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# Fluid Mechanics

Hydraulic Engineering
ZEIT 2503
ZEIT 2602 ZEIT 2602
Harald Kleine
Robert Niven
S h l f E i i d I f ti T h l School of Engineering and Information Technology
Canberra, ACT
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
Overview
I. Fundamental equations
a) differential form
b) integral form b) integral form
II. Dimensional analysis
III. Internal flow of real fluids
a) review of fluid properties
b) Couette flows
c) pipe flows c) pipe flows
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IV. External flow of real fluids
a) boundary layers and the momentum integral method
b) pressure drag
V Turbomachinery V. Turbomachinery
a) design calculations for pumps and turbines
b) pump performance
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VI. Introduction to compressible flows
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations
I.1 Fundamentals what we want to determine and how
I.2 Differential form of the conservation equations
I.2a Mass conservation
I.2b Momentum conservation
I.2c Energy conservation
I.3 Integral form of the conservation equations
I.3a Mass conservation
I.3b Momentum conservation
I.3c The Bernoulli equation
I.3d Energy conservation
Aims:
- introduce main parameters that describe a fluid
- introduce the concept of control volume analysis
- introduce fundamental conservation equations
- introduce the concepts of local and convective change
(Reynolds Transport Theorem)
- use the integral form of the conservation equations to calculate
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
what a fluid does
I. Fundamental Equations
I.1 Fundamentals what we want to determine and how
need to know: velocity vector V
pressure p
density
consider an infinitesimally
small volume of fluid
1)
density
temperature T
six unknowns
need six equations
in a flowing
medium
need six equations
conservation of mass 1
conservation of momentum 3
ti f 1 conservation of energy 1
equation of state 1
E 6
- also: need material properties such as viscosity and heat conductivity as functions
of pressure and temperature.
often made assumption: these values are constant - often made assumption: these values are constant
- also require information on work input/output and heat transfer (if present)
1)
this volume is infinitesimallysmall comparedto anymacroscopic dimensionof the fluid but it contains
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
1)
this volume is infinitesimally small compared to any macroscopic dimension of the fluid but it contains
a large number of molecules so that it can be considered as a piece of continuous matter.
I. Fundamental Equations
Derivation of the conservation equations Derivation of the conservation equations
by Control Volume Analysis
Choose a control volume (CV) around the area of interest (bounded by the control
surface) and determine the changes that this volume undergoes (how does it
change with time, is there matter or energy crossing the control surface ?)
conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy)
we do not have to knowanything about the processes inside the CV but only have we do not have to know anything about the processes inside the CV, but only have
to do an accounting job of what happens at its boundaries
at first:
h i fi it i ll ll l d d i th ti i - choose an infinitesimally small volume and derive these equations in
differential form
- the resulting equations can be applied to any flow but have to be integrated
(with appropriate boundary conditions) to obtain useful results (with appropriate boundary conditions) to obtain useful results
then:
- if it is known that the flow properties are constant over certain parts of the CV,
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one can directly apply the integrated form of these equations
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Continuity Equation
I.2 Differential form of the fundamental equations
I.2a Mass conservation (continuity equation)
Mass can neither be created nor destroyed.
q
y
mass entering the control volume
= mass leaving the control volume
l t d i th t l l plus mass stored in the control volume
control volume (CV):
d Vol
CV
= dx dy dz
velocity components:
u, v, w
mass stored in CV:
d d d
) Vol d (
CV
c c
6
z y x
t t
d d d
) Vol d (
CV
c
c
=
c
c
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Continuity Equation
z y x u z y u z y x u z y u d d d ) ( d d d d d ) ( d d
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
net mass flux in x - direction: (out minus in)
x x c
|
.

\
c
d d d ) (
c
z x y v
y
d d d ) (
c
y x w d d d ) (
c
net mass flux in y - direction:
t fl i di ti
7
y x z w
z
d d d ) (
c
net mass flux in z - direction:
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Continuity Equation
summing up:
0 d d d d d d ) ( ) ( ) ( =
c
c
+
(

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z y x
t
z y x w
z
v
y
u
x

summing up:
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
w
z
v
y
u
x t

(1.1)
The inner vector product (a scalar quantity) is known as the
a bit of Math
p ( q y)
divergence of vector A
A
A
A
A
z
y
x
c
+
c
+
c
= - V k j i
c
+
c
+
c
V
(If A is a scalar and not a vector, the combination VA is known as
z y x
A
c
+
c
+
c
= - V k
z
j
y
i
x c
+
c
+
c
V
ti it ti i t f
0 ) ( V
c
V

with V =(u, v, w)
(1 2)
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continuity equation in vector form:
0 ) ( = - V +
c
V
t

(1.2)
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Continuity Equation
in words:
the overall net mass flux
(= sum of the net fluxes in each direction)
must be equal to the rate of change of mass
within the infinitesimally small volume within the infinitesimally small volume.
in pictures:
drawing from:
J . Strybny, O. Romberg:
9
y y, g
Ohne Panik Strmungsmechanik
Vieweg, 2007
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Continuity Equation
Summary: Summary:
net mass flux (per volume) into the control volume
=mass (per volume) stored in the control volume
c
0 ) ( = - V +
c
c
V
t

(1.2)
special case: incompressible fluid ( =const )
0 = - V V
special case: incompressible fluid ( const.)
(1.3)
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Compressibility Effects
photo by J . Amann
video by
G.S. Settles
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Penn State University
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I 2b Momentum conservation
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
I.2b Momentum conservation
The overall sum of external forces acting on a system is equal to
the time rate of change of the linear momentum of the system. g y
(Newtons Second Law)
linear momentum: mV
Newtons Second Law:

= F V m ) (
d
(1.4) e o s Seco d a

= F V m
t
) (
d
i l d
(1.4)
special case m =const.:

= = F a m V
t
m ) (
d
d
a : acceleration
(1.5)
- now we have to evaluate each side of the equation for the case of fluid motion,
i.e., we have to find expressions for F and a
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, p
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Newtons Laws
Newtons First Law
Unless there is a net force acting on a body, its velocity (both
magnitude and direction) remains unchanged magnitude and direction) remains unchanged.
Newtons Third Law Newton s Third Law
To every action (force) there is always an equal reaction (force).
drawing from:
L.W. Dubeck,
S.E. Moshier,
J E Boss:
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J .E. Boss:
Fantastic Voyages
Springer, 2004
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Newtons Laws
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
first: LHS of equation:
find expression for acceleration a
p
of a fluid particle
at time t :
particle is at location
r =(x y z) r =(x, y, z)
at time t + dt :
particle is at position particle is at position
r +dr =(x+dx, y+dy, z+dz)
Th l it f th ti l h h d f V ( t) V( t) The velocity of the particle has changed from V
p
(r, t) =V(x, y, z, t)
to V
p
(r +dr, t +dt) =V(x +dx, y +dy, z +dz, t +dt)
change in velocity dV when moving from r to r +dr change in velocity dV
p
when moving from r to r +dr
chain rule
t
t
V
z
z
V
y
y
V
x
x
V
V d
P P P P
d d d d
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
15
t z y x c c c c
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
t
t
V
z
V
y
V
x
V
V d
P P P P
d d d d
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
- change in velocity dV
p
when moving from r to r +dr
t z y x
P
c c c c
t V z V y V x V V d d d d d c c c c
- then the acceleration is
t
t
t
V
t
z
z
V
t
y
y
V
t
x
x
V
t
V
a
P P P P
P
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= =
h
w
t
z
v
t
y
u
t
x
p p p
= = =
d
d
,
d
d
,
d
d
where
V V V
w
V
v
V
u
V
a
P
D d

c
+
c
+
c
+
c
= =
so
(1 6)
t t z
w
y
v
x
u
t
a
P
D d

c
+
c
+
c
+
c
= =
this shows that the acceleration has two main parts:
(1.6)
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- this shows that the acceleration has two main parts:
one due to a change in position and one due to change in time
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
acceleration a
p
of a fluid particle
V V V
w
V
v
V
u
V
a
P
P
D
d

c
+
c
+
c
+
c
= = (1.6)
t t z y x t
P
D d c c c c
( )
convective acceleration local acceleration convective acceleration local acceleration
total or substantial
acceleration of a particle
aka
acceleration of a particle
aka
Reynolds Transport
Theorem
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Theorem
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
rewriting the convective acceleration in vector form
V V
V V V
) ( V
c c c
V V
z
w
y
v
x
u ) ( V - =
c
+
c
+
c
(1.7)
V
V V a
V
P
c
+ V - = ) (
D
(1.8)
t
V V a
t
P
c
+ V) (
D
( )
Even for a steady flow (=all derivatives wrt ct are zero),
the acceleration of a fluid particle can be (and most often is)
non zero because of the convective term non-zero because of the convective term.
Can you think of a simple everyday-life example for this ?
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
LHS of Newtons Second Lawwas
(
(

c
+
c
+
c
+
c
=
V V
w
V
v
V
u m
V
m d
D
d
this must be equal to the force dF acting on the fluid element
(

c
+
c
+
c
+
c
=
t z
w
y
v
x
u m
t
m d
D
d
- this must be equal to the force dF acting on the fluid element
find the force and its components dF
x
, dF
y
, dF
z
.
and this leads to nothing else but
a free-body-diagram !
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here:
only forces in x - direction
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
forces acting on a fluid element (excluding esoteric applications):
body forces gravity
surface forces stresses
- nomenclature of indices:
first index indicates the plane in which the stress acts
second index indicates the direction in which the stress acts second index indicates the direction in which the stress acts
t
zx
t
acts in
x - direction
acts on x-y plane,
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normal to z - direction
here:
only forces in x - direction
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
summing up in x direction: summing up in x - direction:
- canceling equal terms: g q
net surface force in x - direction
z y x F
zx
yx
xx
d d d d
S
|
|
|

| c
+
c
+
c
=
t
t
o
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z y x
z y x
F d d d d
x
S
|
|
.

\
c
+
c
+
c
=
here:
only forces in x - direction
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
F F F
zx
yx
xx
d d d d d d
|
|

|
c
c
c t
t
o
net overall force in x - direction
(1 9a)
z y x
z y x
g F F F
zx
y
xx
x
d d d d d d
x x
S B x
|
|
.

\
c
+
c
+
c
+ = + =
(1.9a)
analogously, in y- and z-direction
y x g F F F
zy yy xy
d d d d d d
|
|
|

| c
+
c
+
c
+ +
t o t
(1 9b)
z y x g F F F
z y x
z y x
g F F F
zz
yz
xz
y yy y
y
d d d d d d
d d d d d d
y y
S B y
|
|
|

|
c
+
c
+
c
+ = + =
|
|
.

\
c
+
c
+
c
+ = + =
o
t
t

(1.9b)
(1 9c) z y x
z y x
g F F F
z
d d d d d d
z z
S B z
|
|
.

\
c
+
c
+
c
+ = + = (1.9c)
- now each side of Newtons second law has been rewritten for the case
of a fluid element / infinitesimally small control volume
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ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
putting it all together gives
(1.10)
f f l ti sum of forces = mass acceleration
the differential equations of motion
f fl id l t
23
for a fluid element
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
these relations are not yet useful as they introduce new variables for the stresses
need expressions for t and o to relate them to the given unknowns
St k H th i Stokes Hypothesis:
e p
x xx
c o
~
2 =
and are material-specific
proportionality constants
e p
y yy
c o
~
~
2 =
V
z
w
y
v
x
u
e - V =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
e p
z zz
c o 2 =
w v u c c c
velocity divergence
z
w
y
v
x
u
z y x
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
= c c c , ,
dilatationvelocity
hydrostatic pressure
dilatation velocity
terms that describe how the
fl id i ld t
24
y p
fluid yields to pressure
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
~
observation:
solid elastic body: fluid: t ~

t

=
A
A
dt
d
t
~
xz xz yz yz xy xy
t t t = = =
etc. are the shear velocities
is a proportionality constant
xy

is a proportionality constant
known as viscosity
(more on this in section III.)
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
=
x
v
y
u
t
xy
o |

d
d d
25
. \
y
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
Combining all the above and assuming that leads to
the NAVIER-STOKES equations
3 / 2
~
=
the NAVIER-STOKES equations
(1.11)
26
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
NAVIER-STOKES equations
m a
gravity
force
viscous forces
pressure force
F a m E =
27
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Momentum
The Reynolds Transport Theorem (review)
fromsolid mechanics: object of interest is a (closed) system from solid mechanics: object of interest is a (closed) system
=quantity of matter of fixed identity
Approach: follow this system and analyse the forces etc. acting on it
and determine the systems reaction and determine the systems reaction
(aka Lagrangian approach)
in fluid mechanics: very often highly impractical to use the system description y g y p y p
- more practical to use a control volume (CV) approach
=define region in space chosen for study and determine what
h i thi i (i dditi t ti f d ith it happens in this region (in addition to acting forces, mass and with it
momentum and energy may pass through the CV boundaries)
(aka Eulerian approach)
The Reynolds Transport Theorem is the link between these two approaches:
Use relations from solid mechanics,
but express change as the sum of local and convective change
28
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
but express change as the sum of local and convective change.
I. Fundamental Equations: Fluid Kinematics
29
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I 2c Energy conservation
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Energy
I.2c Energy conservation
Energy may be changed from one form to the other (e.g., from kinetic to
potential or to internal or vice versa), but the overall amount of energy
associated with a volume of fluid is constant
(if there is no heat transfer or work done by/on the volume).
30
videos by G.S. Settles, Penn State University
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Energy
Three forms of energy per volume:
internal energy e
kinetic energy V
2
t ti l potential energy g z
These energies are related to each other via the
First Law of Thermodynamics:
If heat (oO ) is added to or taken from a closed system (=a fixed amount of
matter contained within a closed boundary) and if work (oW ) is done on or by
th t th V l f th t h di t the system, the energy E = Vol. e of the system changes according to:
E W d = + O
Sign convention:
(1.12)
g
heat is added to the system: oO positive
work is done by the system
to its surroundings: oW positive g
o for o O and o W indicates that these increments are dependent on the process
(=how they are accomplished); symbol d is used for dE because increment is
independent of the process E is a thermodynamic property or state variable of the fluid
31
independent of the process. E is a thermodynamic property or state variable of the fluid,
O and W are not they are related to processes.
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Energy
two forms of heat addition : two forms of heat addition :
volumetric (e.g., by combustion processes within the system)
across the surface of the control volume (e.g., by thermal conduction and
mass diffusion): mass diffusion):
surf vol
O + O = O

work on or by the system is related to either
volume (body) forces and/or
surface forces (pressure and shear stress) ( )
shear press body
W W W W

+ + =
any change of energy must be associated with either work or heat added or taken
from the system (the minus sign for the work terms indicate the different sign
conventions for work and heat transfer): )
body shear press surf vol
W W W
t
E

O + O =
D
D
(1.13)
32
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Energy
the total change in energy has again two components
a local and a convective contribution
(derivationand rationale analogous to discussion of acceleration in previous section)
V V
(
| |
(
| | c
2 2
(derivation and rationale analogous to discussion of acceleration in previous section)
V
V
gz e
V
gz e
t

O O
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + - V +
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
c
c
2 2
2 2
(1.14)
body shear press surf vol
W W W O + O =
sum of all heat flux and work
total (substantial)
change of energy
sum of all heat flux and work
passing through the system
33
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Conservation of Energy
- in the energy equation a newvariable appeared internal energy - in the energy equation a new variable appeared internal energy
- related to temperature T via
T c e
v
=
c
v
: specific heat capacity
(1.15)
for gases of moderate temperatures (<1000 K) constant,
but for higher temperatures c
v
=c
v
(T, p)
- still need another equation that links T to the already introduced still need another equation that links T to the already introduced
thermodynamic properties p and :
Equation of State
f f t
T R p (1 16)
for perfect gases:
T R p =
R : another material constant (specific gas constant)
(1.16)
for liquids: only empirical relations, depending on range of p and T
(1.14) will be needed when heat transfer or work input/losses have to be considered
important for all fluid machinery (pumps, turbines, propellers )
i t t f ll fl id i hi h th t t h ( important for all fluid processes in which the temperature may change (e.g.
temperature distribution within the
lubricant of a journal bearing)
34
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form
I 3 Integral form of the fundamental equations I.3 Integral form of the fundamental equations
- the previous discussion has yielded differential equations for the motion of fluid
elements
- to obtain useful results for flows of practical interest, these equations have to be
integrated (with appropriate boundary conditions)
i h fl ti k ( d) t b t t ( t i - in cases where flow properties are known (or assumed) to be constant (or to vary in
a known functional dependence) over parts of a macroscopic control volume, the
conservation equations can be used in their integrated form
- control-volume approach - choose a control volume around the area of interest
(bounded by the control surface) and determine the changes that this volume
undergoes (how does it change with time, is there matter or energy crossing the
control surface ?)

35
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form
Control Volume Rules
Rule # 1:
Draw the control volume !!
Rule # 2:
The boundaries of the control volume are arbitrary you can choose any shape you y y y p y
like. However, since you will have to make an accounting balance of forces and fluxes
along and across the boundaries, resp., it is advisable to select the control volume in
such a way that
a) the boundaries should only be in regions of the flow where you know the flow
properties (velocities, pressure )
b) mass fluxes are normal to the boundary (if possible)
) if h CV b d i lid b d f h fl fi ld ( h ll) c) if the CV-boundary intersects a solid boundary of the flow field (such as a wall) you
have to introduce a compensating holding force
Th t l l l i i ll li bl t l d b d f i t ll The control volume analysis is a generally applicable tool and can be used for virtually
any kind of flow.
36 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
general conservation equation for a control volume CV with surface CS:
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form
general conservation equation for a control volume CV with surface CS:
N : a generic flow quantity (mass, momentum or energy) within CV
n : the same flowquantity per unit mass n : the same flow quantity per unit mass
N = }}} n dVol
(1.17)
: density
Total change of N in CV consists of two parts:
1) the amount of N that is stored in the control volume local change 1) the amount of N that is stored in the control volume - local change
2) the net flux across the surface CS (out minus in) convective change
D N N c
}}
) d (
D
D
CS
CV total
A V n
t
N
t
N
- +
c
c
=
}}
(1.18)
37 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form
flux:
V
n
: velocity normal to the control surface
(tangential velocity V
t
need not be considered as fluid with V
t
does not cross the
A V A V
n
d d = -
t t
control surface)
relevant component for
transfer across control transfer across control
surface
sign convention:
if h l i d h if the velocity component V
n
and the vector
normal to the surface dA are pointing in the
same direction, the product V
n
dA is positive
(t i ll f fl l i th CV) (typically for flow leaving the CV)
+: leaving CV
: entering CV
38
- : entering CV
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Mass
I 3a Mass conservation: mass cannot be generated or destroyed I.3a Mass conservation: mass cannot be generated or destroyed
total change must be zero
mass entering the control volume
= mass leaving the control volume = mass leaving the control volume
+ mass stored in the control volume
formally:
N =m n =m/m =1 N =m, n =m/m =1
0 d 1
D
D
!
CV l
= - +
c
c
=
}}
A V
t
m
t
m

A V n
t
N
t
N
d
D
D
- +
c
c
=
}}

0 d = - +
c
}}
A V
m

CS
CV total
t t D
CS
CV total
c
}}
(1 19)
special cases:
0 d
CS
CV
- +
c
}}
A V
t

A V d 0
}}
(1.19)
(1 19 )
i ibl fl ( )
A V d 0
CS
- =
}}

}}
(1.19a)
39
incompressible flow ( =const.) A V d 0
CS
}}
- = (1.19b)
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Mass
average velocity (means that flowcan be treated as one dimensional)
A V A V = -
}
d
(1.20)
average velocity (means that flow can be treated as one-dimensional)
}
- =
CS
A V A V Q d flow rate [m
3
/s]
CS
(1.21)
Example 1.1:
Determine the average velocity of the given pipe flow with the following
velocity distribution V(r) = 5 (1 - (r / R)
2
) [m/s]
(R i di ) (R: pipe radius)
40 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
result: V
avg
=2.5 m/s
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Mass
Example 1 2: Example 1.2:
A circular swimming pool (C 5m) is filled with two garden hoses (inside C 17 mm),
with flow velocities of 2 m/s and 1.5 m/s, resp. Calculate the time required to fill
the pool to a depth of 2 m the pool to a depth of 2 m.
density of water: =1000 kg/m
3
result: A t =13.7 h
Example 1.3:
In most metalworking shops plate steel is cut by means of an oxyacetylene torch In most metalworking shops, plate steel is cut by means of an oxyacetylene torch.
Oxygen for cutting is supplied via tanks 30 cm in diameter and 1.3 m tall. These
tanks are charged to an internal pressure of 13 782 kPa. A 12.5 mm diameter
valve is located at the top of the tank If the tank valve is opened fully oxygen valve is located at the top of the tank. If the tank valve is opened fully, oxygen
escapes at 1.5 m/s. Assuming that this exit velocity is constant, determine the
tank pressure after 60 s. Take the temperature in the tank to be unchanging and
equal to u =25C and assume ideal gas behaviour
41
equal to u 25 C and assume ideal gas behaviour.
Oxygen: R =260 J /(kg K) T [K] =273.15 +u [C]
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
result: p (60s) =12 227 kPa
I 3b Momentum conservation
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Momentum
I.3b Momentum conservation
change in momentum must equal an external force
linear momentum V m V m n V m N = = = / ,
( )
}}
- +
c
c
= d
) (
D
) ( D
A V V
t
V m
t
V m

total change:
Newtons second law:
}}
c
CS
CV total
D t t
( )

}}
c ) ( ) ( D V m V m
( )

}}
- +
c
c
= =
CS
CV total
d
) (
D
) ( D
A V V
t
V m
t
V m
F
N t d l
(1.22)
Newtons second law:
All forces applied externally to the control volume (gravity, friction, pressure, surface
tension, electric & magnetic ) result in and are equal to a corresponding change
of (linear) momentum of (linear) momentum.
Special case:
( )

}}
- = dA V V F
(1.22a)
42
( )

}}
CS

(1.22a)
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
(1.22) or (1.22a) give one equation in each direction of the coordinate system
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Momentum
( ) ( ) g q y
(subscripts denote directions). Note that the sign of the integral term depends on
whether the flow enters or leaves the CV and the direction of the velocity itself !
Example 1 4: Example 1.4:
Water from a garden hose (C 15 mm) hits a wall with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine
the force exerted by the water on the wall, when the angle between the water jet
and the wall is 90
(2)
and the wall is 90 .
density of water: =1000 kg/m
3
(1)
(2)
( )

}}
- =
CS
dA V V F
(1)
) ( -
1 2 1z 1 1 1z 2z 2 2 2 z z z z
V V m V A V V A V F = =

CS
in z direction :
(1.23) where
2 2 2 1 1 1
V A V A m = =

) ( V V V A V V A V F

43
) ( -
1 2 1r 1 1 1r 2r 2 2 2 r r r r
V V m V A V V A V F = =

in r direction :
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
result: F
z
=0.707 N
F
r
=0 N
I. Fundamental Equations: Bernoulli Equation
I.3c The Bernoulli equation q
p + gh + V
2
= const.
follows from either the energy conservation equation for steady incompressible
flowwhen there is no heat transfer and no external work except that by pressure
(1.24)
flow when there is no heat transfer and no external work except that by pressure
forces, or from the momentum conservation equation when there are no friction
forces
- it represents the sumof all mechanical energies in the flowand states that in the it represents the sum of all mechanical energies in the flow and states that in the
absence of irreversible losses, this sum remains constant, i.e., energies can be
distributed into different mechanical forms (kinetic, potential, pressure), but the
overall amount remains the same
Note: Bernoullis equation is only valid as long as no loss- or energy-generating
elements are encountered in the flow. It cannot be applied across sharp-edged
inlets abrupt area changes or elements that change the energy of the flow(such inlets, abrupt area changes, or elements that change the energy of the flow (such
as fans, pumps ). However, in most cases, useful information can be found by
applying Bernoullis equation from a reservoir condition up to the loss- or energy-
generatingelement. generating element.
The Bernoulli equation is derived from the momentum conservation equation by
integration along a streamline hence it can only be applied along but in general
not across a streamline
44
not across a streamline.
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations: Bernoulli Equation
Summary Bernoulli equation:
- can only be used when
- viscous effects are negligible
fl i t d d i ibl - flow is steady and incompressible
- flow is along a streamline
The constant of integration in the Bernoulli equation can be evaluated if at one The constant of integration in the Bernoulli equation can be evaluated if at one
location along the streamline sufficient information about the flow is available.
The Bernoulli equation can be considered as a special case of the general energy The Bernoulli equation can be considered as a special case of the general energy
equation it represents the balance of mechanical energies.
Example 1 5: Example 1.5:
Water flows from a faucet (area 2 cm
2
) with a velocity
of 2 m/s.
Further downstream, the column of water narrows down Further downstream, the column of water narrows down
to an area of 1 cm
2
.
At which distance from the faucet does this happen ?
45
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
result: A z =0.612 m
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Momentum
Example 1.6:
A water jet of velocity V
j
=3.5 m/s and a
cross-sectional area of 0.5 m
2
strikes a
curved vane as shown. The vane is moving
at a velocity of V
v
=1 m/s in the positive
x-direction, and it deflects the jet through
an angle of 60. Assuming no frictional
l b t th j t d th f d losses between the jet and the surface and
negligible height differences, determine the
reaction forces F
x
and F
y
.
density of water: =1000 kg/m
3 result: F
x
=1562.5 N
Example 1.7:
A 45 reducing elbow can often be found in
domestic water piping systems. Water flows
density of water: 1000 kg/m
x
F
y
=2706.3 N
directions as shown
into the elbow and is deflected through an
angle of 45. The inlet diameter is 25 mm and
the outlet diameter is 12 mm. The volume
3
flow rate of water is 0.0008 m
3
/s. The inlet
and outlet pressures are, respectively,
160 kPa and 150 kPa. If the elbow is located
i h i t l l h d t i th
result: F =59 1 N
46
in a horizontal plane as shown, determine the
force exerted on it by the moving water.
ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
result: F
x
=59.1 N
F
y
=12.2 N
directions as shown
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Momentum
Example 1.8:
A vertical jet of water is issued from a nozzle (area A
0
) with velocity V
0
. It impinges
on a horizontal disk as shown. This disk has a mass M and can only move in
vertical direction.
Obtain an expression for the speed V(h) of the water jet as a function of height h
above the nozzle exit, and find the height to which the disk will rise and remain
t ti Vi ff t b i d Al i it t t stationary. Viscous effects can be ignored. Also given: gravity constant g .
A
0
result:
(
| |
=
2
2
0
1
2 ) (
M
gh V h V
47 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0
2
0
2
1
A V
Mg
V
g
h

## I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy

I.3d Conservation of energy: gy
change in energy is caused by work and heat transfer
N =E (energy of the system) (specific energy =E/m)
A V n
t
N
t
N
d
D
D
CS
CV total
- +
c
c
=
}}

E E 1 D
| |
c
gz V e
m
E
n + + = =
2
2
1
A V gz V e
t
E
t
E
d
2
1
D
D
CS
2
CV total
-
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c
c
=
}}

thi h f h t b l t th ll t f k d h t t f - this change of energy has to be equal to the overall amount of work and heat transfer
done on the control volume
- for all further calculations in this course we assume:
the flowis steady and incompressible - the flow is steady and incompressible
- there is no heat transfer
- if we consider a CV with an inlet and outlet area and if we assume that all properties
V V E
(
(

|
|

|
|
|

| D
2 2
- if we consider a CV with an inlet and outlet area and if we assume that all properties
are constant over these areas, the energy change becomes
48 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
Q gz
V
e gz
V
e
t
E
in out

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
2 2 D
D
(1.25)
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
h Q i th l t i fl t - here Q is the volumetric flow rate
(1.26)
out out in in
A V A V VA Q = = =
V : velocity ; A : area
- the RHS of the energy equation becomes, in the absence of heat transfer :
body shear press body shear press surf vol
W W W W W W

O + O
body shear press body shear press surf vol
rate of work done
by pressure forces
rate of work done
by friction forces
rate of work done by
body forces by pressure forces by friction forces body forces
- the work done by body forces typically represents so-called shaft work i.e. work
provided by some (usually moving) mechanical device
- the work done by pressure and friction forces can be expressed in the following way:
work =force displacement rate of work =force displacement / time
f l it
49 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
=force velocity
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
t f k d b f rate of work done by pressure force:
- the magnitude of the pressure force is
- the direction of the pressure force is always normal on the surface, pointing towards
the surface
A p F
press
d d =
- the resulting rate of work is a scalar whose value depends on the orientation
that the area vector and the velocity vector have with respect to each other
the surface
- the rate of work done by the pressure force is
(1.27)
V A p W
press
- = d d

that the area vector and the velocity vector have with respect to each other.
- if the area vector has the same direction as the velocity (=flow enters CV surface
at right angle), then
V A p W
press
d d =

(1.27a)
where the sign depends on whether the pressure force and the flow velocity are
pointing in the same (+) or in opposite (-) direction
rate of work done by friction force:
- the magnitude of the friction or shear force is
- the direction of the friction force is always parallel to the surface, along a vector t
A F
shear
d d t =
y p , g
that has the magnitude 1 and that is perpendicular to the area vector dA
- the rate of work done by the friction force is
V t A W t A F - = = ) d ( d ) d ( d t t

(1 28)
50 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
V t A W t A F
shear shear
- = = ) d ( d ) d ( d t t (1.28)
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
There are two cases in which the rate of work done by the friction force is zero,
even if the friction force itself is non-zero.
by choosing the CV properly, the work contributions of the friction forces can
be removed

## - along solid walls, V =0 and hence regardless of the value of t

- at ports (=areas where flow is crossing the boundaries of the CV), the value of
0 d =
shear
W

( g )
shear stress rate of work depends on the orientation that the shear stress vector
and the velocity vector have with respect to each other
- if V is parallel to dA (equivalent to the flow passing through the surface at a right p ( q p g g g
angle), then it is automatically perpendicular to t so that
again regardless of the value of t
0 d 0 = = -
shear
W V t

again regardless of the value of t
in both cases, the RHS of energy equation is simplified
51 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
i i summarising
A V p W W A V gz V e
t
E
t
E
shear body
d d
2
1
D
D
2
- = -
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c
c
=
}} }}

- the term of the rate of work done by pressure forces is often taken to the LHS of
the equation as it also represents an area integral of the same structure as the
t t
y
2 D
CS CS CV total
. \
c
}} }}
the equation as it also represents an area integral of the same structure as the
convective energy term:
(1 29) W W A V V
p E

-
|
|
|

|
+ + + +
c
}}
d
1
2

## - the combination e + p/ is called the enthalpy

(1.29)
shear body
W W A V gz V
p
e
t
= -
|
|
.

\
+ + + +
c
}}
d
2
CS
2
CV

p
e h +
(1 30)
the combination e + p/ is called the enthalpy
- for the case of steady flow entering and leaving the CV at right angles and all

e h +
(1.30)
y g g g g
properties being constant over the port areas, (1.29) simplifies to
Q gz
V
h gz
V
h W (
(

|
|
|

|
+ +
|
|
|

|
+ + =
2 2

(1 31)
52 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
Q gz h gz h W
in out
body

(
(

|
|
.

\
+ +
|
|
.

\
+ + =
2 2
(1.31)
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
(1 31) tifi h th t f k b ht i t ( t k t f) th CV h th (1.31) quantifies how the rate of work brought into (or taken out of) the CV changes the
energy contained in the CV. This energy change has two parts:
mechanical energies:
(1.32)
Q gz
V p
gz
V p
(
(

|
|
|

|
+ +
|
|
|

|
+ +
2 2
mechanical energies:
internal energies:
( )
(1.33)
Q gz gz
in out

(
(

|
|
.

\
+ +
|
|
.

\
+ +
2 2
( ) ( )
in out v in out
T T c Q e e Q =
- the change of internal energies is usually related to a temperature change as internal
energy often depends only on temperature (see (1.15))
- if such a change of internal energy occurs, it is at the expense of the mechanical
energies
- this is most easily shown (and quantified) for a steady incompressible flow of a fluid
in an adiabatic flow section where no shaft work is applied
- choose an adequate CV so that the work rate contribution of the shear force drops choose an adequate CV so that the work rate contribution of the shear force drops
out
53 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
(1 31) th b (1.31) then becomes
0
2 2
= (
(

|
|
|

|
+ + +
|
|
|

|
+ + + Q gz
V p
e gz
V p
e 0
2 2
=
(
(

|
|
.

\
+ + +
|
|
.

\
+ + + Q gz e gz e
in out

if th i h i h f i ti th t i th t t th - if there is a mechanism such as friction that increases the temperature, then
in out
gz
V p
gz
V p
e e
|
|
|

|
+ + <
|
|
|

|
+ + >
2 2
in out
in out
g g
|
|
.

\
|
|
.

\
2 2
- hence any mechanism in the flow that increases the temperature will reduce the
mechanical energy of the system
(converting useful energy into useless energy)
54 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
Example 1.9:
Turbines convert the energy contained within a fluid into mechanical energy or shaft
work. Turbines are often used in power plants with generators to produce electricity.
O h i t ll ti i h b l W t i itt d t fl th h One such installation is shown below. Water is permitted to flow through a passageway
to the turbine, after which the water drains downstream.
For the data given in the figure, determine the power available to the turbine when the
discharge at the outlet is 30 m
3
/s discharge at the outlet is 30 m
3
/s.
Assume uniform flow profiles at the outlet, negligible heat transfer, no change in internal
energy of the water, and steady flow.
water
=1000 kg/m
3
result: MW 7 3 = W

result: MW 7 . 3 = W
55 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
I. Fundamental Equations Integral Form: Conservation of Energy
Example 1.10:
The pump of a water distribution system is powered by a 15 kW electric motor whose
efficiency is 90%. The water flow rate through the pump is 50 l/s. The diameters of the
i l t d tl t i th d th l ti diff th i inlet and outlet pipes are the same, and the elevation difference across the pump is
negligible. If the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the pump are measured to be
100 kPa and 300 kPa (absolute), resp., determine
a) the mechanical efficiency of the pump a) the mechanical efficiency of the pump
b) the temperature rise of water as it flows through the pump
c
v
=4.18 kJ /kg K
water
=1000 kg/m
3
result: q = 74.1%
A T =0 017K
56 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics
A T 0.017 K
Coming up next: g p
Dimensional Analysis
or:
The story of mice and men,
polar bears and dinosaurs,
atomic bombs blast waves atomic bombs, blast waves,
and some really serious work rationalisation.
57 ZEIT 2503 Fluid Mechanics