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#3 Components of a Vector
if V 34 m/sec Z48
then
V
i
34 m/sec(cos 48); and V
J
34 m/sec(sin 48)

#4 Weight mg
g 9.81m/sec near the surIace oI the Earth
9.795 m/sec in Fort Worth, TX

Density mass / volume
( )
3
/ : m kg unit
J
m
=
#7 Ave speed distance / time v d/t
Ave velocity displacement / time v d/t
Ave acceleration change in velocity / time

#8 Friction Force
F
F
F
N

II the object is not moving, you are dealing with static
Iriction and it can have any value Irom zero up to
s
F
N

II the object is sliding, then you are dealing with kinetic
Iriction and it will be constant and equal to
K
F
N

#9 Torque
t FLsin u
Where u is the angle between F and L; unit: Nm

#11 Newton's Second Law
F
net
EF
Ext
ma

#12 Work FDcos u
Where D is the distance moved and
u is the angle between F and the
direction oI motion,
unit : J

#16 Power rate of work done

unit : watt

Efficiency Work
out
/ Energy
in

Mechanical Advantage force out / force in
M.A. F
out
/ F
in

#19 Constant-Acceleration Linear Motion
v v
o
at x
(x-x
o
) v
o
t at v
v v
o
2a (x - x
o
) t
(x-x
o
) ( v
o
v) t a
(x-x
o
) vt - at v
o

#20 Heating a Solid, Liquid or Gas
Q mcAT (no phase changes!)
c speciIic heat.
AT temperature change, K
#21 Linear Momentum
momentum p mv mass velocity
momentum is conserved in collisions

#23 Center of Mass point masses on a line
x
cm
E(mx) / M
total

#25 Angular Speed vs. Linear Speed
Linear speed v re r angular speed

#26 Pressure under Water
P gh
h depth oI water
density oI water
#28 Universal Gravitation
2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
G 6.67 E-11 N m / kg

#29 Mechanical Energy
PE
Grav
P mgh
KE
Linear
K mv

#30 Impulse Change in Momentum
FAt A(mv)

#31 Snell's Law
n
1
sin u
1
= n
2
sin u
2

Index of Refraction
n c / v
c speed oI light 3 E8 m/s

#32 Ideal Gas Law
PV nRT
n # oI moles oI gas
R gas law constant
8.31 J / K mole.
#34 Periodic Waves
v f
f 1 / T T period oI wave

#35 Constant-Acceleration Circular Motion
e = e
o
+ ot u
uu
o
= e
o
t ot e
e
2

= e
o
2

2o(uu
o
) t
uu
o
= (e
o
+ e)t o
uu
o
= et - ot e
o

time
Work
Power =
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#36 Buoyant Force - Buoyancy
F
B
Vg m
Displaced Iluid
g weight
Displaced Iluid

density oI the Iluid
V volume oI Iluid displaced

#37 Ohm's Law
V IR
V voltage applied
I current
R resistance

Resistance of a Wire
R L / A
x
= resistivity oI wire material
L length oI the wire
A
x
cross-sectional area oI the wire

#39 Heat of a Phase Change
Q mL
L Latent Heat oI phase change

#41 Hooke's Law
F kx
Potential Energy of a spring
W kx Work done on spring

#42 Electric Power
P IR V / R IV

#44 Speed of a Wave on a String
L
mv
T
2
=
T tension in string
m mass oI string
L length oI string
#45 Projectile Motion
Horizontal: x-x
o
v
o
t 0
Vertical: y-y
o
v
o
t at

#46 Centripetal Force
r m
r
mv
F
2
2
e = =

#47 Kirchhoff`s Laws
Loop Rule: E
Around any loop
AV
i
0
Node Rule: E
at any node
I
i
0

#51 Minimum Speed at the top of a
Vertical Circular Loop
rg v =

#53 Resistor Combinations
SERIES
R
eq
R
1
R
2
R
3
. . .
PARALLEL

=
= + + + =
n
i i n eq
R R R R R
1 2 1
1 1 1 1 1

#54 Newton's Second Law and
Rotational Inertia
t ! #orque Io
I moment oI inertia mr (Ior a point mass)
(See table in Lesson 58 Ior I oI 3D shapes.)

#55 Circular Unbanked Tracks
mg
r
mv
=
2

#56 Continuity of Fluid Flow
A
in
v
in
A
out
v
out
A Area
v velocity
#58 Moment of Inertia I
CM

cylindrical hoop mr
2

-
to hoop
solid cylinder or disk mr
2

-
to disk
solid sphere
2
/
5
mr
2

hollow sphere / mr
2

thin rod (center)
1
/
12
mL
2

-
to rod
thin rod (end) mL
2

-
to rod

#59 Capacitors Q CV
Q charge on the capacitor
C capacitance oI the capacitor
V voltage applied to the capacitor
RC Circuits (Discharging)
V
c
V
o
e
t/RC

V
c
IR 0

#60 Thermal Expansion
Linear: AL L
o
oAT
Volume: AV V
o
|AT

#61 Bernoulli's Equation
P gh v constant
Q
Volume Flow Rate
A
1
v
1
A
2
v
2
constant

#62 Rotational Kinetic Energy (See LEM, pg 8)
KE
rotational
Ie
2

I (v / r)
2

KE
rolling w/o slipping
mv
2
Ie
2

Angular Momentum L Ie mvrsin u
Angular Impulse equals
CHANGE IN Angular Momentum
AL t
orque
At A(Ie)
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#63 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion
k
m
T t 2 =
where k spring constant
f 1 / T 1 / period
#64 Banked Circular Tracks
v
2
rgtan u

#66 First Law of Thermodynamics
AU Q
Net
W
Net

Change in Internal Energy oI a system
Net Heat added to the system
Net Work done on the system

Flow of Heat through a Solid
AQ / At kAAT / L
k thermal conductivity
A area oI solid
L thickness oI solid

#68 Potential Energy stored in a Capacitor
P CV

RC Circuit formula (Charging)
V
c
V
cell
(1 e
t / RC
)
RC t time constant
V
cell
- V
capacitor
IR 0

#71 Simple Pendulum
g
L
T t 2 =
and f 1/ T

#72 Sinusoidal motion
x Acos(et) Acos(2tf t)
e angular Irequency
f Irequency
#73 Doppler Effect
s
Toward
Awav
o
Toward
Awav
v
v
f f
343
343
= '

v
o
velocity oI observer: v
s
velocity oI source

#74 2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
The change in internal energy oI a system is
AU Q
W
Done On
Q
lost
W
Done By

Maximum Efficiency of a Heat Engine
(Carnot Cycle) (Temperatures in Kelvin)

#75 Thin Lens Equation
f Iocal length
i image distance
o object distance

Magnification
M D
i
/ D
o
i / o H
i
/ H
o

HelpIul reminders Ior mirrors and lenses
Focal Length oI: positive negative
mirror concave convex
lens converging diverging
Object distance o all objects
Object height H
o
all objects
Image distance i real virtual
Image height H
i
virtual, upright real, inverted
MagniIication virtual, upright real, inverted

#76 Coulomb's Law
2
2 1
r
q q
k F =

2
2
9 9
4
1
C
m N
E k
o

= =
tc

#77 Capacitor Combinations
PARALLEL
C
eq
C
1
C
2
C
3
.
SERIES

=
= + + + =
n
i i n eq
C C C C C
1 2 1
1 1 1 1 1

#78 Work done on a gas or by a gas
W PAV

#80 Electric Field around a point charge
2
r
q
k E =

2
2
9 9
4
1
C
m N
E k
o

= =
tc

#82 Magnetic Field around a wire
r
I
B
o
t

2
=

Magnetic Flux
u BAcos u

Force caused by a magnetic field
on a moving charge
F qvBsin u

#83 Entropy change at constant T
AS Q / T
(Phase changes only: melting, boiling, Ireezing, etc)
100 ) 1 ( =
h
c
T
T
Eff
i o D D f
i o
1 1 1 1 1
+ = + =
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#84 Capacitance of a Capacitor
C kc
o
A / d
k dielectric constant
A area oI plates
d distance between plates
c
o
8.85 E(-12) F/m

#85 Induced Voltage N # oI loops
t
N Emf
A
Au
=

Lenz`s Law - induced current Ilows to create a B-Iield
opposing the change in magnetic Ilux.

#86 Inductors during an increase in current
V
L
V
cell
e
t / (L / R)

I (V
cell
/R)| 1 - e
t / (L / R)

|
L / R t time constant
#88 Transformers
N
1
/ N
2
V
1
/ V
2

I
1
V
1
I
2
V
2

#89 Decibel Scale
B (Decibel level oI sound) 10 log ( I / I
o
)
I intensity oI sound
I
o
intensity oI soItest audible sound

#92 Poiseuille's Law
AP 8qLQ/(tr
4
)

q coeIIicient oI viscosity
L length oI pipe
Q Ilow rate oI Iluid
Stress and Strain
Y or S or B stress / strain
stress F/A
Three kinds of strain: unit-less ratios
I. Linear: strain AL / L
II. Shear: strain Ax / L
III. Volume: strain AV / V

#93 Postulates of Special Relativity
1. Absolute, uniIorm motion cannot be
detected.
2. No energy or mass transIer can occur
at speeds Iaster than the speed oI light.

#94 Lorentz Transformation Factor
2
2
1
c
v
= |

#95 Relativistic Time Dilation
At At
o
/ |

#96 Relativistic Length Contraction
Ax |Ax
o

Relativistic Mass Increase
m m
o
/ |

#97 Energy of a Photon or a Particle
E hf mc
2
h Planck's constant 6.63 E(-34) J sec
f Irequency oI the photon

A A
o
e
k t

(1/2
n
)A
0
(aIter n halI-lives)

Where k (ln 2) / halI-liIe

the Photoelectric Effect
E nhf where h Planck's constant

#100 Early Quantum Physics
Rutherford-Bohr Hydrogen-like Atoms

or

R Rydberg's Constant
1.097373143 E7 m
-1

n
s
series integer (2 Balmer)
n an integer ~ n
s

Mass-Energy Equivalence
m
v
m
o
/ |
Total Energy KE m
o
c
2
m
o
c
2
/ |
Usually written simply as E m c
2

de Broglie Matter Waves
For light: E
p
hf hc / pc

ThereIore, momentum: p h /
Similarly Ior particles, p mv h / ,
so the matter wave's wavelength must be
h / m v
Energy Released by Nuclear
Fission or Fusion Reaction
E Am
o
c
2

H:
n n
cR
c
f
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2 2
1 1

1
2 2
1 1 1

|
|
.
|

\
|
= meters
n n
R
s

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Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 5 oI 8
Version 5/12/2005

MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAS

iI a x

b x c 0
then

a
ac b b
x
2
4
2

=

Trigonometric Definitions
sin 0 opposite / hypotenuse

sec 0 1 / cos 0 hyp / adj
csc 0 1 / sin 0 hyp / opp
cot 0 1 / tan 0 adj / opp

Inverse Trigonometric Definitions
0 sin
-1
(opp / hyp)
0 cos
-1
0 tan
-1

Law of Sines
a / sin A b / sin B c / sin C
or
sin A / a sin B / b sin C / c

Law of Cosines
a
2
b
2
c
2
- 2 b c cos A
b
2
c
2
a
2
- 2 c a cos B
c a b - 2 a b cos C

T-Pots
For the Iunctional Iorm
C B A
1 1 1
+ =

You may use "The Product over the Sum" rule.
C B
C B
A
+

=

For the Alternate Functional Iorm
C B A
1 1 1
=

You may substitute T-Pot-d
C B
C B
B C
C B
A

=

Fundamental SI Units
Unit Base Unit Symbol
.........
Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s
Electric
Current ampere A
Thermodynamic
Temperature kelvin K
Luminous
Intensity candela cd
Quantity oI
Substance moles mol

Solid Angle steradian sr or str

Some Derived SI Units
Symbol/Unit Quantity Base Units
.........
C coulomb Electric Charge As

2
s4/(kgm
2
)

H henry Inductance kgm
2
/(A
2
s
2
)

Hz hertz Frequency s
-1

J joule Energy & Work kgm
2
/s
2
Nm

N newton Force kgm/s
2

O ohm Elec Resistance kgm
2
/(A
2
s
2
)

Pa pascal Pressure kg/(ms
2
)

T tesla Magnetic Field kg/(As
2
)

V volt Elec Potential kgm
2
/(As
3
)

W watt Power kgm
2
/s
3

Non-SI Units
o
C degrees Celsius Temperature

eV electron-volt Energy, Work
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Aa acceleration, Area, A
x
Cross-sectional Area,
Amperes, Amplitude oI a Wave, Angle,
Bb Magnetic Field, Decibel Level oI Sound,
Angle,
Cc speciIic heat, speed oI light, Capacitance,
Angle, Coulombs,
o
Celsius, Celsius
Degrees, candela,
Dd displacement, diIIerential change in a variable,
Distance, Distance Moved, distance,
Ee base oI the natural logarithms, charge on the
electron, Energy,
Ff Force, frequencv of a wave or periodic motion,
Gg Universal Gravitational Constant, acceleration
due to gravity, Gauss, grams, Giga-,
Hh depth oI a Iluid, height, vertical distance,
Henrys, HzHertz,
Ii Current, Moment oI Inertia, image distance,
Intensity oI Sound,
1j Joules,
Kk K or KE Kinetic Energy, Iorce constant oI
a spring, thermal conductivity, coulomb's
law constant, kgkilograms, Kelvins,
decay 1/tln2 / halI-liIe,
Ll Length, Length oI a wire, Latent Heat oI
Fusion or Vaporization, Angular
Momentum, Thickness, Inductance,
Mm mass, Total Mass, meters, milli-, Mega-,
m
o
rest mass, molmoles,
Nn index oI reIraction, moles oI a gas, Newtons,
Number oI Loops, nano-,
Oo
Pp Power, Pressure oI a Gas or Fluid, Potential
Energy, momentum, Power, PaPascal,
Qq Heat gained or lost, Maximum Charge on a
Capacitor, object distance, Flow Rate,
Rr radius, Ideal Gas Law Constant, Resistance,
magnitude or length oI a vector,
Ss speed, seconds, Entropy, length along an arc,
Tt time, Temperature, Period oI a Wave, Tension,
Teslas, t
1/2
halI-liIe,
Uu Potential Energy, Internal Energy,
Vv velocity, Velocity, Volume oI a Gas, velocity oI
wave, Volume oI Fluid Displaced, Voltage, Volts,
Ww weight, Work, Watts, WbWeber,
Xx distance, horizontal distance, x-coordinate
east-and-west coordinate,
Yy vertical distance, y-coordinate,
north-and-south coordinate,
Zz z-coordinate, up-and-down coordinate,

Ao Alpha angular acceleration, coeIIicient oI
linear expansion,
B| Beta coeIIicient oI volume expansion,
Lorentz transIormation Iactor,
X_ Chi

Ao Delta Achange in a variable,

Ec Epsilon c
o
permittivity oI Iree space,

u| Phi Magnetic Flux, angle,

I Gamma surIace tension F / L,
1 / Lorentz transIormation Iactor,
Hq Eta

Ii Iota

0 Theta and Phi lower case alternates.
Kk Kappa dielectric constant,

A Lambda wavelength oI a wave, rate constant

M Mu Iriction,
o
permeability oI Iree space,
micro-,
Nv Nu alternate symbol Ior Irequency,

Oo Omicron
Ht Pi 3.1425926536.,

Ou Theta angle between two vectors,

P Rho density oI a solid or liquid, resistivity,

Eo Sigma Summation, standard deviation,
Tt Tau torque, time constant Ior a exponential
processes; eg tRC or tL/R or t1/k1/,
Yu Upsilon
= Zeta and Omega lower case alternates
Oe Omega angular speed or angular velocity,
Ohms
Xi

+ Psi

Z, Zeta

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Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 7 oI 8
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Values of Trigonometric Functions
for 1
st
(simple mostly-rational approximations)
u sin u cos u tan u
0
o
0 1 0
10
o
1/6 65/66 11/65
15
o
1/4 28/29 29/108
20
o
1/3 16/17 17/47
29
o
15
1/2
/8 7/8 15
1/2
/7
30
o
1/2 3
1/2
/2 1/3
1/2

37
o
3/5 4/5 3/4
42
o
2/3 3/4 8/9
45
o
2
1/2
/2 2
1/2
/2 1
49
o
3/4 2/3 9/8
53
o
4/5 3/5 4/3
60 3
1/2
/2 1/2 3
1/2
61
o
7/8 15
1/2
/8 7/15
1/2
70
o
16/17 1/3 47/17
75
o
28/29 1/4 108/29
80
o
65/66 1/6 65/11
90
o
1 0
(Memori:e the Bold rows for future reference.)

Derivatives of Polynomials

For polynomials, with individual terms oI the Iorm Ax
n
,
we deIine the derivative oI each term as

To Iind the derivative oI the polynomial, simply add the
derivatives Ior the individual terms:

Integrals of Polynomials

For polynomials, with individual terms oI the Iorm Ax
n
,
we deIine the indeIinite integral oI each term as

To Iind the indeIinite
integral oI the polynomial, simply add the integrals Ior
the individual terms and the constant oI integration, C.

Prefixes

Factor Prefix Symbol Example

10
18
exa- E 38 Es (Age oI
the Universe
in Seconds)
10
15
peta- P

10
12
tera- T 0.3 TW (Peak
power oI a
1 ps pulse
Irom a typical
Nd-glass laser)

10
9
giga- G 22 G\$ (Size oI
Bill & Melissa
Gates` Trust)

10
6
mega- M 6.37 Mm (The
Earth)

10
3
kilo- k 1 kg (SI unit
oI mass)

10
-1
deci- d 10 cm

10
-2
centi- c 2.54 cm (1 in)

10
-3
milli- m 1 mm (The
smallest
division on a
meter stick)

10
-6
micro-

10
-9
nano- n 510 nm (Wave-
length oI green
light)

10
-12
pico- p 1 pg (Typical
mass oI a DNA
sample used in
genome
studies)
10
-15
Iemto- I

10
-18
atto- a 600 as (Time
duration oI the
shortest laser
pulses)
( )
1
=
n n
nAx Ax
dx
d
( ) 6 6 3 6 3
2
+ = + x x x
dx
d
( )
1
1
1
+
+
=
}
n n
Ax
n
dx Ax
( ) | |
}
+ + = + C x x dx x 6 3 6 6
2
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Linear Equivalent Mass

Rotating systems can be handled using the linear Iorms
oI the equations oI motion. To do so, however, you must
use a mass equivalent to the mass oI a non-rotating
object. We call this the Linear Equivalent Mass (LEM).
(See Example I)

For objects that are both rotating and moving linearly,
you must include them twice; once as a linearly moving
object (using m) and once more as a rotating object
(using LEM). (See Example II)

The LEM oI a rotating mass is easily deIined in terms oI
its moment oI inertia, I.

LEM I/r
2

For example, using a standard table oI Moments oI
Inertia, we can calculate the LEM oI simple objects
rotating on axes through their centers oI mass:

I LEM

Cylindrical hoop mr
2
m

Solid disk mr
2
m

Hollow sphere
2
!
5
mr
2

2
!
5
m

Solid sphere /mr
2
/m

Example I

A Ilywheel, M 4.80 kg and r 0.44 m, is wrapped
with a string. A hanging mass, m, is attached to the end
oI the string.

When the
hanging mass is
released, it
accelerates
downward at
1.00 m/s
2
. Find
the hanging
mass.

To handle this problem using the linear Iorm oI
Newton`s Second Law oI Motion, all we have to do is
use the LEM oI the Ilywheel. We will assume, here, that
it can be treated as a uniIorm solid disk.

The only external Iorce on this system is the weight oI
the hanging mass. The mass oI the system consists oI
the hanging mass plus the linear equivalent mass oI the
Ily-wheel. From Newton`s 2
nd
Law we have

F ma, thereIore, mg |m (LEMM)|a

mg |m M| a

(mg ma) M a

m(g a) Ma

m Ma / (g a)

m 4.8 1.00 / (9.81 1)

m 0.27 kg

II a g/2 4.905 m/s
2
, m 2.4 kg

II a /g 7.3575 m/s
2
, m 7.2 kg

Note, too, that we do not need to know the radius unless
the angular acceleration oI the Ily-wheel is requested. II
you need o, and you have r, then o a/r.

Example II

Find the kinetic energy oI a disk, m 6.7 kg, that is
moving at 3.2 m/s while rolling without slipping along a
Ilat, horizontal surIace. (I
DISK
mr
2
; LEM m)

The total kinetic energy consists oI the linear kinetic
energy, K
L
mv
2
, plus the rotational kinetic energy,
K
R
(I)(e)
2
(I)(v/r)
2
(I/r
2
)v
2
(LEM)v
2
.

KE mv
2
(LEMm)v
2

KE 6.73.2
2
(6.7)3.2
2

KE 34.304 17.152 51 J

Final Note:

This method oI incorporating rotating objects into the
linear equations oI motion works in every situation I`ve
tried; even very complex problems. Work your problem
the classic way and this way to compare the two. Once
you`ve veriIied that the LEM method works Ior a
particular type oI problem, you can conIidently use it Ior
solving any other problem oI the same type.