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A = Area

A network allows multiple computers to communicate to share
information and peripherals.
There are two kinds of area in networking:

LAN
Local Area Networks

WAN
Wide Area Networks
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B = Benefits
The benefits of installing a school network:
Private information within the group is protected
Sharing is made easy among members
Connecting is easy when using a group network
Can provide services for members of the group
Can provide access and privileges to printers and so forth
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C = Consequences
The consequences of installing a school network:
Due to cabling, network card, routers, bridges, firewalls,
administrative support and wireless access points, it can be
expensive.
Network services can go down
Cables can break
Network security is expensive, especially in a school
atmosphere because of the added security needed to
protect minors
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D = Diverse
There are many diverse types of network protocols (rules) and
standards to ensure that your computer can communicate with
other computers reliably. our layers of these protocols are:
Ethernet (Physical/Data Link Layers)
IP/IPX (Network Layer)
TCP/SPX (Transport Layer)
HTTP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, and DNS (combined
Session/Presentation/Application Layers)
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E = Ethernet
Physical/Data Link Layers
The Ethernet is the most common protocol used at the
physical layer
The data link layer addresses how content is sent from one node
(connection point) to another in the network
The Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection)
This system directs the traffic of sending messages. It detects
when lanes are clear for transmission, or if it needs to wait or take
another route to deliver the message

Fast Ethernet protocol (rules) supports transmission up to 100 Gbps
Gigabit Ethernet protocol supports 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps)
There are also 10 Gigabit (10,000 Mbps) and 100 Gigabit (100,000
Mbps) speeds available
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F = Foremost IP/IPX
Network Layer
This network layer controls the paths that data will take to get
from one computer to another
IP and IPX are the foremost leading protocols for most
networks
The network layer takes care of assigning the correct
addresses, and then uses routers to send the data packets to
other networks
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G = Gathering TCP/SPX
Transport Layer
The transport layer controls the transportation, distribution
and re-gathering of information from one network to another
Messages begin being sent as a whole, then they are broken down
into smaller segments and routed separately
When they get to their destination, they are gathered, organized, and
redistributed as a whole

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H = HTTP, FTP, SMTP and DNS
Session/Presentation/Application Layers
The Session/Presentation/Application Layer is overlapped by several
protocols such as:

DNS Domain Name System translates network address into terms
understood by humans and vice-versa
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol can automatically assign
Internet addresses to computers and users
FTP File transfer Protocol a protocol that is to transfer and manipulate
files on the Internet
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol An Internet-based protocol for
sending and receiving webpages
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol A protocol for e-mail
messages

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I = Inclusive
Networking Hardware
Networking hardware includes all computers, peripherals,
interface cards, and equipment needed to perform data-
processing and communications within the network
This hardware includes:
Workstations
Laptops/ Mobile Devices
Network Interface Cards
Ethernet Cards
Wireless Adapters
Switches
Repeaters
Bridges
Routers
Firewalls
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J = Join
File/Network Servers
File/Network servers are an important part of any local
area network. They are high performance computers
configured with large amounts of memory and storage.
They provide the tools necessary to join the network and
share resources and information with other users.
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K = Kinds of Network Devices
Workstations
Computers
Laptops
Serve as a workstation for users on the go
Network Interface Cards (NIC)
Provides the physical connection between the network and the
computer workstation
Are internal to the computer
Determine the speed and performance of a network
Most common are Ethernet cards and wireless adapters
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L = Lower Level Data Transport
Link Layer
Ethernet cards
A type of network interface card
It is installed in computer
It comes standard with most laptops and desktops
It transmits files down the Ethernet line to other destinations
Its job is to packetize and ensure the reliability of all network
communications
Can be connected with a coax cable or a twisted pair cable
Wireless Adapters
Allow users to transmit and receive information using wireless
data transmission
Almost all portable devices come configured with wireless
capabilities


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M = Monitors and Movers
Repeaters
When a signal passes through a cable, it always loses signal strength.
A repeater is a piece of equipment that boosts the signal strength. It
is similar to an audio amplifier. A repeater is used to boost the signal
strength over a cable transmission, so that you can exceed the
specified cable length.
Bridges
Allow you to partition a larger network into smaller sub-networks.
This is done in order to make each subnet more efficient and higher
performance.
Routers
The mailmen of the internet
They break large data transmissions into smaller packets, then send
them to the desired destination on the internet, as specified by the IP
address of the receiver.
Routers talk to each other



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N = No Nonsense
Firewalls
A networking device that protects a private network from
malevolent hackers or unauthorized users
Can be either hardware, software or both, depending on the level
of security required
VERY important to have on any computer that is connected to any
public network like the internet
Allows you to distinguish between trusted and non-trusted users,
enabling the management of user permissions





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O = Options for Cabling
Network Cabling
Cabling is the conduit through which information moves
from one network device to another.
Sometimes a network will consist of one type of cable, but
some use multiple types of cable, all working together.
The type of cable chosen depends on the networks
topology, protocol and size.
Cable Options:
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Coaxial
Fiber Optic


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P = Pair Cabling
Network Cabling
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cables
The least expensive and most common
Uses a standard RJ45 connector
Commonly used for land line telephone jacks
Can be limited in length
Is susceptible to signal interference

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
Used if the cable is to be operated in a noisy electrical environment,
or if there is a need to extend the maximum distance of the cables


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Q = Quality of Cabling
Network Cabling
Coaxial Cable
Has a single copper connector at its center, and a braided metal
shield on the outside
Commonly used in cable and satellite television connections
Coaxial cable Connectors
Standard connecter for a coaxial connecter is a BNC (Bayone-Neill-
Concelmon)
Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network
It is advised to use the connectors that crimp rather than screw
onto the cable


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R = Really Fast
Network Cabling
Fiber Optic Cable
Has a glass core
Transmits light
Is ideal for environments that have a large amount of electrical
interference
It is a standard for connecting networks between buildings
Can transmit signal farther and faster than coaxial and twisted
cabling
Is great for video conferencing and interactive services


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S = Safety
Installing Cable Guidelines
Always use more cable than you need
Test every part of the network as you install it
Stay at least 3 feet away from fluorescent light boxes and
other sources of electrical interference
If it is necessary to run cable across the floor, cover the
cable with cable protectors
Label both ends of each cable
Use cable ties (not tape) to keep cables in the same
location together


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T = Transceivers
Wireless LANs
Most common wireless LANs use high frequency radio
signals to communicate between workstations, servers or
hubs.
Each workstation and file server on a wireless network has
some sort of transceiver/antennae to send and receive the
data.
Information is exchanged between transceivers.
For longer distance, wireless communications can also
take place through cellular technology, microwave
transmission or satellite.
Wireless networks are becoming more and more common
because of their flexibility in meeting peoples needs.
Great for connecting mobile devices to LAN.





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U = Unaccessible
Wireless Security

Wireless networks are more susceptible to being hacked
into than are cable networks.
To minimize the possibility of eaves-dropping all wireless
access devices have configuration options to encrypt
transmissions.
Wireless networks alleviate the cumbersome cables.
The three main encryption standards in use:
WEP = is less secure and more easily hacked.
WPA and WPA 2 = are much better for protecting information,
assuming that the user creates strong passwords to reduce the
possibility of hacking.
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V = Versatile
Wireless LANs
Advantages
Mobility
Easy access at home and
away from home
Fast setup
Quick and easy setup in most
places
Cost
Less expensive than
installing cable
Expandability
Can add multiple computers
to the network
simultaneously


Disadvantages
Security
Protect sensitive date by
backing up
Isolate private networks
Monitor network access traffic
Interference
Susceptible to interference
from lights and other
electronic devices
Inconsistent connections
Can temporarily lose
connection
Speed
Not as fast as cable networks
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Types of Physical Topologies
Linear Bus
A main run of cable with a
terminator at each end
All network nodes (file servers,
workstations, and peripherals)
are connected to the linear
cable
Advantages
Easy to connect devices to
network
Requires less cable length than a
star topology
Disadvantages
Entire network shuts down if
there is a break in the cable
Terminators are required on
both ends of the backbone cable
Star
Each network node is connected
directly to a central hub, switch, or
concentrator
All data on a star network passes
through the hub, switch or
concentrator before continuing to
its destination
Advantages
Easy to install and wire
No disruption of service to the
network when connecting or
removing devices
Disadvantages
If the hub, switch or concentrator
fails, all nodes that are attached
are disabled
More expensive than linear bus
due to the cost of the hubs
W = Well-Built
Topology = How cables, computers, and other peripheral are
configured
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Types of Physical Topologies
Tree or Expanded Star
Is part linear bus and part star
topology (a combination of
both)
Makes it easy to expand
existing networks, especially
for schools
Advantages
Point to point wiring for small
segments
Many hardware and software
choices to help configure and
manage the network
Disadvantages
If the backbone breaks, the
entire segment goes down
More difficult to configure and
wire
X = eXtensibility
Topology = How cables, computers, and other peripheral are
configured
Considerations When Choosing a
Topology
Money
Linear bus may be least
expensive, no need to purchase
concentrators
Length of cable
Linear bus network uses shorter
lengths of cable
Future Expansion
When using a star topology,
expanding the network is easy by
adding another hub
Cable Type
The most common cable in
schools is unshielded twisted pair,
most often used with star
topologies
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Y = Youthful
Network Operating Systems
Information and data security
are controlled by the server
Easy to add and remove
devices, and grow in the
future
All elements of the network
work together (like a team)



Operating systems are made to use on one computer, but network operating systems are
made to coordinate multiple computers across a network. A network operating system
keeps the network running smoothly.
More expensive because of
the need for a dedicated
server
If the network becomes too
large, support staff is needed
for maintenance
When the server goes down,
everything goes down


Advantages
Disadvantages
Peer to Peer
Peer to Peer network operating systems allow users to share information located on their
computers and access information found on other computers on the network. All
computers are considered equal, they all have the same abilities to use the resources on
the network
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Z = Zones
Network Operating Systems
Less expensive
No need for a separate server
Most modern operating
systems have peer to peer
network capability built in, for
example Windows XP


There is no common place to
store and share information
and data
Provides less security than a
Client/Server network


Advantages
Disadvantages
Client/Server Networks
Client/server network systems allow the network to centralize functions
using dedicated file servers. File servers become the heart of the system,
giving access to information and providing security. They allow multiple to
share the same resources at the same time
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