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Spectrumloading

influenceofthemeanstressonthefatiguestrength.
Probabilisticnatureoffatigue
Ascouponssampledfromahomogeneousframewilldisplayavariationintheirnumberofcyclesto
failure,theSNcurveshouldmoreproperlybeanSNPcurvecapturingtheprobabilityoffailureafter
agivennumberofcyclesofacertainstress.Probabilitydistributionsthatarecommonindataanalysis
andindesignagainstfatigueincludethelognormaldistribution,extremevaluedistribution,
BirnbaumSaundersdistribution,andWeibulldistribution.
Complexloadings
Inpractice,amechanicalpartisexposedtoacomplex,often
random,sequenceofloads,largeandsmall.Inordertoassessthe
safelifeofsuchapart:
Reducethecomplexloadingtoaseriesofsimplecyclic
loadingsusingatechniquesuchasrainflowanalysis;
1.
Createahistogramofcyclicstressfromtherainflow
analysistoformafatiguedamagespectrum;
2.
Foreachstresslevel,calculatethedegreeofcumulative
damageincurredfromtheSNcurve;and
3.
CombinetheindividualcontributionsusinganalgorithmsuchasMiner'srule. 4.
Formultiaxialloading
SinceSNcurvesaretypicallygeneratedforuniaxialloading,someequivalenceruleisneeded
whenevertheloadingismultiaxial.Forsimple,proportionalloadinghistories,Sinesrulemaybe
applied.Formorecomplexsituations,suchasnonproportionalloading,Criticalplaneanalysismustbe
applied.
Miner'sRule
In1945,M.A.MinerpopularisedarulethathadfirstbeenproposedbyA.Palmgrenin1924.Therule,
variouslycalledMiner'sruleorthePalmgrenMinerlineardamagehypothesis,statesthatwherethere
arekdifferentstressmagnitudesinaspectrum,S
i
(1ik),eachcontributingn
i
(S
i
)cycles,thenif
N
i
(S
i
)isthenumberofcyclestofailureofaconstantstressreversalS
i
,failureoccurswhen:
Cisexperimentallyfoundtobebetween0.7and2.2.Usuallyfordesignpurposes,Cisassumedtobe1.
Thiscanbethoughtofasassessingwhatproportionoflifeisconsumedbystressreversalateach
magnitudethenformingalinearcombinationoftheiraggregate.
ThoughMiner'sruleisausefulapproximationinmanycircumstances,ithasseveralmajorlimitations:
Itfailstorecognisetheprobabilisticnatureoffatigueandthereisnosimplewaytorelatelife
predictedbytherulewiththecharacteristicsofaprobabilitydistribution.Industryanalysts
1.
Fatigue(material)Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_(material)
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