<H-N<G>V
e) consisting oI an adjective/adverb a noun the suIIix ->G1
LFM>->U>G, FAHC-F>CC>G, T<E?-B<E?>G, GA;H-B><?@>G.
Morphological characteristics
209. Adjectives in English do not take any endings to express agreement with the head-word.
The only pattern oI morphological change is that oI degrees of comparison, which is possible only Ior
descriptive qualitative adjectives the meaning oI which is compatible with the idea oI gradation oI quality.
There are three grades oI comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. The superlative is generally
used with the deIinite article. Ways oI Iormation may be s y n t h e t i c , a n a l y t i c , and s u p p l e t i v e
(irregular). The synthetic way is by adding the inIlection -er, -est, as TEH> -TEH>? - TEH>=@. This means is Iound
with monosyllabic and some disyllabic adjectives in which the stress Ialls on the last syllable:
1) Iull - Iuller - Iullest
polite
proIound
complete
- politer
- proIounder
- completer
- politest
- proIoundest
- completest
2) in which the second syllable is the syllabic |1|:
able
noble
- abler
- nobler
- ablest
- noblest
3) with adjectives in -er, -y, -some, -ow:,
tender
happy
handsome
narrow
- tenderer
- happier
- handsomer
- narrower
- tenderest
- happiest
- handsomest
- narrowest
Synthetic inIlection, however, is oIten Iound in other disyllabic adjectives:
ou are @B> BA??EG>=@ man I have ever seen.
P o l y s y l l a b i c adjectives Iorm their degrees oI comparison analytically, by means oI more and most:
diIIicult - more diIIicult - most diIIicult
curious - more curious - most curious
Note 1:
Even monosyllabic adjectives used in postposition or predicatively have a greater tendency towards analytic
Iorms oI comparison than when used attributively.
Compare:
He is < N<H NA?> DF>P>? @B you.
He is < DF>P>?>? N<H.
166
The superlative is sometimes used ;E@BAM@ !he when the aqjective denotes a very high degree oI quality and
no comparison with other objects is implied.
The path is =@>>J>=@ here.
She is B<JJE>=@ at home.
Note 2:
This morphological pattern (long - longer - longest) is not conIined to adjectives, there are also a number oI
adverbs which may have the same endings, i.e. =AAH - =AAH>? - =AAH>=@, B<?G - B<?G>? - B<?G>=@.
Superlatives are oIten used alone beIore an oI-phrase:
@B> L>=@ AT T?E>HG=, @B> UAMHC>=@ AT @B> T<NEFU.
Several adjectives Iorm their degrees oI comparison by means oI (suppletive Iorms) irregularly:
good/well
bad
little
many
- better
- worse
- less
- more
- best
- worst
- least
- most
Iar Iarther - Iarthest (with reIerence to distance)
Iurther - Iurthest (with reIerence to distance, abstract notions and in Iigurative use)
old older - oldest (with reIerence to age)
elder - eldest (with reIerence to the sequence oI brothers and sisters)
Adjectival compounds can be inIlected in two ways, either the Iirst element is inIlected (iI it is an adjective
or adverb), or comparison is with more and most, Ior example:
well-known
dull-witted
kind-hearted
- better-known
- more dull-witted
- more kind-hearted
- best-known
- most dull-witted
- most kind-hearted
The following adjectives generally do not form degrees of comparison:
1. imiting qualitative adjectives which single out or determine the type oI things or persons, such as:
J?>PEAM=, NEGGF>, F>T@, DBEFGF>==, N>GED<F, G><G, etc.
2. Relative adjectives (which are also limiting in their meaning) such as:
;AAFF>H, ;AAG>H, TF<I>H, ><?@B>H, <=B>H.
3. Adjectives with comparative and superlative meaning (the so-called gradables) which are oI atin origin:
TA?N>?, EHH>?, MJJ>?, QMHEA?, =>HEA?, J?EA?, =MJ>?EA?, etc. (originally with comparative meaning), and
NEHEN<F, AJ@EN<F, J?AIEN<F, etc. (originally with superlative meaning).
With most oI them the comparative meaning has been lost and they are used as positive Iorms (@B> EHH>?
;<FF, @B> MJJ>? FEJ, =MJ>?EA? iM<FE@U, NEHEN<F FA==>=$.
However, some comparatives borrowed Irom atin (N<QA?, NEHA?, >I@>?EA?, EH@>?EA?, QMHEA?, =>HEA?$ may Iorm
their own comparatives with a change oI meaning.
4. Adjectives already denoting some gradation oI quality, such as G<?OE=B, C?>>HE=B, etc.
Adjectives of participial origin
210. Only certain adjectives derived Irom participles reach Iull adjectival status. Among those in current
167
use are EH@>?>=@EHC, DB<?NEHC, D?AAO>G, F><?H>G, ?<CC>G and those compounded with another element, which
sometimes gives them quite a diIIerent meaning (CAAG-FAAOEHC, B><?@L?><OEHC, B<?G-LAEF>G, T?A=@-LE@@>H,
;><@B>?-L><@>H, etc.).
In most cases, however, the diIIerence between the adjective and the participle is revealed only in the
sentence. The diIIerence lies in the verbal nature retained by the participle. The verbal nature is explicit when a
direct object or a by-object is present. This can be seen Irom the Iollowing pairs oI sentences:
With an adjective With a participle
ou are EH=MF@EHC.
His views were <F<?NEHC
The man was ATT>HG>G.
ou are EH=MF@EHC M=.
His views were <F<?NEHC @B> <MGE>HD>.
The man was ATT>HG>G LU @B> =>D?>@<?U_= ?>N<?O.
The verbal Iorce oI the participle is revealed in its limited combinability - it is not combinable with P>?U. In
the above sentences, it is possible to use P>?U in the leIt-hand column, but not in the right-hand column.
Some adjectives only look like participles, there being no corresponding verbs:
GA;HB><?@>G, @<F>H@>G, GE=><=>G.
In some cases there are corresponding verbs, but the ->G- participle is not interpreted as passive, because the
corresponding verb can be used only intransitively:
the escaped prisoner (the prisoner who has escaped)
the departed guests (the guests who have departed)
the Iaded curtains (the curtains which have Iaded)
the retired oIIicer (the oIIicer who has retired)
(See participles oI intransitive verbs, 143.)
Adjectives and adverbs
Some adjectives coincide in Iorm with adverbs, Ior example, =FA;, FAHC, T<=@, <LAP>, ?><F, NECB@U, =M?>, the
last three being used as adverbs only in colloquial style.
Adjectives Adverbs
The examples <LAP> (given above)
a T<=@ walk
It is ?><F.
He is =M?> oI it.
We could see nothing <LAP> or L>FA;
to walk T<=@
He is ?><F good.
It =M?> will help.
Patterns of combinability
211. Adjectives are combined with several parts oI speech.
1. They may combine with nouns, which they may premodiIy or postmodiIy: < LF<DO G?>==, < DBEP<F?AM=
C>H@F>N<H, @B> G>F>C<@>= J?>=>H@.
II there are several premodiIying adjectives to one headword they have deIinite positional assignments.
Generally descriptive adjectives precede the limiting ones, as in a H<MCB@U FE@@F> LAU, < L><M@ETMF l?>HDB CE?F, but
il there are several oI each type, adjectives oI diIIerent meanings stand in the Iollowing order:
Adjectives Adjectives Adjectives Adjectives Adjectives imiting
expressing denoting denoting denoting denoting adjectives
judgement size colour Iorm age
or general Noun
characteri-
zation
pleasant large pale green thick old rench
168
horrid small bright red round young leIt
nice little blue square
For example: a large black and white hunting dog, a small pale green oval seed.
This order oI words is oI course not absolutely Iixed, since many adjectives may be either descriptive or
limiting (see above), depending on the context. The adjectives are not separated by commas, unless they belong
to the same type: < HED> FE@@F> AFG N<H. However, iI there is more than one adjective oI the same type they are
separated by commas: H<=@U, E??E@<LF>, =>FTE=B N<H (all three belong to the type oI judgement or general
characterization).
PostmodiIication is usual Ior the adjectives >F>D@, <L=>H@, J?>=>H@, DAHD>?H>G, EHPAFP>G, J?AJ>?.
YB> J?>=EG>H@ >F>D@ (that is: who has been elected and is soon to take oIIice).
In several noun-phrases oI rench origin (mostly legal or quasilegal) the adjective is also postpositional.
attorney general
heir apparent
time immemorial
body politic
ueen Regnant
ords Spiritual (Temporal)
These noun-phrases are very similar to compounds and some oI them are spelt as a compound, with a
hyphen (OHECB@->??<H@, JA=@N<=@>?-C>H>?<F$. The plural ending is attached either to the Iirst element, or to the
second:
court-martials
postmaster-generals
courts-martial
postmasters-general
PostmodiIication may be due to the structural complexity oI postmodiIiers (@B> DBEFG?>H ><=E>=@ @A @><DB, @B>
DFEN<@> J>DMFE<? @A @BE= DAMH@?U$, or to the presence oI AHFU or <FF in preposition (@B> AHFU <D@A? =ME@<LF>, @B>
AHFU J>?=AH PE=ELF>, <FF @B> NAH>U <P<EF<LF>$.
2. Beside their usual Iunction, that oI modiIying nouns, adjectives may be combined with other words in the
sentence.
They may be modiIied by adverbials oI degree, like P>?U, iME@>, @B<@, ?<@B>?, NA=@, < FA@, < =A?@ AT, < LE@,
>HAMCB, @A@<FFU, J>?T>D@FU, =A... <=1 very FAHC, a bi! F<SU, sor! AT H<EP>, T<? e&o$)h8 a %i!!%e bi! @E?>G, a mos!
L><M@ETMF JED@M?>, HA@ =A TAAFE=B as !ha!8 =B> E= HA@ !ha! D?<SU.
The adverb P>?U can combine only with adjectives denoting the gradable properties. Thus it is possible to say P>?U
@E?>G (tiredness may be oI diIIerent degree), but it is impossible to say very unknown, very ceaseless, very unique, as
these adjectives do not allow oI gradation.
With the adverb @AA the indeIinite article is placed between the adjective and the head-noun. With the adverb ?<@B>? the
article is placed aIter it:
This is @AA GETTEDMF@ a problem to solve at once.
This is ?<@B>? < DANJFED<@>G matter.
3. Predicative adjectives are combined with the link verbs @A L>, @A =>>N, @A <JJ><?, @A FAAO, @A @M?H, or
notional verbs in a double predicate:
\> FAAO= @E?>G. cB> GA>= HA@ =>>N =A D?<SU <= L>TA?>. cB> E= iME@> B><F@BU. cB> T>F@ T<EH@. WT =AMHG>G ?<@B>?
TM==U. YB> TAAG @<=@>G CAAG. YB> TFA;>?= =N>FF =;>>@.
Syntactic functions
212. Adjectives may have diIIerent Iunctions in the sentence.
169
The most common are those oI an attribute or a predicative.
The attributes (premodiIying and postmodiIying) may be closely attached to their head-words (o CAAG LAU,
@B> G>F>C<@>= J?>=>H@$, or they may be loose (detached) (dF>P>? <HG <NLE@EAM=, B> =DB>N>G <= ;>FF <= B>
DAMFG$. In the Iirst case the adjective Iorms a group with the noun it modiIies; in the second case the adjective
Iorms a sense-group separate Irom the head-word and the other parts oI the sentence. A detached attribute is
thereIore separated by a comma Irom its head-word iI it adjoins it, or Irom other parts oI the sentence iI it is
distant Irom the head-word. As predicatives, adjectives may Iorm a part of a compound nominal or double
predicate (B> ;<= <FAH>, @B> ;EHGA; ;<= AJ>H. wFG tAFUAH =<@ <FAH>, @B> GAC ;>H@ N<G$. Predicative adjectives
may be modiIied by adverbials oI manner, degree, or consequence and by clauses, Iorming long phrases as, in:
He is not =A TAAFE=B <= @A H>CF>D@ E@.
She is not =A D?<SU <= UAM N<U EN<CEH>.
It is not <= =ENJF> <= UAM @BEHO.
Adjectives may also Iunction as objective or subjective predicatives in complex constructions:
We consider BEN ?>FE<LF>.
I can drink DATT>> BA@.
He pushed @B> GAA? AJ>H.
Better eat @B> <JJF>= T?>=B.
I consider ;B<@ B> GEG <;TMF.
objects objective predicatives
The Iruits were picked ?EJ>.
The windows were Ilung
AJ>H.
subjective predicatives
Adjectives may be used parenthetically, conveying the attitude oI the speaker to the contents oI the sentence
(=@?<HC>, TMHHU, DM?EAM=, AGG, =M?J?E=EHC$, oIten premodiIied by NA?> or NA=@.
c@?<HC>, it was the same person.
fA=@ EHD?>GELF>, he deceived us.
A certain type oI exclamatory sentence is based on adjectives, oIten modiIied by other words: \A; CAAG AT
UAMR \A; ;AHG>?TMFR qID>FF>H@R tM=@ ?ECB@R
Substantivized adjectives
213. Substantivized adjectives may Iall into several groups, according to their meaning and the nominal
Ieatures they possess.
1. Some substantivized adjectives have only the singular form. They may have either the singular or plural
agreement, depending on their meaning. These are:
a) substantivized adjectives denoting generalized or abstract notions.
They are used with the deIinite article and have singular agreement:
@B> T<LMFAM=, @B> MH?><F, @B> EHPE=ELF>1
YB> T<LMFAM= is always interesting.
There are, however, certain exceptions. Substantivized adjectives denoting abstract notions may sometimes
be used in the plural. Then no article is used:
There are many P<?E<LF>= and MHOHA;H=.
b) substantivized adjectives denoting languages are used without a determiner, but are oIten modiIied by a
pronoun. They also have singular agreement.
170
My cJ<HE=B is very poor.
He speaks excellent qHCFE=B.
c) substantivized adjectives denoting groups oI persons or persons oI the same nationality are used with the
deIinite article @B> and admit only oI plural agreement @B> AFG, @B> JAA?, @B> ?EDB, @B> LFEHG, @B> GMNL <HG G><T,
@B> NM@>, @B> >NEH>H@, @B> qHCFE=B.
He did not look an important personage, but @B> >NEH>H@ rarely do.
YB> JAA? were robbed oI their lands.
2. Some substantivized adjectives have the category oI number, that is they can have two Iorms - the
singular and the plural. These are:
a) substantivized adjectives denoting social rank or position, military ranks, party, creed, gender, nationality,
race, groups oI people belonging to certain times or epochs, etc. In the plural the use oI the article is not
obligatory: HALF>=, >iM<F=, =MJ>?EA?=, EHT>?EA?=, DANN>?DE<F=, GAN>=@ED=, J?EP<@>=, ?>CMF<?=, A?GEH<?E>=, N<?EH>=,
dB?E=@E<H=, J?ENE@EP>=, NAG>?H=, <HDE>H@=, DAH@>NJA?<?E>=, FEL>?<F=, DAH=>?P<@EP>=, qM?AJ><H=, `=E<@ED=,
qM?<=E<H=, WHGE<H=, q<=@>?H=, LF<DO=, ;BE@>=, etc.
When denoting an individual such words are used in the singular and are preceded by the indeIinite article: <
HALF>, < J?EP<@>, < ?>CMF<?, <H A?GEH<?U, < dB?E=@E<H, < J?ENE@EP>, < FEL>?<F, etc.
There were < T>; G><G= missing Irom the brieIing.
- How many have you killed
- One hundred and twenty two =M?>=. Not counting JA==ELF>=.
Hes been working like < LF<DO.
b) substantivized adjectives denoting animals and plants: >P>?C?>>H=, @BA?AMCBL?>G= (about horses).
3. Some substantivized adjectives have only the plural form. These are:
a) substantivized adjectives denoting studies and examinations. They have either the singular or plural
agreement depending on whether they denote one notion or a collection oI notions: DF<==ED=, TEH<F=
(Iinal examinations), NEG=>==EAH<F=, etc.
lEH<F= were approaching.
b) substantivized adjectives denoting collection oI things, substances and Ioods. Some oI these admit
either oI both the singular and plural agreement (DB>NED<F=, NAP<LF>=, H>D>==<?E>=, P<FM<LF>=, ><@<LF>=,
C?>>H=$, others admit only oI a singular agreement (LE@@>?=$.
c) substantivized adjectives which are the names oI the parts oI the body are used with the deIinite article
@B> and admit oI the plural agreement: @B> PE@<F=, @B> ;BE@>= (oI the eyes).
d) substantivized adjectives denoting colours are used in the plural without any article: C?>U=, ?>G=,
JM?JF>=, C?>>H=.
THE PRONOUN
214. Pronouns are deictic words which point to objects, their properties and relations, their local or
temporal reIerence, or placement without naming them. They constitute a limited class oI words (that is <
closed system) with numerous subclasses. They are generally diIIerentiated into noun-pronouns (substituting
nouns) and adjective-pronouns (substituting adjectives).
171
Morphological composition and categorical characteristics
215. Pronouns may be oI diIIerent structure: simple, compound, and composite.
Simple pronouns comprise only one morpheme - the stem:
W, UAM, B>, ;>, etc.; @BE=, @B<@, =AN>, ;BA, <FF, AH>, etc.
Compound pronouns comprise more than one stem:
NU=>FT, @B>N=>FP>=, =AN>LAGU, >P>?ULAGU, <HU@BEHC, HA@BEHC, etc.
Composite pronouns have the Iorm oI a phrase:
><DB A@B>?, AH> <HA@B>?.
Patterns oI morphological change in pronouns vary greatly not only Irom subclass to subclass, but also
within certain subclasses. Some pronouns have the category oI number (W - ;>, @BE= K @B>=>$, while others have
not; some have the category oI case expressed in a similar way to that oI nouns (=AN>LAGU K =AN>LAGU_=$, some
have a pattern oI their own (B> - BEN$, and others have no case distinctions at all. Some pronouns have person
and gender distinctions, such as personal pronouns, while others have none.
The pronouns also have specials Iorms to distinguish between animate and inanimate objects. This category
is to be Iound again in personal pronouns (B>j=B> - E@$, possessive pronouns (BEN=>FTjB>?=>FT - E@=>FT$, conjunctive
pronouns (;BA - ;B<@$, relative pronouns (;BA - ;BEDB$, and interrogative pronouns (;BA - ;B<@$.
Subclasses of pronouns and their functions
216. Semantically all pronouns Iall into the Iollowing subclasses:
I. Personal pronouns are noun-pronouns, indicating persons (W, UAM, B>, ;>, @B>U$ or non-persons (E@, @B>U$
Irom the point oI view oI their relations to the speaker. Thus W (N>$ indicates the speaker himselI, ;> (M=$
indicates the speaker together with some other person or persons, UAM indicates the person or persons addressed,
while B>, =B>, @B>U (BEN, B>?, @B>N$ indicate persons (or things) which are neither the speaker nor the persons
addressed to by the speaker.
Personal pronouns have the category AT J>?=AH, HMNL>?, D<=> (nominative and objective), and C>HG>?, the
latter is to be Iound in the 3rd person only: masculine and Ieminine is B> - BEN, =B> - B>?V neuter case-Iorms E@ -
E@ coincide.
The nominative case form is generally used as subject oI the sentence, or predicative in the compound
nominal predicate in sentences like: W@ ;<= W ;BA GEG E@. However, in colloquial style the Iorm oI the objective
case is preIerable, especially in sentences oI the type: W@ E= N>.
Both the nominative and the objective case Iorms are used aIter the conjunctions <= and @B<H in comparative
constructions:
cB> E= <= =@AM@ <= W HA;V
m<=@ U><? B> FAAO>G NMDB AFG>? @B<H 0>
cB> E= <= AFG <= me>
\> ;<= < L>@@>? T?E>HG @A UAM @B<H me.
The nominative case-Iorm (as well as the objective) is used in elliptical sentences: ^BA E= @B>?>g K W~.
u^BA GEG E@g K f>~.
The objective case form is used mainly as an object (with or without a preposition), occasionally as an
attribute in prepositional phrases: rEP> me UAM? B<HGV ^>?> UAM =J><OEHC <LAM@ megV YB> L>@@>? B<FT AT me
J?A@>=@>G.
The Iact that semantically personal pronouns indicate persons or things restricts their Iunctioning as
adverbial modifiers. However, they may occur in this Iunction in a prepositional phrase: \> =@AAG %ose !o me>
>>J behi&d me.
The pronoun UAM implies a person, sometimes an animal, or an inanimate object, when the latter is
personiIied: rF<G @A =>> UAM B>?>, f<?UV wB, d<@, UAM <?> <= DF>P>? <= < N<H ...
172
Its singular and plural Iorms, as well as the objective case Iorms, coincide: `?> UAM EH, tABHgV ^B>?> <?> UAM
CAEHC, DBEFG?>Hg The plural and the singular Iorms are diIIerentiated only through their co-reIerents (denoted by
tABH, DBEFG?>H$, as both agree with the verb in the plural.
Historically, the Iorm UAM is the plural Iorm, the singular Iorm being @BAM (the objective case @B>>$. It is no
longer used nowadays except in poetry and other literary texts, where it produces a particular stylistic eIIect:
cA~, =<EG @B> N>==>HC>?, uYB>H @BAM <?> @B> =JAO>=N<H.~
The pronouns B> (BEN$, =B> (B>?$ usually reIer to persons, B> - to male, =B> - to Iemale. However some other
phenomena are oIten reIerred to as B> or =B> in poetry and Iiction. Those reIerred to as B> are: =MH, ;EHG, T><?,
FAP>V those reIerred to as =B> are: ><?@B, NAAH, =BEJ, LA<@, D<?, BAJ>, QM=@ED>, NAG>=@U and some others. Also
countries, especially native countries, are reIerred to as =B>1 England, rance, Italy, the USA, etc.
I was born in Ireland. cB> is the best country Ior me.
The nominative case Iorms are used as subject or predicative; when used as predicatives both nominative
and objective case Iorms are possible: `@ F<=@ B> FA=@ BE= ;<UV W@ ;<= B>V W@ E= BEN. It keeps true also Ior
comparative constructions: cB> GEG E@ L>@@>? @B<H B> (BEN$.
The pronoun E@ can perIorm Iunctions varying so greatly that three statuses oI this word should be
diIIerentiated. They are the personal pronoun it, the impersonal pronoun it, and the demonstrative
pronoun it.
The personal pronoun E@ reIers to non-persons, that is, to animals, things and abstract notions, as in:
YB> ?AAN ;<= F<?C>. cAN>LAGU B<G <F?><GU DF><H>G i!.
^> B<G HA NM@M<F MHG>?=@<HGEHC, <HG W ;<H@>G i! L<GFU.
YB> GAC ;<= =E@@EHC LU BEN. c>P>?<F @EN>= i! B<G @M?H>G <HG FAAO>G MJ <@ @B> LAU.
However when speaking oI pet animals, especially cats and dogs, it is usual to reIer to them as B> or =B>
depending on whether they are male or Iemale, as in:
?e E= < P>?U HED> GAC. ?e E= NU T?E>HG. ?e OHA;= BA; W T>>F.
W@_= XM==U. @he ;<H@= @A CA AM@.
The demonstrative pronoun i! indicates non-persons or certain situations, mentioned in the previous
context:
cAN> ;>?> G<HDEHC, =AN> @?E>G @A =EHC. ` LEC N<H, LA@@F> EH B<HG, F<U LU @B> <?NDB<E?. dFAMG= A? =NAO>
BMHC MHG>? @B> D>EFEHC. cMGG>HFU W T>F@ =EDO AT i! <FF.
Besides its anaphoric use, it is also used with demonstrative force when preceding the words it points to:
0!4s NU BM=L<HG. 0!4s f<?U. 0! ;<= < ?>G ?A=>.
0! may also have the Iorce oI a purely Iormal element oI the sentence, as the Iormal subject or object devoid
oI any lexical meaning. Its Iunction is to point to the real subject or object which comes aIter the predicate and
is expressed either by an inIinitive (an inIinitive phrase) or by a gerund (a gerundial phrase), or else by a clause.
0! ;<= HED> @A =@AJ B>?>.
0! ;<= M=>F>== @?UEHC @A =>> BEN.
0! ;<= DF><? @A >P>?ULAGU @B<@ =B> ;<= HA@ ;>FF.
f<U W @<O> i! @B<@ UAM ;EFF O>>J UAM? ;A?Gg
When i! reIers to the predicative (or any part in this position) it selves as means oI producing emphasis: the
word in the predicative position becomes prominent and thereIore becomes the inIormation Iocus oI the
sentence:
It was he who did it.
173
eo o +o cenn. ( s o +o cenn).
It was there that we met.
eo t ncenct. (-o t ncenct).
It was to this room that Soames went.
eo n +y oy nomen oe.
See Syntax, 121.
The impersonal pronoun i! Iunctions as a purely structural element -the subject oI impersonal sentences
describing various states oI nature and environment, or things, time, measure, or distance, etc., as in: 0! ;<=
?<EHEHCV 0! ;<= DAFG @B<@ G<UV 0!4s =J?EHC <F?><GUV 0!4s - A_DFADOV 0!4s =@EFF =EI@U NEF>= @A @B> ?EP>?.
The pronoun @B>U (@B>N$ is the plural Iorm oI the pronouns B>, =B> and the personal E@. Its syntactic Iunctions
are similar to those oI the Iorms in the singular. It may be used as subject (YB>U B<G HA @EN>$ and as predicative
(W@]= @B>U ;BA ;EFF <H=;>? TE?=@$. The objective case Iorm can also be used in these cases (YB<@_= @B>N$. The
same Iorm is to be Iound in comparative constructions, as objects and adverbial modifiers:
hA UAM OHA; !hem8 LAUg (object)
Y?U @A D<@DB MJ ;E@B !hem. (prepositional object)
0& 'ro&! o' !hem @B>?> ;>?> =>P>H D<HGF>=. (adverbial modiIier)
In addition to their usual Iunction when they have personal meaning the pronouns ;>, UAM, @B>U may be used
as indefinite-personal, indicating people in general or a limited group oI people. The diIIerence between them
is in their reIerence: ;> reIers to a group oI people including the speaker, UAM includes only the listener(s), and
@B>U excludes both the speaker and the listeners.
As we know, geographic limits between dialects are not easy to establish.
You never saw such a commotion up and down the house, in all your liIe, as when my Uncle Podger
undertook to do a job.
When you are tired they give you some pills, and in a minute you are your own selI again.
They say you were in the park with her
What do they teach you there
217. Possessive pronouns indicate possession by persons (NU, NEH>, UAM?, UAM?=, @B>E?, @B>E?=$ or non-
persons (E@=, @B>E?, @B>E?=$. They comprise two sets oI Iorms: the conjoint forms - NU, UAM?, BE=, B>?, AM?, @B>E?,
which always combine with nouns and premodiIy them as attributes and the absolute forms - NEH>, UAM?=, BE=,
B>?=, AM?=, UAM?=, @B>E?=, which do not combine with nouns, but Iunction as their substitutes. Thus, they may be
adjective-pronouns when used as conjoint Iorms and noun-pronouns when used as absolute Iorms. There is no
absolute Iorm corresponding to the pronoun E@.
Both conjoint and absolute Iorms may Iunction with reIerence to persons and non-persons; pointing back
(with anaphorical Iorce) and Iorward (with anticipatory Iorce).
6y T?E>HG= <?> ;<E@EHC TA? N>.
W FEO>G @BE= BAM=> <HG i!s ;AHG>?TMF C<?G>H.
^B>?> <?> @B> GAC=g 6i&e E= MHG>? @B> @<LF>.
YB> DA<@ E=H]@ mi&e8 E@_= yo$rs.
?ers ;<= < ;AHG>?TMF ?AAN.
A peculiarity oI the English language is that possessive pronouns, not the article, are used with reIerence to
parts oI the body, personal belongings, relatives, etc.
W ?<E=>G my >U>L?A;=.
\> ?A=> MJ <HG JM@ his B<HG= EH his =N<FF JADO>@=.
^B>?> <?> UAM CAEHC @A =J>HG yo$r F><P>g
W D<H_@ =>> my ;<U <B><G.
218. Reflexive pronouns indicate identity between the person or non-person they denote and that denoted
174
by the subject oI the sentence. They are: NU=>FT, UAM?=>FT, B>?=>FT, BEN=>FT, E@=>FT, AM?=>FP>=, UAM?=>FP>=,
@B>N=>FP>=, structurally derived either Irom the possessive pronouns (NU=>FT, UAM?=>FT, AM?=>FP>=, UAM?=>FP>=$, or
Irom personal pronouns (BEN=>FT, B>?=>FT, E@=>FT, @B>N=>FP>=$V the pronoun AH>=>FT E= derived Irom the indeIinite
pronoun AH>.
ReIlexive pronouns derived Irom possessive and personal pronouns have the categories oI person, number,
and gender in the 3d person singular only. The generalising reIlexive pronoun AH>=>FT has none oI these.
wB, W D<H GA E@ myse%'. \> T>F@ himse%' C?A; BA@ @A @B> ?AA@= AT BE= B<E?.
II these are several homogeneous subjects denoting diIIerent persons including the 1st, the 1st person plural
reIlexive is used: sAM, NA@B>?, <HG W NM=@ HA; @BEHO <LAM@ o$rse%ves. II there is no 1st person, the 2nd person
plural reIlexive is used: sAM <HG NA@B>? NM=@ HA; @BEHO o' yo$rse%ves.
II the subject is the indeIinite pronoun AH>, the corresponding reIlexive is used: wH> NM=@ HA@ G>D>EP>
o&ese%'. II the subject is expressed by any other indeIinite pronoun BEN=>FT A? @B>N=>FP>= is used: \<= <HULAGU
BM?@ himse%'A
The most common Iunctions oI the reIlexive pronouns are those oI an apposition and objects (direct,
indirect, prepositional):
d>G?ED himse%' OH>; HA@BEHC ;B<@>P>? <LAM@ E@. (apposition)
W B<P> <FF OEHG= AT L><M@ETMF =>H@EN>H@= myse%'. (apposition)
W F><?H>G @A G?>== myse%' N<HU U><?= <CA. (direct object)
u\A; ;>FF UAM @<FO,~ =<EG @B> fEFF>?_= ;ET> JAM?EHC herse%' a F<?C> CF<== AT ;<?N <F>. (indirect object)
cB> @<FO= AHFU abo$! herse%'. (prepositional object)
ess common are the Iunctions oI the subject, predicative, attribute, and adverbial modifiers:
fU ;ET> <HG myse%' ;>FDAN> UAM, =E?. (subject)
WH =AN> NEHM@>= =B> L>D<N> herse%' <C<EH. (predicative)
cB> =BA;>G N> < F<?C> JED@M?> AT herse%' <= < L?EG>. (attribute)
fU L?A@B>? ;<= < yALLEH= FEO> myse%'. (adverbial modiIier oI comparison)
\> FEP>G EH < @EHU DA@@<C> <FF LU himse%'. (adverbial modiIier oI manner)
219. Reciprocal pronouns indicate a mutual relationship between two or more than two persons, or
occasionally non-persons (><DB A@B>?, AH> <HA@B>?$ who are at the same time the doer and the object oI the
same action. Thus YB>U FAP>G ><DB A@B>? means that the doer A loved the object and at the same time the doer
loved the object A.
The pronoun ><DB A@B>? generally implies that only two persons are involved, AH> <HA@B>? usually being
preIerred when more than two persons are involved.
Both oI them are composite words and have only one grammatical category - the category oI case (><DB
A@B>?_=, AH> <HA@B>?_=$.
Reciprocal pronouns in their common case form Iunction as objects:
aA; @B>U B<@> eah o!her. YB>U AT@>H iM<??>FF>G ;E@B o&e a&o!her.
The possessive case forms are used as attributes:
YB>U =@AAG =EF>H@, EH eah o!her4s <?N=.
220. Demonstrative pronouns point to persons or non-persons or their properties: @BE= (@B>=>$, @B<@
(@BA=>$, =MDB.x The Iirst two oI them have the category oI number. YBE= (@B>=>$ and @B<@ (@BA=>$ Iunction both as
noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns; =MDB Iunctions only as an adjective-pronoun:
The demonstrative oI E@ was given above. See Personal pronouns.
.his E= NU L?A@B>? yAL.
.ha! E= P>?U OEHG AT UAM.
(noun-pronouns)
.his BAM=> E= @AA F<?C> QM=@ TA? AH> J>?=AH. (adjective-pronouns)
175
cB> E= s$h < =EFFU FE@@F> @E?EHC.
The general demonstrative meaning oI @BE= (@B>=>$ is oI relatively H><? reIerence in time or space, while @B<@
(@BA=>$ implies GE=@<H@ reIerence in time or space. Both oI them are commonly used anaphorically, pointing to
things, persons, or situations denoted in the preceding context, as in the Iollowing examples with @BE= and @B<@1
\> @?E>G @B> GAA?. .his GEG HA@ UE>FG.
` @<FF LFAHG> D<N> TA?;<?G. .his ;<= @B> L<?N<H_= ;ET>.
uW AT@>H ;AHG>?>G BA; UAM ;>?> C>@@EHC AH.~ K u.ha! ;<= P>?U OEHG AT UAM.~
Sometimes, however, these pronouns may be used with anticipatory Iorce, pointing to something new, or
something still to come:
W OHA; !his K UAM_?> < @?<E@A?.
.his @EN> W]FF ;EH.
W_P> H>P>? =>>H !his G?>== AT UAM?=.
When used with words denoting periods oI time (a day and its parts, week, month, year, century) the
pronoun @BE= implies that these periods include the moment oI speaking:
YBE= U><? B> E= CAEHC <L?A<G. W B<G HA L?><OT<=@ !his NA?HEHC. W B<P>H_@ =>>H B>? !his ;>>O.
When used with the words @A;H, DAMH@?U, CAP>?HN>H@ the pronoun @BE= implies ones in which the speaker
lives or is staying at the moment oI speaking. Phrases like EH @BE= @A;H, EH @BE= DAMH@?U, @BE= CAP>?HN>H@, etc.,
should be translated into Russian by the actual names oI the town or country as in the Iollowing:
Englishman: I do like this country - ouet nmnm rnm
or by a possessive pronoun: ouet nmnm cnom (my) cy.
The pronoun @B<@ (@BA=>$ pointing to something relatively remote in space or time may reIer to something
already known or past:
hA UAM =>> !ha! ?>G ?AAT AP>? @B>?>g .ha!4s NU BAM=>.
wBR !ha! ;<= < =<G NE=@<O>.
YB<@ (@BA=>$ can be used either as a noun-substitute or as a sentence-substitute.
YB> J>?TMN> AT @B> ?A=> E= NA?> =ML@F> @B<@ !ha! AT @B> FEFU.
Syntactically the pronouns @BE= and @B<@ can be subject, predicative, object, or attribute.
.his ;<= NU AFG G><? D<? <C<EH.
\E= =@A?U ;<= FEO> !ha!.
hA UAM ?>N>NL>? !hisA
YB> ;AAG= <?> =A L><M@ETMF <@ !his @EN> AT U><?.
When used as attributes both @BE= and @B<@ exclude the use oI the article. The pronoun =MDB points to a certain
quality in things, persons, or situations. It is more oIten used anaphorically, although can also be used in its
anticipatory Iunction.
W FEO> s$h FE@@F> @A;H= <= @BE=.
\> DAMFG HA@ FAP> B>?. @$h ;<= >P>?UAH>_= P>?GED@.
sAM D<H LMU @B>?> s$h @BEHC= <= LMH=, =<M=<C> ?AFF=, <HG JFMN D<O>=.
cMDB never precedes the deIinite article, though it oIten occurs with the indeIinite one, which is placed aIter
176
=MDB.
W_P> H>P>? =>>H =MDB < L><M@U.
221. Indefinite pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or else their properties in a general way without
deIining the class oI objects they belong to, class or properties they possess. They are: =AN>, <HU, =AN>LAGU,
<HULAGU, =AN>AH>, <HUAH>, =AN>@BEHC, <HU@BEHC, AH>.
cAN> and <HU are both noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns; their compounds in -LAGU, -AH>, or -@BEHC, as
well as the pronoun AH>, are only noun-pronouns.
cAN>, <HU, =AN>@BEHC, <HU@BEHC have no grammatical categories, =AN>LAGU, <HULAGU, =AN>AH>, <HUAH>, and
AH> have the category oI case (=AN>LAGU_=, <HULAGU_=, =AN>AH>_=, <HUAH>_=, AH>_=$.
cAN> and <HU indicate qualities or quantities, depending on the class and grammatical Iorm oI the noun
with which they are used as attributes or Ior which they Iunction as their substitutes. The idea of quantity is
actualised iI they combine with:
a) count nouns in the plural:
`?> @B>?> a&y ?A=>= EH UAM? C<?G>Hg W B<P> < @A@ AT TFA;>?= EH NU C<?G>H, some AT @B>N <?> =;>>@-
=D>H@>G, some <?> HA@.
b) nouns oI material:
rEP> N> some ;<@>?, JF><=>. d<H UAM =>> a&y =HA; AH @B> NAMH@<EH@AJg
c) abstract nouns:
cB> ;AH_@ CEP> UAM a&y @?AMLF>.
When used beIore noun-phrases with cardinal numerals =AN> denotes approximate quantity: =AN> @>H
U><?= <CA, =AN> @;>H@U J>AJF> (oono, nnsento).
The idea oI quality is actualised when =AN> and <HU combine with count nouns in the singular. In a positive
statement <HU acquires the meaning oI nmo'.
YB>U LAMCB@ some AFG BAM=> EH @B> DAMH@?U, (o-o o)
9&y BA?=> ;EFF GA HA;. (nmx nomt)
ery oIten the idea oI quality and that oI quantity go together: cAN> J>AJF> ;EFF GA E@ AT @B>E? A;H T?>> ;EFF
means < D>?@<EH @UJ> AT J>?=AH= and o D>?@<EH HMNL>? AT J>AJF>.
cAN> and <HU, indicating both indeIinite qualities and quantities, diIIer in meaning: =AN> has assertive
force, that is presupposes the presence oI some quality or quantity. It generally corresponds to the Russian
eoot, o-o, eoooe onuecno. `HU has a non-assertive force, that is, does not presuppose the
presence oI any quality or quantity, and generally corresponds to the Russian o-yt, o-no,
conto-yt.
The diIIerence in meaning predetermines their use. cAN> is commonly used in a''irma!ive and im,era!ive
se&!e&es.
YB>?> <?> some <JJF>= AH @B> @<LF>. rEP> BEN some NEFO.
`HU is commonly used:
1) In negative sentences (with negatives HA@, HA, H>P>?, H>E@B>?... HA?$, in sentences with incomplete
negatives (B<?GFU, FE@@F>, T>;, F><=@, etc.), and with implied negatives (T<EF, J?>P>H@, ?>FMD@<H@, B<?G, GETTEDMF@$.
W GAH_@ FEO> a&y AT @B>N. cB> B<= &ever F<=@>G a&y ;EH>.
W hard%y OH>; a&y AT @BA=> J?>=>H@.
\> 'ai%ed @A TEHG a&y AT @B>N.
2) In questions, mostly general:
177
hEG UAM =>> a&y AT @B>Ng W= @B>?> a&y L?><G @B>?>g
3) In conditional clauses:
WT a&y J>?=AH F><?H= <LAM@ E@, UAM ;EFF B<P> @A F><P>.
4) In comparative phrases:
\> GEG NA?> TA? N> @B<H a&y AT UAM.
However, =AN> not <HU, is used in interrogative sentences when their basic meaning is assertive and the
speaker suggests that a certain state oI aIIairs exists, as in:
hEG UAM =>> some H>; qHCFE=B LAAO= AH @B> =B>FTg
(The speaker suggests that there are new English books on the shelI and the addressee had only to look on
them).
^B>H ;EFF UAM B<P> some @EN> @A =BA; N> UAM? J?>=>H@=g
cAN>, not <HU, is preIerable when making invitations or oIIers iI it presupposes an acceptance:
^EFF UAM B<P> some @><g ^AMFG UAM FEO> @A =>> some AT NU JED@M?>=g
The same holds true Ior negative sentences and conditional clauses with positive orientation.
cB> ;AMFG HA@ TEHG some F>@@>?= =B> B<G F>T@ AH @B> @<LF>.
WT UAM L?EHC B>? some TFA;>?=, =B>]FF L> AHFU @AA CF<G.
On the other hand <HU can be Iound in aIIirmative sentences iI used with the meaning oI HA N<@@>? ;B<@, HA
N<@@>? ;BA, as in: W <N =A BMHC?U. W_FF ><@ a&y JE>D> AT =@<F> L?><G. 9&y AT @B>N ;EFF GA. ( ce nmo
uecnt yco xne, nmo s x nooe).
Syntactically =AN> and <HU can be used as subject, object, or attribute.
The compound pronouns oI this subclass (=AN>@BEHC, =AN>LAGU, =AN>AH>, <HU@BEHC, <HULAGU, <HUAH>$ are
used only as noun-pronouns. Those ending in -@BEHC imply non-persons, and those ending in -LAGU imply
persons. The diIIerence in their communicative value is the same as between =AN> and <HU. The pronouns with
the element =AN>- are used in aIIirmative and conditional sentences, or in interrogative, negative and
conditional sentences iI they are assertive:
@ome!hi&) MH>IJ>D@>G <F;<U= B<JJ>H>G @A BEN.
o-yt eoxoe ncer cnyunoct c .
m>@ somebody L?EHC N> < CF<== AT ;<@>?.
yct o-yt nece e c not.
hEG somebody D<FF>G N> MJg
e o-o snon
The pronouns beginning with <HU are used in negative and interrogative sentences, in conditional clauses, in
comparative phrases and in aIIirmative sentences meaning HA N<@@>? ;B<@, HA N<@@>? ;BA.
W GAH_@ =>> a&yo&e B>?>.
oro sect e nxy.
0' a&yo&e D<FF=, <=O @B>N @A ;<E@ < NAN>H@.
cn o-yt se, nonoce nooxt yy.
178
The pronoun o&e is EHG>TEHE@>-J>?=AH<F. It indicates people in general implying inclusion oI the speaker,
much in the same way as the indeIinite-personal ;>, UAM, @B>U do:
wH> is used as subject and attribute (in the genitive case)
5&e H>P>? OHA;= ;B<@ N<U B<JJ>H.
or e semt, uo oxe cnyutcx.
The use oI AH> is rather Iormal. In everyday speech ;> or UAM is preIerable:
sAM H>P>? OHA; ;B<@ N<U B<JJ>H.
222. Negative pronouns as the term implies render the general meaning oI the sentence negative.
They are: HA, HAH>, HA@BEHC, HALAGU, HA AH>, H>E@B>?. aA is used only as an adjective-pronoun, HAH>, HA@BEHC,
HALAGU, HA AH> as noun-pronouns, H>E@B>? may be used as both adjective-pronoun and noun-pronoun.
Unlike Russian, in sentences with negative pronouns no other negative words can be used:
2 BC C . - @AFG BEN &o!hi&).
Only two negative pronouns have the category oI case: HALAGU K HALAGU_=, HA AH> - HA AH>_=. The other
pronouns oI this subclass have no grammatical categories.
aA and HAH> reIer to all nouns denoting both persons and things, HA@BEHC reIers to things, whereas HALAGU
and HA AH> reIer to persons only. aALAGU N><H= @A ATT>HG UAM. The pronoun H>E@B>? reIers to two persons or
things and thereIore correlates only with count nouns. It has a disjunctive Iorce ( o, yro).
Do @?>>= DAMFG L> =>>H. W ;EFF CEP> UAM &o @?AMLF>.
aA means HA@ ... < when premodiIying count nouns are in the singular.
W B<P> HA J>H. W B<P>&4! a J>H ;E@B N>. ( oo yu)
aAH> reIers to many people, thereIore it agrees with the predicate verb in the plural.
Do&e ;>?> J?>=>H@ <@ @B> N>>@EHC.
W ?>N>NL>? &o&e AT @B> =@A?E>=.
Do!hi&) B<JJ>H>G. W DAMFG =>> &o!hi&) @B>?>.
Dobody <H=;>?>G. (Not anybody) aA o&e =@E??>G. (Not anyone)
Dei!her D<N> L<DO. Dei!her LAAO EH@>?>=@>G N>.
When &ei!her is used as subject, the predicate verb is in the singular:
Dei!her ;<= J?>=>H@.
Dobody and &o o&e cannot be postmodiIied by an oI-phrase. Only &o&e can be used in this case.
None oI my relatives came to our wedding.
223. Detaching pronouns indicate the detachment oI some object Irom other objects oI the same class.
There are only two pronouns oI this subclass - A@B>?, <HA@B>?. They are used both as noun-pronouns and as
adjective-pronouns.
wH> AT @B> CE?F= ;<= J?>@@U, ;BEF> !he o!her ;<= @>??ELFU JF<EH.
\> CMFJ>G AH> DMJ, @B>H a&o!her.
W FEP> AH @B> o!her =EG>.
179
Both A@B>? and <HA@B>? have the category oI case (A@B>? K A@B>?_=, <HA@B>? K <HA@B>?_=$, but only A@B>? has
the category oI number (A@B>? -A@B>?=$.
The pronoun A@B>? has dual reIerence, personal and non-personal, and correlates with all subclasses oI nouns
in the singular and in the plural:
5!her @EN>= B<P> DAN>, o!her J>AJF> <?> AT ENJA?@<HD>.
Unlike the majority oI pronouns, A@B>? (both as a noun-pronoun and as an adjective-pronoun) can be
preceded by the deIinite article and other determiners.
.he o!her @?>> ;<= B<FT-;E@B>?>G.
YB>H B> C<P> N> his o!her B<HG.
.ha! o!her iM>=@EAH iME@> MJ=>@ N>.
cBA; N> some o!her JED@M?>=.
?is sis!er4s o!her DBEFG ;<= AHFU TEP> @B>H.
In these sentences A@B>? is used as an attribute. The attributive Iunction can also be perIormed by the noun-
pronoun A@B>? in the genitive case, as in: .he o!her4s NAM@B @;E@DB>G where A@B>?]= stands Ior some noun Irom
the previous context.
The pronoun <HA@B>? also has a dual reIerence, but it correlates only with count nouns in the singular.
^EFF UAM B<P> a&o!her DMJg
YB>H a&o!her ?MHH>? D<N> EH@A PE>;.
`HA@B>? has two meanings:
1) a diIIerent one -
W GAH_@ P>?U NMDB FEO> @BE= G?>==, ;EFF UAM =BA; N> a&o!her.
2) one more, one in addition to the one or ones mentioned beIore
cB> <=O>G N> < iM>=@EAH, @B>H a&o!her.
Detaching pronouns can be used as subject, object, adverbial modiIier and attribute.
224. Universal pronouns indicate all objects (persons and non-persons) as one whole or any
representative oI the group separately. They are: <FF, LA@B, ><DB, >P>?U, >P>?U@BEHC, >P>?ULAGU, >P>?UAH>, >E@B>?.
OI these only >P>?ULAGU and >P>?UAH> have the category oI case (>P>?ULAGU - >P>?ULAGU]=, >P>?UAH> K
>P>?UAH>_=$, others have no grammatical categories.
These pronouns, as can be seen Irom the deIinition, diIIer in their reIerence.
Some universal pronouns (<FF, >P>?ULAGU$ have always collective or all-embracing reference. They
correspond to the Russian , *, )', as in:
9%% ;>?> J?>=>H@.
EC .
9%% HECB@ FAHC =B> =<@ LU @B> ;EHGA;.
EF * .
W B<P>H_@ ?><G a%% @B> LAAO.
2 GCH .
Ivery!hi&) FAAO= =A L><M@ETMF EH =J?EHC.
EC .
cB> E= every!hi&) @A N>.
9 GJ.
Two pronouns (LA@B, >E@B>?$ indicate a group comprising two persons or non-persons treated either as a
180
whole (LA@B$ or as consisting oI individual objects in a group oI two (>E@B>? - xt s nyx). In accordance
with their reIerence LA@B takes a predicate-verb in the plural and >E@B>? - in the singular. The article is usually
placed aIter LA@B.
Ko!h B<P> DAN> EH @EN>.
Ko!h @B> ;EHGA;= ;>?> =BM@.
Ii!her AT @B>=> ;EFF GA.
- LM v .
- LM ' ''.
- mn s x nooe.
Some pronouns (>P>?U, ><DB, >E@B>?$ always have individual reference (xt, yro), thereIore they
agree with the predicate-verb in the singular.
cB> =><?DB>G every DA?H>?, LM@ TAMHG HA@BEHC.
Iah AT @B>N O>>J= =EF>H@.
Two pronouns (>P>?ULAGU, >P>?UAH>$ may have both collective and individual reference. In the Iirst case it
corresponds to the Russian , in the second case to the Russian Z'. This or that reIerence is generally
marked not so much by the predicate-verb, as by correlation with personal or possessive pronouns.
Iverybody GEG <= he @BAMCB@ L>=@.
Iverybody ;<= ><C>? @A CEP> his >PEG>HD>.
Y>FF everybody @B<@ !hey <?> @A ;<E@ < LE@.
Iverybody FA;>?>G !heir >U>=.
YB> ;AN>H =@AAG LU @B> C<@>= <HG everyo&e @AFG her A;H =@A?U.
225. Interrogative pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or tlieir properties as unknown to the
speaker and requiring to be named in the answer. Accordingly they are used to Iorm special (or pronominal)
questions.
This subclass oI pronouns comprises ;BA, ;BA=>, ;B<@, ;BEDB, ;BA>P>?, ;B<@>P>?, ;BEDB>P>?. OI these only
the pronoun ;BA has the category oI case the objective case is ;BAN. However there is a strong tendency in
colloquial English to use ;BA instead oI ;BAN, especially with prepositions.
Nho GEG UAM C>@ E@ 'romg
Nho B<P> UAM L>>H #i!hg
Nho GA UAM N><Hg
instead oI ^BAN GEG UAM C>@ E@ T?ANg (A? T?AN ;BAN$, ^BAN B<P> UAM L>>H ;E@Bg (A? ;E@B ;BAN$. ^BAN GA
UAM N><Hg
^BA, ;BA=>, ;BA>P>? have personal reIerence, ;B<@, ;B<@>P>? have non-personal reIerence, and ;BEDB may
have both personal and non-personal reIerence.
The number oI the persons implied by ;BA can be derived Irom the context. Accordingly the predicate-verb
may be in the singular or in the plural.
^BA has omeg W@_= NU L?A@B>?.
^BA are !o ome @AG<Ug
When ;BA is used as predicative, the link verb naturally agrees with the subject:
^BA E= =B>g ^BA <?> UAMg ^BA ;>?> @BA=> J>AJF>g
The pronouns ;B<@ may be both a noun-pronoun (uo) and an adjective-pronoun (on o). It has
mostly a non-personal reIerence, as in:
Nha! B<= B<JJ>H>Gg
181
Nha! E= BE= H<N>g
Nha! GEG UAM =<Ug
Nha! <?> UAM FAAOEHC <@g
Nha! LAAO <?> UAM ?><GEHCg
When ;B<@ is used as subject it is, unlike ;BA, always used with the predicate verb in the singular.
^B<@ is @B>?> AH @B> @<LF>g - cAN> LAAO= <HG J<J>?=.
However when ;B<@ is used as a predicative the link verb agrees with the subject.
^B<@ <?> @B>E? H<N>=g
^B<@ and ;BA can both be used as predicatives in questions concerning persons. In this case they convey
diIIerent meanings. ^BA-iM>=@EAH= inquire about the person's name or parentage, while ;B<@-iM>=@EAH= inquire
about persons occupation, proIession, rank, etc.
=Nho <?> UAMg~ W <N UAM? =E=@>?_= =AH.~
=Nho E= B>g~ K u\> E= f?. cNE@B.~
=Nha! E= =B>g~- ucB> E= < J<EH@>?~.
^BEDB is both a noun-pronoun and an adjective-pronoun. It may have either J>?=AH<F or HAH-J>?=AH<F
?>T>?>HD>.
Nhih AT @B>=> N>H E= UAM? BM=L<HGg
Nhih DAFAM? GA UAM J?>T>?g
^BEDB always implies a choice among a certain limited group oI persons or things, corresponding to the
Russian x1mn, xxn s. The same meaning may be rendered by ;B<@, but ;B<@ has always indeIinite
reIerence, whereas ;BEDB has deIinite reIerence. Thus the Iollowing two questions.
^BEDB LAAO= ;AMFG UAM FEO> @A LMUg
^B<@ LAAO= ;AMFG UAM FEO> @A LMUg
diIIer in meaning, as the Iirst implies that one is to choose Irom a given number oI books and that one knows
what kind oI books they are. When answering this question one may either speciIy the books or just point to
them saying ~these. The second sentence implies that one is to choose Irom an indeIinite number oI books,
Irom books in general. This sentence corresponds to the Russian e (oro x . n.) r t
xoen t ynt When answering this question, one simply has to speciIy them.
The pronouns ;BA>P>?, ;B<@>P>?, ;BEDB>P>? are noun-pronouns. ^BA>P>? has personal reIerence, ;B<@>P>?
has non-personal reIerence, ;BEDB>P>? may have either personal or non-personal one. When used in questions
they express indignation or surprise.
Nhoever DAMFG B<P> GAH> E@g
Nhihever ;<= E@g
Nha!ever <?> UAM @?UEHC @A GAg
Nha!ever E= B> @<FOEHC <LAM@g
226. Conjunctive pronouns (;BAN, ;BA=>, ;B<@, ;BEDB, ;BA>P>?, ;B<@>P>?, ;BEDB>P>?$ are identical with
the interrogative pronouns as to their morphological, reIerential and syntactical characteristics. They reIer to
persons and non-persons. The diIIerence between the two subclasses lies in that the conjunctive pronouns,
along with their syntactical Iunction in the clause, connect subordinate clauses to the main clause. They are
used to connect subject, predicative, and some adverbial clauses, or rather to indicate the subordinate status oI
these clauses, as the sentence may begin with the clause they introduce.
182
Who did it will repent. (;BA opens the subject clause)
I know who did it. (;BA opens the object clause)
They were what you call model girls. (;B<@ opens the predicative clause)
Whatever you may do you cant save the situation. (;B<@>P>? opens the adverbial concessive clause)
Conjunctive pronouns always combine two Iunctions - notional and structural. They are HA@EAH<F words
because they Iunction as parts oI the sentence within a clause and they are =@?MD@M?<F words because they serve
as connectors or markers oI the subordinate clause.
The compounds ;BA>P>?, ;B<@>P>?, and ;BEDB>P>? introduce subject and adverbial clauses and have a
concessive meaning:
Whoever told you this may be mistaken.
Whichever you choose, Ill help you.
Whatever may be the consequences, I insist on going on.
227. Relative pronouns reIer to persons and non-persons and open attributive clauses which modiIy
words denoting these persons or non-persons. They are ;BA, ;BA=>, ;BEDB, @B<@. ^BA, like its homonyms, has
the category oI case (;BA-;BAN$, the others have no categories.
Relative pronouns, like conjunctive pronouns, have two Iunctions - notional and structural: they are parts
oI the sentence and connectors between the main clause and the subordinate attributive clause they are used in.
But unlike conjunctive pronouns they are always related (hence their name ?>F<@EP>$ to some noun or pronoun in
the main clause. Compare the Iollowing sentences:
Who he was is still a mystery(conjunctive pronoun)
I dont know which oI the books is better.
That is the man who has saved your child (relative
pronoun)
Here is the book which the lecturer recommended.
Conjunctive and relative pronouns do not coincide reIerentially: the conjunctive pronouns ;BA and ;BA=>
have only personal reIerence; the relative pronoun ;BA has personal reIerence, but ;BA=> has dual reIerence
(personal and non-personal); the conjunctive pronoun ;BEDB has dual reIerence, whereas the relative ;BEDB has
only non-personal reIerence.
The man who stood at the gate was Jim.
Then the man whose Iace I still could not see began singing.
The village whose rooIs were seen in the distance was N.
I picked up the letter which was on the window sill.
Relative pronouns may Iunction in the subordinate attributive clause as subject, object, attribute, and
adverbial modiIier (with prepositions).
Types oI pronouns The list oI pronouns
Personal pronouns The common case: I, you, he, she, it, we, they.
The objective case: me, you, him, her, it, us, them.
Possessive pronouns Conjoint Iorms: my, your, his, her, its, our, their.
Absolute Iorms: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs.
ReIlexive pronouns myselI, yourselI, himselI, herselI, itselI, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
Demonstrative
pronouns
this, that, these, those, such, same.
IndeIinite pronouns some, something, somebody, someone; any, anything, anybody, anyone.
183
Negative pronouns no, nothing, nobody, no one, none, neither.
Universal pronouns all, each, both, either, every, everything, everybody, everyone.
Detaching pronouns other, another.
Reciprocal pronouns each other, one another.
Interrogative pronouns who, what, which, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever.
Conjunctive pronouns who, what, which, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever.
Relative pronouns who, whose, which, that.
THE NUMERAL
228. The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order oI thing in succession.
In accordance with this distinction the numerals Iall into two groups cardinal numerals (cardinals) and
ordinal numerals (ordinals).
Cardinals Ordinals
0 nought, zero
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 Iour
5 Iive
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 Iourteen
15 IiIteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 twenty-one, etc.
30 thirty
40 Iorty
50 IiIty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 one (a) hundred
101 one (a) hundred and one, etc.
1,000 one (a) thousand
1,001 one (a) thousand and one, etc.
100,000 one hundred thousand
1st Iirst
2nd second
3rd third
4th Iourth
5th IiIth
6th sixth
7th seventh
8th eighth
9th ninth
10th tenth
11th eleventh
12th twelIth
13th thirteenth
14th Iourteenth
15th IiIteenth
16th sixteenth
17th seventeenth
18th eighteenth
19th nineteenth
20th twentieth
21st twenty-Iirst, etc.
30th thirtieth
40th Iortieth
50th IiItieth
60th sixtieth
70th seventieth
80th eightieth
90th ninetieth
100th (one) hundredth
101st (one) hundred and Iirst, etc.
1,000th (one) thousandth
1,001st one thousand and Iirst, etc.
100,000th (one) hundred thousandth
184
1.0.0 one million
1.000.001 one million and one, etc.
1,000,000th (one) millionth
1,000,001st (one) million and Iirst, etc.
Morphological composition
The Cardinals
229. Among the cardinals there are simple, derived, and compound words.
The cardinals Irom AH> to @;>FP>, BMHG?>G, @BAM=<HG, NEFFEAH are simple words; those Irom @BE?@>>H to
HEH>@>>H are derived Irom the corresponding simple ones by means oI the suIIix -@>>HV the cardinals denoting
T>H= are derived Irom the corresponding simple ones by means oI the suIIix -@U.
Note:
Mind the diIIerence in the spelling oI the stem in @B?>> and @BE?@>>H (@BE?@U$, TAM? and TA?@U, TEP> and
TET@>>H (TET@U$.
The cardinals Irom @;>H@U-AH> to @;>H@U-HEH>, Irom @BE?@U-AH> to @BE?@U-HEH>, etc. and those over BMHG?>G are
compounds.
In cardinals consisting oI @>H= and MHE@= the two words are hyphenated:
21 - @;>H@U-AH>, 35 - @BE?@U-TEP>, 72 - =>P>H@U-@;A, etc.
In cardinals including BMHG?>G= and @BAM=<HG= the words denoting MHE@= and @>H= are joined to those denoting
BMHG?>G=, @BAM=<HG=, by means oI the conjunction <HG1
103 - AH> BMHG?>G <HG @B?>>,
225 - @;A BMHG?>G <HG @;>H@U-TEP>,
3038 - @B?>> @BAM=<HG <HG @BE?@U->ECB@,
9651 - HEH> @BAM=<HG =EI BMHG?>G <HG TET@U-AH>.
Note:
II not part oI a composite numeral the words BMHG?>G, @BAM=<HG and NEFFEAH in the singular are always used
with the indefinite article; < BMHG?>G J<C>=, < @BAM=<HG ;<U=V in composite numerals both a and one are
possible, but one is less common; < (AH>$ BMHG?>G <HG TET@U J<C>=.
The words Ior common Iractions are also composite. They are Iormed Irom cardinals denoting the numerator
and substantivized ordinals denoting the denominator. II the numerator is a numeral higher than one, the ordinal
in the denominator takes the plural Iorm. The numerator and denominator may be joined by means oI a hyphen
or without it:
1/3 - AH>-@BE?G (AH> @BE?G$,
2/7 - @;A-=>P>H@B= (@;A =>P>H@B=$, etc.
In mixed numbers the numerals denoting Iractions are joined to the numerals denoting integers (whole
numbers) by means oI the conjunction <HG1
3 1/5 - @B?>> <HG AH>-TET@B,
20 3/8 - @;>H@U <HG @B?>>->ECB@B=.
In decimal Iractions the numerals denoting Iractions are joined to those denoting whole numbers by means
oI the words JAEH@ or G>DEN<F1
0.5 - S>?A JAEH@ (G>DEN<F$ TEP>,
185
2.3 - @;A JAEH@ (G>DEN<F$ @B?>>,
0,5 - S>?A G>DEN<F TEP>,
0,005 - S>?A G>DEN<F S>?A S>?A TEP>.
The ordinals
230. Among the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.
The simple ordinals are TE?=@, =>DAHG and @BE?G.
The derivative ordinals are derived Irom the simple and derivative cardinals by means oI the suIIix -th:
TAM?-TAM?@B, @>H-@>H@B, =EI@>>H-=EI@>>H@B, @;>H@U-@;>H@E>@B, etc.
BeIore the suIIix -th the Iinal y is replaced by ie:
@BE?@U - @BE?@E>@B, etc.
Mind the diIIerence in the spelling oI the stems in the Iollowing cardinals and ordinals:
TEP>-TET@B, HEH>-HEH@B.
The compound ordinals are Iormed Irom composite cardinals. In this case only the last component oI the
compound numeral has the Iorm oI the ordinal:
@;>H@U-TE?=@, TA?@U-=>DAHG, =EI@U-=>P>H@B, AH> BMHG?>G <HG TE?=@, etc.
Morphological characteristics
231. Numerals do not undergo any morphological changes, that is, they do not have morphological
categories. In this they diIIer Irom nouns with numerical meaning. Thus the numerals @>H (ecxt), BMHG?>G
(co), @BAM=<HG (tcxu) do not have plural forms:
@;A BMHG?>G <HG TET@U, TAM? @BAM=<HG J>AJF>, etc.,
whereas the corresponding homonymous nouns @>H (ecxo), BMHG?>G (cox), @BAM=<HG (tcxu) do:
to count in @>H=, BMHG?>G= AT J>AJF>, @BAM=<HG= AT LE?G=, >@D.
Patterns of combinability
232. Numerals combine mostly with nouns and Iunction as their attributes, usually as premodiIying
attributes. II a noun has several premodiIying attributes including a cardinal or an ordinal, these come Iirst, as
in:
@B?>> @EHU C?>>H F><P>=, =>P>H E?AH N>H, @B> =>DAHG J<F> FE@@F> LAU, etc.
The only exception is pronoun determiners, which always begin a series oI attributes:
BE= =>DAHG L><M@ETMF ;ET>V
@B>=> TAM? ?AAN=V
B>? @B?>> FE@@F> DBEFG?>HV
>P>?U =>DAHG G<U, etc.
II both a cardinal and an ordinal reIer to one head-noun the ordinal comes first:
@B> TE?=@ @B?>> @<FF CE?F=, @B> =>DAHG @;A C?>U GAC=, etc.
Nouns premodiIied by ordinals are used with the definite article:
186
YB> TE?=@ N>H EH @B> NAAH, @B> @BE?G NAH@B, etc.
When used with the indeIinite article, they lose their numerical meaning and acquire that oI a pronoun
(another, one more), as in:
< =>DAHG N<H >H@>?>G, @B>H < @BE?G
(nomen eme o uenone, noo eme).
PostmodiIying numerals combine with a limited number oI nouns. PostmodiIying cardinals are combinable
with some nouns denoting items oI certain sets oI things:
J<C>=, J<?<C?<JB=, DB<J@>?=, J<?@= AT LAAO=, <D@= <HG =D>H>= AT JF<U=, F>==AH= EH @>I@LAAO=, <J<?@N>H@=
<HG ?AAN=, LM=>= A? @?<N= (N><H= AT @?<H=JA?@$, C?<NN<@ED<F @>?N=, etc.;
?AAN @;A BMHG?>G <HG @B?>>, J<C> @>H, LM= TAM?, J<?@EDEJF> AH>, etc.
Note:
In such cases the cardinals have a numbering meaning and thus diIIer semantically Irom the ordinals which
have an enumerating meaning. Enumeration indicates the order oI a thing in a certain succession oI things,
while numbering indicates a number constantly attached to a thing either in a certain succession or in a certain
set oI things. Thus, @B> TE?=@ ?AAN (enumeration) is not necessarily ?AAN AH> (numbering), etc. Compare:
@B> TE?=@ ?AAN W FAAO>G EH@A ;<= ?AAN TEP>,
or
@B> =>DAHG J<C> @B<@ B> ?><G ;<= J<C> @;>H@U-@B?>>, etc.
PostmodiIying ordinals occur in combinations with certain proper names, mostly those denoting the
members oI well-known dynasties:
EHC \>H?U WWW - EHC \>H?U @B> qECB@B,
X>@>? W - X>@>? @B> lE?=@, etc.
Mind the position oI the article in such phrases. It is always attached to the numeral.
When used as substitutes numerals combine with various verbs:
W =<; TEP> AT @B>N. YB>U @AAO @;>H@U.
As head-words modiIied by other words numerals are combinable with:
1) prepositional phrases:
@B> TE?=@ AT f<U, AH> AT @B> N>H, @;A AT @B>N, etc.
2) pronouns:
>P>?U @B?>> G<U=, <FF =>P>H, ><DB TET@B, etc.
3) adjectives:
@B> L>=@ @B?>> AT @B>N, @B> F<=@ @;A ;>>O=, etc.
4) particles:
QM=@ TEP> G<U= <CA, AHFU @;A, AHFU @B?>> LAAO=, B> E= H><?FU =EI@U, etc.
Note:
The numeral TE?=@ may combine with the particle very:
@B> P>?U TE?=@ AT @B>N.
187
When they have the Iunction oI subject or predicative the numerals are combinable with link verbs,
generally the verb to be:
@>H ;>?> J?>=>H@,
@B> TE?=@ ;<= NU T<@B>?
;> <?> =>P>H,
=B> E= @B> =>DAHG.
Occasionally they are combinable with some other link verbs:
@;A =>>N>G >HAMCB, @B> @BE?G <JJ><?>G @A L> ;AMHG>G.
Syntactic function
233. Though cardinals and ordinals have mainly similar syntactic Iunctions they diIIer in certain details.
The most characteristic Iunction oI both is that of premodifying attribute:
@;A ?AAN=, @B> @BE?G J>?=AH, etc.
In this connection it must be remembered that while the ordinals are used as ordinary attributes, cardinals
with the Iunction oI an attribute govern the number oI the noun they modiIy:
AH> J<C>, but @;A (@B?>>, etc.) J<C>=.
Note 1:
uite unlike Russian, composite cardinals ending in one (twenty-one, thirty-one, two hundred and one, three
hundred and twenty-one, etc.) require a plural noun:
@;>H@U-AH> J<C>=, @;A BMHG?>G <HG AH> J<C>=.
Note 2:
In numbering the items oI certain sets oI things cardinals, not ordinals, are used to modiIy the nouns
denoting these things. The cardinals thus used are always postmodiIying. The nouns modified do not take an
article:
J<C> @B?>>, F>==AH AH>, ?AAN @BE?@U-TEP>, etc.
(In Russian both ordinals and cardinals are possible in this case, though ordinals are preIerable. Compare:
) and ) *,
and *.$
Both cardinals and ordinals may have the Iunctions oI subject, object, predicative and adverbial modifier
of time:
YB?>> AT M= went home.
I saw @;A AT @B>N in the Iorest.
They were =>P>H.
She got up <@ TEP> @AG<U.
However, in all these cases a noun is always implied, that is, the numeral Iunctions as a substitute Ior the
noun either mentioned in the previous context, or selI-evident Irom the situation. The only case in which the
numerals (cardinals) can really have the Iunction oI subject, object or predicative is when they are used with
their purely abstract Iorce:
TEP> E= NA?> @B<H @B?>>V @;A JFM= @;A E= TAM?, etc.
188
Substantivized numerals
234. Numerals can be substantivized, that is, take Iormal nominal Ieatures: the plural suIIix -=, an article,
and the ability to combine with adjectives and some other modiIiers oI nouns. When numerals undergo
substantivization not only their morphology is changed, but also their meaning. Thus when the numerals
BMHG?>G, @BAM=<HG and NEFFEAH are substantivized they acquire the meaning "a great quantity", as in:
BMHG?>G= AT LAAO=, @BAM=<HG= AT J>AJF>, NEFFEAH= AT EH=>D@=, etc.
Other numerals, both cardinals and ordinals, can also be substantivized.
Cardinals are substantivized when they name:
1) school marks in Russia
(\> CA@ < @;A. \> CA@ @B?>> TEP>=$
or
school marks in Great Britain
(\> CA@ @>H. \> CA@ @B?>> HEH>= F<=@ ;>>O$.
2) sets oI persons and things:
YB>U D<N> EH @;A=. YB>U TAFFA;>G EH TAM?=. lA?N TAM?=R
3) playing cards:
@B> @;A AT B><?@=, @B> TEP> AT =J<G>=, @B> =>P>H AT GE<NAHG=, @B> @>H AT DFML=, @B?>> AT @?MNJ=.
4) boats Ior a certain number oI rowers:
< TAM?, <H >ECB@.
5) decades:
EH @B> ><?FU =EI@E>=, EH @B> F<@> TET@E>=, etc.
The meaning oI substantivized ordinals is less aIIected by substantivization and remains the same:
He was @B> TE?=@ to come.
She was @B> TAM?@B to leave.
THE STATIVE
235. The stative denotes a temporary state oI a person or a non-person. Unlike such classes oI words as
nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs the number oI statives Iunctioning in English is limited. There are about
30 stable statives, used both in colloquial and in Iormal style:
ablaze
adriIt
aIire
aIlame
aIloat
aIoot
aIraid
aghast
aglow
agog
ahead
akin
ajar
alight
alike
alive
alooI
alone
amiss
ashamed
askew
aslant
asleep
aslope
astir
astray
athirst
awake
awry
and about 100 unstable ones, which are seldom used even in Iormal style and never in colloquial:
<=BMGG>?, <@;E=@, <@?>NLF>, <CF><N, etc.
189
Semantically statives Iall into Iive groups describing various states oI persons or non-persons:
1. Psychological states oI persons:
<T?<EG, <CB<=@, <=B<N>G, <;<?>, <CAC.
2. Physical states oI persons:
<FEP>, <;<O>, <=F>>J.
3. States oI motion or activity oI persons or non-persons:
<TAA@, <=@E?, <TFA<@, <G?ET@.
4. Physical states oI non-persons:
<TE?>, <TF<N>, <FECB@, <CFA;, <LF<S>.
5. The posture oI non-persons:
<=O>;, <;?U, <=F<H@, <Q<?.
Morphological characteristics
236. rom the point oI view oI their morphological composition the class oI statives is homogeneous, that
is all oI them have a special marker, the preIix a-: <=F>>J, <FEP>, <FAH>, <TE?>, etc.
Note:
In English there are some words devoid oI the marker -a-, which are semantically and Iunctionally very
similar to statives. These are:
TAHG, CF<G, EFF, =A??U, ;>FF.
Their grammatical status is intermediate between that oI stative and adjective.
As regards their structure, statives with the marker a- Iall into two groups: those that can be divided into
morphemes (the preIix a- and the stem oI a noun, a verb, or an adjective) <-=F>>J, <-TE?>, <-CFA;, and those that
cannot be devived because the part Iollowing a- does not correspond to any noun, verb, or adjective stem, as in
<-FAAT, <-;<?>, <-T?<EG.
Statives do not change their Iorm to express concord with the word they reIer to.

Note:
There are other words besides statives with the preIix a-:
<D?A==, <FAHC (adv. and prep.), <NEG=@ (prep.), <H>; (adv.) <?E=> (verb), <FAMG (adj.), <NAMH@ (noun), etc.
Syntactic function
237. Statives may have three Iunctions in a sentence: that oI predicative in a compound nominal or a
double predicate (the most common Iunction), that oI objective predicative, or occasionally that oI attribute.
When used in the Iunction oI predicative statives describe the state oI the person or non-person denoted by
the subject and are connected with the subject by means oI a link verb or in some cases by a notional verb.
Statives as predicatives within a compound nominal predicate:
He ;<= terribly <T?<EG oI his Iather.
The house ;<= <LF<S> with lights.
Soon she T>FF Iast <=F>>J.
He =>>N>G <T?<EG to go any Iurther.
She T>F@ <F>?@ and UAMHC.
Why do they FAAO so Irighteningly <FEO>
190
The Overlords ?>N<EH>G <FAAT, hiding their Iaces Irom mankind.
Statives as predicatives within a double predicate:
He =<@ quite <FAH> on that large verandah oI his.
or a moment she =@AAG <CB<=@, looking at the door.
She ;<= FUEHC wide <;<O> listening to all the sounds oI the night.
She =AMHG>G very BECB <HG <T?<EG.
When they have the Iunction oI objective predicative, statives describe the state oI the person or non-person
denoted by the object:
irst oI all B<P> @B> TE?> <FECB@ in the drawing room.
The large dog O>J@ BEN <TFA<@ until the raIt came up.
hAH_@ O>>J @B> GAA? <Q<?.
m><P> N> <FAH>, you Iool.
Ill C>@ BEN <;<O> in a minute.
Although the function of attribute is not characteristic oI statives, some oI them may have this Iunction
(either detached or undetached attributes).
Statives as undetached attributes are always postmodiIying:
No man <FEP> could have done it.
No one <;<?> oI the consequences oI his deed would have deIied the Iate.
When used as detached attributes, statives may be either post- or premodiIying:
The microphone, <F?><GU <FEP>, was waiting Ior him.
He stood, <F>?@ <HG FE=@>HEHC, while the noise Irom the reeI grew steadily around him.
`FAAT AH B>? NAMH@<EH-@AJ, she considered the innumerable activities oI men.
In all these cases the stative retains its predicational Iorce.
THE ADVERB
238. The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modiIy an action,
state, or quality. It may also intensiIy a quality or characteristics.
rom this deIinition it is diIIicult to deIine adverbs as a class, because they comprise a most heterogeneous
group oI words, and there is considerable overlap between the class and other word classes. They have many
kinds oI Iorm, meaning and Iunction. Alongside such undoubtIul adverbs as B>?>, HA;, AT@>H, =>FGAN, <F;<U=,
there are many others which also Iunction as words oI other classes. Thus, adverbs like G><G (dead tired), DF><?
(to get clear away), DF><H (I've clean Iorgotten), =FA;, ><=U (he would say that slow and easy) coincide with
corresponding adjectives (< G><G LAGU, DF><? ;<@>?=, DF><H B<HG=$. Adverbs like J<=@, <LAP> are homonymous
with prepositions. There is also a special group oI pronominal adverbs ;B>H, ;B>?>, BA;, ;BU used either as
interrogative words or as connectives to introduce subordinate clauses.
^B>?> shall we go (an interrogative pronominal adverb)
Well go ;B>?> you want (a conjunctive pronominal adverb).
Some adverbs may be used rather like a verb, as in Up. Jenkins Down, Peter, where the Iirst word is like
an imperative.
In many cases the border-line between adverbs and words oI the other classes is deIined syntactically.
He walked J<=@. (adverb)
He walked J<=@ the house. (preposition)
191
They took the dog EH. (adverb)
They leIt the dog EH the house, (preposition)
He did everything slowly but =M?>FU. (adverb)
cM?>FU you know him. (modal word)
There are three adverbs connected with numerals: AHD>, @;ED>, and @B?ED> (the latter being archaic). They
denote measure or Irequency.
She went there AHD> a week.
I saw him @;ED> last month.
Y;ED> is also used in the structure @;ED> <= FAHC, etc.
He is @;ED> <= @<FF as his brother.
She is @;ED> <= DF>P>?.
Beginning with @B?>> the idea oI Irequency or repetition is expressed by the phrases @B?>> @EN>=, TAM? @EN>=V
He went there TAM? @EN>=V he is TAM? @EN>= as bigger; she is @>H @EN>= cleverer.
Morphological composition
239. Adverbs vary in their structure. There are simple, derived, compound, and composite adverbs.
Simple adverbs are <T@>?, B>?>, ;>FF, HA;, =AAH, etc.
In derived adverbs the most common suIIix is -ly, by means oI which new adverbs are coined Irom
adjectives and participles: ADD<=EAH<FFU, F<@>FU, ENN>GE<@>FU, DAH=@<H@FU, JM?>FU, =FA;FU, DB<?NEHCFU.
The less common snffixes are the following:
-wise
-ward(s)
-fold
-like
-most
-way(s)
clock;E=>, crab;E=>, corkscrew -;E=>, education- ;E=>
on;<?G(=$, back;<?G(=$, home;<?G(=$, east;<?G(=$
twoTAFG, maniTAFG
warFEO>
innerNA=@, outerNA=@
long;<U=, side;<U=
OI these suIIixes the Iirst two are more ptoductive than the rest.
Compound adverbs are Iormed oI two stems:
=AN>@EN>=, =AN>;B>?>, >P>?U;B>?>, GA;H=@<E?=, etc.
Composite phrasal adverbs consist oI two or more word-Iorms, as
< C?><@ G><F, < FE@@F> LE@, T<? >HAMCB, HA; <HG @B>H, T?AN @EN> @A @EN>, =A?@ AT, OEHG AT, < B>FF AT, < FA@ AT, <
C?><@ G><F AT.
Morphological characteristics
240. The only pattern oI morphological change Ior adverbs is the same as Ior adjectives, the degrees oI
comparison. The three grades are called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees.
Adverbs that are identical in Iorm with adjectives take inIlections Iollowing the same spelling and phonetic
rules as Ior adjectives:
early
late
hard
slow
- earlier
- later
- harder
- slower
- earliest
- latest
- hardest
- slowest
192
Several adverbs ending in -ly (iMEDOFU, FAMGFU$ Iorm comparatives according to the same pattern, dropping
their adverb-Iorming suIIix. These adverbs acquired the Iorm in -ly only recently and retained the older Iorms
oI the comparative and superlative:
quickly
loudly
- quicker
- louder
- quickest
- loudest
However most disyllabic adverbs in -ly and all polysyllabic ones Iorm the comparative and superlative
analytically, by means oI more and most:
wisely
soItly
deeply
- NA?> ;E=>FU
- NA?> =AT@FU
- NA?> G>>JFU
- NA=@ ;E=>FU
- NA=@ =AT@FU
- NA=@ G>>JFU
The adverb AT@>H occurs with both types oI comparison:
AT@>H AT@>H>?
NA?> AT@>H
As with adjectives, there is a small group oI adverbs with comparatives and superlatives Iormed Irom
diIIerent stems (suppletive forms). These comparatives and superlatives are identical with those Ior the
corresponding adjectives and can be diIIerentiated Irom the latter only syntactically.
well
badly
little
much
Iar
- better
- worse
- less
- more
Iurther
Iarther
- best
- worst
- least
- most
- Iurthest
- Iarthest
Which do you like bes!g
This is %eas! painIul Ior you.
Either T<?@B>? (Iarthest) or TM?@B>? (Iurthest) are used when speaking oI places, directions, or distance:
He is too tired to walk any T<?@B>? (TM?@B>?$.
But only TM?@B>? (Iurthest) is used with the meaning NA?>, F<@>?1
Dont try my patience any TM?@B>?.
Most oI the adverbs, however, stand outside the degrees oI comparison:
pronominal adverbs denoting place and time
(B>?>, =AN>;B>?>, @B>?>, =AN>@EN>=, ;B>H$,
denoting manner
(=AN>BA;, @BM=$, and
adverbs oI manner denoting gradation
(NEHEN<FFU, AJ@EN<FFU, J?AIEN<FFU - nxe ney).
Semantic characteristics
193
241. According to their meaning adverbs Iall into many groups. Here are the main ones:
Adverbs of place: AM@=EG>, @B>?>, EH T?AH@, etc.
Adverbs of time include those denoting duration (FAHC, DAH@EHM<FFU$, interval (<FF G<U$, timing (U>=@>?G<U,
@AG<U, ?>D>H@FU, F<@>FU, ENN>GE<@>FU, AHD>, <@ AHD>, HA;$, Irequency (AT@>H, HA; <HG @B>H, ADD<=EAH<FFU$. Several
oI them denote an indeIinite time - =AAH, U>@, <F;<U=, <F?><GU, H>P>?, >P>?.
Adverbs of manner: ;>FF, D<?>TMFFU, EH@>H@EAH<FFU, =EF>H@FU, DF><?FU, etc.
Adverbs of degree: @BA?AMCBFU, P>?U, NMDB, DANJF>@>FU, iME@>, ?<@B>?, < FA@, < FE@@F>, < C?><@ G><F, L<GFU,
C?><@FU, B<?GFU, L<?>FU, =D<?D>FU, H<??A;FU, QM=@, <FNA=@, NA=@FU, >HA?NAM=FU, F<?C>FU, @?>N>HGAM=FU, O>>HFU,
=AN>;B<@, @AA, =A, NA=@, <FF LM@.
Among these some are synonymous (NMDB, P>?U$, but their combinability is diIIerent. Thus NMDB is used to
modiIy verbs, nouns, statives and adjectives, and P>?U is used with adjectives and adverbs in the positive and
superlative degrees, whereas with comparatives only NMDB is used:
to travel much
to be much improved
much better
much slower
very much in love
very much alive
very much alike
very much aIraid
very nice
very glad
very slow
very quickly
With participles, however, both NMDB and P>?U may be used, oIten they go together:
NMDB admired, P>?U surprised, P>?U NMDB amused.
Among adverbs oI degree there are many the meaning oI which has become weakened and which are used
as intensiIiers, adding emotional colouring to the content oI what is said. This group oI adverbs is very diIIicult
to deIine because adverbs oI other semantic groups can occasionally Iunction as intensiIiers:
a#'$%%y J<EHTMF,
very iME>@,
ra!her D<FN,
mos! >IJ>H=EP>,
!errib%y MHQM=@,
'ai&!%y MH><=U,
rea%%y J?>@@U,
,osi!ive%y ;AHG>?TMF,
e<!reme%y L><M@ETMF,
!oo T?ECB@TMF,
so HED>,
etc.
Syntactic functions and patterns of combinability
242. Adverbs may perIorm diIIerent Iunctions, modiIying diIIerent types oI words, phrases, sentences.
Some adverbs are restricted in their combinability whereas others may modiIy diIIerent words, Ior instance
>HAMCB, which may be used in @A ;A?O >HAMCB, HA@ iMEDOFU >HAMCB, iMEDO >HAMCB. The most typical Iunction oI
the adverb is that oI adverbial modiIier.
The combinability and Iunctions oI the adverbs are as Iollows:
1. Adverbs may Iunction as adverbial modifiers oI manner, place, time, degree to a Iinite or non-Iinite Iorm
oI the verb:
\> =JAO> a%o$d> 0 O$i!e TA?CA@ <LAM@ E@V B> =JAO> #e%%.
Some adverbs oI time though synonymous, are used in diIIerent syntactical patterns. Thus, <F?><GU is used in
aIIirmative sentences, and U>@ - in interrogative and negative sentences:
194
They have <F?><GU Iinished.
They havent Iinished U>@.
Have they Iinished U>@g
However, <F?><GU may occur in interrogative and negative sentences when there is an element oI surprise or
the question is suggestive, that is the speaker expects an aIIirmative answer.
Have they Iinished <F?><GUg (The speaker is surprised at their having already Iinished.)
In the same way =@EFF, meaning continuously, up to this moment, is used in aIIirmative sentences and <HU
NA?> in negative sentences. II <HU NA?> is used in a question, it implies that the speaker expects a negative
answer.
He =@EFF works at the library.
He does not work there <HU NA?>.
Does he take music lessons <HU NA?>g - No, he doesnt.
2. Adverbs may Iunction as adverbial modifiers to an adjective or another adverb. Usually the modiIying
adverb is an intensiIier:
P>?U, ?<@B>?, <;TMFFU, =A, @>??ELFU, >I@?>N>FU, NA=@, M@@>?FU, MHM=M<FFU, G>FECB@TMFFU, MHL>FE>P<LFU,
<N<SEHCFU, =@?EOEHCFU, BECBFU, @B<@, etc.
The same applies to composite adverbs, such as
OEHG AT, =A?@ AT, < CAAG LE@ AT, < FA@ AT, < B>FF AT, < C?><@ G><F AT, etc.
She is !errib%y <;O;<?GV they are very B<JJU1 Meg is DF>P>? e&o$)h> you speak =A =FA;FUV they settled in a
ra!her iME>@ =@?>>@V the boy is $&be%ievab%y T<@V she was s!ri1i&)%y B<HG=AN>V we did it sor! AT J?AMGFUV O$i!e
G>TEHE@>FU, !oo NMDB, ri)h! @B>?>, a )rea! dea% @AA NMDB.
Some adverbs - =@EFF, U>@, T<?, NMDB, <HU combine with comparative adjectives: NMDB ;A?=>, HA@ <HU L>@@>?,
=@EFF C?><@>?, etc.
He could not speak a&y JF<EH>?.
ou could do E@ 'ar NA?> H><@FU.
She is m$h ;E@@E>? than her Iriend.
Comparative adverbs are used in clauses of proportional agreement, that is, parallel clauses in which
qualities or actions denoted in them increase or decrease at an equal rate. (See Syntax 177)
YB> FAHC>? I think about it @B> F>== I understand your reasons.
To express the idea that a quality or action decreases or increases at an even rate the comparative may be
repeated, the two identical Iorms being connected by <HG1
He ran T<=@>? <HG T<=@>?.
3. There are some adverbs which may modiIy nouns or words oI nominal character, Iunctioning as attribute,
as in:
@B> ;<U <B><G, @B> @?EJ <L?A<G, @B> QAM?H>U BAN>, BE= ?>@M?H BAN>, @B> =>H@>HD> <LAP> (L>FA;$, NU T?E>HG
B>?>, @B> BAM=> AJJA=E@>, @B> G<U L>TA?>, etc.
A Iew adverbs can premodiIy nouns without losing their adverbial character:
@B> @B>H J?>=EG>H@, EH <T@>? U><?=, @B> <LAP> =>H@>HD>, @B> HA; C>H>?<@EAH.
195
Their combinability with prepositional phrases can be illustrated by the Iollowing:
?ECB@ MJ @A @B> D>EFEHC.
Positional characteristics
243. As adverbs modiIy words oI diIIerent classes, they accordingly occupy diIIerent positions in the
sentence. In comparison with other words, adverbs may be considered as the most movable words. However,
adverbs are not identical in their ability to be moved to another position in the structure. Thus, adverbs of
manner and degree are very closely attached to the word they modiIy and cannot be moved away Irom it. \>
=EHC= ;>FF K is the only possible arrangement oI the three words, unless the change oI position is caused by
inversion and a general shiIt oI the communicative Iocus: wHFU ;>FF GA>= B> =EHC (o noe onto xoomo). II
such an adverb is put in other positions this may result in a change oI meaning in which case it is no longer an
adverb (it has already been mentioned that adverbs are oIten deIined by position rather than Iorm): ;>FF, B>
=EHC= ;B>H HALAGU E= EH.
II the predicate is an analytical Iorm adverbs of frequency and indefinite time are usually placed between
its parts:
Have you >P>? seen him
ou are <F;<U= laughing at me.
Adverbs of degree usually premodiIy adjectives or verbs:
<;TMFFU J<EHTMF, @>??ELFU MHQM=@, ?><FFU J?>@@U, =A HED>, @A @BA?AMCBFU MHG>?=@<HG, etc.
The most mobile are adverbs of time and place, which can occupy several positions without any change in
their meaning, as in:
o=M<FFU he sings well.
He M=M<FFU sings well.
He sings well M=M<FFU.
The initial position oI the adverb of manner always makes it emphatic.
X?AMGFU he showed his diploma to his parents.
d<?>TMFFU he signed his name.
In these sentences, despite the detachment oI the adverbial modiIier, its connection with the verb is evident
(=BA;>G J?AMGFU, =ECH>G D<?>TMFFU$.
Note:
Care should be taken not to conIuse adverbs oI manner and modal words, which may have the same word-
Iorm and occur in the same position. The only guide in these cases is punctuation and the relation between the
words:
a<@M?<FFU I wanted him to answer - modal word.
I wanted him to answer H<@M?<FFU - adverb.
They wanted to live H<@M?<FFU - adverb.
They wanted to live, H<@M?<FFU - modal word.
MODAL WORDS
244. Modal words express the speaker's attitude to what his utterance denotes. The speakers judgement
may be oI diIIerent kinds, that is, the speaker may express various modal meanings.
Modal words are an invariable part oI speech. They may reIer to a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence.
Their syntactical Iunction is that oI a parenthesis, they may also be a sentence in themselves, in which case they
196
are used to answer a general question:
Will you help me d>?@<EHFU.
X?>DE=>FU this.
Except this man, AT DAM?=>.
Semantically modal words Iall into three groups, denoting:
1. Certainty/doubt (D>?@<EHFU, AT DAM?=>, EHG>>G, =M?>FU, G>DEG>GFU, ?><FFU, G>TEHE@>FU, H<@M?<FFU, HA GAML@,
etc.).
d>?@<EHFU, it was astonishing that she should be preoccupied with her schemes Ior the welIare oI
Constance.
wT DAM?=>, it would have been diIIerent iI they had married.
In answers the meaning oI these words is weakened.
2. Supposition (J>?B<J=, N<UL>, J?AL<LFU, ALPEAM=FU, JA==ELFU, >PEG>H@FU, <JJ<?>H@FU, etc.).
Mansons nature was extraordinarily intense. X?AL<LFU he derived this Irom his mother.
ou have come quickly to a resolution. But J>?B<J= you have been considering this question Ior a long
time
wLPEAM=FU you didnt read it.
3. Estimate proper (good/bad) (FMDOEFU, TA?@MH<@>FU, B<JJEFU, MHTA?@MH<@>FU, MHFMDOEFU, etc.).
lA?@MH<@>FU there were Iew people at the morning surgery.
oHB<JJEFU a terrible storm broke out beIore the travellers had reached their destination.
THE PREPOSITION
245. A preposition is a Iunction word indicating a relation between two notional words. Its semantic
signiIicance becomes evident when diIIerent prepositions are used with one and the same word, as in:
@A CA !o @B> J<?O, @A CA aross @B> J<?O, @A CA ro$&d @B> J<?O, @A CA o$! o' @B> J<?O, @A CA !hro$)h @B>
J<?O, etc.
A preposition may altogether change the meaning oI the verb:
B> =BA@ @B> ATTED>? (he aimed at him and hit him),
B> =BA@ <@ @B> ATTED>? (he aimed at him but probably missed).
Although the tradition oI diIIerentiating prepositions Irom other word classes (conjunctions, and in some
cases adverbs) is well established, it is not always easy to draw the border-line; nearly all one-word prepositions
can also Iunction as adverbs or as conjunctions, their status being determined only syntactically. A Iew words -
<T@>?, L>TA?>, =EHD>, TA? (with the change oI meaning), L>BEHG - may Iunction not only as adverbs, adverbial
postpositions, or conjunctions, but also as prepositions. Compare the Iollowing groups oI sentences:
They sailed MJ (postposition).
They sailed MJ the river (preposition).
Everybody was MJ at the sound oI the bell (adverb).
The milk boiled AP>? (postposition).
He presided AP>? the meeting (preposition).
I cant tolerate such men <= him (preposition).
`= he was passing the door he turned back (conjunction).
No one saw him LM@ me (preposition).
kM@ no one saw him (conjunction).
197
He is stronger @B<H me (preposition).
He is stronger @B<H I am (conjunction).
Morphological composition
246. Most oI the common English prepositions are simple in structure:
AM@, EH, TA?, AH, <LAM@, LM@ (n sue , 5$, <C<EH=@.
Derived prepositions are Iormed Irom other words, mainly participles:
>ID>J@EHC, DAHD>?HEHC, DAH=EG>?EHC, TAFFA;EHC, EHDFMGEHC, GM?EHC, G>J>HGEHC, C?<H@>G, J<=@, >ID>J@.
There are also many compound prepositions:
;E@BEH, AM@=EG>, MJAH, AH@A, @B?AMCBAM@, <FAHC=EG>, ;B>?>;E@B, ;B>?>AT, ;B>?>MJAH, B>?>EH, B>?><T@>?,
;E@B<FF.
Composite or phrasal prepositions include a word oI another class and one or two prepositions, as in LU
PE?@M> AT, LM@ TA?, L>D<M=> AT, LU N><H= AT, EH=@><G AT, EH FE>M AT, J?EA? @A, AH <DDAMH@ AT, <L?><=@ AT, @B<HO= @A,
;E@B ?>T>?>HD> @A, AJJA=E@> @A, EH T?AH@ AT, TA? @B> =<O> AT, EH PE>; AT, EH =JE@> AT, EH J?>T>?>HD> @A, EH MHE=AH ;E@B,
TA? @B> =<O> AT, >ID>J@ TA?, GM> @A, EH <GGE@EAH @A, ;E@B ?>C<?G @A, AH L>B<FT AT, EH FEH> ;E@B, <@ P<?E<HD> ;E@B.
A composite preposition is indivisible both syntactically and semantically, that is, no element oI it can be
varied, abbreviated, or extended according to the normal rules oI syntax. Thus in the composite preposition TA?
@B> =<O> AT neither the deIinite article nor the preposition can be replaced by words oI similar meaning.
Semantic characteristics
247. Semantically prepositions Iorm a varied group oI words. Most oI them are polysemantic (EH, @A, TA?,
<@, T?AN$, their original meaning having become vague, others have retained their Iull meaning and are
accordingly monosemantic (GA;H, AP>?, <D?A==, ATT, @EFF, MH@EF, =<P>, H><?, <FAHC, <NAHC, G>=JE@>, GM?EHC, etc.).
This also applies to prepositions borrowed Irom atin: P>?=M=, PE<, JFM=, NEHM=.
Relations expressed by prepositions may be oI various types:
1) agentive - @B> F>@@>? ;<= =>H@ by < T?E>HG AT NEH>V
2) attributive - a G?<;EHC i& D?<UAH, @B> J>AJF> i& iM>=@EAH (nm, o ootx e eut);
3) possessive and partial relations - AH> AT NU T?E>HG=, @B> ?AAT AT @B> BAM=>, < CF<== o' L?<HGU, < G>DFEH> i&
;<=@>, < ?E=> i& J?AGMD@EAHV
4) relation indicating origin, material, or source - < )ir% 'rom k?ECB@AH, N<G> AT CAFG1
5) objective relation GAH_@ L> <HC?U #i!h N>, W]WW FAAO i&!o @B> N<@@>?, @A ;A?O a! < LAAO, @A =J><O o& @B>
N<@@>? (abo$! @B> N<@@>?, o' @B> N<@@>?$V
6) relation indicating to whom the action is directed - @A =BA; E@ !o BEN, @A CEP> F>==AH= @A @B> DBEFG?>HV
7) instrumental relation - @A ;?E@> #i!h < J>HDEF, @A DM@ #i!h < OHET>V
8) relation oI subordination - @A L> =>D?>@<?U !o < fEHE=@>?V
9) relation deIining the sphere or Iield oI activity - @B> DAMH@?U G>J>HG= o& >IJA?@= 'or E@= TAAGV YAN E= CAAG
<@ TAA@L<FFV
10) relation oI involvement or association - @A DAAJ>?<@> #i!h =AN>LAGUV DATT>> ;E@B D?><N, @A DANJ<?> @BE=
#i!h @B<@, @A C>@ EHPAFP>G i& < GE=DM==EAHV
198
11) respective relation - B> E= LEC 'or < UAMHC=@>?, W GEG HA@ OHA; W B<G < LF<DOCM<?G 'or < =AHV
12) relation oI resemblance - B> E= %i1e BE= T<@B>?V
13) relation oI dissociation and diIIerentiation - @A GE=LM?G>H AH>=>FT o' AH>_= J<=@V @A L> G>PAEG o'
=AN>@BEHC, @A GE=>H@<HCF> AH>=>FT 'rom =AN>@BEHCV @A OHA; =AN>@BEHC 'rom =AN>@BEHC, @A G>GMD> 'rom
=AN>@BEHCV
14) various adverbial relations:
a) oI manner, means, style and language - #i!h GEFEC>HD>, by @>F>C?<N, i& =F<HC, i& L<G J?EH@, i& < H><@
B<HG.
EH CAAG =@UF>, i& L?E>TV
b) oI purpose or aim - @A =>HG 'or @B> GAD@A?, B> GEG E@ 'or TMH, @B> JAFED> ;>?> a'!er @B> D?ENEH<FV
c) temporal relations. These may be subdivided into those denoting precedence, sequence, duration, etc. -
i& CAAG @EN>, a! # A_DFADO, L>TA?> @B> G<;HV
d) oI cause or reason - W GEG E@ o$! AT T><?, !hro$)h BE= H>CFEC>HD>, W G>=JE=> UAM 'or @BE=V
e) spacial relation, including directional relation - ,as! @B> C<@>, by @B> ;EHGA;, aross @B> ?EP>?, a! @B>
C<@>V
I$ concessive relation - i& s,i!e AT @B> L<G ;><@B>?, des,i!e o$r J?A@>=@=, 'or <FF BE= <@@>NJ@=, #i!h <FF B>?
GEFEC>HD>.
The relations enumerated above to a great degree depend on the meaning oI the words connected by
prepositions. Sometimes the relation indicated by a preposition is too abstract to be deIined in words, as its use
is oIten Iigurative or metaphorical, as in:
\> L?AO> <;<U 'rom @B>N o& =AN> P<CM> J?>@>I@.
The role oI the preposition is diIIicult to deIine when it introduces predicatives, when its meaning is
bEH @B> D<J<=E@U AT_, bEH @B> ?AF> AT_, bB<PEHC @B> iM<FE@U AT_.
As a Iriend he was admirable, but one cannot praise him as a husband.
His career as a lawyer was short.
We regard him as a Iool.
She went to the ball with her aunt as chaperone.
When a preposition is used Iiguratively, the concept expressed by the preposition may be so blurred or weak
that one preposition may be replaced by another without any essential alteration to the relation between the
words. Thus the Iollowing words may be used with diIIerent prepositions without change oI meaning:
aversion T?AN, @A
disgust <C<EH=@, <@, @A;<?G=
repugnance <C<EH=@, TA?, @A
<FAHC, GA;H, AP>? the centuries
Words oI the same root can be used with diIIerent prepositions:
to pride oneselI on, to be proud of, pride in;
199
to conIide in, conIidence in, to be conIident of.
Combinability of prepositions
248. As a rule a preposition governs a noun. However it may also be Iollowed by a pronoun, a gerundial
phrase or a clause with nominal Iunction, as in:
'or <GP<H@<C>, a! TEP> A_DFADO, a! @<OEHC N><=M?>=, B> ;<= =M?J?E=>G a! ;B<@ B> =<;.
As prepositions indicate only the relationship between two words their position is clearly deIined.
Many prepositions tend to Iorm a phrase called a prepositional phrase, oIten combining either with the
preceding verb or adjective, or with the Iollowing noun. Such prepositions cannot be replaced by others.
Phrases comprising verbs with prepositions @A F<MCB <@, @A D<FF TA?, @A ?>T>? @A, @A FAAO TA? (<@, <T@>?$ very
oIten Iunction as idioms, making one whole, so that the verb retains the preposition even iI its complement is
transIerred, as in the passive construction:
iMEDO <D@EAH ;<= D<FF>G 'or8 @B> LAAO E= AT@>H ?>T>??>G !o.
With some polysemantic verbs the preposition oIten indicates its meaning, as in:
to look for
to look at
to look after
to look through
- ct
- coet ()
- ncnt (s)
- nocnt
Some verbs are used with or without a preposition, with but slight diIIerence as to content. Thus no
preposition is used in @B> LAU DFENL>G @B> @?>>, but it is Iound in B> DFENL>G $, @B> @?>>.
Similarly a preposition is oIten so closely connected with the adjective or stative it Iollows, that it has
practically no separate meaning, and may be said to be nothing but a Iormal means oI connecting the word with
its complement:
cB> ;<= <T?<EG o' @B> GACV YB> DAMH@?U E= ?EDB i& NEH>?<F=.
Prepositions with nouns or clauses may modiIy a preceding noun, as in:
N>H a! ;A?O, N>@BAG o' @><DBEHC, @B> HAP>F abo$! ;BEDB ;>]P> L>>H =J><OEHC.
Positional characteristics
249. Normally a preposition stands between two words to express the relation between them. However,
there are cases when one oI the two words with which the preposition combines either takes the initial position
or is not used at all. In these cases the preposition is attached to the remaining word. It occurs in:
1) special questions, both direct and indirect:
What are you driving at?
Who shall I send it to?
What train shall I go by?
I asked him who the Ilowers were for.
However, the preposition may precede the interrogative or relative words. In this case the sentence sounds
more Iormal.
To whom shall I send this
By what train shall I go
He did not know to whom he should turn Ior help.
200
The preposition precedes the interrogative when the preposition Iorms a stock phrase with a noun.
In what respect was he suspicious
To what extent is this true
In abbreviated sentences and clauses consisting only oI a preposition and an interrogative word the
preposition normally precedes it.
- But to whom
In colloquial style the preposition is at the end.
- Who by
- Apologize she said. What about?
2) some clauses beginning with conjunctive and relative pronouns and in subordinate contact clauses:
What I am thinking of is how he got there.
The man I told you about is my relative.
The girl he is in love with studies at the University.
It is his talents he relies on.
In Iormal style however, the preposition precedes the connective:
The man about whom I told you is a relative oI mine.
3) exclamatory sentences:
What a nice place to live in!
4) passive constructions:
The doctor was immediately sent for.
How strange it is to be talked to in this way.
5) some syntactical patterns with the inIinitive or gerund:
He is diIIicult to deal with.
It is not worth worrying abont.
This is not a suitable house to live in.
Note:
II two or more prepositions reIer to one word, the second (third) preposition may be used absolutely:
Holly thought oI the lashes above and below als eyes, especially below.
His wiIe was attached to, and dependent on, him.
THE CON1UNCTION
A conjunction is a Iunction word indicating the connection between two notional words, phrases, clauses, or
sentences.
201
Morphological composition
250. According to their morphological structure conjunctions Iall into the Iollowing types:
1. Simple conjunctions:
and, or, but, till, aIter, that, so, where, when.
2. Derived conjunctions;
until, unless, seeing, supposing, provided.
3. Compound conjunctions:
whereas, wherever.
4. Composite conjunctions:
as well as, in case, Ior Iear, on condition that, on the ground that, as long as, etc.
Several conjunctions Iorm correlative pairs, though strictly speaking the Iirst element is not a conjunction:
LA@B ... <HG, >E@B>? ... A?, H>E@B>? ... HA?, HA@ AHFU ... LM@ (<F=A$, ;B>@B>? ...A?.
Semantic characteristics
251. Unlike prepositions, most conjunctions usually retain their speciIic meaning,
No one was pleased ;B>H he came.
No one would be pleased ET he came.
No one was pleased L>D<M=> he came.
No one was pleased @BAMCB he came.
Exceptions are those conjunctions which may be used in more than one Iunction (@B<@, ET, ;B>@B>?, <=$. OI
these the conjunction @B<@ possesses the most vague semantic content.
According to their meaning (or rather the semantic relation they express) all conjunctions Iall into two types:
coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunctions express copulative, disjunctive, adversative and causative-consecutive
connections. These Iour main types oI coordinative connection allow oI diIIerent shades oI meaning,
depending on the context. Thus copulative conjunctions (<HG, HA?, <= ;>FF <=, LA@B ... <HG$ denote not only
simple addition, but sometimes express opposition, explanation, consequence. aA? expresses copulative
connection and negative meaning at the same time, it very oIten correlates with negation in the preceding
clause.
See also the paragraph on conjuncts which are more specialized connectors, expressing a more speciIic connection.
He GEGH]@ GAML@ it Ior a moment, HA? had he any Iears about the possible turn oI the events.
Note 1:
The coordinating conjunction <HG may be used in a somewhat diIIerent Iunction iI it joins the same nouns;
the eIIect may be to suggest that diIIerent types oI persons or objects should be distinguished:
There are @><DB>?= <HG @><DB>?=. (There are good and bad teachers.)
II the noun is repeated more than once, the eIIect is to suggest a large number:
There were T<D>= <HG T<D>= <HG T<D>= all around him.
The repetition oI verbs produces an eIIect oI continuous action or oI increase in degree:
He @<FO>G <HG @<FO>G <HG @<FO>G.
202
Note 2:
II the pronouns UAM and W, or their case Iorms are joined by the conjunction <HG, conventions oI politeness
require that UAM should always come Iirst:
UAM <HG WV UAM A? N>V UAM <HG @B>UV UAM <HG @B>N.
The disjunctive conjunctions A?, A@B>?;E=> denote a choice between two alternatives.
Ill call on you on Saturday A? on Sunday.
Did it matter where he went, what he did, A? when he did it
The adversative conjunctions LM@, HA@ @B<@ denote contrast or contradiction.
He was tall LM@ did not look it because oI his broad shoulders.
They were silent, LM@ there was no resentment on their Iaces.
There is only one causal conjunction TA?, which denotes reason or cause, and one resultative conjunction
=A.
He was never in the know oI things, TA? nobody told him anything.
It was Saturday, =A they were back Irom school early.
Combinability of conjunctions and their functions
252. C o o r d i n a t i n g conjunctions connect homogeneous parts oI a simple sentence (words, phrases),
clauses oI equal rank in a composite sentence or independent sentences. Some oI them can only join
coordinated clauses (=A, TA?$, others only homogeneous parts oI simple sentences (LA@B ... <HG$, others are used
to join both clauses and homogeneous parts oI the sentence (<HG, LM@, A?, >E@B>? ... A?, HA?, HA@ AHFU ... LM@ <F=A,
etc.).
Coordinating conjunctions always stand between the elements they join. The most common coordinating
conjunction is <HG1
Slowly <HG painIully he worked through the Iirst volume.
He spoke Ior the Iirst motion <HG against the second motion.
She moved quickly <HG with grace.
I approached the girl who stood in the corner <HG who looked so shy.
S u b o r d i n a t i n g conjunctions join subordinate clauses to main clauses, although some oI them may
join a word or a phrase within a simple sentence. They are positionally less Iixed than coordinating
conjunctions and need not necessarily be between the elements they join, but may precede both the subordinate
and the main clauses.
Conjunctions which usually join subject, predicative, object attributive and appositive clauses (@B<@, ;B>@B>?,
ET$ are very vague in their meaning and may thereIore be used to join clauses oI diIIerent syntactic value. Other
conjunctions retain their lexical meaning.
YB<@ the man didnt call the police surprised nobody.
Somehow I Ielt @B<@ his Ieelings had changed.
Conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses are conjunctions oI place:
;B>?>, ;B>?>P>?, ;B>HD>, ;B>?>EH.
^B>?>P>? he turned, he saw Ilowers.
time:
<=, <= =AAH <=, <= FAHC <=, ;B>H, ;B>H>P>?, ;BEF>, HA; @B<@, =EHD>, @EFF, MH@EF, <T@>?, L>TA?>, ;BEF>, @B>
203
NAN>H@, @B> @EN>, @B> EH=@<H@, GE?>D@FU, EH=@<H@FU, etc.
^B>H I leave town I never tell my people about it.
What happened <T@>? I leIt you
I wouldnt worry <= FAHC <= I am not bothered.
She was Ieeling very cheerIul <= they walked Irom the station.
reason or cause:
<=, L>D<M=>, =EHD>, =>>EHC, =A ... @B<@, F>=@, DAH=EG>?EHC.
His work was oI vital importance to him, =EHD> all his liIe was devoted to it.
One day, L>D<M=> the days were so short, he decided to give up algebra and geometry.
`= she had never heard oI such stories, she was puzzled at Iirst.
condition:
ET, MHF>==, EH D<=>, J?APEG>G, =MJJA=EHC (@B<@$, =MJJA=> (@B<@$, AH DAHGE@EAH (@B<@$.
WT UAM tell this to anybody Ill never Iorgive you.
Tom simply could not work MHF>== all the conditions were to his liking.
agabonds may get a bed there Ior a week, J?APEG>G their papers are in order.
purpose:
F>=@, @B<@, EH A?G>? @B<@, =A @B<@, TA? T><? @B<@, =A <=, =A.
They made me hide =A @B<@ the soldier should not see me.
He wanted to be great in the world's eyes EH A?G>? that the woman he loved should be proud oI him.
He rose gently to his Ieet F>=@ he should disturb her.
consequence:
@B<@, =A @B<@.
The box was so heavy @B<@ I could not liIt it.
manner and comparison:
<=, @B> ;<U, <= ... <=, HA@ =A ... <=, @B<H, <= ET, <= @BAMCB.
And do you know why she carries herselI @B> ;<U she does
`= quickly <= he could he set Iorth.
He told him this <= @BAMCB his discovery was his own Iault.
concession:
@BAMCB, <F@BAMCB, <=, @B<@, >P>H ET, ;B>@B>? ... A?.
YBAMCB they were so poor, Christine and Andrew knew happiness.
Most subordinating conjunctions introduce more than one kind oI clause. or instance @B<@ may introduce
subject clauses, predicative clauses, object clauses, appositive clauses, adverbial clauses oI purpose and
consequence. The conjunction ET may introduce subject, object, predicative, appositive, and conditional clauses.
The conjunction ;B>@B>? can introduce subject, predicative, object and appositive clauses and can also express
a disjunctive coordinating connection when used with A?. The conjunction <= may introduce adverbial clauses
oI time, cause, concession and comparison. The conjunctions <= @BAMCB, <= ET may introduce predicative and
adverbial clauses oI comparison.
The subordinating conjunction @B<@ is very oIten omitted:
204
He said @B<@ John would come soon.
He said John would come soon.
He said @B<@ John would come soon and @B<@ he would take them by car.
He said @B<@ John would come soon and he would take them by car.
OI all subordinating conjunctions only ET, @BAMCB, ;BEF> and ;B>H may be used to link single words and
phrases:
< JF><=<H@ ET @<FO<@EP> DBEFGV < DA=U, @BAMCB =AN>;B<@ G<?O ?AANV < =ENJF>, @BAMCB J?ATAMHG EG><V B> GEG E@
;EFFEHCFU, ET =D>J@ED<FFUV =B> NAP>G iMEDOFU, @BAMCB <;O;<?GFUV ;B>H <@ BAN>, B> H>P>? =JAO> <LAM@
LM=EH>==.
Two conjunctions may be used alongside each other in two cases:
1) iI each oI them introduces a separate clause, and one oI the clauses is inserted into the other:
She knew @B<@ MHF>== her calculations were all at Iault he was not going to go.
2) iI both conjunctions are combined to express a complex relation.
The butler took his time Iar more casually, Iar more naturally, @B<H ET Dicky had oIIered to shake hands
with him.
His Iather was a vigorous out-oI-door man, who was never happier @B<H ;B>H he had a gun or a rod in his
hands.
THE CON1UNCTS
253. Alongside conjunctions there is a numerous group oI conjuncts. They are words or phrases which
like conjunctions are used to link clauses, sentences and sometimes single words. Conjuncts are mainly derived
Irom adverbs:
TM?@B>?, NA?>AP>?, <C<EH, L>=EG>=, BA;>P>?, HA;, H>I@, @B>H, U>@, =@EFF, @BAMCBx, H>P>?@B>F>==, HA@;E@B=@<HGEHC,
A@B>?;E=>, >F=>, @B>?>TA?>, @BM=, <DDA?GEHCFU.
x YBAMCB as conjunct diIIers Irom the conjunction @BAMCB1 it in characterized by its non-Iixed position and by its combinability
with other conjunctions (LM@ @BAMCB$.
Three oI them originated Irom particles: <F=A, @AA, AHFUV others are phrases: AH @B> DAH@?<?U, <@ @B> =<N>
@EN>, TA? <FF @B<@, etc. Many oI conjuncts, unlike conjunctions, are less Iixed as to their position and oIten occur
in the middle oI the sentence as a parenthesis.
Conjuncts express more speciIic relations than conjunctions. Those expressing a copulative connection may
be divided into several subgroups.
1. Enumerative:
TE?=@, =>DAHG, etc., TE?=@FU, =>DAHGFU, etc., H>I@, @B>H, F<=@, F<=@FU, TEH<FFU, EH @B> TE?=@ JF<D>, EH @B> =>DAHG
JF<D>, etc.
lE?=@ B> bought a reading lamp, @B>H pens and books.
2. Additive. Most oI these suggest a reinIorcement oI what has already been said beIore:
<C<EH, <F=A, TM?@B>?, TM?@B>?NA?>, NA?>, NA?>AP>?, <LAP> <FF, etc.
Her husband was told that he was too old to work. fA?>, he was discharged with no pension.
3. Equative, suggesting similarity in characterization or content:
205
>iM<FFU, FEO>;E=>, @AA, <F=A, =ENEF<?FU, EH @B> =<N> ;<U.
The boy was Iorbidden to go out. ounger children FEO>;E=> stayed at home.
4. Summative:
@B>H, @BM=, <FF EH <FF, @A =MN MJ, @B>H, etc.
5. Explanatory:
H<N>FU, EH A@B>? ;A?G=, TA? >I<NJF> (>.C.$, TA? EH=@<HD>, @B<@ E= (E.>.$, PES., @A ;E@, =<U.
6. Reformulatory:
?<@B>?, L>@@>?, EH A@B>? ;A?G=.
7. Transitional, denoting temporal transition or indicating a continuation oI the narration:
N><H@EN>, N><H;BEF>, EH @B> N><H@EN>, EH @B> N><H;BEF>, HA;, LU @B> ;<U, LU @B> LU.
There is such a comic dignity about cats... aA; there is nothing haughty about a dog.
Conjuncts do not express disjunctive connection.
Adversative conjuncts may be divided into the Iollowing subgroups:
1. Concessive:
BA;>P>?, H>P>?@B>F>==, HAH>@B>F>==, HA@;E@B=@<HGEHC, AHFU, =@EFF, @BAMCB, U>@, EH <HU D<=>, <@ <HU ?<@>, TA?
<FF @B<@, <@ @B> =<N> @EN>, <FF @B> =<N>.
Her voice still gave charm to her most commonplace remarks, U>@ it was diIIerent Irom the voice he
remembered.
Such an answer would have satisIied any one; it had no eIIect at all, @BAMCB, on this shameless creature.
He was received with respect. a>P>?@B>F>== he Ielt awkward.
2. Antithetic:
EH=@><G, AJJA=E@>FU, AH @B> DAH@?<?U, AH @B> AH> B<HG... AH @B> A@B>? B<HG, etc.
He could ask anyone about the house, EH=@><G he sulkily went Irom one house to the other.
3. Inferential:
>F=>, A@B>?;E=>, EH @B<@ D<=>, etc.
The man evidently suspected something, >F=> he wouldn't have asked me all these questions.
Consecutive conjuncts are not divided into subgroups. They Iorm one indivisible group:
<DDA?GEHCFU, DAH=>iM>H@FU, B>HD>, @B>?>TA?>, @B>H, @BM=, <= < ?>=MF@.
She liked to be alone, B>HD> she hated Sundays when everybody was at home.
Conjuncts oIten combine with conjunctions:
206
<HG =A, LM@ @B>H, LM@ @BAMCB, A? >F=>, A? <C<EH, <HG L>=EG>=, <HG =@EFF, <HG U>@, LM@ =@EFF, LM@ U>@, <HG
H>P>?@B>F>==, LM@ H>P>?@B>F>==, L>D<M=> A@B>?;E=>, etc.
THE PARTICLE
254. The particle is a part oI speech the meaning oI which is diIIicult to deIine. It either emphasizes or
limits the meaning oI another word, or phrase, or clause. Particles are invariable and have no syntactical
Iunction in the sentence. They Iorm a whole with the part oI the sentence (a word or a phrase) they reIer to.
Particles may combine with any part oI speech.
Dont worry thats j$s! Aunt anny practising her balancing act.
- John is very proud oI his daughter. - I should j$s! think so.
Isnt that j$s! beautiIul
She lives j$s! round the corner.
I said j$s! what I thought.
P$s! as we thought the sun would sink, it grew still redder.
Particles generally stand beIore the word they reIer to but they may also Iollow it. YBE= LAAO E= TA? <GP<HD>G
=@MG>H@= o&%y.
According to their meaning particles Iall into six groups.
1. Intensifying particles:
QM=@, >P>H, U>@, =@EFF, <FF, =ENJFU.
They emphasize the meaning oI the word (or phrase, or clause) they reIer to or give special prominence to
the notion expressed by it.
The skirt comes j$s! L>FA; NU OH>>=.
They eve& ATT>?>G him higher wages.
Maggie Ielt a%% @B> =<T>? Ior that.
These days were working with =@EFF C?><@>? >TTEDE>HDU.
We had ye! <HA@B>? GE=DM==EAH.
The particles <FF, =@EFF, U>@, mostly intensiIy the comparative degree oI adjectives and adverbs.
Play ye! NA?> =AT@FU.
2. Limiting particles:
AHFU, N>?>FU, =AF>FU, LM@, <FAH>.
They single out the word or phrase they reIer to or limit the idea (notion) expressed by them.
I o&%y ;<H@>G @A <=O you the time.
Man cannot live AH L?><G a%o&e.
YEN> a%o&e will show who was right.
She is still b$! < DBEFG, she wants to play.
Mr. Green mere%y BEH@>G at the possibility.
tM=@, N>?>FU, =ENJFU can be used at the beginning oI imperative sentences.
ou dont have to be present. tM=@ (N>?>FU, =ENJFU$ send a letter oI explanation.
3. Specifying particles:
207
?ECB@, >I<D@FU, J?>DE=>FU, QM=@.
They make the meaning oI the word or phrase they reIer to more precise.
Draw a circle ri)h! EH @B> NEGGF> oI the map (ouo, nxo no ceee).
We were j$s! <LAM@ @A =@<?@ ( s conct ...).
They arrived ,reise%y <@ @>H (ono, ouo n ecxt).
The room looks >I<D@FU <= E@ GEG when I was here last year (ouo , ).
^B<@ e<a!%y do you mean (uo eo ...)
4. The additive particle >F=>. It combines only with indeIinite, interrogative and negative pronouns and
interrogative adverbs. It shows that the word it reIers to denotes something additional to what has already been
mentioned:
Something >F=>, nobody >F=>, what >F=>, where >F=>.
5. The negative particle HA@.
Do! < ;A?G was said about it.
Do! =<UEHC <HU@BEHC was a bad idea.
Do! >P>?UAH> likes this book.
Do you want to go - Do! N>R
6. Connecting particles: <F=A, @AA, which may Iunction as conjuncts (see 253 on conjuncts).
Were you at the Iilm - I was a%so there.
I went there !oo.
Wont you come !ooA
Traditionally particles were classed with adverbs with which some are homonymous:
QM=@, =ENJFU, U>@, =@EFF, >I<D@FU, J?>DE=>FU, ?ECB@, @AA, L<?>FU, etc.
She is old @AA (particle).
She is @AA old (adverb).
\>_= QM=@ the man Im looking Ior (particle).
He B<= QM=@ arrived (adverb).
Other particles are homonymous with
adjectives (AHFU, >P>H$,
conjunctions (LM@$,
pronouns (<FF$,
statives (<FAH>$.
wHFU a doctor can do that (particle).
She is the AHFU person Ior the job (adjective).
THE INTER1ECTION
255. The interjection is a part oI speech which expresses emotions, without naming them. They are
invariable, whereas the emotions expressed by the interjections vary.
Interjections express diIIerent kinds oI Ieelings, such as:
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joy (BM??<U, BM??<B$,
grieI, sorrow (<F<=, G><? N>, G><?, AB$,
approval (L?<PAV B><?, B><?$,
contempt (JAAB, CA=B, LA=B, J<B, L<B, TE>$,
triumph (<B<$,
impatience (LA@B>?$,
anger (G<NH$,
surprise or annoyance (rAAGH>== C?<DEAM=, fU rAG$.
Some interjections are used merely to attract attention (B<FFA, BE, B>U, B>?>$.
\<FFAR Whats happening now
\>UR Is anybody here
wB G><?R Ive lost my pen.
Mr. Smith is ill again. h><? N>R Im sorry to hear that.
kA@B>?R Ive missed my train
lA? CAAGH>==_ =<O>, stop misbehaving
The meaning oI other interjections is very vague, they express emotion in general and the speciIic meaning
depends either on the context, or the situation, or the tone with which they are pronounced. Thus wB may
express surprise, joy, disappointment, anger, etc.
wBR Really (surprise)
wBR How glad I am to see you. (joy)
wBR Im sorry (disappointment)
wBR Dont be a stupid ass. (anger)
As a rule they do not make part oI a phrase, but there are some cases when interjections may be connected
with a preposition plus a noun (pronoun) phrase.
Weve done it. \M??<U TA? M=R
`F<= TA? NU BAJ>=R
Note:
In these combinations the interjections acquire some verbal character.
SYNTAX
INTRODUCTION
Syntax is the part oI grammar which deals with sentences and combinability oI words. The core oI syntax is
the study oI the sentence. Syntax embraces on the one hand the structure oI the sentence, that is, its
components, their structure and the relations between these components, and on the other hand structural and
communicative types oI sentences.
THE SENTENCE
1. Anything that is said in the act oI communication is called an utterance. Most utterances are sentences,
although there are some which are not sentences and are called non-sentence utterances. Thus utterances Iall
into two groups: sentences and non-sentence utterances.
Sentences may be regarded Irom the point oI view oI their structure and their communicative value.
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Structural classification of sentences
2. rom the point oI view oI their structure, sentences can be:
1. Simple or composite (compound and complex).
2. Complete or incomplete (elliptical).
3. Two-member (double-nucleus) or one-member (single-nucleus).
These three classiIications are based on diIIerent approaches to the structural organisation oI sentences and
reIlect its diIIerent aspects.
The diIIerence between the s i m p l e s e n t e n c e and the c o m p o s i t e s e n t e n c e lies in the Iact
that the Iormer contains only one subject-predicate unit and the latter more than one. Subject-predicate units
that Iorm composite sentences are called clauses.
Honesty is the best policy. (one subject-predicate unit)
Still waters run deep. (one subject-predicate unit)
ou can take a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink, (two subject-predicate units, or two
clauses)
ou never know what you can do till you try. (three subject-predicate units, or three clauses)
The diIIerence between the compound and c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e lies in the relations between the
clauses that constitute them (see 137, 138, 144).
C o m p l e t e and i n c o m p l e t e ( o r e l l i p t i c a l ) s e n t e n c e s are distinguished by the
presence or absence oI word-Iorms in the principal positions oI two-member sentences.
In a complete sentence both the principal positions are Iilled with word-Iorms.
When did you arrive
I came straight here.
In an incomplete (elliptical) sentence one or both oI the main positions are not Iilled, but can be easily
supplied as it is clear Irom the context what is missing.
CheerIul, arent you
Ready
Couldve been proIessional.
Wrong again.
Elliptical sentences are typical oI conversational English. One-member and two-member sentences are
distinguished by the number oI principal parts (positions) they contain: two-member sentences have two main
parts - the subject and the predicate, while one-member sentences have only one principal part, which is neither
the subject nor the predicate.
Two-member sentences:
The magpie Ilew oII.
We are going to my house now.
One-member sentences:
An old park.
Mid-summer.
ow tide, dusty water.
To live alone in this abandoned house
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THE SIMPLE SENTENCE
Two-member sentences
3. The basic pattern oI a simple sentence in English is one =MLQ>D@-J?>GED<@> MHE@, that is, it has two main
(principal) positions: those oI the subject and oI the predicate. It is the pattern oI a two-member sentence. There
are several variations oI this basic pattern, depending mainly on the kind oI verb occupying the predicate
position. The verb in the predicate position may be intransitive, transitive, ditransitive or a link verb.
Here are the main variants oI the Iundamental (basic) pattern:
1. John ran.
2. John is a student.
3. John is clever.
4. John learned rench.
5. John gives Mary his books.
6. John lives
in ondon.
there
7. We Iound John guilty.
8. We Iound John a bore.
The basic pattern may be u n e x t e n d e d or e x t e n d e d .
An unextended sentence contains two main positions oI the basic pattern, that oI the subject and tlie
predicate.
Mary laughed.
Mary is a doctor.
Mary is happy.
An extended sentence may contain various optional elements (including attributes, certain kinds oI
prepositional objects and adverbial modiIiers).
John ran quickly to me.
My Iriend John is a very kind student.
Mary laughed heartily at the joke.
Obligatory extending elements are those which c o m p l e t e the meaning oI other words, usually verbs, or
pronouns, which without them make no or little sense. ThereIore obligatory elements are called
c o m p l e m e n t s .
John learned rench. (the meaning oI learned is incomplete without the object rench)
John gives Mary his books. (the meaning oI gives Mary conveys diIIerent meaning without the object
his books)
John lives in ondon, (the meaning oI lives is incomplete without an adverbial oI place)
One-member sentences
4. One-member sentences in English are oI two types: nominal sentences and verbal sentences.
N o m i n a l s e n t e n c e s are those in which the principal part is expressed by a noun. They state the
existence oI the things expressed by them. They are typical oI descriptions.
N o m i n a l s e n t e n c e s may be:
a) u n e x t e n d e d .
Silence. Summer. Midnight.
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b) e x t e n d e d.
Dusk - oI a summer night.
The grass, this good, soIt, lush grass.
English spring Ilowers
e r b a l s e n t e n c e s are those in which the principal part is expressed by a non-Iinite Iorm oI the verb,
either an inIinitive or a gerund. InIinitive and gerundial one-member sentences are mostly used to describe
diIIerent emotional perceptions oI reality.
To think oI that
To think that he should have met her again in this way
iving at the mercy oI a woman
Elliptical (incomplete) sentences
5. A two-member sentence may be either c o m p l e t e or i n c o m p l e t e ( e l l i p t i c a l ) . An
elliptical sentence is a sentence in which one or more word-Iorms in the principal positions are omitted. Ellipsis
here reIers only to the structural elements oI the sentence, not the inIormational ones. This means that those
words can be omitted, because they h a v e o n l y g r a m m a t i c a l , s t r u c t u r a l r e l e v a n c e ,
a n d d o n o t c a r r y a n y n e w r e l e v a n t i n I o r m a t i o n .
In English elliptical sentences are only those having no word-Iorms in the subject and predicate positions, i.
e., in the positions which constitute the structural core oI the sentence.
There are several types oI elliptical sentences.
1. Sentences without a word-Iorm in the subject position.
ooks like rain.
Seems diIIicult.
Dont know anything about it.
2. Sentences without word-Iorms in the subject position and part oI the predicate position. In such cases the
omitted part oI the predicate may be either a) an auxiliary verb or b) a link verb.
a) Going home soon
See what I mean
Heard nothing about him lately.
b) Not bad.
ree this evening
Nice oI you to come.
Susans Iather
3. Sentences without a word-Iorm only in part oI the predicate position, which may be an auxiliary or a link
verb.
ou seen them
Everything Iixed
ou sure
All settled.
4. Sentences without word-Iorms both in the subject and the predicate position. Such ellipses occur in
various responses.
What time does Dave come Ior lunch - One oclock.
What were you thinking about - ou.
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What do you want oI us Miracles
Wherere you going - Home.
5. Sentences without a word-Iorm in the predicate position. Such ellipses occur only in replies to questions.
Who lives there - Jack.
Whats happened - Nothing.
The Structural Types of Sentence
Sentence
Simple Composite
One-member Two-member Complex Compound
Complete Incomplete Complete Incomplete
COMMUNICATIVE TYPES OF SENTENCES
6. The sentence is a minimal unit oI communication. rom the viewpoint oI their role in the process oI
communication sentences are divided into Iour types, grammatically marked: declarative, interrogative,
imperative, exclamatory sentences. These types diIIer in the aim oI communication and express statements,
questions, commands and exclamations respectively.
Dickens was born in 1812.
When shall I see you again
Do you know Italian
Come up and sit down.
What a quiet evening
These types are usually applied to simple sentences. In a complex sentence the communicative type depends
upon that oI the main clause, as in:
I waited till the light turned to green. (statement)
Do you always wait till the light turns to green (question)
Wait till the light turns to green. (command)
How thoughtless oI you not to have waited till the light turned to green (exclamation)
In a compound sentence, coordinate clauses may as well belong to diIIerent communicative types.
ook out, or you may meet with an accident. (command-statement)
I obeyed, Ior what else could I do (statement-question)
Declarative sentences
7. A declarative sentence contains a statement which gives the reader or the listener some inIormation
about various events, activities or attitudes, thoughts and Ieelings. Statements Iorm the bulk oI monological
speech, and the greater part oI conversation. A statement may be positive (affirmative) or negative, as in:
I have just come back Irom a business trip.
I havent seen my sister yet.
Grammatically, statements are characterized by the subject-predicate structure with the direct order oI words.
They are mostly two-member sentences, although they may be one-member sentences, as in:
213
ery early morning.
No curtain. No painting.
Statements usually have a Ialling tone; they are marked by a pause in speaking and by a Iull stop in writing.
In conversation, statements are oIten structurally incomplete, especially when they serve as a response to a
question asking Ior some inIormation, and the response conveys the most important idea.
Where are you going - To the library.
Thanks to their structure and lexical content, declarative sentences are communicatively polyfunctional.
Thus, besides their main Iunction as inIormation-carriers, statements may be used with the Iorce oI questions,
commands and exclamations, as in:
I wonder why he is so late.
ou mustnt talk back to your parents.
Interrogative sentences
8. Interrogative sentences contain questions. Their communicative Iunction consists in asking Ior
inIormation. They belong to the sphere oI conversation and only occasionally occur in monological speech.
All varieties oI questions may be structurally reduced to two main types, general questions (also called
yes-no questions) and pronominal questions (otherwise called special or wh - questions). Both are
graphically identiIied by a question mark. The two main types have a number oI structural and communicative
modiIications.
General questions
9. In g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s the speaker is interested to know whether some event or phenomenon
asked about exists or does not exist; accordingly the answer may be positive or negative, thus containing or
implying yes or no.
A general question opens with a verb operator, that is, an auxiliary, modal, or link verb Iollowed by the
subject. Such questions are characterized by the rising tone.
Does your sister go Iigure-skating
Is that girl a Iriend oI yours
Can you speak rench
es-no questions may be incomplete and reduced to two words only: Can you Does he
A negative "yes-no" question usually adds some emotional colouring oI surprise or disappointment.
Havent you posted the letter yet (Why)
General questions opening with ;EFFj;AMFG may be considered as commands and requests according to their
communicative role (see 17).
Owing to their occasional emotional colouring, U>=-HA~ questions may Iunction as exclamations (see 22).
Tag questions
10. A t a g q u e s t i o n is a short yes-no question added to a statement. It consists only oI an operator
prompted by the predicate verb oI the statement and a pronoun prompted by the subject. Generally the tag has a
rising tone.
ou know rench, dont you - es, a bit.
George is a Iootball Ian, isnt he - He certainly is.
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A tag question is added to a statement Ior conIirmation and thereIore is sometimes called aconIirmative
question. It corresponds to such Russian tag questions as He n e nn n et The speaker
expects the listener to share his view oI some situation rather than to give him some new inIormation. The most
usual patterns oI sentences with tag questions are as Iollows.
Positive statement - negative tag - positive answer
ou knew that beIore, didnt you - es, I did.
Negative statement - positive tag - negative answer
ou didnt know that beIore, did you - No, I didnt.
The answer, however, may be unexpected, as in: sAM GEGH_@ OHA; @B<@ L>TA?>, GEG UAM g - kM@ W GEG.
The Ialling tone oI the tag is also possible. It makes the whole sentence sound like a statement. The speaker
actually knows the answer and can do without it.
There is one more sentence pattern with a tag question which is less Irequently used.
Positive statement - positive tag
ou knew about it beIore, did you
Negative statement - negative tag
ou didnt know about it beIore, didnt you
This sentence pattern is used when the speaker comes to a conclusion concerning some event. Such
sentences may begin with the conjunction =A.
cA you knew about it beIore, did you
A sentence pattern with a tag question may serve as a response to the previous remark. Thus it Iorms a
comment having some emotional attitude, such as surprise, anger, sarcasm.
They even put the car on the ship Ior you.
- They do, do they Who takes it oII again
He brought these Ilowers, too. - He did, did he - es.
Alternative questions
11. An a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n implies a choice between two or more alternative answers. ike a
yes-no question, it opens with an operator, but the suggestion oI choice expressed by the disjunctive
conjunction A? makes the yes-no answer impossible. The conjunction A? links either two homogeneous parts
oI the sentence or two coordinate clauses. The part oI the question beIore the conjunction is characterized by a
rising tone, the part aIter the conjunction has a Ialling tone.
Will you go to the opera or to the concert to-night
An alternative question may sometimes resemble a pronominal question beginning with a question word:
Which do you preIer, tea A? coIIee
Where shall we go, to the cinema A? to the Iootball match
Actually such structures Iall into two parts, the Iirst Iorms a pronominal question, the second a condensed
alternative question.
Would you preIer tea or coIIee
215
Shall we go to the cinema or to the Iootball match
Sometimes the alternative contains only a negation:
Will they ever stop arguing or not
Suggestive questions
12. S u g g e s t i v e q u e s t i o n s , also called d e c l a r a t i v e q u e s t i o n s , Iorm a peculiar kind
oI "yes-no" questions. They keep the word order oI statements but serve as questions owing to the rising tone in
speaking and a question mark in writing, as in:
sAM ?><FFU ;<H@ @A CA HA;, @A-HECB@g
- es, nothing could make me stay.
By their communicative Iunction suggestive questions resemble sentences with tag questions; they are asked
Ior the sake oI conIirmation. The speaker is all but sure what the answer will be (positive or negative), and by
asking the question expects conIirmation on the part oI the addressee.
sAM <?> T<NEFE<? ;E@B @B> @A;Hg
- I spent winter here many years ago.
sAM =@EFF GAH_@ L>FE>P> N>, `MH@ aA?<g
- No, I don't.
The answer is sometimes unexpected.
A child like you talking oI we women What next sAM_?> HA@ EH ><?H>=@g
- es, I am.
Unlike ordinary yes-no questions, suggestive questions may contain independent elements, such as
interjections, modal words or phrases, the conjunction =A, parenthetical clauses, etc., as in:
ou are joking, >Bg
cM?>FU you are not oIIended
cA you knew about, it beIore
Suggestive questions are Irequently used as question responses with various kinds oI emotional colouring,
most oIten that oI surprise or incredulity.
He said you were a very good ski-teacher.
- \> =<EG @B<@g
ou sound surprised.
Because oI their main communicative Iunction, suggestive questions are very useIul as leading questions to
get exact inIormation, as seen in the Iollowing passage:
sAM N><H @A =<U B> <@ HA @EN> <=O>G UAM @B> <D@M<F JM?JA=> AT UAM? PE=E@g
- Not at that interview.
- `HG E@ GEG HA@ ADDM? @A UAM @A TA?D> @BE= EHTA?N<@EAH AH BEN g
- Indeed it did...
Pronominal questions
13. P r o n o m i n a l q u e s t i o n s open with an interrogative pronoun or a pronominal adverb, the
Iunction oI which is to get more detailed and exact inIormation about some event or phenomenon known to the
216
speaker and listener.
The interrogative pronouns and adverbs which Iunction as question words are as Iollows: ;B<@, ;BEDB, ;BA,
;BAN, ;BA=>, ;B>?>, ;B>H, ;BU, BA; and the archaic ;B>HD> ( where Irom), ;BE@B>? ( where, where to),
;B>?>TA?> ( what Ior, why).
Adverbial phrases such as BA; FAHC, BA; AT@>H may also Iunction as question words.
uestion words may have various syntactical Iunctions in the sentence, depending upon the inIormation the
speaker wants to obtain:
1. ^BA came Iirst (subject) - I did.
2. ^B<@ makes you think so (subject) - our behaviour.
3. ^BA=> team has won the match (attribute) - Ours.
4. ^BEDB story did you like best (attribute) - The last.
5. ^BA is that man (predicative) - He is my brother.
6. ^B<@ are you doing there (object) - Nothing.
7. ^B>H are you going to come back (adverbial oI time) - Tomorrow.
8. \A; can I get to your place (adverbial oI manner) - By bus.
As can be seen Irom the above examples, word order in a pronominal question is characterized by inversion
oI the operator and the subject. Inversion does not take place when the question word is the subject or an
attribute to the subject (see examples 1, 2, 3).
A question word may be preceded by a preposition.
wH ;B<@ resolution do you insist
In colloquial English it is preIerable to shiIt the preposition to the end oI the question.
What are you laughing <@g
What did you argue <LAM@g
In colloquial English the pronoun ;BA is used as a question word Iunctioning either as subject or object.
Who has done it
Who do you see there
The tone oI pronominal questions is usually a Ialling one.
14. Pronominal questions are oIten used as short responses. They usually consist oI (a) a question word or
(b) a question word Iollowed by a preposition.
a) Im leaving Ior home. - When
George wont come to-night. - Why
ets meet again. - Where
I think I can help you. - How
b) I want to talk with you. - What about
Come again. - What Ior
Open the tin. - What with
The patterns (a) and (b) are employed when some inIormation is missing and the listener asks Ior the
necessary inIormation. The tone is Ialling.
15. uestion words preceded by prepositions are usually employed as echo questions. No inIormation is
missing in the previous remark, the whole idea is questioned. The tone is rising and the question word is
heavily stressed. They express surprise, incredulity and sometimes incomprehension.
217
ets talk about liIe on Saturn. - About what
I opened the door with a pin. - With what
ou are a shameless liar, - I am a what
Our neighbour was born in 1973. - She was born when
The whole oI the question may be reduced to the question word, with the article repeated iI necessary.
- our husband was telling us all about the chromosomes.
- The what
- The chromosomes, the genes... or whatever they are.
- The Boss wants to see you.
- The who
The whole oI the pronominal question may be re-addressed to gain time Ior the answer. The re-addressed
question takes a rising tone.
When are you going to see me - When am I going to see you -es, when - On Sunday, iI it suits you.
Rhetorical questions
16. Both general and pronominal questions may serve as r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s . A rhetorical
question contains a statement disguised as a question. Usually it is a positive question hiding a negative
statement. No answer is expected.
Can any one say what truth is (No one can say what it is.)
Do we always act as we ought to (We do not always act as we ought to.)
What else could I do (I could do nothing.)
Who would have thought to meet you here (Nobody would.)
In their Iorm and intonation rhetorical questions do not diIIer Irom standard question types. The diIIerence
lies in their communicative aim. A rhetorical question does not ask Ior any new inIormation. It implies a
statement and is always emotionally coloured. Besides, it is employed to attract the listener's attention. Since
rhetorical questions do not require an answer, they are not Iollowed by a response. The speaker may give an
answer himselI to clariIy his idea. Rhetorical questions are employed in monological speech, especially in
oratory, and poetry in the writers digressions.
YA N> ;B<@ E= ;><F@Bg - it may pass in an hour.
II tyrants prevail, or iI ortune should Irown:
YA N> ;B<@ E= @E@F>g - the phantom oI power;
YA N> ;B<@ E= T<=BEAH g - I seek but renown. (kU?AH$
And what, aIter all, can it be other than modesty that makes him |Roy ear| even now write to the reviewers
oI his books, thanking them Ior their praise and ask them Ior luncheon (f<MCB<N$
Rhetorical questions occur in colloquial English too, as in this Iragment oI dialogue:
Will you give me a picture oI yours - ^B<@ TA?g... Im not Marilyn Monroe or Jane MansIield.
Imperative sentences
17. I m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s express DANN<HG= which convey the desire oI the speaker to make
someone, generally the listener, perIorm an action. Besides commands proper, imperative sentences may
express J?ABELE@EAH, a ?>iM>=@, an EHPE@<@EAH, a ;<?HEHC, J>?=M<=EAH, etc., depending on the situation, context,
wording, or intonation.
218
Stand up Sit down. Open your textbooks.
Be quick
ormally commands are marked by the predicate verb in the imperative mood (positive or negative), the
reIerence to the second person, lack oI subject, and the use oI the auxiliary GA in negative or emphatic sentences
with the verb @A L>.
Commands are generally characterized by the Ialling tone, although the rising tone may be used to make a
command less abrupt. In writing commands are marked by a Iull stop or an exclamation mark.
A negative command usually expresses prohibition, warning or persuasion.
Dont cross the street beIore the light turns to green.
Dont allow children to play with matches.
Dont worry.
Commands can be soItened and made into requests with the help oI the word JF><=>, the rising tone, a tag
question or a yes-no question beginning with ;EFF or ;AMFG.
Speak louder, please.
Repeat the last word, will you
Would you do me a Iavour
The Ialling tone and an exclamation mark at the end oI a sentence opening with ;EFF express irritation and
impatience, as in:
Will you stop arguing
Will you be quiet
18. Though in the vast majority oI commands the subject is only implied, the subject expressed by the
pronoun UAM occurs when it is necessary (a) to speciIy the subject, sometimes Ior the sake oI contrast; (b) to
convey the speakers personal attitude to the event presented in the sentence (Ior example, irritation, anger,
threat, impatience); (c) to soothe somebody. The subject in these cases is heavily stressed.
a) Qo$ DAN> TE?=@, <HG W_FF ;<E@ < FE@@F>.
Qo$ DAN> TE?=@, <HG B> ;EFF B<P> @A ;<E@.
b) Qo$ =<U E@ <C<EH, <HG W_FF @M?H UAM AM@ AT B>?>R
tM=@ yo$ ;<E@, f? \ECCEH=.
c) Qo$ L> < CAAG CE?F, <HG GAH_@ ;A??U.
Note the initial position oI the operator in negative commands with a subject.
hAH_@ yo$ EH@>??MJ@ N>.
19. In the case oI Iirst person plural and third person singular and plural subjects, the imperative F>@ is
Iollowed by a personal pronoun in the objective case.
m>@ him @?U <C<EH.
m>@ !hem DAN> EH.
m>@ $s B<P> =AN> @><.
A Iirst-person command oIten implies invitation or suggestion and may be Iollowed by the tag =B<FF ;>.
m>@= GA E@ @AC>@B>?, sha%% #eg
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There are two negative constructions with F>@ Ior the Iirst person.
m>@_= HA@ quarrel about triIles.
hAH_@ F>@_= quarrel about triIles.
A third-person command admits oI only one negative construction:
hAH]@ F>@ BEN interIere in our aIIairs.
A third-person command may begin with a noun or a pronoun denoting the person addressed.
@omebody =;E@DB ATT @B> FECB@.
6ary a&d Poh& T>@DB GED@EAH<?E>=.
Here the corresponding negative is:
hAH_@ <HULAGU =;E@DB ATT @B> FECB@R
20. The imperative oI some verbs may acquire interjectional Iorce. Thus the Iorms FE=@>H, FAAO (B>?>$, =>>
(B>?>$ (`N.$ - are used to attract attention.
mAAO B>?>, lets pull ourselves together, shall we
dAN> (oIten doubled) may express encouragement or blame.
dAN>, DAN>, dont be so Ioolish. Theres nothing to worry about. (y, uo t, y, nono.)
dAN>, DAN>, you cant expect me to believe you. (y e yx.)
\><?R B><?R expresses approval oI somebodys words at a meeting, etc. (nnto, nnnto.)
Verbless Commands
21. Commands are sometimes expressed without an imperative verb, as in:
Silence
Water, please.
To the right
OII with you
Gently, darling.
CareIul, please.
No smoking
Hush
Exclamatory sentences
22. The main distinctive Ieature oI this communicative type oI sentence is a speciIic intonation;
structurally it is variable.
ou do look a picture oI health (statement)
Hurry up (command)
The most common pattern oI an exclamatory sentence opens with one oI the pronominal words ;B<@ and
BA;. ^B<@ reIers to a noun, BA; to an adjective or an adverb. An exclamatory sentence has a subject-predicate
structure; the order oI the subject and the predicate verb (or the operator) is not inverted. An exclamation has a
Ialling tone in speaking and an exclamation mark in writing.
^B<@ a Iunny story she told us
^B<@ valuable advice youve given us
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\A; beautiIul her voice is
\A; beautiIully she sings
Exclamatory sentences can be reduced to the word or phrase immediately Iollowing the exclamatory signals
;B<@ or BA;.
^B<@ a situation
^B<@ a terrible noise
\A; kind oI you to let me in
Besides these patterns an exclamation as a communicative sentence type oIten Iollows the pattern oI other
sentence types. Thus it may be Iormed on the pattern oI the Iollowing structures:
1. Statements:
sAM GA FAAO < JED@M?> AT B><F@BR
2. Commands:
\M??U MJR
3. uestions. These are yes-no questions Iunctioning as exclamations owing to the Ialling tone in speaking
and an exclamation mark in writing. The most common pattern has a negative question Iorm with the operator
heavily stressed.
W=H_@ E@ TMHHUR (How Iunny it is)
^<=H_@ E@ < TMHHU =@A?UR (What a Iunny story it was)
hA>=H_@ =B> =EHC L><M@ETMFFUR (How beautiIully she sings)
A positive yes-no question has not only the Ialling tone but also stress on both the operator and the subject.
He said he had to talk. hEG B> =M?J?E=> N>R (How he surprised me) `N W TE?>GR (I am very tired)
4. Pseudo-subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions ET and @B<@.
WT AHFU W ;>?> UAMHC <C<EHR
YB<@ @BE= =BAMFG L> @B> ?>=MF@R
5. One-member sentences conveying signals oI alarm such as lE?>R k<HGE@=R and highly emotional inIinitive
or nominal one-member sentences Iollowed by a clause.
To think that she should have said so
The idea that they should have behaved like this
NON-SENTENCE UTTERANCES
23. There are utterances which do not constitute sentences (non-sentence utterances). They are:
1. Vocatives.
Charles
Mr West
2. ~Yes-no utterances. These are mostly responses to yes-no questions.
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Are you coming - es/No.
3. Interjections.
Hi (Hey) Oh
Dear me - oxe o
ook here - ocnym
Well, I never - o e o y y
Goodness gracious - oxe o ocno o e
4. Different conversational formulas.
Thanks.
Good-bye.
Bye-bye.
NEGATION
24. Both structural and communicative types oI sentences Iall into aIIirmative sentences and negative
sentences. A sentence is made negative by the particle HA@ which is the most widely used negator. It is put
immediately aIter the auxiliary or modal verb. The negator HA@ has two Iorms: u n c o n t r a c t e d and
c o n t r a c t e d . The Iormer occurs mainly in Iormal English; the latter is usual in inIormal (conversational)
English. There are two possible Iorms oI negation contraction: one is when the operator is contracted and the
negator uncontracted, and the other is when the negator is contracted but the operator is used in its Iull Iorm.
Positive Negative
Uncontracted Contracted
Theyve come. They have HA@ come. Theyve HA@ come.
They B<P>H_@ come.
Tom is arriving tomorrow. Tom is HA@ arriving tomorrow. Tom E=H_@ arriving tomorrow.
Toms HA@ arriving tomorrow. (The 1st Iorm is
more common.)
ou ought to have come. ou ought HA@ to have come at all. ou AMCB@H_@ to have come at all.
Note that the contracted negative Iorms oI D<H and ;EFF are D<H_@ and ;AH_@ and the uncontracted negative oI
D<H is D<HHA@. The corresponding Iorms AT =B<FF are =B<FF HA@ and =B<H_@.
He ;EFF be late.
I D<H come early.
I =B<FF come early.
He ;EFF HA@ be late.
I D<HHA@ come early.
I =B<FF HA@ come early
HeFF HA@ be late.
He ;AH_@ be late.
I D<H_@ come early.
I =B<H_@ come early.
Only the Iull negative Iorm is possible Ior the Iirst person singular oI the verb @A L> in declarative sentences,
W] HA@ late, the Iorm <EH_@ being used only in dialects and uneducated Iorms oI English. However, the verb
contraction W] is possible.
II the predicate verb is in the present or past indeIinite, the auxiliary GA is used with HA@ to Iorm the negative.
I like that idea.
He understands you well.
I GA HA@ like that idea.
He GA>= HA@ understand you at all.
I GAH_@ like that idea.
He GA>=H_@ understand you at all.
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As a rule, a sentence can contain only one negator. aA@ is usually , attached to the predicate verb, and other
negative words are unnecessary in the sentence, unlike similar cases in Russian.
I GAH_@ OHA; anything about it. (one negator)
I GEGH_@ =<U anything to anybody. (one negator)
sn o +o. (two negators)
csn. (three negators)
In negative questions the place oI the negator HA@ depends on whether it is contracted or uncontracted. The
contracted Iorm H_@ is not separated Irom the auxiliary or modal verb, whereas the uncontracted HA@ comes aIter
the subject. The latter is more Iormal.
hAH_@ you see
d<H_@ you come with me
\<P>H_@ you Iinished your letter
hA you HA@ see
d<H you HA@ come with me
\<P> you HA@ Iinished your letter
Negative questions are oIten used as
a) exclamations.
Isnt it Iunny ( It is very Iunny)
Arent I tired (z I am very tired)
This is the Iirst-person Iorm oI the verb @A L> in negative questions in British English.
b) invitations.
Wont you come in and have a cup oI tea
In answer to negative questions U>= and HA are used according to the Iacts and not according to the Iorm oI
the question.
Havent you seen the Iilm - s>= (I have seen it). Or: aA (I havent seen it).
Isnt it raining - s>= (it is raining). Or: aA (it isnt raining).
Compare with the Russian:
oxt e e - e, e.
- , e e.
In imperative sentences HA@ Iollows the do-auxiliary.
Do HA@ =J><O so loudly.
hAH_@ ;A??U.
The same is used Ior the negative imperative with the verb @A L>.
hAH_@ L> =A ?MG>.
hAH_@ L> F<SU.
25. aA@ can be attached to other parts oI the sentence, not only the predicate verb. In this case it comes
beIore the word or phrase it negates.
Its here, HA@ MJ=@<E?=.
Its a tiger, HA@ < D<@.
The operation was quick, but HA@ D<?>TMFFU JF<HH>G.
The question is important and HA@ ><=U @A <H=;>?.
Negative inIinitives are made by putting HA@ or H>P>? beIore the inIinitive (and beIore the paricle @A iI there
is one). Negative ing-Iorms are made in the same way.
223
It was impossible HA@ @A EHPE@> the Butlers.
He leIt H>P>? @A ?>@M?H.
He was desperate at HA@ B<PEHC =>>H B>?.
26. In short answers or orders with the verbs oI mental activity @BEHO, L>FE>P>, BAJ>, =MJJA=>, L> <T?<EG and
aIter the conjunction ET the negator HA@ may replace the sentence or clause it negates.
Will it rain today - W BAJ> HA@.
Can you come today W_N <T?<EG HA@.
Drop that gun WT HA@, youll be sorry.
27. AIter the verbs oI mental activity @BEHO, L>FE>P>, =MJJA=> and EN<CEH> the negation which belongs to the
object clause is transIerred to the principal clause. This is called t r a n s I e r r e d n e g a t i o n .
I GAH_@ @BEHO you've heard about it ( I @BEHO UAM B<P>H_@ B><?G about it).
I GAH_@ L>FE>P> he has come ( I L>FE>P> B> B<=H_@ DAN>$.
I GAH_@ =MJJA=> any one will learn about it ( I =MJJA=> HA AH> ;EFF F><?H about it).
Compare with the Russian:
W GAH_@ @BEHO you are right. - ym, uo nt e nnt.
28. Besides HA@ there are other words that can serve as negators and make the sentence negative. They are:
HA, HALAGU, HA@BEHC, HA;B>?>, HAH> (AT$ HA AH>, and also H>E@B>? (oI), H>P>? and the conjunction H>E@B>?... HA?.
aA sensible man would say that.
aALAGU knows about it.
aAH> oI the applicants were German.
He has HA@BEHC to say.
He was HA;B>?> to be Iound.
He H>P>? gets up early.
a>E@B>? oI the statements is true.
I saw H>E@B>? you HA? your wiIe.
aA is a determiner and is used with a noun when it has no other determiner (neither an article nor a
possessive or demonstrative pronoun).
aA is the usual negator with a noun subject aIter @B>?> E=j<?>, and with a noun object aIter the predicate verb
B<P>.
There are HA letters in the letter-box today.
I have HA relatives in this city.
aA can add emphasis to the sentence, implying the opposite oI what is expressed by the word that Iollows.
He is HA Iool ( He is a clever man).
He showed HA great skill ( He showed very little skill).
He had HA small part in its success (z He had a large part...)
This is HA unimportant question ( It is really an important question).
She is HA teacher ( She is a bad teacher).
In the same way H>P>? may add emphasis to the sentence and is oIten used in colloquial speech.
That will H>P>? do.
I should H>P>? have believed it.
224
Why did you sign those documents - But I H>P>? did. ( uero e nonctnn.)
Surely you H>P>? told him about it (t e or ey +o cst)
II there is an article or a possessive or demonstrative pronoun beIore the noun, HAH> AT A? H>E@B>? AT E= used
with the same meaning as HA (see the above examples).
a>E@B>? AT @B> books is oI any use to me.
I want HAH> AT these things.
aAH> can be used without a noun as a noun substitute.
ou have money, but I have HAH>.
Bad advice is worse than HAH> at all.
29. Besides negators there are other words that make a sentence negative in meaning. They are:
=>FGAN, ?<?>FU... ( not oIten);
B<?GFU, =D<?D>FU, L<?>FU... (z almost... not, hardly ever, scarcely ever).
As they also make the whole sentence negative they have the same eIIect on the sentence as other negators,
that is exclude other negators.
a) The pronoun =AN> and its derivatives are changed to <HU or its derivatives.
The rain continued with =D<?D>FU <HU pause.
He B<?GFU thinks oI <HU@BEHC else.
b) The adverbs =AN>@EN>= and <F?><GU are changed to >P>? and U>@ respectively.
Mrs. Greene B<?GFU >P>? plays tennis now.
c) They are generally Iollowed by positive, not negative, tag question.
She =D<?D>FU seems to care, GA>= she
mE@@F> and T>; have the same eIIect on sentences.
Theres FE@@F> point in doing <HU@BEHC about it, is there
30. Double negatives are sometimes possible in standard English, but only iI both negative words have
their Iull meaning and this serves Ior the sake oI emphasis.
ouve HA reason HA@ to trust me.
Do you think Julius will try to see you - No, he wont. But he ;AH_@ try HA@ @A either.
She ;AMFGH_@ like to live in a place HA@ so nice.
John B<GH_@ been a crime reporter Ior HA@BEHC.
aA@ only would he do HA@BEHC to advance them; he impeded them.
Its HA@ only HA@ important, its not a Iact.
In standard English double negatives, rare as they are, may neutralize each other and then the ultimate
meaning oI the sentence is positive.
ouve no reason not to trust me ( ou must trust me).
I just couldnt do nothing ( I had to do something).
225
By removing one oI the negators the sentence is made negative in meaning.
I just could do nothing.
PARTS OF THE SENTENCE
31. Almost every sentence can be divided into certain components which are called parts oI the sentence.
Parts oI the sentence are usually classiIied into m a i n and s e c o n d a r y . The main parts oI the sentence are
t h e s u b j e c t and the p r e d i c a t e . They constitute the backbone oI the sentence. The secondary parts oI
the sentence are t h e o b j e c t , t h e a t t r i b u t e , t h e a p p o s i t i o n and t h e a d v e r b i a l
m o d i I i e r . The secondary parts oI the sentence modiIy the main parts or each other.
Besides these two kinds oI sentence components there are so-called i n d e p e n d e n t e l e m e n t s , that
is, elements standing outside the structure oI the sentence, and thereIore oI lesser importance. The independent
elements are p a r e n t h e s i s and d i r e c t a d d r e s s .
Ways of expressing parts of the sentence
32. Any part oI the sentence may be expressed in Iour ways, that is, by a single ;A?G-TA?N or a word-Iorm
preceded by a Iormal word, by a JB?<=>, by a J?>GED<@EP> DANJF>I, or by a DF<M=>. The only exception is the
verbal predicate which can be neither a predicative complex nor a clause.
Word-forms
33. A word-Iorm is any Iorm oI the grammatical paradigm oI the word. rE?F, CE?F=, CE?F_=, CE?F=]V @A ;?E@>,
;?E@>=, ;?A@>, E= ;?E@EHC, B<= L>>H ;?E@@>H, ;EFF B<P> L>>H ;?E@EHC, etc.; J<F>, J<F>?V L?EFFE<H@, NA?> L?EFFE<H@,
NA=@ L?EFFE<H@ are all word-Iorms.
As seen Irom the above a word-Iorm may contain either one component or more than one. One-component
word-Iorms are various s y n t h e t i c I o r m s oI the word, while multi-component word-Iorms are
a n a l y t i c a l I o r m s oI the word which are composed oI o n e o r m o r e a u x i l i a r y
c o m p o n e n t s a n d o n e n o t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t . The auxiliary components may be verbs (L>,
B<P>, GA, =B<FF, ;EFF$, adverbs (NA?>, NA=@$, particles (@A$.
Note:
In grammar we usually deal with word-Iorms, not words, though it is customary to make use oI the term
word in the sense oI word-Iorm as well. So in the Iollowing chapters both these terms will be used in
the sense oI word-Iorm, word-Iorm being more exact, word having the advantage oI being shorter.
Phrases
34. A phrase is a group oI two or more notional words Iunctioning as a whole. Besides notional words a
phrase may contain one or more Iormal words. Compare: @A =>> B>? - @A FAAO a! B>?.
Depending on the relation between its components, phrases may be divided into two kinds: phrases which
are divisible both syntactically and semantically, and phrases which are indivisible either syntactically or
semantically, or both.
Phrases which are divisible both syntactically and semantically
35. Phrases oI this kind contain a headword and one or more word-Iorms dependent on it. Here the
Iollowing kinds oI phrases may be distinguished: n o m i n a l , v e r b a l , a d j e c t i v a l , a d v e r b i a l
and s t a t i v a l p h r a s e s .
1. I n n o m i n a l p h r a s e s the headword is a noun, a noun-pronoun, or a numeral modiIied by one or
more word-Iorms. The latter are mostly adjectives, nouns, or pronouns with prepositions, although they may be
participles or inIinitives. They may have dependent words oI their own: < &e# ;<U, < very )ood T?E>HG, <
226
ree&!%y b$i%! BAM=>, @B> U><?= !o ome8 etc.; =AN>@BEHC $rio$s8 <HU@BEHC so $&e<,e!ed8 >P>?ULAGU s!ayi&)
here8 <FF o' !hem8 HA@BEHC !o say> @E?> TE?=@ o' 6ay8 @B> =>DAHG !o e&!er8 etc. Their relation to the headword is
attributive. Phrases oI this kind Iunction as nouns treated separately.
YB> N<H sat AH @B> =AT<.
(subject and adverbial modiIier expressed by
nouns)
YB> AFG N<H was sitting EH < LEC <?NDB<E?.
(subject and adverbial modiIier expressed by nominal
phrases)
2. I n v e r b a l p h r a s e s the headword is a verbal which has one or more word-Iorms dependent on it.
The latter are mostly nouns, noun-pronouns, or adverbs, each oI which may have its own dependent words: @A
OHA; him8 @A =>> her a)ai&8 CAEHC home i& !he eve&i&)8 =J><OEHC < 'orei)& %a&)$a)e. In all these phrases
syntactical relations between the headwords and dependent words are either objective (BEN, B>?, < F<HCM<C>$ or
adverbial (<C<EH, BAN>, EH @B> >P>HEHC$. Phrases oI this kind Iunction according to the nature oI their
headwords, that is, in the same way as their headwords do when used separately.
YA =>> is to believe.
(subject expressed by an inIinitive)
YA =>> UAM B>?> is a real pleasure.
(subject expressed by an inIinitive phrase)
Do you like =;ENNEHCg
(object expressed by a gerund)
I hate =;ENNEHC EH DAFG ;<@>?.
(object expressed by a gerundial phrase)
3. I n a d j e c t i v e p h r a s e s the headword is an adjective which has some words dependent on it.
They are usually adverbs or nouns with a preposition, or an inIinitive. These may have dependent words oI their
own: O$i!e @?M>, !oo LEC, #o&der'$%%y DF>P>?, OEHG e&o$)h8 <L=>H@ 'rom DF<==>=, @?M> !o his #ord8 MH<LF> !o say
a #ord8 etc. Their relation to the headword is either adverbial (where the dependent word is an adverb) or
objective (where the dependent word is a noun with a preposition or an inIinitive). Such phrases perIorm the
same Iunctions as adjectives used alone.
She has a OEHG heart.
(attribute expressed by an adjective)
It was a P>?U G<?O night.
(attribute expressed by an adjective phrase)
Are you <HC?Ug (predicative expressed by an
adjective)
Are you iME@> ?><GUg
(predicative expressed by an adjective phrase)
4. I n a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e s the headword is an adverb modiIied by some other adverb or (very
seldom) by a noun/pronoun with a preposition: very B<JJEFU, ra!her ;>FF, B><?@EFU e&o$)h8 TA?@MH<@>FU 'or !he
boy8 etc. Their relation to the headword is either adverbial (in this case the modiIying word is an adverb) or
objective (in this case it is a noun with a preposition). Such phrases Iunction like separate adverbs.
She thanked him ;<?NFU.
(adverbial modiIier expressed by an adverb)
He set to work B><?@EFU >HAMCB.
(adverbial modiIier expressed by an adverbial phrase)
5. I n s t a t i v a l p h r a s e s where the headword is a stative modiIied either by a noun with a preposition,
or by an adverb, or by an inIinitive, each oI which may have dependent words oI its own: <;<?> o' !he da&)er8
<T?<EG o' o%d #a!er8 so dee,%y <=F>>J, O$i!e <FAH>, <T?<EG !o )o home8 <=B<N>G !o !e%% her abo$! i!8 etc. Their
relation to the headword is either adverbial (the dependent word is an adverb) or objective (in this case it is a
noun with a preposition or an inIinitive). Such phrases Iunction as the corresponding statives do when used
separately.
The whole land was <TF<N>.
(predicative expressed by a stative)
The sky above them seemed <TE?> ;E@B =@<?=.
(predicative expressed by a statival phrase)
As is seen Irom the above, the relations between the headword and dependent words within these phrases (1-
5) may be oI three kinds: attributive, objective, or adverbial.
Phrases which are indivisible either syntactically or semantically or both
227
36. Phrases oI this kind contain two or more notional word-Iorms used together to designate a person or a
non-person, an action or a quality. Syntactical relations between their components are not always explicit, and
so they are not analysed separately.
Here belong:
1.G r o u p s o I w o r d s t h a t n a m e o n e t h i n g o r o n e u n i t .
Will you allow me another B<FT <H BAM?g
Here is your H>>GF> <HG @B?><G.
2. G r o u p s o I w o r d s d e n o t i n g a n i n d e I i n i t e n u m b e r o r a m o u n t o I
t h i n g s .
` FA@ AT MHJF><=<H@ @BEHC= have been said.
3. G r o u p s o I w o r d s d e n o t i n g a r i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s .
Y;A JFM= @;A E= TAM?.
Y>H LU @B?>> equals thirty.
lAM? T?AN HEH> leaves Iive.
4. G r o u p s o I w o r d s c o n s i s t i n g o I t w o o r m o r e p r o p e r n a m e s
b e l o n g i n g t o o n e p e r s o n .
r>A?C> rA?GAH kU?AH was born in 1788.
5. G r o u p s o I w o r d s w h i c h I o r m o n e g e o g r a p h i c a l n a m e .
a>; sA?O is the largest city in @B> oHE@>G c@<@>= AT `N>?ED<.
6. G r o u p s o I w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g a p r o p e r n a m e a n d a n o u n d e n o t i n g a n
o c c u p a t i o n , a t i t l e , a r a n k , a r e l a t i o s h i p , o r n a m i n g a s p e c i e s o I
a n i m a l .
How do you do, hAD@A? k?A;Hg
f?=. XAJJ>@= brought the tray in.
The boy looked up at dAFAH>F tMFE<H.
He always reminds me oI my oHDF> XAGC>?.
The GAC dB<?FE> was Iull oI importance.
Note:
However these groups oI words allow oI another interpretation: the Iirst word may be treated as a non-
detached apposition. See 92.
7. G r o u p s o I w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g a v e r b a n d a n o u n d e n o t i n g a n a c t i o n .
She looked at him and C<P> < =ECB.
Please, GAH_@ N<O> @?AMLF>.
8. A d v e r b i a l g r o u p s o I w o r d s .
He came @;A NEHM@>= <CA.
` ;>>O F<@>? she began to recover.
228
Phrases oI this kind (1-8) Iunction in the sentence in accordance with their nominal, verbal or adverbial
nature as one whole. (See the examples above.)
Predicative complexes
37. Predicative complexes diIIer Irom phrases in that they have two words with predicative relation
between the nominal and the verbal parts oI the phrase. These words in their turn may have one or more words
dependent on them. Though the predicative relation within a complex is grammatically only implicit, its
presence makes it possible to turn any predicative complex into a clause, which cannot be done to a phrase.
I saw BEN ?MH }} I saw @B<@ B> ;<= ?MHHEHC.
He still Iound FET> EH@>?>=@EHC }} He still Iound that FET> ;<= EH@>?>=@EHC.
Predicative complexes are dealt with in Iull in 124-132.
Clauses
38. Clauses, like predicative complexes, contain two words connected predicatively, but unlike predicative
complexes the predicative relation in clauses is expressed explicitly in the grammatical Iorms oI the subject and
the predicate.
I dont know ;B<@ UAM N><H.
She came ;B>H HALAGU ;<= EH.
Levels of syntactical analysis
39. Within the sentence we usually distinguish two syntactical levels oI analysis, one belonging to the
sentence proper, which is called @B> =>H@>HD> F>P>F, and one belonging to various phrases treated as a whole and
Iunctioning in the sentence with the same Iorce as separate words. This level is called @B> JB?<=> F>P>F.
The subject and the predicate belong to the sentence level only. The object, the adverbial modiIier, the
attribute, and the apposition may belong either to the sentence level or to the phrase level.
He did not tell N> <HU@BEHC <LAM@ E@. (f>, <HU@BEHC, <LAM@ E@ are objects to the verb-predicate - the
sentence level.)
ou are unhappy <LAM@ =AN>@BEHC, arent you (`LAM@ =AN>@BEHC is an object to the predicative MHB<JJU,
which is part oI the predicate - the sentence level.)
He will come @ANA??A;. (YANA??A; is an adverbial modiIier to the verb-predicate - the sentence level.)
ou seem P>?U tired. (>?U is an adverbial modiIier to the adjective @E?>G, which is part oI the predicate
the sentence level.)
XAA? Amy could not answer. (XAA? is an attribute to the noun, which is the subject - the sentence level.)
In other cases objects, adverbial modiIiers, attributes and appositions are included in various phrases within
which they are not usually treated separately, the whole phrase Iunctioning as part oI the sentence on the
sentence level.
He insisted AH CAEHC LU @?<EH. (wH CAEHC LU @?<EH is an object to the verb-predicate - the sentence level;
within the phrase AH CAEHC LU @?<EH we distinguish an adverbial modiIier LU @?<EH reIerring to the word-
Iorm CAEHC - the phrase level.)
When analysing a sentence we deal mainly with the sentence level only, unless it is necessary Ior some
reason to state the syntactical relations between the words within a phrase.
The subject
229
40. Every English sentence but the one-member and the imperative one must have a subject. The subject is
one oI the two main parts oI the, sentence. The most important Ieature oI the subject in English is that in
declarative sentences it normally comes i m m e d i a t e l y b e I o r e t h e p r e d i c a t e , whereas in
questions its position is i m m e d i a t e l y a I t e r < H A J > ? < @ A ? . It means that in English sentences
any word or words which occur in these positions are to be treated as the subject oI the sentence.
The subject determines the Iorm oI the verbal part oI the predicate as regards its number and person.
Ways of expressing the subject
41. The subject is expressed by:
1. A n o u n i n t h e c o m m o n c a s e (including substantivized adjectives and participles) or a
n o m i n a l p h r a s e w i t h a n o u n .
YB> TAC is thinning.
cDE>HD> is not omnipotent.
YB> LFM> AT @B> =OU deepened visibly.
YB> GUEHC must be leIt in peace.
l?AN f<?FA; MJ @A cAHHEHC is even Iairer yet.
lAM? <HG @B?>> is seven.
` C?><@ HMNL>? AT T?>>= were Ielled.
Occasionally a noun in the genitive case is the subject. This may be iI a noun denotes someones place oI
business or residence, as in:
YB> C?AD>?_= was Iull.
It may be the result oI ellipsis as in:
tEN_= was a narrow escape. ( Jims escape was a narrow one.)
The latter type oI subject is rather emphatic.
2. A p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n i n t h e n o m i n a t i v e c a s e .
W shall do the best I can.
cB> E= very beautiIul.
3. A n y o t h e r n o u n - p r o n o u n .
aA@BEHC can be done about it.
YBE= is the last straw.
\>?= was the Iinal judgement.
wH> learns by experience.
^BA told you this
4. A n u m e r a l ( e i t h e r c a r d i n a l o r o r d i n a l ) o r a n o m i n a l p h r a s e w i t h a
n u m e r a l .
c>P>H cannot be divided by two.
Y;A AT @B>N were leIt in the camp.
YB> @BE?G was a young man with a dog.
5. A n i n I i n i t i v e o r a n i n I i n i t i v e p h r a s e .
230
YA MHG>?=@<HG E= to Iorgive.
YA G>HU @B> J<=@ is to deny the Iuture.
6. A g e r u n d o r a g e r u n d i a l p h r a s e .
Y<FOEHC mends no holes.
^A?OEHC TA? =AN>AH> keeps a woman calm and contented.
7. A n i n I i n i t i v e o r a g e r u n d i a l p r e d i c a t i v e c o m p l e x .
lA? B>? @A T<FF <=F>>J EH L?A<G G<UFECB@ was not at all usual.
\E= ;<FOEHC AM@ AT @B> ?AAN in the very middle oI the argument was quite unexpected.
8. A n y w o r d o r w o r d s u s e d a s q u o t a t i o n s .
u`HG~ is a conjunction.
YB> uBA;~ <HG @B> u;BU~ AT @BEHC= never seems to occur to children.
His \A; GA UAM GA~ never sounds cordial enough.
uYB> ^<? AT @B> ^A?FG=~ was Iirst published in 1898.
9. A c l a u s e ( t h e n c a l l e d a s u b j e c t c l a u s e ) , w h i c h m a k e s t h e w h o l e
s e n t e n c e a c o m p l e x o n e .
^B<@ CE?F= AT B>? =A?@ ;<H@ is just a wedding ring.
This kind oI subject is treated in Iull in 147-148.
Grammatical classification of the subject
42. rom the point oI view oI its grammatical value the subject may be either HA@EAH<F or TA?N<F.
The n o t i o n a l s u b j e c t denotes or (iI expressed by a pronoun) points out a person or a non-person.
The I o r m a l s u b j e c t neither denotes nor points out any person or non-person and is only a structural
element oI the sentence Iilling the position oI the subject. Thus a Iormal subject Iunctions only as a position-
Iiller. In English there are two such position-Iillers: E@ and @B>?>.
The notional subject
43. The notional subject denotes or points out a person or non-person, that is, various kinds oI concrete
things, substances, abstract notions or happening.
Persons:
YB> JAFED>N<H stepped back.
YB> <MGE>HD> cheered wildly.
W know all about it.
^BA>P>? =<EG @B<@ was wrong.
Non-persons, including animals, whose name may be substituted by ET or @B>U.
` BAM=> was ready there Ior the new doctor. W@ stood on a hill.
YB>=> L><=@= are Iound only on Iour southern islets.
kMEFGEHC BAM=>= becomes more diIIicult.
To L> < T?E>HG takes time.
^B<@>P>? B> =<EG is oI no importance.
ook at the cat. W@ is very small.
231
The formal subject
T h e I o r m a l s u b j e c t i!
44. The Iormal subject expressed by E@ is Iound in two patterns oI sentences: those with i m p e r s o n a l
E@ and those with i n t r o d u c t o r y E@.
1. T h e I o r m a l s u b j e c t E@ is i m p e r s o n a l when it is used in sentences describing various states
oI nature, things in general, characteristics oI the environment, or denoting time, distance, other measurements.
W@_= spring. - ec.
W@_= cold today. - erox xonoo.
W@_= Ireezing. - oos.
W@_= still too hot to start. - me cnmo xo, uot onnnxtcx n nyt.
W@ seems that he was Irank. - xecx, o tn oonee.
W@ turned out that she was deaI. - snoct, uo o rnyxx.
Sentences with impersonal E@ are usually rendered in Russian by means oI impersonal (subjectless)
sentences.
2. T h e I o r m a l s u b j e c t E@ is i n t r o d u c t o r y (anticipatory) iI it introduces the notional
subject expressed by an inIinitive, a gerund, an inIinitive/gerundial phrase, a predicative complex, or a clause.
The sentence thus contains two subjects: the Iormal (introductory) subject E@ and the notional subject, which
Iollows the predicate.
W@_= impossible @A G>HU @BE=.
W@ thrilled her @A L> EHPE@>G @B>?>.
W@ gave him a pain in the head @A ;<FO.
W@ was no good DANEHC @B>?> <C<EH.
W@ would be wonderIul TA? UAM @A =@<U ;E@B M=.
W@ was lucky @B<@ =B> <C?>>G @A MHG>?@<O> @B> QAL.
W@ did not occur to her @B<@ @B> EG>< ;<= BE=.
Sentences with introductory E@ can be transIormed into sentences with the notional subject in its usual
position beIore the predicate.
W@ was impossible @A G>HU @BE= }} YA G>HU @BE= was impossible.
The diIIerence between the two structural types lies in that the pattern with the introductory subject
accentuates the idea expressed by the notional subject, whereas the pattern without it accentuates the idea
expressed in the predicate.
Sentences with introductory E@ must be distinguished Irom certain patterns oI sentences with impersonal E@1
a) sentences with the predicate expressed by the verbs @A =>>N, @A <JJ><?, @A B<JJ>H, @A @M?H AM@ Iollowed by
a clause, as in W@ =>>N>G @B<@ B> GEGH_@ OHA; @B> JF<D>.
In these sentences describing a certain state oI aIIairs E@ is impersonal, not introductory and the clause is a
predicative one. So it cannot Iill the position oI the subject:
W@ =>>N>G @B<@ B> GEG HA@ OHA; @B> JF<D> }/ YB<@ B> GEG HA@ OHA; @B> JF<D> =>>N>G. (TransIormation is
impossible)
b) sentences with predicative adjectives preceded by @AA and Iollowed by an inIinitive as in W@ ;<= @AA F<@> @A
=@<?@.
Here E@ is used in sentences describing time, etc. and is thereIore impersonal. The inIinitive is an adverbial oI
232
consequence, not the subject, and so cannot be placed beIore the predicate:
W@ ;<= @AA F<@> @A =@<?@ }j YA =@<?@ ;<= @AA F<@>.
c) sentences with the predicative expressed by the noun @EN> Iollowed by an inIinitive, as in W@ ;<= BECB @EN>
@A @<O> @B>E? G>J<?@M?>.
In such sentences E@ is also impersonal, the inIinitives being attributes to the noun @EN>. These sentences
cannot thereIore undergo the transIormation which is possible in the case oI sentences with introductory E@:
W@ ;<= @EN> @A @<O> @B>E? G>J<?@M?> / YA @<O> @B>E? G>J<?@M?> ;<= @EN>.
Thus, the subject E@ may be personal, impersonal, and introductory. In the latter two cases it is Iormal, (see
the scheme aIter 45).
T h e I o r m a l s u b j e c t !here
45. Sentences with a notional subject introduced by @B>?> express the existence or coming into existence oI
a person or non-person denoted by the subject. Such sentences may be called >IE=@>H@E<F sentences or sentences
AT J?>=>H@<@EAH. They are employed where the subject presents some new idea or the most important piece oI
inIormation.
The notional subject introduced by @B>?> is expressed:
1. By any noun or by a noun phrase denoting an inseparable unit or an indeIinite amount oI something.
YB>?>, was =EF>HD> Ior a moment.
YB>?> was < H>>GF> <HG @B?><G in her Iingers.
YB>?> were < FA@ AT J>AJF> in the street.
As the notional subject usually introduces a new idea, the noun expressing it is generally used with the
indeIinite article.
2. By some noun-pronouns:
a) indeIinite.
Is @B>?> <HULAGU there
YB>?> was =AN>@BEHC wrong about the whole situation.
b) negative.
YB>?> was HALAGU in.
YB>?> was HA@BEHC to do.
c) universal (only some oI them).
YB>?> were <FF AT @B>N on the bank.
YB>?> were LA@B AT @B>N present.
The pronouns oI these three classes are the most Irequent in existential sentences. The ones that Iollow are
very seldom used:
d) detaching.
YB>?> was @B> A@B>? to be asked.
e) demonstrative.
YB>?> is @BE= which is to be settled.
3. By a gerund or a gerundial phrase.
233
YB>?> was no @<FOEHC that evening.
YB>?>_= no CAEHC against bad blood.
4. By a clause.
irst, @B>?> is ;B<@ ;> NECB@ D<FF < J<@@>?H.
The predicate in such sentences is generally a simple verbal predicate expressed by the verbs @A L>, @A
<JJ><?, @A FEP>, @A DAN>, @A CA, or some other similar verbs.
At last Iar oII @B>?> <JJ><?>G a tiny spot.
Once upon a time @B>?> FEP>G a king.
Then @B>?> D<N> a lightning.
Occasionally the predicate may be a compound verbal modal predicate or a predicate oI double orientation.
In both cases their second parts are expressed by the verb @A L>, or one oI the others mentioned above.
a) YB>?> NM=@ L> something wrong with him.
YB>?> N<U DAN> a time when youll regret this.
b) YB>?> =>>N>G @A L> only two people in the room.
YB>?> GEG HA@ <JJ><? @A L> anything oI importance in what he said.
YB>?> <?> =<EG @A L> those who are unIit Ior living.
Negative sentences with introductory @B>?> are Iormed in the usual way Ior the verbs which are their
predicates, that is, by means oI appropriate auxiliaries Ior all the verbs but @A L>. In the latter case two negative
constructions are possible:
a) either with the negative pronoun HA, as in:
YB>?> was HA =ECH oI him in the hall.
YB>?> is HA OHA;EHC when he will come.
b) or with the negation HA@, oIten Iollowed by the indeIinite pronoun <HU, or without it, as in:
YB>?> werent (were HA@$ <HU Ilowers on the balconies.
YB>?> isnt a cloud in the sky.
The sentence is also negative iI the subject itselI is a negative pronoun:
YB>?> was HALAGU in.
YB>?> was HA@BEHC to say.
234
The predicate
46. The predicate is the second main part oI the sentence and its organizing centre, as the object and nearly
all adverbial modiIiers are connected with, and dependent on, it.
The predicate may be considered Irom the semantic or Irom the structural point oI view. Structurally the
predicate in English expressed by a Iinite verb agrees with the subject in number and person. The only
exception to this rule is a compound modal and a simple nominal predicate, the latter having no verb Iorm at all
(see 49).
According to the meaning oI its components, the predicate may denote an action, a state, a quality, or an
attitude to some action or state ascribed to the subject. These diIIerent meanings Iind their expression in the
structure oI the predicate and the lexical meaning oI its constituents.
Structural classification of the predicate
47. rom the structural point oI view there are two main types oI predicate: @B> =ENJF> J?>GED<@> and @B>
DANJAMHG J?>GED<@>. Both these types may be either nominal or verbal, which gives Iour sub-groups: =ENJF>
P>?L<F, =ENJF> HANEH<F, DANJAMHG P>?L<F, DANJAMHG HANEH<F. Compound verbal predicates may be Iurther
classiIied into JB<=<F, NAG<F and AT GAMLF> A?E>H@<@EAH Compound nominal predicates may be classiIied into
HANEH<F J?AJ>? and GAMLF> HANEH<F.
The simple predicate
The simple verbal predicate
48. The simple verbal predicate is expressed by:
235
1. A verb in a synthetic or analytical Iorm.
John ?MH= quickly.
I ;<= =>H@ EH to get my tea.
Perhaps you ;EFF even ?>N>NL>? that woman.
When GEG liIe L>CEH on earth
I GEGH_@ D<?> about the consequence.
hAH_@ DAN> too late.
2. A verb phrase (a phraseological equivalent oI a verb denoting one action).
Here belong:
a) Phrases denoting single actions:
@A B<P> < FAAO, @A B<P> < =NAO>, @A B<P> < @<FO, @A CEP> < FAAO, @A CEP> < F<MCB, @A CEP> < D?U, @A @<O> <
FAAO, @A N<O> < NAP>, @A N<O> < ?>N<?O, @A J<U < PE=E@, etc.
They comprise a transitive verb and a deverbal noun with the indeIinite article.
Nurse Sharp C<P> him < FAAO and walked out.
The man C<P> < PEAF>H@ =@<?@.
Did you B<P> < =F>>Jg
Its time we ;>?> N<OEHC < NAP>.
b) Phrases denoting various kinds oI actions. In most cases they comprise an abstract noun used with no
article but oIten preceded by an attribute:
@A DB<HC> AH>]= NEHG, @A C>@ ?EG (AT$, @A C>@ BAFG (AT$, @A FA=> =ECB@ (AT$, @A N<O> TMH (AT$, @A N<O> MJ
AH>]= NEHG, @A N<O> M=> (AT$, @A @<O> D<?> (AT$, @A @<O> F><P> (AT$, @A @<O> J<?@ (EH$, etc.
I B<P> never @<O>H NMDB EH@>?>=@ in German songs.
She J<EG little B>>G to what was going on in the world outside.
Are you @<OEHC J<?@ in the concert
The simple nominal predicate
49. The simple nominal J?>GED<@> E= >IJ?>==>G LU < HAMH, A? <H adjective, or a verbal, It does not contain a
link verb, as it shows the incompatibility oI the idea expressed by the subject and that expressed by the
predicate; thus in the meaning oI the simple nominal predicate there is an implied negation.
He a C>H@F>N<HR
ou a LA@B>?R Never.
red, a J?E>=@R
Rondal, Q><FAM=R
Nick, GE=BAH>=@R
Such an old lady @A DAN> so T<?R
y o xe o xente
t - sy y, uo t
ot ue tn cnxmeo
oen - enye (tt oro e oxe)
- euect e oxe tt
ot x noxnx nmn sne
Sentences with the simple nominal predicate are always exclamatory evidently owing to the implication oI a
negation or oI an evaluation.
The predicate is mostly commad oII (separated by a comma), but a comma is not regarded as a strict rule.
These predicates are used in colloquial English, although not Irequently.
The simple nominal predicate can be expressed by:
1. A noun.
My son < DF>?CUN<HR
236
She, < HMHR
Me, < FE<?R
2. An adjective.
My ideas AL=AF>@>R
Ronnie, CAAG-FAAOEHCR
ou =<GR
3. An inIinitive or an inIinitive phrase.
Hercule Poirot @A =F>>J ;BEF> NM?G>? E= DANNE@@>GR
My boy EH=MF@ < C>H@F>N<H <@ NU @<LF>R
4. Participle I or a participial phrase.
She =JUEHCR
Me @?UEHC @A L> TMHHUR
The compound predicate
50. The compound predicate consists oI two parts: @B> HA@EAH<F and @B> =@?MD@M?<F. The structural part
comes Iirst and is Iollowed by the notional part.
The notional part may be expressed by a noun, an adjective, a stative, an adverb, a verbal, a phrase, a
predicative complex, or a clause.
The structural part is expressed by a Iinite verb - a phasal verb, a modal verb, a verb expressing attitude,
intention, planning, etc., or a link verb.
rom the point oI view oI meaning the most important part oI the compound predicate is the notional part as
it contains the inIormation about the person or non-person expressed by the subject.
rom the point oI view oI structure the most important part oI the predicate is the Iirst one, since it is
expressed by a Iinite verb and carries grammatical inIormation about the person, number, tense, voice, modal,
attitudinal and aspective (phasal) meaning oI the whole predicate.
The compound verbal predicate
T h e c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p h a s a l p r e d i c a t e
51. The compound verbal phasal predicate denotes the beginning, duration, repetition or cessation oI the
action expressed by an inIinitive or a gerund. It consists oI a JB<=<F P>?L and <H EHTEHE@EP> or < C>?MHG,
Accordingly its Iirst component may be a phasal verb oI:
1.B e g i n n i n g :
@A L>CEH, @A =@<?@, @A DANN>HD>, @A =>@ <LAM@, @A @<O> @A, @A T<FF @A, @A DAN>.
Andrew and he L>C<H @A @<FO about the Iamous clinic.
Jack =@<?@>G @?<EHEHC AM@ at Hogans health Iarm.
So I @AAO @A CAEHC to the Iarm.
He T>FF @A JAOEHC the Iire with all his might.
I DAN> @A @BEHO that you are right.
2. D u r a t i o n :
@A CA AH, @A O>>J, @A J?AD>>G, @A DAH@EHM>.
The talk O>J@ ?MHHEHC on the possibility oI a storm.
As we DAH@EHM>G @A F<MCB BE= surprise gave way to annoyance.
237
3. R e p e t i t i o n :
;AMFG, M=>G (denoting a repeated action in the past).
AlIredo M=>G @A @<FO to me about it.
During her small leisure hours she ;AMFG =E@ by the window or ;<FO in the Iields.
4. C e s s a t i o n :
@A =@AJ, @A TEHE=B, @A D><=>, @A CEP> MJ, @A F><P> ATT.
The band B<G D><=>G JF<UEHC.
rEP> MJ =NAOEHC.
Note the diIIerence in the Iunctions oI the gerund and the inIinitive aIter the verb @A =@AJ1
She =@AJJ>G @<FOEHC to him. (part oI a compound verbal phasal predicate) - neecn c
ronot.
She =@AJJ>G @A @<FO to him. (an adverbial modiIier oI purpose) - oconnct, uot noronot c
.)
T h e c o m p o u n d v e r b a l m o d a l p r e d i c a t e
52. The compound verbal modal predicate consists oI < NAG<F J<?@ and <H EHTEHE@EP> (or a gerund). It shows
whether the action expressed by an inIinitive is looked upon as possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary,
desirable, planned, certain, permissible, etc. In most cases it denotes the attitude to the action oI the person
expressed by the subject or by the speaker.
The modal part may be expressed by:
1. A m o d a l v e r b .
ou NM=@ TA?C>@ it.
He D<H_@ =<U a word, he D<H_@ even <JAFACES>.
I B<G @A LE@> NU FEJ to prevent myselI Irom laughing.
wMCB@ he HA@ @A @?><@ her generously
f<U I <=O you a question
2. A m o d a l e x p r e s s i o n oI nominal nature:
@A L> <LF>, @A L> <FFA;>G, @A L> ;EFFEHC, @A L> CAEHC, @A L> <HIEAM=, etc.
ou <?> CAEHC @A <@@>HG the college at Harvard, they tell me.
`?> you <LF> @A ;<FO another two miles
We ;>?> <HIEAM= @A DAAJ>?<@>.
The modal part may have two modal verbs or a modal verb and a modal expression.
He N<U B<P> @A ?>@M?H.
She NM=@ L> ;EFFEHC @A DAN> here again.
. n a t t i t u d i n a l verb such as @A FEO>, @A B<@>, @A <@@>NJ@, @A >IJ>D@, @A BAJ>, @A EH@>HG, @A N><H, @A
JF<H, @A @?U, @A B<P> < NEHG, @A ;E=B, @A ;<H@ Iollowed by an inIinitive denote the attitude oI the person
expressed by the subject to the action denoted by the inIinitive.
The predicate oI this type may be called a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l a t t i t u d i n a l p r e d i c a t e .
He BAJ>G @A =>> them the next day.
238
I N><H @A TEHG out the truth.
T h e c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e
o I d o u b l e o r i e n t a t i o n
53. The compound verbal predicate oI double orientation consists oI two parts. The Iirst part is a Iinite verb
which denotes the attitude to, evaluation oI, or comment on, the content oI the sentence expressed by the
speaker or somebody not mentioned in the sentence. The second part denotes the action which is (was/will be)
perIormed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject.
The GadIly =>>N>G @A B<P> @<O>H a dislike to her It seemed (to the people) that the GadIly had
taken a dislike to her.
Philip Bosinney ;<= OHA;H @A L> < UAMHC N<H without Iortune They knew that Philip Bosinney
was a young man without Iortune.
He E= =<EG @A L> FAAOEHC TA? < new job. (onox, uo o me onym oy)
The plane E= ?>JA?@>G @A B<P> L>>H FA=@. (oomm, uo cone nonn)
In this case we see diIIerent orientation oI the actions which are regarded Irom two points oI view: that oI
the speaker and that oI the person (or non-person) expressed by the subject. .
In a number oI cases semantically this type oI predicate has much in common with the compound verbal
modal predicate, as in: ou D<H_@ B<P> NE=MHG>?=@AAG me, but Iormally these predicates are diIIerent, because in
the compound verbal modal predicate the Iirst component is a modal verb, whereas in the compound predicate
oI double orientation it is a verb or phrase expressing attitude, evaluation, or comment. They belong to one oI
the Iollowing verb groups:
1. Intransitive verbs oI seeming or happening with the general meaning oI evaluation in the active voice:
@A =>>N, @A <JJ><?, @A J?AP>, @A @M?H AM@, @A B<JJ>H, @A DB<HD>.
He =>>N>G @A MHG>?=@<HG everything I said.
Money just GA>=H_@ B<JJ>H @A EH@>?>=@ me.
No one <JJ><?= @A B<P> HA@ED>G his escape.
2. Some verbs in the passive voice:
a) erbs oI saying:
@A =<U, @A G>DF<?>, @A =@<@>, @A ?>JA?@, @A ?MNAM?.
This country E= =<EG @A L> ?EDB in oil.
The rocket E= ?>JA?@>G @A B<P> =@<?@>G its night at 6.30.
b) erbs oI mental activity:
@A L>FE>P>, @A DAH=EG>?, @A >IJ>D@, @A TEHG, @A OHA;, @A N><H, @A J?>=MN>, @A ?>C<?G, @A =MJJA=>, @A @BEHO,
@A MHG>?=@<HG.
Mr. Sharp ;<= always >IJ>D@>G @A =<U he preIerred cold meat.
He B<= never L>>H OHA;H @A FA=> BE= @>NJ>? beIore.
c) erbs oI perception:
@A T>>F, @A B><?, @A =>>, @A ;<@DB.
239
My dog ;<= B><?G @A L<?O in the yard.
The lady ;<= =>>H @A F><P> the house.
3. Phrases with some modal meaning:
@A L> (MH$ FEO>FU, @A L> =M?>, @A L> D>?@<EH.
The adjectives FEO>FU, MHFEO>FU, =M?> and D>?@<EH indicate the speaker's attitude to the Iuture:
The weather E= HA@ FEO>FU @A DB<HC>.
This event E= D>?@<EH @A J?AGMD> a sensation.
II you dont post the letter at once, it E= MHFEO>FU @A <??EP> EH @EN>.
George E= =M?> @A =>> Mary. (cM?> indicates the attitude oI the speaker, it is the speaker rather than George
who is sure)
The compound nominal predicate
T h e c o m p o u n d n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e p r o p e r
54. The compound nominal predicate consists oI < FEHO P>?L and a J?>GED<@EP> (nominal part). The link verb
is the structural element oI the predicate, as it joins the subject and the predicative. It expresses the grammatical
categories oI person, number, tense, aspect and mood.
The predicative is the notional part oI the compound nominal predicate. It characterizes the person or non-
person expressed by the subject. The characterization may concern the Iollowing:
1. The properties oI the person or non-person (the state or quality or quantity oI it).
The girl FAAO>G @E?>G LM@ J?>@@U.
I T>F@ =A?> Ior a minute.
But he E= HA@ always <FAH>.
The visibility =>>N>G very CAAG.
He ;<= TA?@U and EH BE= J?EN>.
We <?> =>P>H.
2. The identity oI the person or non-person, that is, what class oI persons or things they belong to.
This man E= NU T<@B>?.
Old Mr Clare ;<= < DF>?CUN<H.
Miss Sedleys papa ;<= < N<H AT =AN> ;><F@B.
My wish E= @A F><?H N<HU F<HCM<C>=.
55. Among the class oI link verbs we may distinguish:
1. Those which have lost their original lexical meaning (@A L>, @A C>@$.
He E= just @B> OEHG AT N<H I want.
Elisabeth CA@ very ?>=@F>==.
2. Those which have only partly lost their lexical meaning (@A ?>N<EH, @A L>DAN>, @A C?A;, @A @M?H, @A FAAO, @A
=>>N$.
That request =>>N>G =MJ>?TFMAM=.
The room FAAO>G =HMC <HG DB>>?TMF.
Ellens eyes C?>; NAE=@.
In both cases (1,2) the link verbs proper are used.
240
3. Those which have Iully preserved their lexical meaning but still serve as link verbs Iollowed by a
predicative. They are used in the passive voice: @A >F>D@, @A D<FF, @A F><P>, @A O>>J, @A N<O>.
The boy ;<= D<FF>G tABH.
She ;<= F>T@ <FAH>.
He ;<= >F>D@>G J?>=EG>H@.
According to their semantic characteristics link verbs Iall into three groups: FEHO P>?L= AT L>EHC, AT L>DANEHC,
AT ?>N<EHEHC.
l. i n k v e r b s o I b e i n g :
@A L>, @A T>>F, @A =AMHG, @A =N>FF, @A @<=@>, @A FAAO, @A <JJ><?, @A =>>N, etc.
OI these only the verb @A L> is a pure link verb oI being, as the others may have some additional meaning
(see examples below).
When he ;<= =>P>H, starting school had been a nightmare and a torture to him.
His Iace FAAO>G <;TMF all the time.
I T>F@ better JF><=>G than ever.
His voice =AMHG>G DAFG <HG BA=@EF>.
He =>>N>G L>;EFG>?>G.
Everything <JJ><?>G very C?<HG <HG ENJA=EHC to me.
Note how the link verbs @A @<=@> and @A T>>F are translated into Russian:
emons @<=@> =AM?. - Hot cnte nyc.
The Iur T>>F= =AT@. - ex xr omynt.
2. i n k v e r b s o I b e c o m i n g :
@A L>DAN>, @A C?A;, @A @M?H, @A C>@, @A N<O>.
The noise oI the rattling dishes L>DAN>= EH@AF>?<LF>.
The Elephants Childs nose C?>; FAHC>? <HG FAHC>?.
The girls Iace suddenly @M?H>G ?>G.
The girl ;EFF N<O> < good @><DB>?.
3. i n k v e r b s o I r e m a i n i n g :
@A ?>N<EH, @A DAH@EHM>, @A O>>J, @A =@<U.
She ?>N<EH>G P>I>G with him.
The children O>J@ suspiciously =EF>H@.
Wa y s o I e x p r e s s i n g t h e p r e d i c a t i v e
56. The predicative can be expressed by:
1. A noun in the common case or in the genitive case.
Miss Sedlys Iather ;<= < N>?DB<H@.
The Iace ;<= ED@A?E<]=.
2. An adjective or an adjective phrase.
241
Ellens eyes C?>; <HC?U.
She ;<= TMFF AT >H@BM=E<=N.
The man ;<= GETTEDMF@ @A DAHPEHD>,
Note:
It should be remembered that in some cases a predicative adjective in English corresponds to an adverbial
modiIier expressed by an adverb in Russian.
The apples =N>FF CAAG.
no xm nxy.
The music =AMHG>G L><M@ETMF.
yst snyun nexc.
She looks bad - nx ntrnx
Ieels uyncnye cex
In English the verbs @A =N>FF, @A =AMHG, @A FAAO, @A T>>F are link verbs and are the Iirst part oI the compound
nominal predicate. The predicatives (which Iorm the second part oI these predicates) qualiIy the subject and can
thereIore be expressed only by a d j e c t i v e s . In Russian the corresponding verbs Iorm simple verbal
predicates and are thereIore modiIied by adverbials expressed by an adverb.
3. A pronoun.
It ;<= B>.
Its N>. (There is a growing tendency to use personal pronouns as predicatives in the objective case.)
She is =AN>LAGU.
The hat E= NEH>. (In this Iunction only the absolute Iorm oI the possessive pronoun is used.)
^BA <?> UAMg
She ;<= HA@ B>?=>FT yet.
4. A numeral.
He ;<= =EI@U last year.
W_N @B> TE?=@.
5. An inIinitive (or an inIinitive phrase or construction).
His Iirst thought ;<= @A ?MH <;<U.
My idea is @A CA there NU=>FT.
The only thing to do E= TA? UAM @A ;BEJ BEN.
6. A gerund (or a gerundial phrase or construction).
My hobby E= G<HDEHC and his E= DAFF>D@EHC =@<NJ=.
The main problem ;<= BE= L>EHC <;<U at the moment.
7. A participle or a participial phrase.
The subject =>>N>G =@?<HC>FU DBA=>H.
Participle I seldom occurs in this Iunction unless it has become an adjective.
242
That =AMHG>G iME@> GE=@?>==EHC.
8. A prepositional phrase.
She E= AH AM? =EG>,
9. A stative.
I ;<= wide <;<O> by this time. .
10. An indivisible group oI words.
It E= HEH> A_DFADO already.
11. A clause.
That= ;B<@ B<= B<JJ>H>G.
S e m a n t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o I t h e p r e d i c a t i v e
57. The three most typical semantic characteristics oI a predicative are: EG>H@ETED<@EAH, DF<==ETED<@EAH and
DB<?<D@>?E=<@EAH.
1. A n i d e n t i I y i n g p r e d i c a t i v e expresses equality between the notion expressed by the
predicative and by the subject, or means that they are oI the same rank or value. In this case the predicative and
the subject are positionally interchangeable. Such predicatives are expressed by a noun with the deIinite article.
ondon is @B> D<JE@<F AT k?E@<EH. The capital oI Britain is mAHGAH.
Mount Everest is @B> BECB>=@ NAMH@<EH EH @B> ;A?FG. The highest mountain in the world is fAMH@
qP>?>=@.
2. A c l a s s i I y i n g p r e d i c a t i v e names a class oI persons or non-persons to which that denoted by
the subject belongs. The predicative in this case is expressed by a noun with the indeIinite article.
John is < =@MG>H@.
My Iather is < @><DB>?.
This is < LAAO.
3. A c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p r e d i c a t i v e denotes a state or quality oI a person or non-person and is
expressed by an adjective or a stative.
The room is G<?O.
The sky was LFM>.
The patient Iell <=F>>J.
The house was <TF<N>.
A characterizing predicative may also be a noun which in this case has no article.
He turned @?<E@A?.
He was elected J?>=EG>H@.
T h e c o m p o u n d n o m i n a l d o u b l e p r e d i c a t e
58. The compound nominal double predicate combines, as its name suggests, the Ieatures oI two diIIerent
types oI predicate. It has the Ieatures oI the simple verbal predicate and those oI the compound nominal
243
predicate. It consists oI two parts, both oI which are notional. The Iirst one is verbal and is expressed by a
notional verb denoting an action or process perIormed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject. rom
this point oI view it resembles the simple verbal predicate. But at the same time the verbal part oI this predicate
perIorms a linking Iunction, as it links its second part (which is a predicative) to the subject.
The second part oI the compound nominal double predicate is expressed by a noun or an adjective which
denotes the properties oI the subject in the same way as the predicative oI the compound nominal predicate
proper does.
The moon ;<= =BEHEHC DAFG <HG L?ECB@.
The predicate here denotes two separate notions:
1) YB> NAAH ;<= =BEHEHC, and at the same time
2) YB> NAAH ;<= DAFG <HG L?ECB@.
There are a number oI verbs that oIten occur in this type oI predicate, perIorming the double Iunction oI
denoting a process and serving as link verbs at the same time. They are: @A GE>, @A F><P>, @A FE>, @A N<??U, @A
?>@M?H, @A ?E=>, @A =E@, @A =@<HG, @A =BEH>, etc. As in Modern English there is a growing tendency to use this type
oI predicate, the verbs occurring in it are not limited by any particular lexical class.
My daughter =<@ =EF>H@.
He GE>G < B>?A.
She N<??E>G UAMHC.
The light D<N> C?<U <HG J<F>.
The men =@AAG =EF>H@ <HG NA@EAHF>==,
They N>@ T?E>HG= <HG J<?@>G >H>NE>=.
The moon ?A=> ?AMHG <HG U>FFA;.
Mixed types of compound predicate
59. Compound predicates can combine elements oI diIIerent types. Thus we have:
1. T h e c o m p o u n d m o d a l v e r b a l n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e .
Jane NM=@ T>>F better JF><=>G than ever.
She DAMFGH_@ L> B<JJU.
He N<U B<P> L>>H EFF then.
2. h e c o m p o u n d m o d a l n o m i n a l v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e .
`?> you <LF> @A ;<FO another two miles
We ;>?> <HIEAM= @A DAAJ>?<@>.
3. T h e c o m p o u n d p h a s a l n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e .
He ;<= L>CEHHEHC @A FAAO G>=J>?<@>.
George L>C<H @A L> rather <=B<N>G.
4. T h e c o m p o u n d m o d a l p h a s a l p r e d i c a t e .
ou AMCB@ @A =@AJ GAEHC that.
He D<H_@ DAH@EHM> @?<EHEHC.
5. T h e c o m p o u n d n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e o I d o u b l e o r i e n t a t i o n .
244
Mrs Bacon E= =<EG @A L> P>?U EFF.
Walter =>>N= @A L> MHB<JJU.
Agreement of the predicate with the subject
60. The most important type oI agreement (concord) in English is that oI the subject and the predicate in
number and person. Thus a singular noun-subject requires a singular verb-predicate, a plural noun-subject
requires a plural verb-predicate.
This rule oI purely grammatical agreement concerns all present tenses (except modal verbs) and also the past
indeIinite oI the verb @A L>.
World FE@>?<@M?> 1&o#s many great humorists.
Great BMNA?E=@= 1&o# how to make people laugh.
This rule remains true Ior:
a) All link verbs irrespective oI the number oI the predicative noun, as in:
Our only CMEG> #as @B> XAF<? =@<?.
Our only CMEG> #as @B> =@<?=.
b) The predicate oI emphatic constructions with the Iormal subject E@.
W@ #as NU T?E>HG= who suddenly arrived.
W@_s @B>U who are responsible Ior the delay.
61. The verb-predicate is in the singular iI the subject is expressed by:
1. An inIinitive phrase or phrases.
YA OHA; >P>?U@BEHC is to know nothing.
YA L> FAP>G <HG @A L> ;<H@>G is always good.
2. A prepositional phrase.
`T@>? @B> N>>@EHC is the time to speak.
3. A clause introduced by a conjunction or conjunctive adverb.
^B>?> UAM TAMHG BEN does not concern me.
\A; UAM CA@ @B>?> is beyond my understanding.
^B>@B>? UAM TEHG BEN A? HA@ does not concern me.
Note:
Subject clauses introduced by conjunctive pronouns ;B<@, ;BA may be Iollowed by either a singular or
plural verb.
^B<@ W ;<H@ @A GA is to save us.
^B<@ ;>?> AHD> J?>DEAM= N<HM=D?EJ@= #ere scattered all over the Iloor.
^B<@ W =<U <HG ;B<@ W @BEHO are my own aIIair.
4. A numerical expression, such as arithmetical addition, subtraction, division.
lAM? <HG TAM? is eight.
lAM? NEHM= @;A is two.
245
Y>H GEPEG>G LU TEP> is two.
Note:
However multiplication admits oI two variants.
Y;ED> @;A is+are Iour.
5. The group N<HU < HAMH.
f<HU < N<H has GAH> E@.
o uenone noenn oe. (ore...)
6. With @B>?> - constructions Iollowed by subjects oI diIIerent number, the predicate agrees with the subject
that stands Iirst. The same holds true Ior sentences with B>?>.
YB>?> #as < @>I@LAAO <HG N<HU HA@>LAAO= on the table.
YB>?> #ere N<HU HA@>LAAO= <HG @>I@LAAO on the table.
Here #as Tom and Peter.
Here #as a man, #as experience and culture.
In inIormal style, however, the singular verb is oIten used beIore the subject in the plural iI the Iorm oI the
verb is contracted.
Is there any place in town that might have them .here4s !#o.
Both closed.
.here4s !oo ma&y o' !hem living up there.
.here4s !#o 1i&ds o' me& here8 youll Iind.
7. Plural nouns or phrases when they are used as names, titles, quotations.
ul<@B>?= <HG cAH=~ is the most popular oI Turgenevs novels.
Note:
However, the titles oI some works which are collections oI stories, etc., may have either a singular or a plural
verb.
YB> ud<H@>?LM?U Y<F>=~ o&sis! oI about seventeen thousand lines oI verse.
Turgenevs /\MH@>?_= Y<F>=/ ;<=j;>?> published in 1852.
Pronouns as subject
62.
1. IndeIinite pronouns (=AN>LAGU, =AN>AH>, <HULAGU$,
universal pronouns (>P>?ULAGU, >P>?UAH>, >P>?U@BEHC, ><DB, >E@B>?$,
negative pronouns (HALAGU, HA AH>, H>E@B>?, >@D.$
take a singular predicate.
cAN>LAGU is asking Ior you.
aALAGU has come except me.
qP>?UAH> AT M= is present.
a>E@B>? AT @B> =@MG>H@= has made a mistake.
q<DB has answered well.
246
However, HAH> has a plural verb-predicate.
aAH> #ere here.
aAH> AT M= $&ders!a&d it.
aAH> AT @B>N have come.
`FF EH the sense oI nc has a singular verb, while <FF EH the sense oI nce takes a plural verb.
`FF is well that ends well.
`FF @B<@ CFE@@>?= is not gold.
`FF #ere in Iavour oI the plan.
2. Interrogative pronouns ;BA, ;B<@ take a singular verb-predicate.
^BA has come ^B<@ is there
But iI the pronoun denotes more than one person or thing a plural verb-predicate is used.
^BA are walking in the garden
^BA have agreed to act
3. With relative pronouns the Iorm oI the verb depends on the noun or pronoun which is its antecedent.
Do you know @B> CE?F ;BA %ives next door
(The girl lives...)
Do you know @B> CE?F= ;BA %ive next door
(The girls live...)
f<?U E= AH> AT @BA=> CE?F= ;BA H>P>? 1&o# what they will do next.
Even W, ;BA have seen it all, can hardly believe it.
W@ E= UAM ;BA are right. It is I who am wrong.
But: W@_= N> ;BA is wrong.
4. The universal pronoun LA@B has a plural verb-predicate.
Which oI the letters are yours kA@B are mine.
Conjunctions connecting two or more homogeneous subjects
63. A plural verb-predicate is used in the Iollowing cases:
1. With homogeneous subjects connected by <HG.
cMH <HG <E? are necessary Ior liIe.
YAN <HG f<?U are my Iriends.
YB> >LL <HG @B> TFA; AT @B> @EG> are regular.
Note:
However, with structures where coordinated nouns reIer to one thing or person a singular verb-predicate is
used.
k?><G <HG LM@@>? is not enough Ior breakIast. (one object is meant)
k<DAH <HG >CC= ma1es < traditional English breakIast. (one dish is meant)
YB> J<EH@>? <HG G>DA?<@A? is here. (one person is meant)
247
II the article is repeated, the reIerence is to two persons or objects, and a plural verb-predicate is used.
.he L?><G <HG !he LM@@>? are on the table. (two separate object are meant)
.he J<EH@>? <HG !he G>DA?<@A? are here. (two persons are meant)
ikewise, when a singular noun-subject has two attributes characterizing the same person or non-person
connected by <HG it has a singular verb and the article is not repeated.
` @<FF <HG L><M@ETMF CE?F #as waiting in the oIIice.
` LF<DO <HG ;BE@> OE@@>H #as playing on the hearth rug.
But iI the attributes characterize diIIerent persons or non-persons the verb is in the plural and the article is
repeated.
` LF<DO <HG < ;BE@> OE@@>H #ere playing on the hearth rug. (A black kitten was playing and a white kitten
was playing.)
YB> U>FFA; <HG @B> ?>G D<? #ere badly damaged.
However, the article is repeated beIore each attribute only with countable nouns. Uncountables have no
article.
In modern hotels BA@ <HG DAFG ;<@>? are supplied in every room.
`N>?ED<H <HG hM@DB L>>? are both much lighter than British.
rAAG <HG L<G @<=@> are shown by examples.
With plural nouns only one article is used.
.he kF<DO <HG f>GE@>??<H><H c><= never T?>>S>.
2. With homogeneous =MLQ>D@= connected by LA@B... <HG.
kA@B @B> L?><G <HG @B> LM@@>? are Iresh.
kA@B @B> @><DB>? <HG @B> =@MG>H@= have come.
64. With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions HA@ AHFU... BM@ <F=A, >E@B>?... A?, A?, H>E@B>?...
HA? the verb-predicate agrees with the nearest noun-subject. (This is the so-called proximity rule.)
qE@B>? NU =E=@>? A? NU J<?>H@= are at home.
qE@B>? NU J<?>H@= A? NU =E=@>? is at home.
a>E@B>? UAM HA? 0 am right.
a>E@B>? W HA? UAM are right.
aA@ AHFU NU J<?>H@= LM@ <F=A NU L?A@B>? 1&o#s about it.
aA@ AHFU NU L?A@B>? LM@ <F=A NU J<?>H@= 1&o# about it.
W= YAN A? f<?U ea)er @A N>>@ you at the station
65. With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions <= ;>FF <=, ?<@B>? @B<H, <= NMDB <=, NA?>
@B<H the verb-predicate agrees with the Iirst one.
fU J<?>H@= <= ;>FF <= NU =E=@>? are teachers.
fU =E=@>? <= ;>FF <= NU J<?>H@= is a teacher.
YB> N<H<C>? <= ;>FF <=j?<@B>? @B<HjNA?> @B<Hj<= NMDB <= @B> N>NL>?= AT @B> LA<?G is responsible Ior the
present situation.
Notional agreement
248
66. Notional agreement is to be Iound in the Iollowing cases:
1. In modern English agreement there may be a conIlict between Iorm and meaning. It reIers Iirst oI all to
subjects expressed by nouns oI multitude (see 176, II), which may denote plurality being singular in Iorm. In
such cases the principle oI grammatical agreement is not observed and there appears the so-called notional
agreement, when the choice oI the number is based on the Iact whether the group oI beings is considered as
one whole or, as a collection oI individuals taken separately (as discrete ones).
Thus the nouns oI multitude (L<HG, LA<?G, D?>;, DANNE@@>>, D?A;G, DANJ<HU, DF>?CU, D<@@F>, T<NEFU, C<HC,
C?AMJ, CM<?G, C>H@?U, EHT<H@?U, QM?U, NEFE@E<, JAFED>, JAMF@?U, @><N$ may have both a plural verb-predicate and a
singular one depending on what is meant - a single undivided body or a group oI separate individuals.
` H>; CAP>?HN>H@ has bee& TA?N>G.
YB> CAP>?HN>H@ have <=O>G me to go, so I am leaving now.
W@ ;<= HA; H><?FU >F>P>H ]DFADO <HG @B> DAHC?>C<@EAH #ere <??EPEHC...
YB> DAHC?>C<@EAH #as =N<FF.
\A; are UAM? T<NEFUg
wM? T<NEFU has always bee& < P>?U B<JJU AH>.
The commanding oIIicer does not know where BE= D<P<F?U is and BE= D<P<F?U are HA@ DANJF>@>FU =M?> oI
their situation.
YB> D?A;G #as >HA?NAM=.
YB> D?A;G #ere =EF>H@.
YB> JAFED> is already inIormed.
I dont know what the police are GAEHC.
YB> D<@@F> is in the mountains.
YB> D<@@F> have =@AJJ>G C?<SEHC. They know beIore you hear any sound that planes are approaching.
YB> QM?U deides whether the accused is guilty or not.
^BEF> @B> QM?U #ere o$!8 some oI the public went out Ior a breath oI Iresh air.
2. Subjects expressed by nouns denoting measure, weight, time, etc., have a singular verb-predicate when the
statement is made about the whole amount, not about the discrete units.
Y>H U><?= is a long time.
`HA@B>? TEP> NEHM@>= )oes by.
` NEFFEAH T?<HD= is < FA@ AT NAH>U.
3. Notional agreement is also observed with subjects expressed by word-groups including nouns oI quantity:
<j@B> HMNL>? AT..., <j@B> N<QA?E@U AT..., (<$ J<?@ AT..., @B> LMFO AT..., < P<?E>@U AT... . These admit oI either a
singular or a plural verb-predicate.
YB> HMNL>? (onuecno) AT J<C>= in this book
is&4! F<?C>.
It was Sunday and < HMNL>? (ore) AT J>AJF> ;>?>
;<FOEHC <LAM@.
In Elisabeths reign @B> LMFO AT qHCFE=B P>C>@<LF>
=MJJFE>= ;>?> ENJA?@>G Irom Holland.
4. Subjects expressed by such invariable plural nouns as CAAG= (on, ont), DAH@>H@= (coexe,
coexoe), ?EDB>= (orcno, orcn), DFA@B>= (oex), ;<C>= (snn), ><P>= (s tm) have
a plural verb.
His ;<C>= #ere only # =BEFFEHC= a week.
I asked her what @B> DAH@>H@= #ere about.
\E= DFA@B>= #ere =B<LLU.
YB> CAAG= #ere G>FEP>?>G on time.
5. Subjects expressed by such invariable singular nouns as B<E?, NAH>U, C<@>, EHTA?N<@EAH (cneex),
TMH>?<F (noxoot), J?AC?>== (ycnex), <GPED> have a singular verb-predicate. These are called singularia
249
tantum ncer ecneoe ucno, as they have no plural.
\>? B<E? is L><M@ETMF.
YB> NAH>U is NEH>.
YB> C<@> is AJ>H.
YB> EHTA?N<@EAH #as unusually EH@>?>=@EHC.
II @B> TMH>?<F is so G>@>=@<LF> to you, you dont have to go to it.
The corresponding Russian nouns used as subjects are either plural invariables (etr, noo, noxoot)
or have both the singular and the plural Iorms (cone - conet, onoct - onoc).
6. Subjects expressed by invariable nouns ending in -s (pluralia tantum ncer oxecneoe ucno)
and denoting an indivisible notion or thing have a singular verb-predicate : N><=F>= (ot), NMNJ= (cn),
LEFFE<?G=, GANEHA>=, FEHCME=@ED=, >DAHANED=, H>;=, B><GiM<?@>?= (m), ;A?O= (sno).
aA H>;= is CAAG H>;=.
YB> H>; ;A?O= that has been built in our district is P>?U F<?C>.
Though nouns in -is which are names oI sciences and other abstract notions have a singular agreement
when used in their abstract sense; they may have a plural verb-predicate when denoting qualities, practical
applications, diIIerent activities, etc. (>@BED= K moral rules, CUNH<=@ED= K physical exercises). Thus these
nouns may be Iollowed by either a singular or a plural verb.
statistics a branch oI science
collected numbers, Iigures representing Iacts
c@<@E=@ED= is a rather modern branch oI mathematics.
These =@<@E=@ED= sho# deaths per 1,000 oI population.
c@<@E=@ED= on this subject <?> available,
tactics the art oI arranging military Iorces Ior battle
methods
Y<D@ED= is AH> AT @B> =MLQ>D@= studied in military academies.
our @<D@ED= are ALPEAM=. Please, dont insult my intelligence.
politics a proIession
political aIIairs, political ideas
XAFE@ED= is < ?E=OU J?AT>==EAH.
XAFE@ED= have always EH@>?>=@>G N>.
^B<@ <?> UAM? JAFE@ED=g
ceramics the art oI making bricks, pots, etc.
articles produced in this way
d>?<NED= is NU BALLU.
Where he lives isnt the provinces as Iar as D>?<NED= are DAHD>?H>G, its the metropolis.
7. Subjects expressed by substantivized adjectives denoting groups oI people (@B> LFEHG, @B> GMNL <HG G><T,
@B> >NEH>H@, @B> NM@>, @B> AFG, @B> JAA?, @B> ?EDB, etc.) always take the plural verb-predicate.
He did not look an important personage, but @B> >NNEH>H@ rarely do.
250
The object
67. The object is a secondary part oI the sentence reIerring to some other part oI the sentence and
expressed by a verb, an adjective, a stative or, very seldom, an adverb completing, speciIying, or restricting its
meaning.
She has bought < D<?.
Im glad @A =>> UAM.
She was aIraid AT @B> GAC.
He did E@ unexpectedly @A BEN=>FT.
Ways of expressing the object
68. The object can be expressed by:
1. A noun in the common case or a nominal phrase, a substantivized adjective or participle.
I saw @B> LAU= two hours ago.
The nurses were clad EH C?>U.
irst oI all she attended @A @B> ;AMHG>G.
Greedily he snatched @B> L?><G and LM@@>? Irom the plate.
2. A noun-pronoun. Personal pronouns are in the objective case, other pronouns are in the common case, or
in the only Iorm they have.
I dont know <HULAGU here.
I could not Iind my own car, but I saw B>?= round the corner.
He says he did not know @B<@.
3. A numeral or a phrase with a numeral.
At last he Iound @B?>> AT @B>N high up in the hills.
4. A gerund or a gerundial phrase.
He insists on DANEHC.
A man hates L>EHC ?MH <T@>?.
5. An inIinitive or an inIinitive phrase.
She was glad @A L> ;<FOEHC ;E@B BEN.
Every day I had to learn BA; @A =J>FF J<C>= AT ;A?G=.
6. arious predicative complexes.
She Ielt @B> DBEFG @?>NLFEHC <FF AP>?.
I want E@ GAH> <@ AHD>.
Everything depends on UAM? DANEHC EH @EN>.
7. A clause (then called an object clause) which makes the whole sentence a complex one.
I dont know ;B<@ E@ ;<=.
He thought AT ;B<@ B> ;<= @A =<U @A <FF AT @B>N.
Thus Irom the point oI view oI their structure, objects may be =ENJF>, JB?<=<F, DANJF>I or DF<M=<F.x
251
Complex objects with verbal and non-verbal second elements (objective predicatives) are treated in detail in 124-129.
Types of object
69. rom the point oI view oI their value and grammatical peculiarities, Iour types oI objects can be
distinguished in English:
@B> GE?>D@ ALQ>D@, @B> EHGE?>D@ ALQ>D@, and @B> DACH<@> ALQ>D@.
1. The direct object is a non-prepositional one that Iollows transitive verbs, adjectives, or statives and
completes their meaning. Semantically it is usually a non-person which is aIIected by the action oI the verb,
though it may also be a person or a situation. The situation is expressed by a verbal, a verbal phrase, a complex,
or by a clause.
I wrote a JA>N.
ou like <?CMEHC, dont you
Who saw BEN F><P>g
I dont know ;B<@ E@ <FF N><H=.
She was ready @A =EHC.
When the direct object is expressed by an inIinitive (or an inIinitive phrase or a clause) it may be preceded
by the Iormal introductory object it (see 78).
I Iind it exciting @A ;<@DB @>HHE=.
He Iound it hard @A L>FE>P> @B> CE?F.
2. The indirect object also Iollows verbs, adjectives and statives. Unlike the direct object, however, it may
be attached to intransitive verbs as well as to transitive ones. Besides, it may also be attached to adverbs,
although this is very rare.
rom the point oI view oI their semantics and certain grammatical characteristics indirect objects Iall into
two types:
a) The indirect object oI the Iirst type is attached only to ditransitive verbs. It is expressed by a noun or
pronoun which as a rule denotes (or, in the case oI pronouns, points out) a person who is the addressee or
recipient oI the action oI the verb. So it is convenient to call an object oI this type the indirect recipient object.
It is joined to the headword either ;E@BAM@ < J?>JA=E@EAH or LU @B> J?>JA=E@EAH @A (occasionally TA?$. The indirect
recipient object is generally used with transitive verbs.
He gave @B> OEG two dollars.
She did not tell anything @A <HUAH>.
Will you bring a cup oI coIIee TA? N>g
b) The indirect object oI the second type is attached to verbs, adjectives, statives and sometimes adverbs. It
is usually a noun (less oIten a pronoun) denoting an inanimate object, although it may be a gerund, a gerundial
phrase or complex, an inIinitive complex or a clause. Its semantics varies, but it never denotes the addressee
(recipient) oI the action oI the governing verb. So it may be called @B> EHGE?>D@ HAH-?>DEJE>H@ ALQ>D@. The
indirect non-recipient object can only be joined to its headword LU N><H= AT < J?>JA=E@EAH.
One must always hope TA? @B> L>=@.
Shes not happy <LAM@ B>? H>; T?E>HG.
The indirect non-recipient object is used mainly with intransitive verbs. It is usually the only object in a
sentence, at least other objects are not obligatory.
3. The cognate object is a non-prepositional object which is attached to otherwise intransitive verbs and is
252
always expressed by nouns derived Irom, or semantically related to, the root oI the governing verb.
The child smiled @B> =NEF> and laughed @B> F<MCB oI contentment.
They struck him a heavy LFA;.
4. The retained object. This term is to be applied in case an active construction is transIormed into a passive
one and the indirect object oI the active construction becomes the subject oI the passive construction. The
second object, the direct one, may be retained in the transIormation, though the action oI the predicate-verb is
no more directed upon it. ThereIore it is called a retained object.
They gave Mary @B> TE?=@ J?ES> }}
(direct object)
Mary was given @B> TE?=@ J?ES>
(retained object).
70. The direct object is used irrespective oI the absence or presence oI other objects attached to the same
verb.
He wrote @B> <?@EDF> two weeks ago.
Tommie did not know <HU@BEHC about it.
Ned ordered him @A =@<?@.
Some English verbs which take a direct object correspond to Russian verbs Iollowed by an indirect non-
recipient object with a preposition. These verbs are:
@A <GG?>== =NL
@A <TT>D@ =NL, =N@B
@A <H=;>? =N@B
@A <JJ?A<DB =NL, =N@B
@A <@@>HG =N@B
@A >HQAU =N@B
@A >H@>? =N@B
@A TAFFA; =NL, =N@B
@A QAEH =NL, =N@B
@A NAMH@ =N@B
@A H>>G =N@B, =NL
@A JF<U =N@B
@A ?><DB =N@B
@A ;<@DB =NL, =N@B
- omtcx x oy-no
- nnxt oro-no, uo-no
- oneut uo-no
- noo, nnstcx x oy-no, uey-no
- ncycnont ue-no
- nonyut yonontcne 1 uero-no
- nxot n uo-no
- cneont s e-no, ue-no
- ncoextcx x oy-no, uey-no
- cect nexo, nsotcx uo-no
- yxtcx n ue-no, o-no
- rt ue-no, n uo-no
- o, oct uero-no
- cnet s e-no, ue-no
T h e p o s i t i o n o I t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t
253
71. The most usual position oI the direct object is that immediately aIter the predicate verb it reIers to.
Then he Iound B>? in the hall.
The direct object is separated Irom the predicate verb in the Iollowing cases:
1. II there is a non-prepositional indirect recipient object to the same verb in the sentence. In this case the
direct object Iollows the indirect one.
I never told BEN <HU@BEHC.
Note:
The direct object may come beIore the non-prepositional indirect object iI it is the pronoun E@, and the
indirect object is any other personal pronoun.
I never told E@ BEN.
Give E@ N>, will you
2. II the direct object is modiIied by a phrase or a clause. In this case it may be separated Irom the verb by a
prepositional indirect non-recipient object or an adverbial.
Ged had kept TA? BE= ;EH@>? QAM?H>U @B> DFA<O FEH>G ;E@B TM?.
He took EH@A BE= B<HG= < =N<FF L><=@.
3. II the direct object is expressed by a noun or a pronoun (except a personal pronoun) reIerring to a phrasal
predicate verb consisting oI a verbal part and a postposition such as <LAM@, L<DO, GA;H, EH, ATT, AH, AM@, AP>?,
@B?AMCB, MJ.
He F<EG GA;H BE= =@EDO.
Ged @AAO ATT BE= DFA<O that was heavy with water.
With most oI those verbs, however, the direct object may also precede the adverb.
He F<EG GA;H BE= =@EDO. He F<EG BE= =@EDO GA;H.
II expressed by a personal pronoun, the direct object always precedes the postposition.
He F<EG GA;H BE= =@EDO. z He F<EG E@ GA;H.
72. The direct object comes beIore the predicate verb it reIers to in the Iollowing cases:
1. In pronominal questions reIerring to the direct object or to its attribute.
^B<@ did they give you
^BA=> D<? was he driving
^BEDB JE>D> shall I take
2. In certain exclamatory sentences.
What < ;AHG>?TMF LA<@ he has built
3. In case it is necessary to connect the idea expressed in this sentence with the preceding one. This makes
the object more emphatic.
254
The people oI the village gathered in silence to watch his quick hands.
YBE= QAL too he did well and patiently.
4. or the sake oI emphasis or contrast.
I enjoyed arithmetic, as always. r?<NN<? I could not understand in the least.
The indirect object
T h e i n d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t o b j e c t
73. As has been mentioned above, the indirect recipient object is used mainly with transitive verbs, which
thus take two objects, and are accordingly called ditransitive. erbs governing the indirect recipient object Iall
into two classes, which in accordance with their general semantics are called verbs o' be&e'a!io& and verbs o'
i&d$eme&!.
e r b s o I b e n e I a c t i o n denote an action that is addressed to a person or is done Ior that person's
sake or beneIit.
irst she C<P> him BE= =MJJ>?.
Ive LAMCB@ < J<E? AT L><M@ETMF ><??EHC= 'or yo$, dear.
e r b s o I i n d u c e m e n t denote an action which causes a person to do some other action.
Ann @AFG him @A F><P> her alone.
I L>C yo$ @A TA?CEP> me.
74. The indirect recipient object is generally used together with the direct object and precedes it (see the
examples above).
II the indirect object is attached to a verb oI beneIaction, the direct object is usually a noun, a pronoun, or a
clause.
Bring @B> N<H BE= @BEHC=.
I told B>? >P>?U@BEHC.
They did not show BEN ;B<@ E@ ;<=.
Some verbs oI beneIaction can take an inIinitive or a gerund as their direct object.
Help me (@A$ GA E@.
She promised me @A L> JMHD@M<F.
Miss Craggs taught them =EHCEHC.
II the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb oI inducement, the direct object can only be an inIinitive
or an inIinitive phrase.
She asked him @A DAN> @A GEHH>?.
When attached to verbs oI beneIaction, the indirect recipient object may sometimes be used alone, that is,
without a Iollowing direct object. This occurs:
a) Where it is attached to the predicate verb in the passive.
At last the check was given B>? and she leIt.
b) AIter the verbs @A <H=;>?, @A <=O, @A >HPU, @A TA?CEP>, @A B>FJ, @A @><DB.
She used @A @><DB N> once.
Ive B>FJ>G UAM all my liIe.
255
Note:
The indirect recipient object may also be used alone aIter the verbs @A ?><G, @A >IJF<EH, @A GED@<@>, @A =J>FF, @A
=EHC, @A ;?E@>, but in the case oI the Iirst Iive it always takes the preposition to, whereas with @A ;?E@> both
Iorms are possible.
Why do you never ?><G @A N> now
Will she =EHC @A M= tonight
At Iirst she ;?A@> @A BEN twice a week.
^?E@> N> back as soon as you get the cable.
When attached to verbs oI inducement, the indirect recipient object can never be used alone.
o r m a n d p o s i t i o n o I t h e i n d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t o b j e c t s
75. As to their Iorm and position the Iollowing cases must be distinguished:
1. II the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb oI inducement, it is always non-prepositional and has a
Iixed position in the sentence just beIore the direct object.
Mother ordered me @A C>@ GA;H.
He urged her @A ;?E@> < =@A?U <LAM@ E@.
2. II it is attached to the verbs oI beneIaction @A <HHAMHD>, @A <=D?EL>, @A <@@?ELM@>, @A DANNMHED<@>, @A
DAH@?ELM@>, @A G>GED<@>, @A GED@<@>, @A GE=DFA=>, @A >IJF<EH, @A EH@>?J?>@, @A EH@?AGMD>, @A AJ>H, @A JAEH@ AM@, @A
?>J><@, @A =MLNE@, @A =MCC>=@, it is always prepositional and has two possible positions in the sentence, either
beIore the direct object or aIter it. In both cases it is governed by the preposition @A. It usually precedes the
direct object iI the latter is modiIied by an attribute.
He dictated @B> F>@@>? !o his sere!ary.
Up to her death in 1935 she did not open !o me B>? =>D?>@.
Then she explained !o me @B> D<M=> AT B>? ?>TM=<F.
3. II the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb oI beneIaction other than those listed above, its Iorm
and position vary according to certain rules:
a) The indirect recipient object is non-prepositional when it precedes the direct object.
She oIIered him < =<HG;EDB.
Jane sang me < =AHC.
b) The indirect recipient object is prepositional when it Iollows the direct object. In this case the most
Irequent preposition is @A.
She has given =AN> OEHG AT @<=O @A ><DB CE?F.
Im going to oIIer =AN>@BEHC @A UAM.
II the indirect recipient object denotes a person Ior whose beneIit the action is done, it has the preposition
TA?.
Ill buy @BE= 'or yo$.
c) The position oI the indirect recipient object aIter the direct object is sometimes obligatory. This is the case
either when both objects are personal pronouns, as in:
256
Give BEN @A N>.
Send N> @A @B>N.
or when the direct object is a personal pronoun, while the indirect object is a noun, as in
Give @B>N @A a<HHU.
Show E@ @A tABH.
II the direct object is the pronoun E@ and the indirect recipient object is any other personal pronoun, the
indirect recipient object may take the preposition or not.
Give E@ @A BEN Give E@ BEN.
The latter is more colloquial.
76. Sometimes the indirect recipient object may be placed beIore the predicate verb. This occurs in the
Iollowing cases:
1. In pronominal questions reIerring to the indirect recipient object or its attribute.
^BAN did you show the brooch @A
YA ;BAN did you send the parcel
^BEDB LAU has she given the money @A
YA ;BEDB JA?@>? did you give your suitcase
As seen Irom the examples, the preposition @A can either retain its position aIter the direct object or come
beIore the question word. uestions oI the Iirst type are characteristic oI colloquial style, while those oI the
second type are Iormal.
Note:
In colloquial speech the nominative case Iorm ;BA oIten replaces the objective Iorm ;BAN. In this case the
preposition can only be placed at the end oI the sentence.
^BA did you give the money @A
2. In attributive clauses.
This Iriend oI his ;BAN she had shown the letter @A did not appear to know anything.
The man @A ;BAN she had given two loaves oI bread never came back.
3. II the object is to be made more emphatic Ior the sake oI contrast.
YA UAM hes telling his tales, not to me.
T h e i n d i r e c t n o n - r e c i p i e n t o b j e c t
77. The indirect non-recipient object is a prepositional object that Iollows both transitive and intransitive
verbs and completes their meaning, The indirect non-recipient object may be preceded by various prepositions.
I thought <LAM@ E@ a good deal.
Invention arises T?AN EGF>H>==.
How would you deal ;E@B @B> J?ALF>Ng
I could hardly stand AH NU =O<@>= then.
257
The formal object i!
78. Some verbs cannot take an inIinitive object or a clausal object. In this case the Iormal object i!
precedes the notional object. It is called EH@?AGMD@A?U (or <H@EDEJ<@A?U$ i!. The sentence thus has two objects, the
Iormal object E@ and a notional object, which is an inIinitive or a clause. The Iormal object E@ may be either a
direct object, or an indirect non-recipient object.
1. As a direct object E@ occurs aIter the verbs @A @<O>, @A FEO>, @A TEHG, @A MHG>?=@<HG, @A F><?H and some others.
Is she @A @<O> i! @B<@ >P>?U@BEHC E= 9.7.g
I MHG>?=@<HG i! @B<@ UAM <?> NU ;ET>_= L?A@B>?.
We TAMHG i! GETTEDMF@ @A @<FO @A BEN.
2. As an indirect non-recipient object it occurs aIter certain verbs which take objects with obligatory
prepositions: @A DAMH@ (AH$, @A G>J>HG (AH$, @A B><? (AT$, @A EH=E=@ (AH$, @A ALQ>D@ (@A$ and some others.
He ALQ>D@>G @A i! @B<@ @B>U =BAMFG L> @<O>H @A @B> E=F<HG @AA.
79. There is another use oI i! as o TA?N<F ALQ>D@1 it can be attached to transitive or intransitive verbs to
convey a very vague idea oI some kind oI an object.
I was angry. I made him take the present away. An hour later he returned and we N<G> i! MJ.
We thereIore decided that we would sleep out on Iine nights, and hotel i!, and inn i!, and pub i!, when it
was wet.

The cognate object
80. The verbs that most Irequently take a cognate object are:
@A FEP> (< FET>$, @A =NEF> (< =NEF>$, @A F<MCB (< F<MCB$, @A GE> (< G><@B$, @A =ECB (< =ECB$, @A =F>>J (< =F>>J$, @A
G?><N (< G?><N$, @A ?MH (< ?<D>$, @A TECB@ (<, TECB@,, < L<@@F>$.
He GE>G @B> G><@B AT < B>?A.
Here she stopped and =ECB>G < B><PU =ECB.
One must FEP> AH>]= A;H FET>, you know.
The cognate object is always used with words modiIying it, never alone:
@B> G><@B AT < B>?A, < B><PU =ECB, AH>_= A;H FET>, etc.
to die the death oI a hero to die like a hero;
to sigh a heavy sigh to sigh heavily, etc.
Semantically cognate objects characterize the action expressed by the predicate-verb. Nevertheless they are
considered to be objects, not adverbial modiIiers, because:
a) they are expressed by nouns without prepositions, which is not characteristic oI adverbials;
b) they may occur in the position oI the subject oI a passive construction.
He never doubted that FET> should be lived as he lived.
Objects to adjectives
258
81. There are quite a number oI adjectives that D<H take an object, although not quite in the same way as
verbs do. In the sentence these adjectives are mainly used as predicatives. The objects they take are oI two
kinds:
1. Direct objects expressed only by inIinitives or inIinitive phrases. No noun or pronoun is ever possible in
this position.
Mack was P>?U CF<G @A C>@ BAN>.
Mary was B<JJU @A B<P> N>@ M=.
II. Indirect non-recipient objects governed by various prepositions. These objects are usually expressed by a
noun or pronoun, sometimes by a gerund, a gerundial phrase or complex, or by a clause, depending on the
combinability oI the adjective.
Now she was ?><GU TA? <HU@BEHC.
I was =M?J?E=>G <@ B>? L>EHC =A =BU.
She was AHFU B<FT DAH=DEAM= AT ;B<@ ;<= CAEHC AH.
As can be seen Irom the above examples, structurally objects to adjectives may be oI the same types as
objects to verbs, that is, simple, phrasal, complex, or clausal.
Objects to statives
82. The statives that can take objects are Iew in number. The most Irequent oI them are: <T?<EG, <;<?>,
<FEP>, <=B<N>G, <B><G, <OEH. Their objects may be direct inIinitive or clausal objects, or an indirect non-
recipient object. The latter may be expressed by a noun (pronoun), a gerund, a gerundial phrase or predicative
complex, or a clause.
She had never been <T?<EG @A >IJ>?EN>H@.
I think he was <T?<EG W =BAMFGH_@ ?>N>NL>? BEN.
I was <T?<EG AT UAM, my pretty.
I was not <;<?> AT UAM? L>EHC < =DAMHG?>F.
He was Iully <;<?> AT ;B<@ B> ;<= GAEHC.
Objects to adverbs
83. There are some adverbs which can take objects, but these can only be indirect non-recipient objects.
lA?@MH<@>FU TA? BEN=>FT, he could not be present.
The attribute
84. The attribute is a secondary part oI the sentence which characterizes person or non-person expressed by
the headword either qualitatively, quantitatively, or Irom the point oI view oI situation. Attributes may reIer to
nouns and other words oI nominal nature, such as pronouns gerunds and substitute words, as in:
It was a letter Irom BE= G>PA@>G Iriend.
I mentioned it to him when he was BE= M=M<F selI.
One day I put the picture up again, @B> FET>=ES> one.
An attribute Iorms a nominal phrase with its headword.
Ways of expressing attributes
85. An attribute may be expressed by diIIerent parts oI speech:
259
1. B y ( a ) a d j e c t i v e s or ( b ) a d j e c t i v a l p h r a s e s , which characterize the person or non-
person qualitatively or express the speakers attitude.
a) The sand glittered like TEH> ;BE@> sugar in the sun.
Ive never seen a L>@@>? place.
There is nothing MHM=M<F about the letter.
Some composite adjectives may be derived Irom other parts oI speech by means oI the participle-Iorming
suIIix ->G, as in:
It was a FA;-D>EFEHC>G m-=B<J>G room.
They sat on the JEH>-H>>GF>G sand.
Some adjectives have developed Irom Iormer participles II, as in;
Martin lived with his ;EGA;>G mother.
He looked Ior his FAHC-FA=@ Iriend everywhere.
b) In any case it gave no clue to the thought @B>H MJJ>?NA=@ in Hercule Poirots mind.
He stood and raged within himselI with sour despair, MH<LF> @A NAP> A? =<U < ;A?G.
2. By p r o n o u n s or p r o n o m i n a l p h r a s e s , which help to identiIy or deIine persons or non-
persons.
The woman by HA change oI Iace showed that BE= words meant anything to her.
Heres =AN> money Ior you.
Can you see @BA=> children AT NEH> anywhere
3. By n u m e r a l s , o r d i n a l or c a r d i n a l , which state the number or order, or serve to identiIy
persons or non-persons, as in:
He arrived just @B?>> weeks ago.
Robert has always been the TE?=@ boy in his class.
Is it part @;A oI the book
4. By ( a ) n o u n s i n t h e c o m m o n c a s e s i n g u l a r o r ( b ) p r e p o s i t i o n a l
n o m i n a l p h r a s e s , which characterize the person or non-person either qualitatively or Irom the point oI
view oI its locative, temporal, or other Ieatures.
The nouns are always premodiIying attributes, the prepositional nominal phrases are post modiIying:
a) It happened on a h>D>NL>? evening (etc neue).
The boy started to eat a B<N roll (ynou c neuo).
The C<?G>H wall was almost ruined (conx ce).
There was a BAH>UNAAH couple among the passengers (n, nonoxmx eont ecxn).
b) The new secretary, AH J?ANA@EAH T?AN @B> C>H>?<F ATTED>, was a widow oI IiIty.
He was a man AT P>?U ?>CMF<? B<LE@=.
Anything AT EH@>?>=@ this morning, Miss emon
In some cases the attribute and its headword Iorm a closely connected unit, such as @B> DAH@EH>H@ AT qM?AJ>
(nonec oe), @B> H<N> AT k?ECB@AH M?LU (x o ), @B> PEFF<C> AT d?A;E> (eenx
oyn). Although the prepositional group is a subordinate and characterizing element, modiIying the Iirst word,
260
its inIormative value is much greater than that oI the Iirst element.
In structures oI this type the semantic roles oI the elements may be reversed: the Iirst (subordinating)
element becomes a modiIying word, the second (subordinated) - the modiIied one, as in:
his carrot oI a nose (oc oono; e oc, oon),
an angel oI a girl (e enym, ren),
a hell oI a noise (c my, my n y),
a jewel oI a nature (sonoo xe; e xe, sonoo).
Though logically BE= D<??A@ AT < HA=> means that the nose is characterized as resembling a carrot,
syntactically it is the word D<??A@ that is modiIied by the oI-phrase AT < HA=>, the indeIinite article perIorming
its usual classiIying Iunction. The modiIied word is not always semantically acceptable as part oI the sentence
without the AT-phrase, which shows the semantic dependence oI the modiIied element on the modiIying one.
This, together with the Iact that logical and syntactic relations are reversed, accounts Ior the marked stylistic
eIIect oI these structures.
His leIt hand was holding < =OU=D?<J>? AT < =EFP>? DMJ.
High above the bank is another ><CF>_= H>=@ AT < D<=@F>.
Russian phrases oI a similar kind - , *V , *, unlike the parallel
English phrases, are rarely included in extended sentences.
Note:
Phrases like =A?@ AT @E?>G (W T>>F =A?@ AT @E?>G$, OEHG AT @E?>=AN> (YB> =E@M<@EAH L>DAN>= OEHG AT @E?>=AN>$, etc.,
Iorm one syntactic whole and cannot be treated as Iree syntactic phrases consisting oI a headword modiIied by
a prepositional attribute. The Iirst element expresses approximation - a moderate degree oI the quality denoted.
5. B y n o u n s o r p r o n o u n s i n t h e g e n i t i v e c a s e .
He caught the sound oI the DBEFG?>H_= voices.
The AD><H_= vastness was so great that it held him spellbound.
Nelson had asked f<?U_= T<@B>?_= consent beIore proposing.
II the headword is omitted (when the sentence is elliptical) the modiIying word should still be considered as
an attribute.
Suppose those postcards are a FMH<@ED_=g
She heard the voice oI another man, perhaps it was the ;<@>?-D<??E>?_= and then < ;AN<H_=, shrill and
hysterical.
6. By statives, although these are rarely used as attributes. They usually postmodiIy the headword, though
may occur as premodiIying.
No man <FEP> would ever think oI such cruelty.
She gazed at us with an <FAAT air.
7. B y ( a ) p a r t i c i p l e s I a n d I I a n d ( b ) p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e s , characterizing the
person or non-person through an action, process, or reaction.
a) He made his way down the D?><OEHC stairs.
The mild day died in a G<?O>HEHC Ilush oI twilight.
They stood contemplating the =ME@>G dummies in the FECB@>G windows oI the shop.
They stood at the car L>EHC ?>TM>FF>G and watched the meter.
261
b) Captain Nichols dragged Strickland, LF>>GEHC T?AN < ;AMHG EH BE= <?N, into the street.
There was a tiny smile JF<UEHC <LAM@ @B> DA?H>?= AT BE= NAM@B.
incent glanced over at Christine OHE@@EHC LU @B> TE?>.
Beside her stood a straw basket =@MTT>G ;E@B N<HU @A;>F= and a pair oI beach shoes.
8. B y ( a ) g e r u n d s , ( b ) g e r u n d i a l p h r a s e s , o r ( c ) g e r u n d i a l c o m p l e x e s .
Gerunds generally characterize non-persons Irom the point oI view oI their Iunction or purpose.
a) Back at the hotel he slipped on a white ?A;EHC blazer (the blazer which the members oI the boat-club
wore).
Her ;<FOEHC shoes were elegant (shoes which she wore when walking).
(Compare these with attributes expressed by participle I, in the sentences given above (7), which denote an
action, process or reaction sometimes Iiguratively.)
b) He would not run the risk AT L>EHC @AA F<@>.
She showed no sign AT B<PEHC >P>? OHA;H N>.
The young man had the most irritating habit AT QAOEHC <@ @B> ;?AHC NAN>H@.
c) The silence was interrupted by the sound AT < GAA? L>EHC L<HC>G.
There is no chance AT AM? =>>EHC BEN <C<EH.
9. B y ( a ) i n I i n i t i v e s , ( b ) i n I i n i t i v e l p h r a s e s , o r ( c ) c o m p l e x e s , which
characterize a person or non-person through some real or hypothetical action in which this person or non-person
is or may be involved. Owing to the hypothetical nature oI the action, an inIinitive as attribute oIten imparts a
modal shade oI meaning to the action.
a) ou are the one @A LF<N> (who is to blame).
I havent any time @A =J<?> (which I could spare).
b) He looked around Ior a weapon @A =@?EO> BE= EH=MF@>? ;E@B.
He was not a man @A >IJ>?EN>H@ ;E@B <DiM<EH@<HD>.
There was nothing in the look oI him @A =BA; @B> DAM?<C> AT @B> N<H (nothing which could show
courage).
He was the last @A @>FF AT @BE= >I@?<A?GEH<?U ?<EG T?AN @B> G>>J>? =>< (who could tell).
c) This is a problem TA? UAM @A =AFP>. (;BEDB UAM DAMFGjNM=@ =AFP>$.
10. B y ( a ) a d v e r b s o r ( b ) a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e s , which characterize a person or non-
person through spatial or temporal characteristics, or through circumstances or Iacts concerning this person or
non-person.
a) No sounds came Irom the quarters <LAP>.
The @B>H Government did not respond to this just claim.
Somebody appeared on the MJ=@<E?= balcony.
I see that woman GA;H=@<E?= has a couple oI sailors sitting there.
An immense eIIort oI imagination was needed to link himselI HA; with himselI @B>H.
The most usual position oI such attributes is to Iollow the headword.
b) Most people living in AM@ AT @B> ;<U places expect the latest news Irom home with impatience.
11. B y s e n t e n c e s u s e d a s a w h o l e ( t h e s o - c a l l e d q u o t a t i o n n o u n s ) .
These are used mainly as hyphenated chains beIore the headword.
262
She looked at me with a kind oI GAH_@-@AMDB-N>-A?-W_FF-=F<J-UAM air.
It was a sAM-NM=@-@<O>-M=-<=-UAM-TEHG-E@=_ attitude to things, and it saved me a lot oI trouble... In this <-
JF<D>-TA?->P>?U@BEHC-<HG->P>?U@BEHC-EH-E@=-JF<D>_ kitchen he Ielt ill at ease.
12. B y a c l a u s e (then called an attributive clause) which makes the whole sentence a complex one.
Some called me by the name ;BEDB HA AH> B>?> OH>;.
The position of attributes
86. The position oI an attribute depends on the Iollowing:
1. T h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o I t h e a t t r i b u t e . Adjectives, participles, gerunds,
nouns in the common and the possessive cases, pronouns, ordinal numerals, and quotation nouns generally
premodiIy the headword.
He was a FE@@F> N<H, with a @BEH PAED>.
al had just changed out oI ?EGEHC DFA@B>= and was on his way to the party.
The <JJF> @?>>= were in blossom.
Its not always easy to understand a DBEFG_= F<HCM<C>.
The @BE?G <@@>NJ@ gave no result.
\E= >U>= travelled over the landscape at @B>E? T>>@.
Adverbs, statives, cardinal numerals and inIinitives are generally postmodiIying attributes.
Participles II, statives, and adjectives oI verbal origin used as attributes also tend to occupy the position aIter
the headword.
The J>AJF> EHPAFP>G were reported to the police.
When we build cities we think about C>H>?<@EAH= MHLA?H.
Adjectives ending in -<LF>, -ELF> are mostly postpositive as attributes. They oIten Iollow a headword
preceded by AHFU or a similar word with a limiting meaning.
The only J>?=AH visib%e was the policeman (who could be seen).
The only way oI >=D<JEHC ima)i&ab%e was through the window (which could be imagined).
2. h e e x t e n s i o n o I t h e a t t r i b u t e . Non-detached attributes are postmodiIying when
expressed by extended phrases or complexes.
The inIluence oI extension can be illustrated by the Iollowing pairs oI examples:
It is a =>H=ELF> =MCC>=@EAH.
He Iound himselI in a GETTEDMF@ =E@M<@EAH.
It is a =MCC>=@EAH =>H=ELF> EH N<HU ;<U=.
He Iound himselI in a =E@M<@EAH GETTEDMF@ T?AN BE= JAEH@
AT PE>;.
Here are some more examples:
They passed the bodies oI British =AFGE>?= OEFF>G @B<@ HECB@.
It was a little log BAM=> ;E@B ;BE@>;<=B>G ;<FF=.
He held a letter in his hands, a F>@@>? T?AN BE= NA@B>?.
He appeared to be a small N<H AT <LAM@ TET@U.
They chose a ;<U FAHC>? @B<H @B> A@B>?.
3. T h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o I t h e h e a d w o r d . Such words as demonstrative or
indeIinite pronouns and numerals cannot have an attribute in preposition.
263
.hose DANEHC TE?=@ occupied the best seats.
Most oI their time animals spend in search oI some!hi&) ><@<LF>.
There is &o!hi&) EH@>?>=@EHC in this book.
9%% J?>=>H@ were disgusted by his behaviour.
Note 1:
Non-detached postmodiIying attributes are Iound in traditional phrases borrowed Irom rench or atin, such
as LFAAG ?AU<F, @EN> ENN>NA?E<F, @B> =>DAHG J>?=AH JFM?<F, B>E? <JJ<?>H@ (B>E? J?>=MNJ@EP>$. mA?G= =JE?E@M<F,
mA?G= @>NJA?<F.
Note 2:
There are cases when the headword is embedded between parts oI the attribute, as in:
I was told that you were the L>=@ N<H <P<EF<LF> (@B> L>=@ <P<EF<LF> N<H$.
Types of connection between an attribute and its headword
87. rom the point oI view oI their connection with the headword and other parts oI the sentence, attributes
may be divided into nondetached (close) and detached (loose) ones.
Non-detached attributes
88. Non-detached attributes Iorm one sense group with their headword and are not separated Irom it by
commas.
They generally adjoin the headword, either premodiIying, postmodiIying, or embedding it, and are
connected with other parts oI the sentence only through the headword.
Non-detached premodiIying attributes may be unextended, consisting oI one word only, or Iorm chains oI
homogeneous attributes with identical reIerence, as in: < HED> CE?F, < J?>@@U BAM=>V D?EN=AH, ;BE@>, and U>FFA;
TFA;>?=.
Attributes with identical reIerence (D?EN=AH TFA;>?=, ;BE@> TFA;>?=, <HG U>FFA; TFA;>?= - D?EN=AH, ;BE@>, <HG
U>FFA; TFA;>?=$ are usually interchangeable (U>FFA;, ;BE@>, <HG D?EN=AH TFA;>?=$ and are set oII by commas
(D?EN=AH, ;BE@>, U>FFA; TFA;>?=$ or joined by a conjunction as they are in the example given above.
Attributes may Iorm a string with diIIerent reIerence, that is, those oI them which are closer to the noun Iorm
one whole with subsequent words:
her usual (good temper);
a clever (young man) (compare with D?EN=AH, ;BE@>, U>FFA; TFA;>?=$V
a large black and white (hunting dog).
In the word-group < F<?C> LF<DO <HG ;BE@> BMH@EHC GAC the adjective F<?C> reIers to LF<DO <HG ;BE@> BMH@EHC
GAC, LF<DO <HG ;BE@>, reIers to BMH@EHC GAC, and BMH@EHC reIers to GAC. This relation oI attributes embedded
inside a string oI them requires a Iixed order and no comma is used to separate them. The phrase <H AFG F<GU_=
B<@ allows oI two possible interpretations: (`H AFG F<GU$_= B<@ and <H AFG (F<GU_= B<@$.
II there are relations other than attributive within the string oI premodiIying words, the whole string
Iunctions as one attribute. In this case they are usually hyphenated, as in:
NA=@ G>>JFU-T>F@ >NA@EAH=V @AA-H>; =BA>=, < ;A?G-TA?-;A?G @?<H=F<@EAH, < L?<==-DATT>>-JA@-FEO> @BEHC (a
thing looking like a brass coIIee-pot);
< GE?@U-DAFF<?, MHL?M=B>G-DA<@ N<H (a man with a dirty collar and in an unbrushed coat).
One oI the characteristic Ieatures oI English, especially in academic and newspaper style is a marked
tendency to Iorm long strings oI phrasal attributes (usually called DANJA=E@EAH<F JB?<=>=$, which express in a
compressed Iorm the content oI a clause or sentence and which can be easily turned into one, iI necessary Iorm
264
words are added (prepositions, link verbs, etc.) and the morphological changes are introduced, as in:
ish-breeding plants. (Plants that breed Iish.)
EIIicient salt-producing mines. (Mines that produce salt eIIiciently.)
The uranium-supply industry. (Industry that supplies uranium to...)
The last decades scarcity oI hands in the country. (In the last decade hands were scarce in the country.)
The long-looked-Ior hours. (The hours which were looked Ior long.)
Detached attributes
89. A detached attribute is only loosely connected with its headword and is oIten optional Irom the point oI
view oI structure, although very important semantically. It Iorms a separate sense group in speech and is
accordingly separated by commas in writing.
A detached attribute may be placed in preposition, post-position, or oIten at some distance Irom the
headword.
Carrie looked about her, P>?U NMDB GE=@M?L>G <HG iME@> =M?> that she did not want to work here.
Unlike non-detached attributes, a detached attribute may modiIy personal and relative pronouns.
Big and strong, he impressed us greatly.
ery oIten a detached attribute reIers not only to the headword, but also to another part oI the sentence, thus
Iorming a double connection. or example, a detached attribute reIerring both to the subject oI the sentence and
to the predicate may have in addition to its attributive meaning some adverbial shade oI meaning, such as
conditional, causal, or concessive.
And Ior a moment I hesitated, MH<LF> @A =@<?@ @<FOEHC (as I was unable to start talking).
l<NEFE<? ;E@B @B>=> G>@<EF=, Michael paid them little attention (because he was Iamiliar with these
details).
The apposition
90. An apposition is a part oI the sentence expressed by a noun or nominal phrase and reIerring to another
noun or nominal phrase (the headword), or sometimes to a clause.
The apposition may give another designation to, or description oI, the person or non-person, or else put it in
a certain class oI persons or non-persons. In the latter case it is similar to an attribute, as it characterizes the
person or non-person denoted by the headword.
Beyond the villa, < =@?<HC>-FAAOEHC LMEFGEHC, began the Iorest.
He had remembered her at once, Ior he always admired her, < P>?U J?>@@U D?><@M?>.
He knows about everything - < N<H AT @B> ;A?FG.
The whole thing was indescribable - < @>??ETED =J>D@<DF>, < =@MJ>HGAM= =UNJBAHU AT =AMHG.
ike the attribute, the apposition may be in preposition or postposition. However, unlike the attribute, which
is always subordinated to its headword and is usually connected with other parts in the sentence only through it,
words in apposition are, at least syntactically, coordinated parts, that is, both the headword and the apposition
are constituents oI the same level in the sentence. This may be illustrated by two possible types oI
transIormation oI sentences with words in apposition.
Mr Smith, @B> FAD<F GAD@A?,
was known to everybody.
The local doctor, f? cNE@B,
was known to everybody.
However, an apposition can rarely replace the headword in the sentence. Substitution is possible only iI the
apposition meets the Iollowing conditions:
265
1. It denotes the same person or non-person as the headword.
Winterbourne was back on the Somme, @B<@ EHD?>GELF> G>=>?@, pursuing the retreating enemy.
II it puts the person or non-person in a certain class oI persons or nonpersons, no substitution is possible.
Thus the sentence f? cNE@B, < FAD<F GAD@A?, ;<= OHA;H @A >P>?ULAGU cannot be transIormed into the sentence
` FAD<F GAD@A? ;<= OHA;H @A >P>?ULAGU.
2. It is expressed by words oI the same morphological class as its headword. Otherwise the apposition may
be unacceptable in the structure oI the sentence because oI its grammatical or lexical meaning. This can be
illustrated by the sentence: cB> ;<= =>ES>G LU < CM=@ AT DM?EA=E@U @A =>> @B<@ ;ET> AT BE=, which does not allow the
substitution oI the apposition Ior the headword - cB> ;<= =>ES>G LU < CM=@ AT @A =>> @B<@ ;ET> AT BE=.
3. It Iollows the headword immediately and has no dependent words which may hinder substitution.
Otherwise, the dependent words may block the connection and make the apposition unacceptable in the
structure oI the sentence. Thus, the sentence tABH, <@ @B<@ @EN> < =@MG>H@, ;?A@> =>P>?<F <?@EDF>= AH <?DBE@>D@M?>
cannot be transIormed into `@ @B<@ FEN> < =@MG>H@ ;?A@> =>P>?<F <?@EDF>= AH <?DBE@>D@M?>, Ior it changes the
meaning oI the sentence altogether.
The sentences discussed above show the peculiarity oI the appositive relation: although it resembles
coordination syntactically (in that the headword and the apposition are constituents oI the same level within
the sentence), communicatively they are not of the same rank.
Appositions may be joined by a coordinating conjunction, or Iollow one another asyndetically. In both cases
appositions reIer directly to the headword.
h? and f?= Macphail were leIt alone.
` N<H AT <D@EAH <HG < LA?H F><G>?, now Iorced into a state oI thought, he was unhappy.
` G<MCB@>? AT JAA? LM@ BAH>=@ J<?>H@=, I have no reason to be ashamed oI my origins.
Types of connection between an apposition and its headword
91. rom the point oI view oI their relation to the headword, appositions, like attributes, are subdivided
into non-detached (close) and detached (loose) ones.
Non-detached appositions
92. Non-detached appositions Iorm one sense group with their headword and very oIten enter into such
close relation with it that the two words Iorm one whole. This is especially true in the case oI titles, military
ranks, proIessions, kinship terms, geographical denotations, etc., used as apposition.
Sir Peter, Mr Brown, Doctor Watson, Colonel Davidson, Uncle Podger, Mount Everest, the River
Thames.
Being very closely connected with each other such appositions and their headwords may be treated as
indivisible word-groups.
See also 36 item 6.
Detached appositions
93. Detached, or loose appositions Iorm separate sense groups and are wider in their meaning than close
appositions: they may give identiIication, explanation, etc., especially when reIerring to pronouns. They may
Iollow the headword immediately or be separated Irom it.
He actually envied Jolyon the reputation oI succeeding where he, cA<N>=, had Iailed.
Cooper was three inches taller than Mr Warburton, < =@?AHC, NM=DMF<? UAMHC N<H.
266
An apposition may also reIer to a clause or a sentence, usually as an explanatory remark.
The night was muggy, a bit drizzly, windless, and very dark - @B> EG><F DAHGE@EAH= TA? < C<= LANL<?GN>H@.
The adverbial modifier
94. The adverbial modiIier (or the adverbial) is a secondary part oI the sentence which modiIies another
part oI the sentence expressed either by a verb (in a Iinite or non-Iinite Iorm), or an adjective, or a stative, or an
adverb.
In case it modiIies a verb the adverbial characterizes the action or process expressed by tlie verb and denotes
its quality, quantity, or the whole situation.
The adverbial modiIier may reIer to:
a) T h e p r e d i c a t e - v e r b o r t o a v e r b a l p h r a s e .
John spoke in a ;BE=J>?.
Bowen read the telegram <FAMG .
b) T h e w h o l e o I t h e s e n t e n c e , especially iI placed at the beginning oI the sentence.
WH @B> >P>HEHC they gathered together again.
II an adverbial modiIies a non-Iinite Iorm, it becomes part oI a gerundial, participial, or inIinitive phrase or
construction.
elicity Iell to the ground and <T@>? FUEHC =@EFF TA? < NAN>H@ began to crawl Iorward.
Scobie watched the bearers CA =FA;FU MJ @B> BEFF, @B>E? L<?> T>>@ P>?U C>H@FU TF<JJEHC @B> C?AMHG.
Adverbials modiIying adjectives, statives and adverbs usually denote degree or quantity. These adverbials
modiIy:
a) A d j e c t i v e s i n t h e i r a t t r i b u t i v e o r p r e d i c a t i v e I u n c t i o n .
It was a P>?U FAHC story.
The story was >I@?>N>FU FAHC.
He is =EI T>>@ @<FF.
b) Statives in their predicative Iunction.
I am iME@> <;<?> oI the situation.
c) A d v e r b s i n t h e i r m a i n I u n c t i o n a s a n a d v e r b i a l .
ou speak English ?<@B>? TFM>H@FU.
Obligatory and non-obligatory adverbial modifiers
95. Adverbials are structurally more independent oI the verb than objects. Their use is oIten optional.
267
However, when introduced into the sentence, adverbials are oI great communicative value. Thus in the sentence
X?AT>==A? k?A;H E= F><PEHC TA? mAHGAH @A-NA??A;, both adverbials TA? mAHGAH and @A-NA??A; give important
pieces oI inIormation, although grammatically the sentence X?AT>==A? k?A;H E= F><PEHC is complete.
Adverbials are obligatory when the sentence structure demands one or when their absence changes the
meaning oI the verb. This is the case:
a) A I t e r t h e v e r b s @A L>B<P>, @A <D@, @A @?><@.
He behaved L?<P>FU. x\> L>B<P>G has no sense.
The Murdstones treated David D?M>FFU. - ecot xecoo omnct c no.
YB> GAD@A? @?><@>G h<PEG - oo neun n.
b) A I t e r s t a t a l a n d d u r a t i v e v e r b s , s u c h a s @A FEP>, @A G;>FF, @A ;<E@, @A F<=@, @A ;>ECB.
John lives EH mAHGAH. (tABH FEP>= has a diIIerent meaning: B> >IE=@=_, bB> E= <FEP>_.$
The lecture lasted @;A BAM?=.
c) A I t e r t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i m p l y i n g d i r e c t i o n , s u c h a s @A JM@, @A @<O>, @A =>HG.
Put the book AH @B> =B>FT.
Take these letters @A @B> JA=@-ATTED>.
d) A I t e r i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s o I m o t i o n a n d p o s i t i o n i n s p a c e , s u c h a s
@A DAN>, @A CA, @A <??EP>, @A ?>@M?H, @A =@>J, @A =E@, @A FE>, @A =@<HG.
Brett went @A @B> G?>==EHC-?AAN.
Robert was standing <@ @B> ;EHGA;.
The absolute use oI the above verbs, that is without adverbials, is possible iI the speaker is interested in the
process itselI or iI the use oI an adverbial is unnecessary because oI the situation.
He was too weak @A =@<HG.
Everybody B<= DAN>.
e) Wh e n a n a d v e r b i a l i n I l u e n c e s t h e m e a n i n g o I a v e r b I o r m .
I am going to the library @A-NA??A;, (am going denotes intention, not an action).
I) Wh e n i t s a b s e n c e c h a n g e s t h e m e a s i n g o I t h e r e s t o I t h e s e n t e n c e .
Can you speak English ;E@BAM@ N<OEHC NE=@<O>=g
Ive never been there =EHD> NU DBEFGBAAG.
Non-obligatory adverbials are those which are not necessary Ior the structure oI the sentence. They neither
inIluence the meaning oI the verb Iorm, nor change the structure or the meaning oI the rest oI the sentence, no
matter how important they are Irom the communicative viewpoint.
She leIt the room ;E@BAM@ =<UEHC < ;A?G.
k>TA?> =J><OEHC he pressed the bell at his side.
Detached adverbial modifiers
96. Detached adverbials being more loosely related to the modiIied parts oI the sentence than non-detached
adverbials are never obligatory. They are separated Irom the rest oI the sentence by intonation in speaking and
by commas in writing. Detachment oI adverbials may be caused by various Iactors, the most important oI
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which are their meaning, the Iorm oI expression, their extension, their position in the sentence, or the speakers
desire Ior emphasis. Owing to their structure and meaning, absolute constructions are nearly always detached:
Wesley saw the boat, E@= G>DO= G>=>?@>G.
Participial phrases as adverbials also tend to be detached.
She then returned to her place, HA@ B<PEHC =JAO>H <HA@B>? ;A?G.
Adverbials are detached when they are placed m an unusual position, as in the Iollowing examples:
mEO> BEN, she saw danger in it.
Randall, TA? <FF BE= @E?>=AN>H>== <HG L<GH>==, had always been her Randall.
Any adverbial may be detached iI the speaker wishes to emphasize its meaning.
He was her Iather, said rances Wilmot, C?<P>FU.
Ways of expressing adverbial modifiers
97. Adverbials are grouped according to their structure (ways oI expression) and their meaning. There is no
one-to-one correspondence between these two groupings, though we may observe certain tendencies in the
ways oI expressing this or that kind oI adverbial modiIier.
An adverbial modiIier may be expressed by:
1. A n a d v e r b ( s o m e t i m e s p r e c e d e d b y a p r e p o s i t i o n ) .
Jane sings L><M@ETMFFU.
George is <F;<U= busy.
The ship sailed ><=@.
2. A n a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e , w i t h a n a d v e r b a s h e a d w o r d .
We met @>H U><?= <CA and parted @;A U><?= F<@>?.
They worked @EFF F<@> <@ HECB@.
3. A n o u n , p r o n o u n o r n u m e r a l p r e c e d e d b y a p r e p o s i t i o n o r
p r e p o s i t i o n a l n o m i n a l p h r a s e .
A dim light was burning in the archway MHG>? @B> EHH>? C<@>.
k>UAHG E@ Mr Watson could see the outer gate.
k>BEHG BEN he could hear irstie sobbing.
We met EH !e#.
Classes begin AH @B> TE?=@ AT c>J@>NL>?.
4. A n o u n w i t h o u t a p r e p o s i t i o n o r a n o n - p r e p o s i t i o n a l n o u n p h r a s e ,
the latter usually containing such words as @BE=, @B<@, >P>?U, F<=@, H>I@.
Wait < NEHM@>R
Come @BE= ;<U, please.
We meet >P>?U G<U.
5. A n o n - I i n i t e v e r b I o r m :
a) a gerund or a gerundial phrase.
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Remember to open the window L>TA?> GAEHC UAM? NA?HEHC >I>?DE=>=.
One day, AH ?>@M?HEHC @A BE= BA@>F, he Iound a note in his room.
b) a n i n I i n i t i v e o r a n i n I i n i t i v e p h r a s e .
The problem is too diIIicult @A =AFP>.
Weve come here @A <=O UAM < T<PAM?.
c) a p a r t i c i p l e o r a p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e .
cECBEHC, Betty returned to the kitchen.
XAMHGEHC @B> BAM=>, they entered a quiet, walled garden.
6. A predicative complex:
a) a g e r u n d i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n .
Are you angry L>D<M=> AT NU L>EHC F<@>g
b) a I o r - t o - i n I i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n .
The problem is too diIIicult TA? < DBEFG @A =AFP>.
c) a n o n - p r e p o s i t i o n a l o r p r e p o s i t i o n a l a b s o l u t e c o n s t r u c t i o n .
YB> N><F AP>?, they went to the Iuel store.
YB>?> B<PEHC L>>H HA ?<EH, the earth was dry.
q<?JBAH>= AH, red sat alone in Ivors room.
I dont want to quarrel ;E@B @B> DBEFG?>H FE=@>HEHC.
7. A n a d j e c t i v e , a n a d v e r b , a p a r t i c i p l e , a n o u n , a p r e p o s i t i o n a l
p h r a s e , a n i n I i n i t i v e , a n i n I i n i t i v e o r p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e i n t r o d u c e d
b y a c o n j u n c t i o n .
Ill come earlier ET H>D>==<?U.
Her conduct ;B>H @B>?> was most unaccountable.
^B>H <?CM>G ;E@B, Ida had one answer.
`= < FE@@F> CE?F she used to make daisy-chains.
I began to wonder whether he'd manage to give an interview ;BEF> =@EFF EH BE= ?ECB@ NEHG.
He quickly did this, and ;BEF> GAEHC E@ dropped his umbrella.
`= ET @A L?EHC N<@@>?= @A < TADM=, Tesss Iather was heard approaching at that moment.
8. A C l a u s e ( a s p a r t o I a c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e ) .
Wont you stay @EFF @B> ?<EH =@AJ=g
We stayed at home L>D<M=> E@ ?<EH>G.
Structural classification of the adverbial modifier
98. rom the point oI view oI its structure the adverbial modiIier, may be =ENJF>, JB?<=<F, DANJF>I,
DF<M=<F.
We started ><?FU.
We started <@ TEP> EH @B> NA?HEHC.
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John sat ;E@B BE= >FLA;= AH @B> @<LF> <HG BE= B<HG= DF<=J>G.
^B>H @B> D<@ E= <;<U, the mice will play.
Semantic characteristics of the adverbial modifier
99. Semantically adverbials denote JF<D>, @EN>, N<HH>?, D<M=>, JM?JA=>, ?>=MF@, DAHGE@EAH, DAHD>==EAH,
<@@>HG<H@ DE?DMN=@<HD>=, DANJ<?E=AH, G>C?>>, N><=M?>, >ID>J@EAH, thus Iorming semantic classes, such as
adverbials oI place, time, etc.
The semantic class oI an adverbial may be identiIied GE?>D@FU (absolutely) or EHGE?>D@FU (relatively). It is
identiIied directly by lexical meaning oI the word or phrase used as an adverbial, as in:
I saw him U>=@>?G<U. (time)
She spoke EH < FAMG PAED>. (manner)
In other cases the semantic type is identiIied relatively, that is, only through the relationship oI the adverbial
to the modiIied part oI the sentence, as is oIten the case with participles, inIinitives, and some prepositional
phrases. Thus the phrase ;E@B T><? Iunctions as an adverbial oI manner in the sentence cB> =JAO> ;E@B T><? and
as an adverbial oI reason in the sentence cB> =BAAO ;E@B T><?. The phrase ^<FOEHC <FAHC @B> @?<DO @A
kMDON<=@>?_= denotes motion in some direction, but in the sentence ^<FOEHC <FAHC @B> @?<DO @A;<?G=
kMDON<=@>?_= kA;>H LM?=@ EH@A =AHC it acquires temporal meaning and serves as an adverbial oI time.
In the majority oI cases, an identiIying question may help to distinguish between adverbial modiIiers Irom
the semantic point oI view. ^B>Hg suggests time, ;B>?>g - place, EH ;B<@ D<=>g - condition, etc. However, it is
not always possible to Iind an identiIying question Ior every adverbial. Sometimes one and the same question
word may correspond to diIIerent kinds oI adverbials. Thus BA;g may suggest manner, comparison and degree.
On the other hand such adverbials as those oI result and attendant circumstances have no corresponding
question words.
Semantic classes of adverbial modifiers
The adverbial of place
100. This adverbial expresses:
a) P l a c e p r o p e r .
John was born EH `M=@?<FE<, but lives EH qHCF<HG.
b) D i r e c t i o n o r d e s t i n a t i o n .
He moved @A `M=@?<FE< in 1975.
c) D i s t a n c e .
He lives T<? T?AN BE= J<?>H@=.
The identiIying questions are ;B>?>g Ior place proper, ;B>?> @Ag ;B>?> T?ANg - Ior direction, ;B>?>g BA;
T<?g - Ior distance.
The adverbial of time
101. The adverbial oI time has Iour variations:
a) T h e a d v e r b i a l o I t i m e p r o p e r denotes the time oI some event. It may be expressed in
almost all the ways enumerated in 97.
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We shall meet @ANA??A;.
Y>H G<U= F<@>? she returned.
^B>H <HC?U count a hundred.
b) T h e a d v e r b i a l o I I r e q u e n c y indicates how oIten the event denoted by the predicate takes
place. It is mostly placed beIore the notional part oI the predicate (iI it is expressed by an adverb).
I am <F;<U= careIul.
We AT@>H see each other.
Does he ever visit museums - wHD> in a blue moon.
He calls me T?AN @EN> @A @EN>.
We have a get-together >P>?U U><?.
Adverbials oI Irequency are expressed by adverbs and adverbial phrases.
c) T h e a d v e r b i a l o I d u r a t i o n indicates the period oI time during which some event takes
place. They are oIten expressed by prepositional phrases with prepositions TA?, GM?EHC, =EHD>, @EFF, MH@EF. The
preposition =EHD> denotes the starting point and the preposition @EFFjMH@EF - the Iinal point oI some period.
Have you been there FAHCg - ` DAMJF> AT BAM?=.
They want to rest (Ior) < G<U A? @;A.
The sun gives us light GM?EHC @B> G<U.
We are to wait @EFF @B> >HG AT @B> >I<N.
This has been going on =EHD> AM? <??EP<F.
He lived @A L> HEH>@U.
Note:
The preposition TA? is optional aIter the verbs oI duration.
d) T h e a d v e r b i a l o I t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a o I t i m e a s
r e l a t e d t o s o m e o t h e r e v e n t i n t i m e . This adverbial is expressed by such adverbs as =@EFF,
U>@, <F?><GU, <@ F<=@, L>TA?>, <T@>?, LU < HAMH, < C>?MHG, A? < J?>JA=E@EAH<F JB?<=> ;E@B @B> J?>JA=E@EAH= LU,
L>TA?>, <T@>?.
Thus the sentence W@ ;<= =@EFF ?<EHEHC implies that E@ B<G L>>H ?<EHEHC TA? =AN> @EN> L>TA?>.
\> B<=H_@ CEP>H BE= DAH=>H@ U>@ means that MJ @A HA; ;> GA HA@ OHA; <HU@BEHC <LAM@ BE= DAH=>H@.
YB> @?<EH B<= F>T@ <F?><GU means that E@ B<= F>T@ LU @BE= @EN>.
\> C?<GM<@>G <@ F<=@ suggests <T@>? < FAHC @EN> A? G>F<U.
Here are some other examples oI adverbial oI time relationship:
Promise to come back LU @B> >HG AT @B> ;>>O.
Well see about it <T@>? DF<==>=.
k>TA?> <H=;>?EHC the Boss stepped back to the chair and sank into it.
The same relationship can be seen in sentences with participial phrases, as in:
Arthur, B<PEHC ?><G @B> F>@@>? @;ED>, put it in an envelope. (AIter he had read the letter twice...)
The adverbial of manner
102. The adverbial oI manner characterizes the action oI the verb by indicating the way it is perIormed or
by what means it is achieved. The identiIying questions are BA;g EH ;B<@ ;<Ug LU ;B<@ N><H=g
Adverbials oI manner are mainly expressed by adverbs or prepositional phrases (including gerundial
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phrases) introduced by the prepositions ;E@B, ;E@BAM@, LU, LU N><H= AT, or ;E@B @B> B>FJ AT, the latter three
suggesting means.
Hooper danced L<GFU, but >H>?C>@ED<FFU.
She walked ;E@B =BA?@ iMEDO =@>J=.
ou begin learning a language LU FE=@>HEHC @A @B> H>; =AMHG=.
Thoughts are expressed LU N><H= AT (;E@B @B> B>FJ AT$ ;A?G=.
Adverbials oI manner may also be expressed by participial phrases and absolute constructions.
I looked up again and saw that DANEHC T?AN @B> GAA? L>BEHG X<FN>?, she had entered the room.
She said the last words ;E@B < PAED> FA;>?>G.
Some adverbials oI manner border on the instrumental object in cases like the Iollowing:
He opened the tin ;E@B < OHET>.
The identiIying questions are either \A; GEG B> AJ>H @B> @EHg or ^B<@ GEG B> AJ>H @B> @EH ;E@Bg
The adverbial of cause (reason)
103. The identiIying questions, oI this adverbial are ;BUg TA? ;B<@ ?><=AHg L>D<M=> AT ;B<@g GM> @A ;B<@g
Adverbials oI reason are expressed by prepositional nominal phrases, participial and inIinitive phrases,
sometimes by absolute constructions.
Most prepositions oI reason are composite and the causal meaning oI the phrase, and thus oI the adverbial
modiIier, is due to the meaning oI the preposition, Ior example, L>D<M=> AT, GM> @A, A;EHC @A, AH <DDAMH@ AT, TA?
@B> ?><=AH AT, @B<HO= @A and some others.
ou mean youve Iailed L>D<M=> AT N>g
The accident happened A;EHC @A L<G G?EPEHC.
YB<HO= @A NU J<?>H@= I got a decent education.
A number oI polysemantic prepositions acquire causal meaning when combined with nouns denoting a
psychological or physical state.
She couldnt speak TA? B<JJEH>== (<HC>?, T><?, QAU$.
She cried AM@ AT T><? (<HC>?$.
She did it AM@ AT JE@U (=JE@>$.
Many people have come here T?AN DM?EA=E@U.
He was trembling ;E@B B<@?>G.
Participial phrases and nominative absolute constructions are Ireely used as adverbials oI reason, most oIten
with the verb @A L> and verbs oI Ieeling, wish, or mental perception.
I was happy QM=@ L>EHC ;E@B BEN.
^<H@EHC < DEC<?>@@>, I took out my case.
YB>?> L>EHC HA@BEHC >F=> @A GA, we went home.
The adverbial of purpose
104. This adverbial answers the identiIying questions ;B<@ TA?g TA? ;B<@ JM?JA=>g It is most Irequently
expressed by an inIinitive, an inIinitive phrase or complex.
Jane has come @A B>FJ M=.
Ive repeated my words TA? UAM @A ?>N>NL>? @B>N.
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The meaning oI purpose may be emphasized by the composite prepositions EH A?G>? or =A <=, which are
never used beIore an inIinitive complex.
We must go early EH A?G>? HA@ @A L> F<@>.
We hurried =A <= HA@ @A L> F<@>.
The adverbial oI purpose may also be expressed by a noun, a prepositional phrase, nominal or gerundial,
introduced by the preposition TA?.
We reserved this table TA? FMHDB.
We use the thermometer TA? N><=M?EHC @>NJ>?<@M?>.
AIter the imperative oI the verbs @A CA and @A DAN> another imperative is preIerable to the inIinitive, as in:
Go <HG B>FJ BEN. (Not Go to help him.)
dAN> <HG ;<=B MJ. (Not Come to wash up.)
The use is optional Ior the verb @A =>>.
dAN> @A =>> me, or dAN> <HG =>> me.
rA @A =>> him, or Go <HG =>> him.
The adverbial of result (consequence)
105. The adverbial oI result has no identiIying questions. It reIers to an adjective, a noun with qualitative
meaning, or an adverb accompanied by an adverb oI degree, such as @AA, >HAMCB, =MTTEDE>H@FU, =A... (<=$. The
adverbial oI result is expressed by an inIinitive, an inIinitive phrase, or complex.
It is !oo cold @A CA AM@.
The lecturer spoke slowly e&o$)h TA? M= @A @<O> GA;H >P>?U@BEHC B> =<EG.
He was Iool e&o$)h @A L>FE>P> E@.
John was so Iortunate <= @A C>@ @B> TE?=@ J?ES>.
He Ielt he was e&o$)h oI a citizen oI the world HA@ @A NEHG E@.
The adverbial oI degree @AA signals a negative result, >HAMCB suggests the necessary amount oI quality to
perIorm the action. The correlative phrase so... <= implies a realized action, unlike the phrase =A <= beIore
adverbials oI purpose suggesting a hypothetical event. Compare these sentences:
John was so Iortunate as @A C>@ @B> TE?=@ J?ES> (and he got it) - result.
John trained hours so as to get the Iirst prize Ior boating (we do not know whether he has got it or not)
purpose.
The adverbial of condition
106. The identiIying questions are EH ;B<@ D<=>g or AH ;B<@ DAHGE@EAHg The adverbial oI condition is
generally expressed by a noun or a pronoun, or by a prepositional phrase (nominal or sometimes gerundial)
with the prepositions LM@ TA?, >ID>J@ TA?, ;E@BAM@.
kM@ TA? UAM I wouldnt be here at all.
qID>J@ TA? @B> =AMHG AT BE= L?><@BEHC I wouldnt have known he was there.
^E@BAM@ T<E@B there can be no cure.
This adverbial is sometimes expressed by a participle or an adjective with the conjunctions ET or MHF>==.
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Jane wont sing MHF>== <=O>G @A.
Well come earlier ET H>D>==<?U.
ess Irequently it is an inIinitive or a participle.
I would have done better @A B<P> TAFFA;>G NU TE?=@ @BAMCB@.
cOEFTMFFU N<H<C>G, conversation with him might prove amusing.
The adverbial of concession
107. This adverbial expresses some idea that contradicts what is stated in the modiIied part oI the sentence.
Thus in its meaning it is opposite to the adverbial oI reason. The identiIying question is EH =JE@> AT ;B<@g
The adverbial oI concession is expressed by a prepositional phrase introduced by EH =JE@> AT, G>=JE@>, TA? <FF,
;E@B <FF and phrases introduced by the conjunction @BAMCB.
WH =JE@> AT BE= <HC>? John listened to me attentively.
Cleary, TA? <FF BE= ?>JM@<@EAH, was already out oI date.
^E@B <FF BE= T<MF@=, I like him.
YBAMCB < L<G J<EH@>?, he had a delicate Ieeling Ior art.
Note:
The conjunction ET introduces concessive adverbials in cases like the Iollowing:
our remark is witty, ET ?<@B>? D?M>F (...xox econto xecooe).
Adverbials of attendant circumstances and subsequent events
108. These adverbials have no identiIying questions. The adverbial oI attendant circumstances expresses
some Iact that accompanies the event presented by the modiIied part oI the sentence. This adverbial may be
expressed by a gerundial phrase, a participial phrase, any kind oI absolute construction, and rather rarely by an
inIinitive phrase.
We walked three miles ;E@BAM@ N>>@EHC <HUAH> (and did not meet anyone)
No, said Gabriel, @M?HEHC @A BE= ;ET> (and turned to his wiIe)
I dropped my Iists and walked away, cDAM@_= < DA;<?G~ ?EHCEHC EH NU ><?=.
In the study with the door closed, he stood beIore the window, =NAOEHC BE= JEJ>.
The adverbial oI subsequent events points out an event Iollowing the event presented in the modiIied part oI
the sentence. This adverbial is most Irequently expressed by an inIinitive, or sometimes by a participle.
He woke up @A =>> @B<@ E@ ;<= G<UFECB@.
They said something to her, ?>D>EPEHC HA <H=;>?.
The adverbial of comparison
109. This adverbial is introduced by the conjunctions @B<H, <=, <= ET, <= @BAMCB or the preposition FEO>. The
adverbial with @B<H is preceded by the comparative oI the adverb or the adjective it modiIies, the adverbial with
<= - by the correlative adverbs <= or =A1
A mountain is higher @B<H < BEFF.
The boy is now as tall <= BE= T<@B>?.
Tom is not so tall <= BE= L?A@B>?.
Tom speaks rench as Iluently <= < LA?H l?>HDBN<H.
Tom speaks rench FEO> < l?>HDBN<H.
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The diIIerence between the use oI FEO> and <= is important.
`HH @<FO>G @A M= FEO> < @><DB>? means that `HH E= HA@ < @><DB>?, whereas the sentence `HH @<FO>G @A M= <= <
@><DB>? implies that =B> E= < @><DB>? and in talking to us her proIessional manner was apparent.
The conjunctions <= ET and <= @BAMCB give the comparison a modal shade oI meaning: They precede a
participle, an inIinitive, or a prepositional phrase, as in:
`= ET AL>UEHC BEN, I turned and stared into his Iace.
He prospered greatly, <FNA=@ <= @BAMCB <C<EH=@ BE= ;EFF.
The adverbial of degree
110. This adverbial modiIies various parts oI the sentence expressed by verbs, adjectives, adverbs and
statives, characterizing actions, states and quality Irom the viewpoint oI their intensity. The identiIying
questions being BA; NMDBg @A ;B<@ >I@>H@g
Adverbials oI degree are expressed mainly by adverbs and by prepositional phrases with the preposition @A.
The story is >I@?>N>FU long.
All was planned @A @B> =JFE@ =>DAHG.
Now you may read @A UAM? B><?@= DAH@>H@.
Sometimes nouns can be modiIied by an adverbial oI degree, as in:
ou are iME@> a man, my boy.
The adverbial of measure
111. This adverbial is expressed by a noun denoting a unit oI measure (F>HC@B, @EN>, ;>ECB@, NAH>U,
@>NJ>?<@M?>$.
It is used aIter statal verbs denoting processes, states, or characteristics allowing measurement, such as @A
N><=M?>, @A F<=@, @A ;<E@, @A =F>>J, @A ;<FO, @A ?MH, @A ;>ECB, @A DA=@. Nouns as adverbials oI measure are
preceded by numerals or the indeIinite article in its, numerical Iunction.
The room measures .- T>>@ <D?A==.
We walked (TA?$ TEP> NEF>=.
The box weighs < @AH.
The temperature went down @>H G>C?>>= L>FA; S>?A.
The adverbial of exception
112. This adverbial is expressed by nouns or prepositional phrases introduced by the prepositions LM@,
>ID>J@, =<P>, LM@ TA?, >ID>J@ TA?, =<P> TA?, <J<?@ T?AN, <=EG> T?AN, ;E@B @B> >IDFM=EAH AT.
I looked everywhere >ID>J@ EH @B> L>G?AAN.
our English is decent <J<?@ T?AN =J>FFEHC.
The road was empty >ID>J@ TA? < T>; D<?=.
The prepositions =<P> and =<P> TA? are more Iormal and occur in writing, as in:
These men were in Iact quite civil =<P> GM?EHC D>?@<EH ;>>O= AT autumn and winter.
Independent elements of the sentence
113. I n d e p e n d e n t e l e m e n t s o I t h e s e n t e n c e , as the term implies, generally are not
276
grammatically dependent on any particular part oI the sentence, but as a rule reIer to the sentence as a whole.
Only occasionally they may reIer to a separate part oI the sentence. The independent element may consist oI a
word or a phrase. Its position is more Iree than that oI any other parts oI the sentence and accordingly it may
occur in diIIerent positions in the sentence.
There are two groups oI independent elements:
I. D i r e c t a d d r e s s . A direct address is the name oI a person (or occasionally a non-person) to whom
the rest oI the sentence is addressed. It may be emotionally charged or neutral, but semantically it does not
inIluence the sentence.
Im sorry, f<QA?, we had an arrangement.
t>HHU, G<?FEHC, dont say such things.
Hows the world, CAAG T?E>HGg
II. P a r e n t h e s i s . As to its meaning the parenthesis may be oI several types:
a) It may express the speakers attitude to the relation between what is expressed in the sentence and reality
(J>?B<J=, N<UL>, D>?@<EHFU, AT DAM?=>, >PEG>H@FU, AB, rAAGH>== r?<DEAM=, etc.).
oHGAML@>GFU you are both excellent engineers.
cM?>FU he had too wide a mouth.
The cottages were, EH T<D@, boxlike and rather towny.
wB, we cant go.
b) It may connect the sentence it belongs to with the preceding or the Iollowing one expressing diIIerent
relations (TE?=@, TE?=@FU, =>DAHGFU, TEH<FFU, <T@>? <FF, NA?>AP>?, L>=EG>=, LU @B> ;<U, AH @B> DAH@?<?U, @B<@ E= (i.e.), TA?
>I<NJF> (eg), etc.).
I was listening and thinking. k>=EG>=, I wanted to tell you something.
`T@>? <FF, he'd only been doing his duty.
lEH<FFU the whole party started walking.
c) It may speciIy that which is said in the sentence or express a comment (<DDA?GEHC @A NU @<=@>, EH NU
AJEHEAH, @A @>FF @B> @?M@B, EH A@B>? ;A?G=, <= E= OHA;H, LU @B> ;<U, etc.).
`DDA?GEHC @A UAM? @B>A?U, were in a mighty soulIul era.
YA @>FF UAM @B> @?M@B, the total was more than a thousand Irancs.
As a rule a parenthesis reIers to the sentence (or clause) as a whole.
l?<HOFU =J><OEHC, he had been amazed at his Iailure.
This streak oI light was, EH <FF FEO>FEBAAG, a gleam Irom a lantern.
Sometimes, however, a parenthesis reIers only to, a secondary part oI the sentence.
Miss Barlett might reveal unknown depths oI strangeness, though not, J>?B<J=, oI meaning.
As to its morphological nature, a parenthesis can be expressed by:
1. A m o d a l w o r d :
J>?B<J=, HA GAML@, EHG>>G, D>?@<EH@U, EH T<D@, >PEG>H@FU, N<UL>, etc.
X>?B<J= they would go soon.
2. A n i n t e r j e c t i o n :
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AB, <B, >B, G><? N>, LU rAG, rAAG B><P>H=, etc.
ou like the outIit, >Bg
h><? N>, I had no idea you were such a determined character.
3. A c o n j u n c t (that is, an adverb combining the Iunction oI a parenthesis with that oI a connector):
TEH<FFU, <HU;<U, DAH=>iM>H@FU, L>=EG>=, NA?>AP>?, A@B>?;E=>, etc.
But theres no chance here. k>=EG>=, he couldnt make two ends meet on the job.
4. A p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e :
EH NU AJEHEAH, EH =BA?@, LU @B> ;<U, AH @B> A@B>? B<HG, AH @B> DAH@?<?U, <@ F><=@, @A AH>]= =M?J?E=>, etc.
WH NU AJEHEAH you are wrong.
ou cant make me WH =BA?@, I wont do it.
5. A n i n I i n i t i v e p h r a s e :
@A @>FF @B> @?M@B, @A L> =M?>, @A L>CEH ;E@B, @A GA =NL QM=@ED>, etc.
That was, =A @A =J><O, another giIt Ior you.
YA GA @B<@ F<GU QM=@ED>, Miss Spencer bore the ordeal very well.
6. A p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e :
T?<HOFU =J><OEHC, =@?ED@FU =J><OEHC, C>H>?<FFU =J><OEHC, etc.
r>H>?<FFU =J><OEHC I think youre right.
7. A c l a u s e (see the item on parenthetical clauses).
As E@ ;<=, Nell departed with surprising docility.
WORD ORDER
114. The words in an English sentence are arranged in a certain order, which is Iixed Ior every type oI the
sentence, and is thereIore meaningIul. We Iind several principles determining word order in a sentence, so that
word order IulIils several Iunctions - grammatical, emphatic, or communicative, and linking. These
Iunctions are maniIested in diIIerent arrangements oI the parts oI the sentence.
The grammatical function of word order
115. The main Iunction oI word order is t o e x p r e s s g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s a n d
d e t e r m i n e t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s t a t u s o I a w o r d by Iixing its position in the sentence.
There exist two ways oI arranging words - GE?>D@ ;A?G A?G>? and EHP>?@>G ;A?G A?G>?.
Direct word order
116. The most common pattern Ior the arrangement oI the main parts in a declarative sentence is Subject -
Predicate - (Object), which is called GE?>D@ word order. Direct word order is also employed in pronominal
questions to the subject or to its attribute.
Direct word order allows of only few variations in the Iixed pattern, and then only Ior the secondary parts.
Thus iI there are two objects, the indirect one precedes the direct one, or the prepositional Iollows the direct
one. Thus the pattern has the Iollowing Iorm:
Subject - Predicate - Indirect object - Direct object
Direct object - Prepositional object
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The birds have come.
Ann has seen this Iilm.
The boy gave me no answer.
The boy gave no answer to me.
As to other secondary parts oI the sentence, such as attributes and adverbial modiIiers, their position is less
Iixed. Usually those words that are closely connected tend to be placed together. Accordingly secondary parts
reIerring to their headwords are placed close to them, or are incorporated into, or else Irame them up. Thus
attributes either premodiIy or postmodiIy or Irame up their headwords: a L?ECB@ morning, the problems
EHPAFP>G, the scene T<NEFE<? to us, the B<JJE>=@ man <FEP>, the L>=@ skier EH @B> ;A?FG.
Adverbials and diIIerent Iorm words seem to be the most movable parts in the sentence. Their mobility is
partly accounted Ior by their varied reIerence to diIIerent parts oI the sentence.
The place of adverbials
117. When reIerring to a verb adverbials may be placed in:
1. r o n t p o s i t i o n .
`C<EH he was late.
2. C o n t a c t p r e p o s i t i o n .
He AT@>H said it. He ADD<=EAH<FFU sees them.
3. I n t e r p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s o I a c o m p o s i t e v e r b a l p a r t .
He has H>P>? seen her.
The latter position is occupied mainly by adverbs oI indeIinite time and degree: <F?><GU, <F;<U=, =AN>@EN>=,
AT@>H, B<?GFU, =@EFF, QM=@.
In case the predicate includes more than one auxiliary or a modal verb and an auxiliary, the adverbial is
usually placed aIter the Iirst one, although it may also occur aIter the second one.
This principle NM=@ DAH=@<H@FU L> borne in mind.
It NM=@ L> DAH=@<H@FU borne in mind.
Adverbials may sometimes separate the particle @A Irom the inIinitive. This construction is called @B> =JFE@
EHTEHE@EP>.
I dont expect you @A @BA?AMCBFU MHG>?=@<HG it.
4. C o n t a c t p o s t - p o s i t i o n .
They are H>P>? on time.
He demanded <HC?EFU to see the manager.
5. E n d p o s i t i o n .
Are you married U>@g
Tom works D<?>TMFFU, but =FA;FU.
Positions 1, 4 and 5 are usually occupied by adverbials oI place, time (deIinite time adverbs) and attendant
circumstances.
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He leIt the stage <NEG @BMHG>?AM= <JJF<M=>.
In the evening we came @A @B> JF<D> <C<EH.
He returned T?AN mAHGAH.
When adverbials reIer to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, numerals, or pronouns they are usually placed close to
these words, generally preceding them.
He is iME@> a hero.
Mother was NMDB upset about it.
Note:
The adverbial expressed by >HAMCB always Iollows the adjective it reIers to.
Are you warm >HAMCBg
He is a decent >HAMCB Iellow.
or adverbials allowing oI diIIerent reIerence (to a verb, to an adjective, etc.) any change oI position may
result in a change oI meaning. Compare the Iollowing sentences:
a><?FU all died. (They died with Iew exceptions.)
All H><?FU died. (Everybody was on the verge oI dying.)
The place of prepositions
118. The usual place oI a preposition is between the words the relation oI which it denotes. However, in
some cases it may be placed at the end oI the sentence. These cases are:
1. Wh e n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l o b j e c t ( a w o r d o r a c l a u s e ) i s i n I r o n t
p o s i t i o n .
This I can dispense ;E@B.
What he says you can rely AH.
2. Wh e n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l o b j e c t i s m a d e t h e s u b j e c t o I a p a s s i v e
c o n s t r u c t i o n .
He was much laughed <@.
The bed has not been slept EH.
3. I n q u e s t i o n s a n d e x c l a m a t i o n s , w h e n t h e o b j e c t i s p l a c e d i n I r o n t
p o s i t i o n .
Who are you speaking @A
What a nice girl she has grown EH@AR
4. I n c o n t a c t a t t r i b u t i v e c l a u s e s i n w h i c h t h e o b j e c t t o t h e p r e d i c a t e
b e l o n g s t o t h e m a i n c l a u s e o r i s o n l y i m p l i e d .
It is the very thing I've always dreamed AT.
It appeared better than we dared to hope TA?.
Inverted word order
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119. Another common pattern oI word order is the inverted one (or inversion). We distinguish I u l l
i n v e r s i o n (when the predicate precedes the subject, as in \>?> DAN>= @B> F<GU AT @B> BAM=>$ and p a r t i a l
i n v e r s i o n (when only part oI the predicate precedes the subject, as in \<JJU N<U UAM L>R$. Some
grammarians also distinguish d o u b l e i n v e r s i o n (when parts oI the predicate are placed separately
beIore the subject, as in \<HCEHC AH @B> ;<FF ;<= < JED@M?>$.
120. In some cases inversion may be taken as a normal order oI words in constructions with special
communicative value, and is thus devoid oI any special colouring. In other cases inversion is a sort oI
reordering Ior stylistic eIIect or Ior emphasis. irst we enumerate those cases where inversion is a normal word
order.
1. Inversion is used to distinguish between the communicative types of sentences. With this Iunction it is
employed in:
a) G e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , p o l i t e r e q u e s t s a n d i n t a g q u e s t i o n s .
W= E@ really true
^AH_@ UAM have a cup oI tea
ou are glad to see me, <?>H_@ UAMg
b) P r o n o m i n a l q u e s t i o n s , e x c e p t q u e s t i o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t a n d i t s
a t t r i b u t e , w h e r e d i r e c t w o r d o r d e r i s u s e d .
What <?> @B> JAFED> aIter
c) Y B > ? > - s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y n o n - l o c a l @ B > ? > , I o l l o w e d
b y o n e o I t h e v e r b s d e n o t i n g e x i s t e n c e , m o v e m e n t , o r c h a n g e o I
t h e s i t u a t i o n .
YB>?> has bee& <H <DDEG>H@.
YB>?> is HA@BEHC in it.
There a,,eared <H MCFU T<D> over the Ience.
YB>?> o$rred < =MGG>H ?>PAFM@EAH in public taste.
YB>?> omes AM? DBE>T.
d) E x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s e x p r e s s i n g ;E=B, G>=J<E?, EHGECH<@EAH, or other strong
emotions.
mAHC FEP> @B> OEHCR
dAN> ;B<@ N<UR
e) E x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e i n I o r m b u t p o s i t i v e
i n m e a n i n g .
\<P> W HA@ ;<@DB>G them ( I have watched them.)
^AMFGH_@ @B<@ L> TMH (z It would be Iun.)
I) N e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s .
hAH_@ UAM GA it.
2. Inversion is used as a grammatical means of subordination in some complex sentences joined without
connectors:
a) I n c o n d i t i o n a l c l a u s e s .
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^>?> UAM =M?> oI it, you wouldnt hesitate.
\<G =B> OHA;H it beIore, she wouldnt have made this mistake.
b) I n c o n c e s s i v e c l a u s e s .
X?AMG <= B> ;<=, he had to consent to our proposal.
c) I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o I a s e n t e n c e o I p r o p o r t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t
(although inversion is not obligatory in this case).
The more he thought oI it, @B> F>== DF><? ;<= @B> N<@@>?.
3. Inversion is used in sentences beginning with adverbs denoting place. This usage is traditional, going
back to OE norms.
\>?> is another example.
YB>?> goes another bus (y e eme o noyc, eme noyc e).
4. Inversion is used in stage directions, although this use is limited to certain verbs.
qH@>? @B> EHC, @B> M>>H.
qH@>? k><@E> k?U<H@, an ample blond.
5. Inversion may be used in sentences indicating whose words or thoughts are given as direct or indirect
speech. These sentences may introduce, interrupt, or Iollow the words in direct or indirect speech, or may be
given in parenthesis.
Thats him, =<EG YAN (Tom said).
How did he know, @BAMCB@ t<DO, miserably.
Direct word order can also be used here.
6. Inversion is used in statements showing that the remark applies equally to someone or something
else.
I am tired. - cA <N W.
He isnt ready. - a>E@B>? E= =B>.
Note:
II the sentence is a corroboration oI a remark just made, direct word order is used.
ou promised to come and see me. - cA W GEG.
We may meet him later. - So ;> N<U.
The emphatic and communicative functions of word order
121. The second Iunction oI word order is t o m a k e p r o m i n e n t o r e m p h a t i c that part oI
the sentence which is more important or inIormative in the speakers opinion. These two Iunctions (to express
prominence or inIormation Iocus, and emphasis) are diIIerent in their purpose, but in many cases they go
together or overlap, and are diIIicult to diIIerentiate.
Prominence and emphasis are achieved by placing the word in an unusual position: words normally placed
at the beginning oI the sentence (such as the subject) are placed towards the end, whereas words usually
occupying positions closer to the end oI the sentence (such as objects and predicatives) are shiIted to the
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beginning.
End position is always emphatic for the subject. ery oIten this reordering results in the detachment oI the
subject.
Must have cost a pretty penny, @BE= G?>== AT UAM?=R
Fronting of an object or a predicative is also oIten accompanied by detachment.
\A??ELF> these women are, ugly, dirty.
f<HU <HG FAHC were the conversations they held through the prison wall.
lA? G>L@, G?EHO, G<HD>?= he had a certain sympathy; but the pearls - no
II the object is prepositional, the preposition may be put aIter the verb or verb-group, or else aIter the whole
sentence.
YBE= nowadays one hears not o'.
However, Iront position oI an object does not always mean that this part is emphasized. In some cases this
sort oI reordering is employed to get the predicate (or what is leIt oI it) emphasized. Y<F>H@ Mr. Macowber has,
D<JE@<F Mr. Macowber has not.
Front position is emphatic for adverbials (oI time, manner, degree) usually attached to the predicate. It is
oIten accompanied by inversion.
^>FF do I remember the day.
f<HU < @EN> has he given me good advice.
With words functioning now as adverbs, now as postpositions, Iront position reveals their adverbial
nature most distinctly, as postpositions are never placed here. With this reordering the emphasis is thrown upon
the predicate.
wTT he went.
oJ they rushed.
or attributes emphasis may be achieved by putting them aIter their headword. In this way the modiIier
becomes the Iocus and has the principal stress oI the word-group.
The day TAFFA;EHC was to decide our Iate.
Note:
In assessing the emphatic eIIect oI a postmodiIying attribute we should bear in mind that Ior certain
attributes this position is normal (see 86).
However, the Iixed patterns in English limit the opportunities to shiIt prominence or emphasis Irom one part
oI the sentence to another, especially Ior main parts. ThereIore prominence and emphasis are generally
achieved not by reordering, but by using special constructions. One such construction used Ior emphasizing the
subject is the introductory non-local @B>?> p verb noun, Iollowed by an attributive clause.
YB>?> ;<= a girl whom he loved.
YB>?> DAN>= a time when one should make up ones mind.
Another device Ior shiIting emphasis is the construction with the introductory E@, the main inIormation being
supplied by the subordinate clause. By means oI this construction emphasis may be thrown upon any part oI the
sentence, except the predicate. Such sentences are called DF>T@ =>H@>HD>=. This can be illustrated by the
Iollowing:
283
W@ was she who opened the door.
W@ is not easy to Iind a position.
W@ was to Moscow that she went.
Special emphasis on words Iunctioning as direct or indirect object may be achieved by the use oI the passive
construction, in which the words to be emphasized are moved either to Iront position or closer to the end.
Compare the sentences:
The teacher gave the children <H ><=U @<=O.
YB> DBEFG?>H were given an easy task LU @B> @><DB>?.
`H ><=U @<=O was given to the children LU @B> @><DB>?.
The linking function of word order
122. The third Iunction oI word order is t o e x p r e s s c o n t i n u i t y o I t h o u g h t in sentences
(or clauses) Iollowing one another. This continuity is oIten supported by demonstrative pronouns and adverbs.
Some people looked down on him. YBA=> J>AJF> he despised.
They must sow their wild oats. cMDB was his theory.
And, oh, that look wH @B<@ FAAO Euphemia had spent much anxious thought.
Women are terribly vain. cA are men - more so, iI possible.
Similarly, Ior purposes oI enumeration, a word (or words) marking continuity is sometimes placed at the
beginning oI the sentence, with the verb immediately Iollowing.
a>I@ comes the most amusing scene.
THE PREDICATIVE COMPLEXES
Predicative complexes (or constructions) are structures intermediate between a phrase and a clause. Unlike
phrases they contain two words I which semantically are in subject-predicate relations to one another, as one
(the nominal part) denotes the doer oI the action or the bearer oI the state or quality, while the other (the
predicated part) may be either verbal (an inIinitive, a participle, a gerund) or non-verbal (an adjective, a stative,
an adverb, a noun). But unlike clauses the subject-predicate relations in complexes are not grammatically
explicit, that is there is no Iinite verb-Iorm in them, Iunctioning as the verbal predicate or as a link-verb oI a
nominal predicate. ThereIore complexes have neither real subject, nor real predicate.
Still as they have two parts with subject-predicate relations between them the complexes may be transIormed
into a clause, as in:
I heard BEN D?U }} I heard @B<@ B> D?E>G.
Other peculirities result Irom their structural Ieatures:
The Iact that they are devoid oI the Iinite verb Iorm renders them dependent on the embedding sentence, and
the very absence oI the Iinite verb Iorm is suIIicient to show their dependent status as will be shown in the case
oI diIIerent constructions:
W@ ?<EHEHC D<@= <HG GAC=, we stayed at home (adverbial).
It is TA? UAM @A G>DEG> E@ (predicative).
I saw BEN D?A== @B> =@?><@. (object)
But in most cases the dependent status oI the construction is maniIested by special structural devices oI
linking:
1. It may be overlapping (noxee) when the embedding sentence and the complex share a common
284
element, as in the case oI objective predicative complexes:
I saw him enter this door.
where BEN has a double role, reIerring Iormally to the predicate oI the embedding sentence (W =<; BEN$ and
reIerring semantically to the complex, as it denotes the doer oI the action ( B> >H@>?>G @BE= GAA?$V in such cases
the construction Iunctions as one part oI the sentence (a complex object).
In some cases overlapping is possible with verbs taking a preposition, then the latter is retained between the
verb and predicative comples:
We listened to him talking to his neighbour.
2. It may be blending (cnxe), when elements oI two structures blend into one syntactical part, usually
i n t o c o m p o u n d p r e d i c a t e o I d o u b l e o r i e n t a t i o n when two elements reIer to
diIIerent doers oI the action, as in the subjective predicative construction:
He is supposed to have arrived already It is supposed (they suppose) that he has arrived alread