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ExampleofaHFMItreatedsteel

highwaybridgetoavoidfatigue
alongtheweldtransition.
Versaillestraindisaster
DrawingofafatiguefailureinanaxlebyJosephGlynn,
1843
isoftenreferredtoasdamagetolerantdesignor"retirementforcause".
Stoppingfatigue
Fatiguecracksthathavebeguntopropagatecansometimesbestoppedbydrillingholes,calleddrill
stops,inthepathofthefatiguecrack.
[18]
Thisisnotrecommendedasageneralpracticebecausethe
holerepresentsastressconcentrationfactorwhichdependsonthesizeoftheholeandgeometry,
thoughtheholeistypicallylessofastressconcentrationthantheremovedtipofthecrack.The
possibilityremainsofanewcrackstartinginthesideofthehole.Itisalwaysfarbettertoreplacethe
crackedpartentirely.
Materialchange
Changesinthematerialsusedinpartscanalsoimprovefatiguelife.Forexample,partscanbemade
frombetterfatigueratedmetals.Completereplacementandredesignofpartscanalsoreduceifnot
eliminatefatigueproblems.Thushelicopterrotorbladesandpropellers inmetalarebeingreplacedby
compositeequivalents.Theyarenotonlylighter,butalsomuchmoreresistanttofatigue.Theyare
moreexpensive,buttheextracostisamplyrepaidbytheirgreaterintegrity,sincelossofarotorblade
usuallyleadstototallossoftheaircraft.Asimilarargumenthasbeenmadeforreplacementofmetal
fuselages,wingsandtailsofaircraft.
[19]
HighFrequencyMechanicalImpact(HFMI)
treatmentofwelds
Thedurabilityandlifeofdynamicallyloaded,weldedsteel
structuresaredeterminedoftenbythewelds,particularbythe
weldtransitions.Byselectivetreatmentofweldtransitionswith
theHighFrequencyMechanicalImpact(HFMI)treatment
method,
[20][21]
thedurabilityofmanydesignscanbeincreased
significantly.Thismethodisuniversallyapplicable,requiresonly
technicalequipmentandoffershighreproducibilityandahigh
gradeofqualitycontrol.
Versaillestraincrash
Following
theKing's
fete
celebrationsatthePalaceofVersailles,atrain
returningtoPariscrashedinMay1842atMeudonaftertheleadinglocomotivebrokeanaxle.The
carriagesbehindpiledintothewreckedenginesandcaughtfire.Atleast55passengerswerekilled
trappedinthecarriages,includingtheexplorerJulesDumontd'Urville.Thisaccidentisknownin
Fatigue(material)Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_(material)
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