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Tacmetro LME - 2002

Manual de Operao e Manuteno

Laboratrio de Mquinas Eltricas - LME

ndice

1. Caractersticas .............................................................. 02
2. Painel Frontal e Suporte do Sensor .................................. 03
3. Pinagem do Conector ..................................................... 05
4. Aferio ....................................................................... 08
5. Encoder ....................................................................... 09
6. Circuito ........................................................................ 11
7. Realimentao do Inversor ............................................. 14
8. Anexos ........................................................................ 16

1. Caractersticas

O Tacmetro foi projetado para fazer a leitura de velocidade angular.


Para tanto, necessita a utilizao de um encoder de 60 dentes e um
sensor ptico do tipo opto-acoplado. A alimentao de 127V.
Alm da uma sada em display que indica a velocidade diretamente
em RPM, tem-se uma sada em tenso e uma sada em freqncia.
Numericamente f=v; f= freqncia lida (Hz), v=velocidade angular do
rotor em RPM (ver detalhes em pinagem).
O projeto inicial limita que o tacmetro opere na faixa de
(0 - 3700
)RPM, porm, esta limitao devido a sada em tenso. A sada em
tenso varia linearmente de 0V a 10V, proporcionalmente a velocidade
medida (0 3700)RPM (ver em Pinagem do Conector). Se
desconsiderarmos a sada em tenso, pode-se medir velocidades mais
altas. Experimentalmente no foram executados ensaios para
determinao da velocidade limite. Teoricamente estima-se que seja da
ordem de 9999 dadas as caractersticas do operacional empregado e da
limitao do display.

2. Painel Frontal
No painel frontal, pode-se observar o boto LIGA/DESL, o conector
(geral) utilizado para a entrada da alimentao, a entrada do sensor
(opto-acoplado), a sada em freqncia e a sada em tenso.
O display de quatro dgitos nos informa a velocidade em RPM medida e
a estampa fixada na parte frontal do painel, ver Figura 1 acima, nos
mostra vrias caractersticas do equipamento, alm de dar detalhes sobre
os terminais do conector.

Figura 1 Painel Frontal

Suporte do Sensor
Na Figura 2 pode-se observar o suporte que sustenta o sensor (optoacoplado). Este suporte permite o posicionamento correto do sensor tanto
em um plano paralelo sua base quanto na altura.
interessante notar que se o sensor no estiver bem posicionado pode
haver erro na leitura da velocidade.

Figura 2 Suporte Sensor

3. Pinagem do Conector
O conector visto na Figura 3, do tipo encaixvel. Para desconect-lo
basta pux-lo para baixo, na Figura 3.

Figura 3 Pinagem Conector


Sada
Tenso

Entrada

Freqncia

Sensor

Alimentao

Out+

Ground

Out+

ground

Blindagem

ground

D+

ground

E+

10

11

12
127Vac

Figura 4 Indicao da Pinagem do Conector


Pinos 1 e 2: sada em tenso
Os pinos 1 e 2 fornecem uma sada cujo sinal composto de uma
tenso que varia linearmente de 0V a 10V (corrente mx., olhar
datasheet anexo), proporcionalmente a velocidade medida (0 3700
RPM; ver Tabela 1). Pino 1 = +V; Pino 2 = ground.

Quadro 1 RPMxTenso

RPM x TENSO DE SADA


6
TENSO DE SADA (V)

[rpm] medido Vout[V]medido


13.00
0.035
22.30
0.059
24.00
0.061
31.00
0.080
35.10
0.089
39.80
0.101
45.80
0.120
50.50
0.130
56.40
0.141
59.80
0.155
64.80
0.163
72.50
0.183
75.20
0.198
81.20
0.218
86.00
0.229
91.30
0.241
95.50
0.248
101.00
0.265
148.00
0.402
198.00
0.535
250.00
0.668
306.00
0.815
354.00
0.955
405.00
1.080
448.00
1.200
508.00
1.360
551.00
1.470
612.00
1.640
650.00
1.750
712.00
1.910
752.00
2.010
812.00
2.170
948.00
2.530
1006.00
2.770
1103.00
2.950
1204.00
3.270
1296.00
3.520
1400.00
3.780
1502.00
4.070
1601.00
4.320
1702.00
4.560
1802.00
4.820

y = 0,0027x - 0,0055

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

RPM

Figura 5 Grfico RPM x Tenso de Sada


equao 1: y=0,0027x
y=Tenso de Sada (V)
x=RPM

O quadro 1 nos demonstra os


valores de sada de tenso medidas
com a ajuda do osciloscpio Tektronix
TDS210 (60MHz) em relao com a
velocidade do motor medida com a
ajuda de um tacmetro ptico.

Pinos 3 e 4: sada em freqncia


Os pinos 3 e 4 fornecem uma sada cujo sinal peridico (onda
quadrada; Vmn=0V, Vmx=12V, 30mA)
cuja freqncia varia
proporcionalmente a velocidade do rotor do motor. Numericametne
f=v; f= freqncia lida (Hz), v=velocidade angular do rotor em
RPM).Pino 3 = +V;Pino 4 = ground.

Pinos 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9: entrada do sensor ptico


Pino
Pino
Pino
Pino
Pino

5:
6:
7:
8:
9:

blindagem
pino D ground do sensor (fio branco)
pino D + do sensor (fio vermelho)
pino E ground do sensor (fio preto ou vermelho)
pino E + no sensor (fio azul ou amarelo)

Pinos 11 e 12: entrada alimentao (127V AC).

Pino 10 no tem funo.

Obs: o conector do tipo encaixvel, sendo possvel, dessa maneira,


podermos separar as conexes de entrada e sada facilmente apenas com
um simples puxar.

4. Aferio
A aferio foi realizada somente na rotao de 1800 RPM, utilizando-se
um motor sncrono de quatro plos alimentado pela rede na freqncia de
60Hz.
Para as medidas nas sadas do tacmetro foi usado o osciloscpio
Tektronix TDS210 (60MHz).
Leituras nas sadas do tacmetro para uma velocidade padro de
1800RPM:
Sada em display: 1800RPM (erro de 0%)
Sada em tenso: 4,64V (erro de 4,64% em relao a equao 1,
ver figura 5, Grfico).
Sada em freqncia:
Quadro 2 Aferio Sada Freqncia
Valores Lidos
1792,000
1795,000
1773,000
1790,000
1815,000
1787,000
1802,000
1792,000
1802,000
1808,000
1811,000
1797,000
1805,000
1811,000
1799,000
1800,000
1822,000
1792,000
Mdia 1799,611

erro %
0,444
0,278
1,500
0,556
-0,833
0,722
-0,111
0,444
-0,111
-0,444
-0,611
0,167
-0,278
-0,611
0,056
0,000
-1,222
0,444

Valores Lidos: valores lidos na sada em


freqncia utilizando o Tektronix TDS 210.
Erro%: erro em relao ao velocidade
padro de 1800RPM.

Exatido: 1,5%
Preciso: 1,5%

5. Encoder
Para o funcionamento correto, este tacmetro deve utilizar um encoder
com 60 dentes.

Figura 6 - Escala Utilizada

O sensor utilizado do tipo opto-acoplado.

Figura 7 - Sensor

10

6. Circuito
Abaixo tem-se o circuito projetado, implementado e j montado em seu
local definitivo (caixa metlica).
Para um funcionamento adequado, necessrio que se coloque as
portas lgicas 74HC04 (portas rpidas).

Figura 8 Circuito Implementado


Para proteo do circuito projetado, foi colocado um fusvel de 0,3A em
srie com a alimentao.
Na figura 9 tem-se uma representao da lgica (os nveis lgicos de
tenso em vrios pontos do circuito em relao ao tempo) que
necessria para que o componente ICM7217A demonstre no display a
velocidade em RPM.

11

Lgica do circuito que controla o ICM7217A


Nvel lgico de tenso
Q0a
Q1a
Q3a
P1
P2
P3
STORE
P4
P5
RESET
tempo

Figura 18 - Lgica do circuito que controla o ICM7217A


Na figura acima, tm-se uma representao da lgica (os nveis lgicos de tenso em vrios pontos do circuito em relao ao tempo)
necessrios para que o componente ICM7217A demonstre no display a velocidade em RPM

12

12V1/12V2 = 12Vac (oriundos de um trafo 2X12V/derivao central)


1
ALIM
12V1 1
2
3
12V2

in

out
ground

VDD
VCC

PAD

in

out
ground

12V

Vdd
Cb
Q2b
Q1b
Q0b
/5 /6
Qm
A

VDD
1n 63V

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9

R1
1M

MC14566

OUTSENSOR

10

OUTFRE

1
2
OUTSENSOR3
R7
4
47K
5
6
7

COMP2C

PIN2

VDD 8
4093

OUTFREQ

1K

R6
10K

12V

OUT1
IN1IN1+
VCC
IN2+
IN2OUT2

LM324

OUTSENSOR
CAP3

12V1

PIN11
1
D
2
B
3
F
4
C
5
A
6
E
7
G
D4 8
D3 9
D2 10
D1 11

DD2

DD1

DD3

DD5

R8
100K

CAP4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

GG
display2

1
2
3
4
5
G
F
GRD
A
B

DIS4
DISPLAY

ground
Vcc

556
PIN2

12V

3K3

4u5 63V

RTenso

LM2907
R9

3K3

56K

Out. Freqncia
30mA

OUTTENSAO

1K

E
D
GRD
C
POINT

DIS3
DISPLAY

E
D
GRD
C
POINT

G
F
GRD
A
B

DIS2
DISPLAY

CAP5

OUTTENSAO1
14
13
12
11
10
9
8

R10
10K

546

OUTFREQ

3K3

10
9
8
7
6

PIN11

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
DIS1
DISPLAY

10
9
8
7
6

ICM7217A

3n9

G
F
GRD
A
B

display

OUT.TENS
OUTTENS

BB
AA
FF
DD 1
BB 2
FF 3
CC 4
AA 5
EE 6
GG 7
DD4 8
DD3 9
DD210
DD111

12V

10u 63V
100n

E
D
GRD
C
POINT

D4
D3
D2
D1

15
14
13
12
10
9
8

IN4+
IN4IN4+
VSS
IN3+
IN3OUT3

O capacitor em paralelo com R8 serve como filtro.

D
B
F
C
VDD
A
E
G

10
9
8
7
6

D
B
store
F
C
up/down V+
A
E
G
DISPCONT
GROUND
D4
D3
D2
reset
D1

1
2
3
4
5

28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15

count

G
F
GRD
A
B

RESET14
C

PIN5SENSOR

R3
5K6

E
D
GRD
C
POINT

VDD 10

10K

7812

10
9
8
7
6

STORE 9

OUTFREQ 1

R5
3K3

PAD

CDISPL
8

CAP2

OUT.FREQ
R4
330

R2

1
COUNT

VDD

E+
Eground
D+
Dground
armor

D+

Ca
Reset
Q0a
Q1a
Q2a
Q3a
B
Vss

E+ 1
2
D+3
4
5

E+

1
RESETTEMP 2
Q0a 3
Q1a 4
Q2a 5
Q3a 6
7
8

CONT2
1

SENSOR
TEMP

CAP

DIODE

Rfreq

7805
CAP1 250u 63V

DIODE
DIODO2 1N4004
12V2
PIN3

DIODO1 1N4004
12V1

CONT1

EE
DD
CC
DD2

DD3

DD4

DD1

VCC

GND

P3
P1 5

4093

12

74HC04

10

COMP5A
74HC04 VCC
1

VDD
14
2

P3 3

COMP5B
3

STORE

14
4

COUNT

COMP3A
1

P4

COMP4A
VDD

VDD
14

COMP5C

3 RESET 5

COMP4B

COMP5D

Q1a 2

CK

1
COMP1A

VDD

4013
GND

4
4093 GND

RESETTEMP

Q0a 5

74HC04

74HC04

4093

VDD

74HC04
GND

14

11
13

CK

4013

12

COMP1B

Q0a 11

COMP4D

Q3a 9

COMP3B
13 P1

74HC04

VCC

12

14

10

COMP4C

COMP5F

12

COMP5E
13

10

11

VDD 4093

4093

74HC04

74HC04

VDD

Colocar portas rpidas do HC)

13

COMP1E

COMP2B

2
1

COMP1F
74HC04

11

COMP2A
GND

10
74HC04

OUTSENSOR8
4093

COMP1D
74HC04
COMP1C

P4
Title
TACMETRO LME - 2002

74HC04
Size

Number

Revision

B
Date:
File:
1

12-Sep-2002
Sheet of
D:\ManualTacometro\Circuito\TacometroManual.DDB
Drawn By: Fbio Ricardo Auler
6

7. Realimentao do Inversor
Para que o inversor de sinais (Danfoss - VLT srie 5000) possa ser
realimentado pelo sinal de sada em freqncia do tacmetro necessrio
que se faa uma reconfigurao de parmetros.

Para que se possa fazer as


configuraes necessrias deve-se
apertar a boto MENU e aps +/(ver Figura 11).
O boto QUICK MENU deve ser
usado para o controle local.
Obs:
No inversor deve-se interligar
os pinos 12, 18 e 27.
Interligar o pino 3 (tacmetro;
ver figura3) com o pino 20
(inversor) e o pino 4 (tacmetro)
com o pino 33 (inversor).

figura5 Painel Inversor

Figura 11 Painel Inversor


Os parmetros com os nmeros abaixo devem estar com as seguintes
especificao:
Configurao para lao fechado (controle realimentado)
004
100
101
204
205
227
228
300
301

Active Setup
Speed Closed Loop (para sistema realimentado)
Cte Torque
Min Reference = 0 RPM
Max Reference = 1500 RPM
Warm Feedback Low = 0
Warm Feedback High = 1900
Digital Input 16 = No Operation
Digital Input 17 = No Operation
14

302
303
304
305
306
307
308
311
314
319
321
323
326
329
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421

Digital Input 18 = Start


Digital Input 19 = No Operation
Digital Input 27 = Coast Inverse
Digital Input 29 = No Operation
Digital Input 32 = No Operation
Digital Input 33 = Encoder Fb, Input A
No Operation
No Operation
No Operation
No Operation
No Operation
No Operation
No Operation
Encoder Pulse = 60
Min Feedback = 0 RPM
Max Feedback = 1800 RPM
Ref. Feedback Unit = RPM
Speed Prop. Gain = 0,015
Speed Int. Gain = 60ms
Speed Diff. Gain = 8.5ms
Speed D /Gain Lim = 05,0
Speed Filt-time = 10ms

Para que o inversor possa ser controlado pelo PC basta colocar o


parmetro 002 no modo REMOTO (neste modo no poder-se controlar o
mesmo via painel (Figura 11).
Para controle local:
Quick Menu teclas +/- entrar no parmetro 003 (Local Reference)

15

8. Anexos

16

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

DATA SHEET
For a complete data sheet, please also download:
The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications
The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Information
The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Outlines

74HC/HCT04
Hex inverter
Product specification
File under Integrated Circuits, IC06

September 1993

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

Hex inverter

74HC/HCT04

FEATURES
Output capability: standard
ICC category: SSI
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The 74HC/HCT04 are high-speed Si-gate CMOS devices and are pin compatible with low power Schottky TTL (LSTTL).
They are specified in compliance with JEDEC standard no. 7A. The 74HC/HCT04 provide six inverting buffers.
QUICK REFERENCE DATA
GND = 0 V; Tamb = 25 C; tr = tf = 6 ns
TYPICAL
SYMBOL

PARAMETER

CONDITIONS

UNIT
HC

tPHL/ tPLH

propagation delay nA to nY

CI
CPD

CL = 15 pF; VCC = 5 V

HCT

ns

input capacitance

3.5

3.5

pF

power dissipation capacitance per gate notes 1 and 2

21

24

pF

Notes
1. CPD is used to determine the dynamic power dissipation (PD in W):
PD = CPD VCC2 fi + (CL VCC2 fo) where:
fi = input frequency in MHz
fo = output frequency in MHz
(CL VCC2 fo) = sum of outputs
CL = output load capacitance in pF
VCC = supply voltage in V
2. For HC the condition is VI = GND to VCC
For HCT the condition is VI = GND to VCC 1.5 V
ORDERING INFORMATION
See 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Information.

September 1993

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

Hex inverter

74HC/HCT04

PIN DESCRIPTION
PIN NO.

SYMBOL

NAME AND FUNCTION

1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13

1A to 6A

data inputs

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12

1Y to 6Y

data outputs

GND

ground (0 V)

14

VCC

positive supply voltage

Fig.1 Pin configuration.

Fig.2 Logic symbol.

Fig.3 IEC logic symbol.

FUNCTION TABLE
INPUT

OUTPUT

nA

nY

L
H

H
L

Notes
1. H = HIGH voltage level
L = LOW voltage level

Fig.5
Fig.4 Functional diagram.

September 1993

Logic diagram
(one inverter).

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

Hex inverter

74HC/HCT04

DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR 74HC


For the DC characteristics see 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications.
Output capability: standard
ICC category: SSI
AC CHARACTERISTICS FOR 74HC
GND = 0 V; tr = tf = 6 ns; CL = 50 pF
Tamb (C)

TEST CONDITIONS

74HC
SYMBOL PARAMETER

40 to +85

+25
min.
tPHL/ tPLH

tTHL/ tTLH

typ.

max.

min.

max.

40 to +125
min.

UNIT

VCC
WAVEFORMS
(V)

max.

propagation delay
nA to nY

25
9
7

85
17
14

105
21
18

130
26
22

ns

2.0
4.5
6.0

Fig.6

output transition
time

19
7
6

75
15
13

95
19
16

110
22
19

ns

2.0
4.5
6.0

Fig.6

September 1993

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

Hex inverter

74HC/HCT04

DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR 74HCT


For the DC characteristics see 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications.
Output capability: standard
ICC category: SSI
Note to HCT types
The value of additional quiescent supply current (ICC) for a unit load of 1 is given in the family specifications.
To determine ICC per unit, multiply this value by the unit load coefficient shown in the table below.
INPUT

UNIT LOAD COEFFICIENT

nA

1.20

AC CHARACTERISTICS FOR 74HC


GND = 0 V; tr = tf = 6 ns; CL = 50 pF
Tamb (C)

TEST CONDITIONS

74HCT
SYMBOL PARAMETER

40 to +85

+25
min.

typ.

max.

min.

max.

40 to +125
min.

UNIT

VCC
(V)

WAVEFORMS

max.

tPHL/ tPLH

propagation delay
nA to nY

10

19

24

29

ns

4.5

Fig.6

tTHL/ tTLH

output transition
time

15

19

22

ns

4.5

Fig.6

AC WAVEFORMS

(1) HC : VM = 50%; VI = GND to VCC


HCT: VM = 1.3 V; VI = GND to 3 V

Fig.6

Waveforms showing the data input (nA) to data output (nY) propagation delays and the output transition
times.

PACKAGE OUTLINES
See 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Outlines.

September 1993

INTRODUCTION
Frequency to voltage converters are available in a number
of forms from a number of sources, but invariably require
significant additional components before they can be put to
use in a given situation. The LM2907, LM2917 series of
devices was developed to overcome these objections. Both
input and output interface circuitry is included on chip so
that a minimum number of additional components is required to complete the function. In keeping with the systems
building block concept, these devices provide an output
voltage which is proportional to input frequency and provide
zero output at zero frequency. In addition, the input may be
referred to ground. The devices are designed to operate

National Semiconductor
Application Note 162
June 1976

from a single supply voltage, which makes them particularly


suitable for battery operation.
PART 1GENERAL OPERATION PRINCIPLES
Circuit Description
Referring to Figure 1, the family of devices all include three
basic components: an input amplifier with built-in hysteresis;
a charge pump frequency to voltage converter; and a versatile op amp/comparator with an uncommitted output transistor. LM2917 incorporates an active zener regulator on-chip.
LM2907 deletes this option. Both versions are obtainable in
14-pin and in 8-pin dual-in-line molded packages, and to
special order in other packages.

LM2907N-8

LM2917N-8

TL/H/7451 1

LM2907N

TL/H/7451 2

LM2917N

TL/H/7451 4

C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation

TL/H/7451

RRD-B30M115/Printed in U. S. A.

AN-162

TL/H/7451 3

FIGURE 1. Block Diagrams

LM2907 Tachometer/Speed Switch Building Block Applications

LM2907 Tachometer/Speed
Switch Building Block
Applications

required to return the capacitor on pin 2 to the high level


voltage is duplicated and used to charge the capacitor connected to pin 3. Thus in one cycle of input the capacitor on
pin 3 gets charged twice with a charge of CV.

Input Hysteresis Amplifier


The equivalent schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2. Q1
through Q11 comprise the input hysteresis amplifier. Q1
through Q4 comprise an input differential amplifier which, by
virtue of PNP level shifting, enables the circuit to operate
with signals referenced to ground. Q7, Q8, D4, and D5 comprise an active load with positive feedback. This load behaves as a bi-stable flip-flop which may be set or reset depending upon the currents supplied from Q2 and Q3. Consider the situation where Q2 and Q3 are conducting equally,
i.e. the input differential voltage is zero. Assuming Q7 to be
conducting, it will be noted that the current from Q3 will be
drawn by Q7 and Q8 will be in the OFF state. This allows
the current from Q2 to drive Q7 in parallel with D4 and a
small resistor. D4 and Q7 are identical geometry devices, so
that the resistor causes Q7 to be biased at a higher level
than D4. Thus Q7 will be able to conduct more current than
Q3 provides. In order to reverse the state of Q7 and Q8, it
will be necessary to reduce the current from Q2 below that
provided by Q3 by an amount which is established by R1. It
can be shown that this requires a differential input to Q1 and
Q4, of approximately 15mV. Since the circuit is symmetrical,
the threshold voltage to reverse the state is 15 mV in the
other direction. Thus the input amplifier has built-in hysteresis at g 15 mV. This provides clean switching where noise
may be present on the input signal, and allows total rejection of noise below this amplitude where there is no input
signal.

Thus the total charge pumped into the capacitor on pin 3


per cycle is:
Q e 2 CV
(2)
Now, since V e VCC/2
then
Q e CVCC
(3)
A resistor connected between pin 3 and ground causes a
discharge of the capacitor on pin 3, where the total charge
drained per cycle of input signal is equal to:
V3 # T
R
where V3 e the average voltage on pin 3
T e period of input signal
R e resistor connected to pin 3
In equilibrium Q e Q1
V3 # T
i.e., CVCC e
R
Q1 e

RC
T
or
V3 e VCC # R # C # f
where f e input frequency
and

CV
I

(5)
(6)

Op Amp/Comparator
Again referring to Figure 2, the op amp/comparator includes
Q35 through Q45. A PNP input stage again provides input
common-mode voltages down to zero, and if pin 8 is connected to VCC and the output taken from pin 5, the circuit
behaves as a conventional, unity-gain-compensated operational amplifier. However, by allowing alternate connections
of Q45 the circuit may be used as a comparator in which
loads to either VCC or ground may be switched. Q45 is capable of sinking 50 mA. Input bias current is typically 50 nA,
and voltage gain is typically 200 V/mV. Unity gain slew rate
is 0.2 V/ms. When operated as a comparator Q45 emitter
will switch at the slew rate, or the collector of Q45 will
switch at that rate multiplied by the voltage gain of Q45,
which is user selectable.

Charge Pump
The charge pump is composed of Q12 through Q32. R4, R5,
and R6 provide reference voltages equal to 1/4 and 3/4 of
supply voltage to Q12 and Q13. When Q10 turns ON or
OFF, the base voltage at Q16 changes by an amount
equal to the voltage across R5, that is 1/2 VCC. A capacitor
connected between Pin 2 and ground is either charged by
Q21 or discharged by Q22 until its voltage matches that on
the base of Q16. When the voltage on Q16 base goes low,
Q16 turns ON, which results in Q18 and Q26 turning on,
which causes the current, sourced by Q19 and Q20, to be
shunted to ground. Thus Q21 is unable to charge pin 2.
Meanwhile, Q27 and Q30 are turned off permitting the
200 mA sourced by Q28 and Q29 to enter the emitters of
Q31 and Q32 respectively. The current from Q31 is mirrored
by Q22 through Q24 resulting in a 200 mA discharge current
through pin 2. The external capacitor on pin 2 is thus discharged at a constant rate until it reaches the new base
voltage on Q16. The time taken for this discharge to occur is
given by:
te

V3 e VCC #

(4)

Active Zener Regulator


The optional active zener regulator is also shown in Figure
2. D8 provides the voltage reference in conjunction with
Q33. As the supply voltage rises, D8 conducts and the base
voltage on Q33 starts to rise. When Q33 has sufficient base
voltage to be turned ON, it in turn causes Q34 to conduct
current from the power source. This reduces the current
available for D8 and the negative feedback loop is thereby
completed. The reference voltage is therefore the zener
voltage on D8 plus the emitter base voltage of Q33. This
results in a low temperature coefficient voltage.

(1)

where

C e capacitor on pin 2
V e change in voltage on Q16 base
I e current in Q22
During this time, Q32 sources an identical current into pin 3.
A capacitor connected to pin 3 will thus be charged by the
same current for the same amount of time as pin 2. When
the base voltage on Q16 goes high, Q18 and Q26 are
turned off while Q27 and Q30 are turned ON. In these
conditions, Q21 and Q25 provide the currents to charge the
capacitors on pins 2 and 3 respectively. Thus the charge

Input Levels and Protection


In 8-pin versions of the LM2907, LM2917, the non-inverting
input of the op amp/comparator is connected to the output
of the charge pump. Also, one input to the input hysteresis
amplifier is connected to ground. The other input (pin 1) is
then protected from transients by, first a 10kX series resis-

*Note: This connection made on LM2907-8 and LM2917-8 only.

Note: Pin numbers refer to 14-pin package.

**Note: This connection made on LM2917 and LM2917-8 only.

FIGURE 2. Equivalent Schematic Diagram

TL/H/7451 5

tor, R3 (Figure 2) which is located in a floating isolation


pocket, and secondly by clamp diode D1. Since the voltage
swing on the base of Q1 is thus restricted, the only restriction on the allowable voltage on pin 1 is the breakdown
voltage of the 10 kX resistor. This allows input swings to
g 28V. In 14-pin versions the link to D1 is opened in order to
allow the base of Q1 to be biased at some higher voltage.
Q5 clamps the negative swing on the base of Q1 to about
300 mV. This prevents substrate injection in the region of
Q1 which might otherwise cause false switching or erroneous discharge of one of the timing capacitors.
The differential input options (LM2907-14, LM2917-14), give
the user the option of setting his own input switching level
and still having the hysteresis around that level for excellent
noise rejection in any application.

Second, if R1 is too large, it can become a significant fraction of the output impedance at pin 3 which degrades linearity. Finally, ripple voltage must be considered, and the size
of C2 is affected by R1. An expression that describes the
ripple content on pin 3 for a single R1, C2 combination is:
VCC C1
VRIPPLE e
#
2
C2

#1

V
b CC

# fIN # C1
I2

J p-p

It appears R1 can be chosen independent of ripple, however response time, or the time it takes VOUT to stabilize at a
new frequency increases as the size of C2 increases, so a
compromise between ripple, response time, and linearity
must be cosen carefully. R1 should be selected according
to the following relationship:
C is selected according to:
V3 Full Scale
R1 # VCC # fFULL SCALE
Next decide on the maximum ripple which can be accepted
and plug into the following equation to determine C2:
C1 e

HOW TO USE IT
Basic f to V Converter
The operation of the LM2907, LM2917 series is best understood by observing the basic converter shown in Figure 3. In
this configuration, a frequency signal is applied to the input
of the charge pump at pin 1. The voltage appearing at pin 2
will swing between two values which are approximately 1/4
(VCC) b VBE and 3/4 (VCC) b VBE. The voltage at pin 3 will
have a value equal to VCC # fIN # C1 # R1 # K, where K is
the gain constant (normally 1.0).
The emitter output (pin 4) is connected to the inverting input
of the op amp so that pin 4 will follow pin 3 and provide a
low impedance output voltage proportional to input frequency. The linearity of this voltage is typically better than 0.3%
of full scale.

VCC
C1
V3
C2 e
1b
#
2
VRIPPLE
R1I2
The kind of capacitor used for timing capacitor C1 will determine the accuracy of the unit over the temperature range.
Figure 15 illustrates the tachometer output as a function of
temperature for the two devices. Note that the LM2907 operating from a fixed external supply has a negative temperature coefficient which enables the device to be used with
capacitors which have a positive temperature coefficient
and thus obtain overall stabililty. In the case of the LM2917
the internal zener supply voltage has a positive coefficient
which causes the overall tachometer output to have a very
low temperature coefficient and requires that the capacitor
temperature coefficient be balanced by the temperature coefficient of R1.

Choosing R1, C1 and C2


There are some limitations on the choice of R1, C1 and C2
(Figure 3) which should be considered for optimum performance. C1 also provides internal compensation for the
charge pump and should be kept larger than 100 pF. Smaller values can cause an error current on R1, especially at
low temperatures. Three considerations must be met when
choosing R1.
First, the output current at pin 3 is internally fixed and therefore V3 max, divided by R1, must be less than or equal to
this value.

Using Zener Regulated Options (LM2917)


For those applications where an output voltage or current
must be obtained independently of the supply voltage variations, the LM2917 is offered. The reference typically has an
11X source resistance. In choosing a dropping resistor from
the unregulated supply to the device note that the tachometer and op amp circuitry alone require about 3 mA at the
voltage level provided by the zener. At low supply voltages,

V3 max
.
. . R1 t
I3MIN
where V3 max is the full scale output voltage required
13MIN is determined from the data sheet (150 mA)

TL/H/7451 6

FIGURE 3. Basic f to V Converter


4

there must be some current flowing in the resistor above the


3 mA circuit current to operate the regulator. As an example, if the raw supply varies from 9V to 16V, a resistance of
470X will minimize these zener voltage variations to 160
mV. If the resistor goes under 400X or over 600X the zener
variation quickly rises above 200 mV for the same input variation. Take care also that the power dissipation of the IC is
not exceeded at higher supply voltages. Figure 4 shows
suitable dropping resistor values.

Input Interface Circuits


The ground referenced input capability of the LM2907-8 allows direct coupling to transformer inputs, or variable reluctance pickups. Figure 5(a) illustrates this connection. In
many cases, the frequency signal must be obtained from
another circuit whose output may not go below ground. This
may be remedied by using ac coupling to the input of the
LM2907 as illustrated in Figure 5(b). This approach is very
suitable for use with phototransistors for optical pickups.
Noisy signal sources may be coupled as shown in Figure
5(c). The signal is bandpass filtered. This can be used, for
example, for tachometers operating from breakerpoints on a
conventional Kettering ignition system. Remember that the
minimum input signal required by the LM2907 is only 30
mVp-p, but this signal must be able to swing at least 15 mV
on either side of the inverting input. The maximum signal
which can be applied to the LM2907 input, is g 28V. The
input bias current is a typically 100 nA. A path to ground
must be provided for this current through the source or by
other means as illustrated. With 14-pin package versions of
LM2907, LM2917, it is possible to bias the inverting input to
the tachometer as illustrated in Figure 5(d). This enables the
circuit to operate with input signals that do not go to ground,
but are referenced at higher voltages. Alternatively, this
method increases the noise immunity where large signal

TL/H/7451 7

FIGURE 4. Zener Regular Bias Resistor Range

TL/H/74518

TL/H/7451 9

(a) Ground Referenced Inputs

(b) AC Coupled Input

TL/H/7451 11

TL/H/7451 10

(c) Bandpass Filtered Input


Reduces Noise

TL/H/7451 12

(d) Above Ground Sensing

(e) High Common-Mode Rejection Input Circuit


FIGURE 5. Tachometer Input Configurations
5

placed in series with the output to protect the LED and the
output transistor.

levels are available but large noise signals on ground are


also present. To take full advantage of the common-mode
rejection of the input differential stage, a balanced bias configuration must be provided. One such circuit is illustrated in
Figure 5(e). With this arrangement, the effective commonmode rejection may be virtually infinite, owing to the input
hysteresis.

This circuit has no hysteresis in it, i.e., the turn ON and


turn OFF speed voltages are essentially equal. In cases
where speed may be fluctuating at a high rate and a flashing
LED would be objectionable, it is possible to incorporate
hysteresis so that the switch-on speed is above the switchoff speed by a controlled amount. Such a configuration is
illustrated in Figure 6(b). Figure 6(c) shows how a grounded
load can also be switched by the circuit. In this case, the
current limiting resistor is placed in the collector of the power transistor. The base current of the output transistor (Q45)
is limited by a 5 kX base resistor (see Figure 2 ). This raises
the output resistance so that the output swing will be reduced at full load.
The op amp/comparator is internally compensated for unity
gain feedback configurations as in Figure 6(d). By directly
connecting the emitter output to the non-inverting input, the
op amp may be operated as a voltage follower. Note that a
load resistor is required externally. The op amp can also be
operated, of course, as an amplifier, integrator, active filter,
or in any other normal operational amplifier configuration.
One unique configuration which is not available with standard operational amplifiers, is shown in Figure 6(e). Here
the collector of the output transistor is used to drive a load

Output Configurations
LM2907, LM2917 series devices incorporate an unusually
flexible op amp/comparator device on-chip for interfacing
with a wide variety of loads. This flexibility results from the
availability of both the collector and emitter of the output
transistor which is capable of driving up to 50 mA of load
current. When the non-inverting input is higher than the inverting input, this output transistor is turned ON. It may be
used to drive loads to either the positive or the negative
supply with the emitter or collector respectively connected
to the other supply. For example, Figure 6(a), a simple
speed switch can be constructed in which the speed signal
derived from the frequency to voltage converter is compared to a reference derived simply by a resistive divider
from the power supply. When the speed signal exceeds the
reference, the output transistor turns on the light emitting
diode in the load. A small current limiting resistor should be

TL/H/745113

(a) Switching an LED

TL/H/7451 14

(b) Adding Hysteresis


to LED Switch

TL/H/745116

(d) Voltage Follower

TL/H/7451 15

(c) Switching a Grounded Load

TL/H/7451 17

(e) Voltage to Current Converter


FIGURE 6. Output Configurations

TL/H/7451 18

(f) Integrator

Figure 7 illustrates methods for protecting against these and


other transients. Figure 7(a) shows a typical situation in
which the power supply to the LM2907 can be provided
through a dropping resistor and regulated by an external
zener diode Z1, but the output drive is required to operate
from the full available supply voltage. In this case, a separate protection zener Z2 must be provided if the voltage on
the power line is expected to exceed the maximum rated
voltage of the LM2907.
In Figure 7(b) and Figure 7(c), the output transistor is required only to drive a simple resistive load and no secondary protection circuits are required. (Note that the dropping
resistor to the zener also has to supply current to the output
circuit). With the foregoing circuits, reverse supply protection is supplied by the forward biased zener diode. This device should be a low forward resistance unit in order to limit
the maximum reverse voltage applied to the integrated circuit. Excessive reverse voltage on the IC can cause high
currents to be conducted by the substrate diodes with consequent danger of permanent damage. Up to 1V negative
can generally be tolerated. Versions with internal zeners
may be self-protecting depending on the size of dropping
resistor used. In applications where large negative voltage

with a current which is proportional to the input voltage. In


other words, the circuit is operating as a voltage to current
converter. This is ideal for driving remote signal sensors and
moving coil galvanometers. Figure 6(f) shows how an active
integrator can be used to provide an output which falls with
increasing speed.
These are the basic configurations obtainable with the op
amp/comparator. Further combinations can be seen in the
applications shown in Part II of this application note.
Transient Protection
Many application areas use unregulated power supplies
which tend to expose the electronics to potentially damaging transients on the power supply line. This is particularly
true in the case of automotive applications where two such
transients are common.1 First is the load dump transient.
This occurs when a dead battery is being charged at a high
current and the battery cable comes loose, so that the current in the alternator inductance produces a positive transient on the line in the order of 60V to 120V. The second
transient is called field decay. This occurs when the ignition
is turned OFF and the energy stored in the field winding
of the alternator causes a negative 75V transient on the
ignition line.

TL/H/7451 20
TL/H/7451 19

(a)

(b)

TL/H/7451 22
TL/H/7451 21

(c)

(d)
FIGURE 7. Transient Protection Schemes

The concept of building blocks requires that a function be


performed in the same way as it can be mathematically defined. In other words, a frequency to voltage converter will
provide an output voltage proportional to frequency which is
independent of the input voltage or other input parameters,
except the frequency. In the same way, the output voltage
will be zero when the input frequency is zero. These features are built into the LM2907.
Applications for the device range from simple speed switch
for anti-pollution control device functions in automobiles, to
motor speed controls in industrial applications. The applications circuits which follow are designed to illustrate some of
the capabilities of the LM2907. In most cases, alternative
input or output configurations can be mixed and matched at
will and other variations can be determined from the description in Part I of this application note. For complete
specifications, refer to the data sheet.

transients may be anticipated, a blocking diode may be connected in the power supply line to the IC as illustrated in
Figure 7(d). During these negative transients, the diode D1
will be reverse biased and prevent reverse currents flowing
in the IC. If these transients are short and the capacitor C1
is large enough, then the power to the IC can be sustained.
This is useful to prevent change of state or change of
charge in in systems connected to it.
Temperature Ranges and Packaging Considerations
The LM2907, LM2917 series devices are specified for operation over the temperature range b40 C to a 85 C.
The devices are normally packaged in molded epoxy, dualin-line packages. Other temperature ranges and other packages are availabe to special order. For reliability requirements beyond those of normal commercial application
where the cost of military qualification is not bearable, other
programs are available such as B a .

Speed Switches
Perhaps the most natural application of the LM2907 is in
interfacing with magnetic pickups, such as the one illustrated in Figure 8 to perform speed switching functions. As an
example, New York taxies are required to change the intensity of the warning horn above and below 45 mph. Other
examples include an over-speed warning, where a driver
may set the desired maximum speed and have an audible

PART IIAPPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
The LM 2907, LM2917 series devices were designed not
only to perform the basic frequency to voltage function required in many systems, but also to provide the input and
output interface so often needed, so that low cost implementations of complete functions are available.

TL/H/7451 23

FIGURE 8. Typical Magnetic Pickup

TL/H/7451 25
TL/H/745124

FIGURE 10. RC Selection Chart

FIGURE 9. Simple Speed Switch Load is Energized


1
when fIN l
2C1R1
8

the output current is conducted along the supply line so that


a local current sensing device in the supply line can be used
to get a direct reading of the frequency at the remote location where the electronics may also be situated. The small
zero speed offset due to the device quiescent current may
be compensated by offsetting the zero on the display device. This also permits one display device to be shared between several inputs.

or visual warning of speeds in excess of that level. Many


anti-pollution devices included on several recent automobile
models have included a speed switch to disable the vacuum
advance function until a certain speed is attained2. A circuit
which will perform these kind of functions is shown in Figure
9. A typical magnetic pickup for automotive applications will
provide a thousand pulses per mile so that at 60 mph the
incoming frequency will be 16.6 Hz. If the reference level on
the comparator is set by two equal resistors R1 and R2 then
the desired value of C1 and R1 can be determined from the
simple relationship:
VCC
e VCC # C1 # R1 # f.
2
or
C1R1f e 0.5
and hence
C1R1 e 0.03
From the RC selection chart in Figure 10 we can choose
suitable values for R1 and C1. Examples are 100 kX and
0.3 mF. The circuit will then switch at approximately 60 mph
with the stated input frequency relationship to speed. To
determine the ripple voltage refer back to the equation for
ripple voltage (under Choosing R1, C1 and C2). From this
we can determine that there will be about 10 mV of ripple at
the switching level. To prevent this from causing chattering
of the load a certain amount of hysteresis is added by including R3. This will provide typically 1% of supply as a
hysteresis or 1.2 mph in the example. Note that since the
reference to the comparator is a function of supply voltage
as is the output from the charge pump there is no need to
regulate the power supply. The frequency at which switching occurs is independent of supply voltage.
In some industrial applications it is useful to have an indication of past speed excesses, for example in notifying the
need for checking of bearings. The LM2907 can be made to
latch until the power supply is turned OFF in the case
where the frequency exceeds a certain limit, by simply connecting the output transistor emitter back to the non-inverting input of the comparator as shown in Figure 11. It can
also serve to shut off a tape recorder or editing machine at
the end of a rewind cycle. When the speed suddenly increases, the device will sense the condition and shut down
the motor.

TL/H/7451 26

TL/H/7451 27

VO e FINV a R1 C1
SETPOINT e V a

Analog Displays
The LM2907, LM2917 series devices are particularly useful
for analog display of frequency inputs. In situations where
the display device is a moving coil instrument the advantages of the uncommitted output transistor can be realized
by providing a current drive to the meter. This avoids temperature tracking problems with the varying meter resistance and enables high resistance instruments to be driven
accurately with relatively large voltages as illustrated in Figure 12. The LM2917 version is employed here to provide a
regulated current to the instrument. The onboard 7.6V zener
is compatible with car and boat batteries and enables the
moving coil instrument to employ the full battery voltage for
its deflection. This enables high torque meters to be used.
This is particularly useful in high vibration environments
such as boats and motorcycles. In the case of boats, the
most common speed pickup for the knot meter employs a
rotating propeller driving a magnetic pickup device. Meteorologists employ a large number of anemometers for measuring wind velocities and these are frequently coupled by a
magnetic pickup. In examples like these, where there is frequently a large distance between the display device and the
sensor, the configuration of Figure 13 can be usefully employed to cut down on the number of wires needed. Here

RB
RD a RA

Latchup occurs when


1
RB
FIN e
RA a RB R1 C1
Independent of V a !

FIGURE 11. Overspeed Latch

TL/H/7451 28

FIGURE 12. Analog Display of Frequency

Automotive Tachometer
Not all inputs are derived from variable reluctance magnetic
pickups; for example, in spark ignition engines the tachometer is generally driven from the spark coil. An interface circuit for this situation is shown in Figure 14. This tachometer
can be set up for any number of cylinders by linking the
appropriate timing resistor as illustrated. A 500X trim resistor can be used to set up final calibration. A protection circuit composed of a 10X resistor and a zener diode is also
shown as a safety precaution against the transients which
are to be found in automobiles.
Motor Speed Controls
DC motors with or without brushes can be purchased with
ac tachometer outputs already provided by the manufacturer3. With these motors in combination with the

TL/H/745129

TL/H/7451 32

FIGURE 15. Normalized Tachometer


Output vs. Temperature

TL/H/745130

FIGURE 13. Two Wire Remote Speed Sensor

TL/H/7451 31

FIGURE 14. Gasoline Engine Tachometer


10

the non-inverting input. As speed increases, the charge


pump puts charge into capacitor C2 and causes the output
VOUT to fall in proportion to speed. The output current of the
op amp transistor is used to provide an analog drive to the
motor. Thus as the motor speed approaches the reference
level, the current is proportionately reduced to the motor so
that the motor gradually comes up to speed and is maintained without operating the motor in a switching mode. This
is particularly useful in situations where the electrical noise
generated by the switching mode operation is objectionable.
This circuit has one primary disadvantage in that it has poor
load regulation. A third configuration is shown in Figure 18.
This employs an LM2907-8 acting as a shunt mode regulator. It also features an LED to indicate when the device is in
regulation.

LM2907, a very low cost speed control can be constructed.


In Figure 16 the most simple version is illustrated where the
tachometer drives the non-inverting input of the comparator
up towards the preset reference level. When that level is
reached, the output is turned off and the power is removed
from the motor. As the motor slows down, the voltage from
the charge pump output falls and power is restored. Thus
speed is maintained by operating the motor in a switching
mode. Hysteresis can be provided to control the rate of
switching. An alternative approach which gives proportional
control is shown in Figure 17. Here the charge pump integrator is shown in a feedback connection around the operational amplifier. The output voltage for zero speed is equal
to the reference voltage set up on the potentiometer on

TL/H/7451 33

FIGURE 16. Motor Speed Control

TL/H/7451 34

FIGURE 17. Motor Speed Control with Proportional Drive


11

The output of the tachometer is proportional to the product


of supply voltage, input frequency, a capacitor and a resistor. Any one of these may be used as the input variable or
they may be used in combination to produce multiplication.
An example of a capacitive transducer is illustrated in Figure
20, where a fixed input frequency is employed either from
the 60 Hz line as a convenient source or from a stable oscillator. The capacitor is a variable element mechanically coupled to the system whose position is to be sensed. The
output is proportional to the capacitance value, which can
be arranged to have any desired relationship to the mechanical input by suitable shaping of the capacitor electrodes.

Position Sensing
In addition to their use to complete tachometer feedback
loops, used in position transducer circuits, the LM2907,
LM2917 devices can also be used as position transducers.
For example, the timing resistor can be removed from pin 3
so that the output current produces a staircase instead of a
fixed dc level. If the magnetic pickup senses passing notches or items, a staircase signal is generated which can then
be compared with a reference to initiate a switching action
when a specified count is reached. For example, Figure 19
shows a circuit which will count up a hundred input pulses
and then switch on the output stage. Examples of this application can be found in automated packaging operations or
in line printers.

TL/H/7451 35

FIGURE 18. Motor Speed Control

TL/H/745136
TL/H/7451 37

FIGURE 19. Staircase Counter

12

TL/H/7451 38

FIGURE 20. Capacitive Transducer


The linearity of voltage controlled oscillators can be improved by employing the LM2907 as a feedback control element converting the frequency back to voltage and comparing with the input voltage. This can often be a lower cost
solution to linearizing the VCO than by working directly on
the VCO itself in the open loop mode. The arrangement is
illustrated in Figure 22.

Analog Systems Building Block


The LM2907, LM2917 series characterize systems building
block applications by the feature that the output from the
device is proportional only to externally programmed inputs.
Any or all of these inputs may be controlled inputs to provide the desired output. For example, in Figure 20 the capacitance transducer can be operated as a multiplier. In
flow measurement indicators, the input frequency can be a
variable depending on the flow rate, such as a signal generated from a paddle wheel, propeller or vortex sensor4. The
capacitor can be an indication of orifice size or aperture
size, such as in a throttle body. The product of these two will
indicate volume flow. A thermistor could be added to R1 to
convert the volume flow to mass flow. So a combination of
these inputs, including control voltage on the supply, can be
used to provide complex multiplicative analog functions with
independent control of the variables.
Phase-locked loops (PLL) are popular today now that low
cost monolithic implementations are available off the shelf.
One of their limitations is the narrow capture range and
hold-in range. The LM2907 can be employed as a PLL helper. The configuration is shown in Figure 21. The LM2907
here serves the function of a frequency-to-voltage converter
which puts the VCO initially at approximately the right frequency to match the input frequency. The phase detector is
then used to close the gap between VCO and input frequency by exerting a control on the summing point. In this way,
given proper tracking between the frequency-to-voltage
converter and the VCO, (which is a voltage-to-frequency
converter), a wide-range phase loop can be developed.

TL/H/7451 40

FIGURE 22. Feedback Controlled VCO


Digital Interface
A growing proportion of the complex control systems today
are being controlled by microprocessors and other digital
devices. Frequently they require inputs to indicate position
or time from some mechanical input. The LM2907 can be
used to provide zero crossing datum to a digital system using the circuits illustrated in Figure 23. At each zero crossing
of the input signal the charge pump changes the state of
capacitor C1 and provides a one-shot pulse into the zener
diode at pin 3. The width of this pulse is controlled by the
internal current of pin 2 and the size of capacitor C1 as well
as by the supply voltage. Since a pulse is generated by each
zero crossing of the input signal we call this a two-shot
instead of a one-shot device and this can be used for
doubling the frequency that is presented to the microprocessor control system. If frequency doubling is not required
and a square wave output is preferred, the circuit of Figure
24 can be employed. In this case, the output swing is the
same as the swing on pin 2 which is a swing of half supply
voltage starting at 1 VBE below one quarter of supply and
going to 1 VBE below three-quarters of supply. This can be
increased up to the full output swing capability by reducing
or removing the negative feedback around the op amp.

TL/H/7451 39

FIGURE 21. Phase-Locked Loop Helper


Added f to V Greatly Increases Capture and Hold Range
13

The staircase generator shown in Figure 19 can be used as


an A-D converter. A suitable configuration is shown in Figure 25. To start a convert cycle the processor generates a
reset pulse to discharge the integrating capacitor C2. Each
complete clock cycle generates a charge and discharge cycle on C1. This results in two steps per cycle being added to
C2. As the voltage on C2 increases, clock pulses are re-

turned to the processor. When the voltage on C2 steps


above the analog input voltage the data line is clamped and
C2 ceases to charge. The processor, by counting the number of clock pulses received after the reset pulse, is thus
loaded with a digital measure of the input voltage. By making C2/C1 e 1024 an 8-bit A-D is obtained.

TL/H/7451 42

VCC C1
c
Pulse width e
2
I2

Input can be g 20 mV to g 28V

TL/H/7451 41

Output frequency equal twice input frequency.

VCC C1
c
Pulse width e
2
I2

Pulse height e VZENER

FIGURE 23. Two-Shot Zero Crossing Detector

TL/H/7451 44

TL/H/7451 43

FIGURE 24. Zero Crossing Detector and Line Drivers

TL/H/7451 46
TL/H/7451 45

FIGURE 25. A-D Converter


14

amp/comparator is connected with negative feedback with


a diode in the loop so that the amplifier can only pull down
on the load and not pull up. In this way, the outputs from the
two devices can be joined together and the output will be
the lower of the two input speeds. In Figure 27 the output
emitter of the onboard op amp provides the pullup required
to provide a select-high situation where the output is equal
to the higher of two speeds. The select average circuit in
Figure 28 saves components by allowing the two charge
pumps to operate into a single RC network. One of the amplifiers is needed then to buffer the output and provide a low
impedance output which is the average of the two input frequencies. The second amplifier is available for other applications.

Anti-Skid Circuit Functions


Motor Vehicle Standards 121 place certain stopping requirements on heavy vehicles which require the use of electronic
anti-skid control devices.5 These devices generally use variable reluctance magnetic pickup sensors on the wheels to
provide inputs to a control module. One of the questions
which the systems designer must answer is whether to use
the average from each of the two wheels on a given axle or
to use the lower of the two speeds or to use the higher of
the two speeds. Each of the three functions can be generated by a single pair of LM2907-8 as illustrated in Figures 26
28. In Figure 26 the input frequency from each wheel sensor
is converted to a voltage in the normal manner. The op

TL/H/7451 47

VOUT is proportional to the lower of the


two input wheel speeds

TL/H/7451 48

FIGURE 26. Select-Low Circuit

15

TL/H/7451 49

VOUT is proportional to the higher of the


two input wheel speeds

TL/H/7451 50

FIGURE 27. Select-High Circuit

TL/H/7451 51

FIGURE 28. Select-Average Circuit

16

Transmission and Clutch Control Functions

CONCLUSION

Electric clutches can be added to automotive transmissions


to eliminate the 6% slip which typically occurs during cruise
and which results in a 6% loss in fuel economy. These devices could be operated by a pair of LM2907s as illustrated
in Figure 29. Magnetic pickups are connected to input and
output shafts of the transmission respectively and provide
frequency inputs f1 and f 2 to the circuit. Frequency, f2, being the output shaft speed, is also a measure of vehicle road
speed. Thus the LM2907-8 No. 2 provides a voltage proportional to road speed at pin 3. This is buffered by the op amp
in LM2907-8 No. 1 to provide a speed output VOUT1 on pin
4. The input shaft provides charge pulses at the rate of 2f1
into the inverting node of op amp 2. This node has the integrating network R1, C3 going back to the output of the op
amp so that the charge pulses are integrated and provide
an inverted output voltage proportional to the input speed.
Thus the output VOUT2 is proportional to the difference between the two input frequencies. With these two signals
the road speed and the difference between road speed and
input shaft speedit is possible to develop a number of
control functions including the electronic clutch and a complete electronic transmission control. (In the configuration
shown, it is not possible for VOUT2 to go below zero so that
there is a limitation to the output swing in this direction. This
may be overcome by returning R3 to a negative bias supply
instead of to ground.)

The applications presented in this note indicate that the


LM2907, LM2917 series devices offer a wide variety of uses
ranging from very simple low cost frequency to voltage conversion to complex systems building blocks. It is hoped that
the ideas contained here have given suggestions which may
help provide new solutions to old problems. Additional applications ideas are included in the data sheet, which should
be referred to for all specifications and characteristics.
REFERENCES
1. Sociey of Automotive Engineers: Preliminary Recommended Environmental Practices for Electronic Equipment Design. October 1974.
2. See for example: Pollution Control Installers Handbook
California Bureau of Automotive Repair No. BAR H-001
5.5.4 NOX control systems.
3. TRW Globe Motors, 2275 Stanley Avenue, Dayton, Ohio
45404.
4. S.A.E. Paper 760018 Air Flow Measurement for Engine
ControlRobert D. Joy.
5. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 49 Transportation;
Chapter VNational Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Dept. of Transportation; Part 571Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standards; Standard No. 121.

VOUT1 e VCC C2 R2 f2
VOUT2 e VCC (C2 R2 f2 b C1 R1 f1)

TL/H/7451 52

FIGURE 29. Transmission or Clutch Control Functions

17

LM2907 Tachometer/Speed Switch Building Block Applications


LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
NATIONALS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL
SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:

AN-162

1. Life support devices or systems are devices or


systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose
failure to perform, when properly used in accordance
with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can
be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury
to the user.
National Semiconductor
Corporation
1111 West Bardin Road
Arlington, TX 76017
Tel: 1(800) 272-9959
Fax: 1(800) 737-7018

2. A critical component is any component of a life


support device or system whose failure to perform can
be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
support device or system, or to affect its safety or
effectiveness.

National Semiconductor
Europe
Fax: (a49) 0-180-530 85 86
Email: cnjwge @ tevm2.nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: (a49) 0-180-530 85 85
English Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 78 32
Fran3ais Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 93 58
Italiano Tel: (a49) 0-180-534 16 80

National Semiconductor
Hong Kong Ltd.
13th Floor, Straight Block,
Ocean Centre, 5 Canton Rd.
Tsimshatsui, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2737-1600
Fax: (852) 2736-9960

National Semiconductor
Japan Ltd.
Tel: 81-043-299-2309
Fax: 81-043-299-2408

National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.

LM324, LM324A, LM224,


LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902
Quad Differential Input,
Low Power
Operational Amplifiers
The LM324 series are lowcost, quad operational amplifiers with
true differential inputs. They have several distinct advantages over
standard operational amplifier types in single supply applications. The
quad amplifier can operate at supply voltages as low as 3.0 V or as
high as 32 V with quiescent currents about onefifth of those
associated with the MC1741 (on a per amplifier basis). The common
mode input range includes the negative supply, thereby eliminating the
necessity for external biasing components in many applications. The
output voltage range also includes the negative power supply voltage.
Short Circuited Protected Outputs
True Differential Input Stage
Single Supply Operation: 3.0 V to 32 V (LM224, LM324, LM324A)
Low Input Bias Currents: 100 nA Maximum (LM324A)
Four Amplifiers Per Package
Internally Compensated
Common Mode Range Extends to Negative Supply
Industry Standard Pinouts
ESD Clamps on the Inputs Increase Ruggedness without Affecting
Device Operation

Rating
Power Supply Voltages
Single Supply
Split Supplies

Symbol

PDIP14
N SUFFIX
CASE 646
14
1
SO14
D SUFFIX
CASE 751A

14
1

PIN CONNECTIONS
Out 1
Inputs 1
VCC
Inputs 2
Out 2

MAXIMUM RATINGS (TA = +25C, unless otherwise noted.)


LM224
LM324,
LM324A

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14

13


1





12

11

10


2





9
8

Out 4
Inputs 4
VEE, Gnd
Inputs 3
Out 3

(Top View)

LM2902,
LM2902V

Unit
Vdc

VCC
VCC, VEE

32
16

26
13

Input Differential
Voltage Range
(Note 1)

VIDR

32

26

Input Common Mode


Voltage Range

VICR

Output Short Circuit


Duration

tSC

Continuous

Junction Temperature

TJ

150

Storage Temperature
Range

Tstg

65 to +150

Operating Ambient
Temperature Range
LM224
LM324, 324A
LM2902
LM2902V, NCV2902

TA

Vdc

ORDERING INFORMATION
See detailed ordering and shipping information in the package
dimensions section on page 9 of this data sheet.

DEVICE MARKING INFORMATION


See general marking information in the device marking
section on page 10 of this data sheet.

0.3 to 32

0.3 to 26

Vdc

C
25 to +85
0 to +70
40 to +105
40 to +125

1. Split Power Supplies.

Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2001

September, 2001 Rev. 5

Publication Order Number:


LM324/D

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 5.0 V, VEE = Gnd, TA = 25C, unless otherwise noted.)
LM224
Characteristics

Symbol

Input Offset Voltage


VCC = 5.0 V to 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V),
VICR = 0 V to
VCC 1.7 V,
VO = 1.4 V, RS = 0

VIO

Min

Typ

LM324A
Max

Min

Typ

LM324
Max

Min

Typ

LM2902
Max

Min

Typ

LM2902V
Max

Min

Typ

Max

Unit
mV

TA = 25C

2.0

5.0

2.0

3.0

2.0

7.0

2.0

7.0

2.0

7.0

TA = Thigh (Note 2)

7.0

5.0

9.0

10

13

TA = Tlow (Note 2)

7.0

5.0

9.0

10

10

VIO/T

7.0

7.0

30

7.0

7.0

7.0

V/C

Input Offset Current


TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 2)

IIO

3.0

30
100

5.0

30
75

5.0

50
150

5.0

50
200

5.0

50
200

nA

Average Temperature
Coefficient of Input
Offset Current
TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Notes 2 and 4)

IIO/T

10

10

300

10

10

10

pA/C

IIB

90

150
300

45

100
200

90

250
500

90

250
500

90

250
500

nA

Average Temperature
Coefficient of Input
Offset Voltage
TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Notes 2 and 4)

Input Bias Current


TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 2)
Input Common Mode
Voltage Range
(Note 3)
VCC = 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V)

VICR

VCC = 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V),
TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 2)
Differential Input
Voltage Range

VIDR

Large Signal Open


Loop Voltage Gain
RL = 2.0 k,
VCC = 15 V,
for Large VO Swing
TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 2)

AVOL

28.3

28.3

28.3

24.3

24.3

28

28

28

24

24

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

V
V/mV

50
25

100

25
15

100

25
15

100

25
15

100

25
15

100

CS

120

120

120

120

120

dB

Common Mode
Rejection,
RS 10 k

CMR

70

85

65

70

65

70

50

70

50

70

dB

Power Supply
Rejection

PSR

65

100

65

100

65

100

50

100

50

100

dB

Channel Separation
10 kHz f 20 kHz,
Input Referenced

2. LM224: Tlow = 25C, Thigh = +85C


LM324/LM324A: Tlow = 0C, Thigh = +70C
LM2902: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +105C
LM2902V: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +125C
NCV2902: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +125C. Guaranteed by design. NCV prefix is for automotive and other applications requiring site and
change control.
3. The input common mode voltage or either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3 V. The upper end of
the common mode voltage range is VCC 1.7 V.
4. Guaranteed by design.

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2

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 5.0 V, VEE = Gnd, TA = 25C, unless otherwise noted.)
LM224
Characteristics
Output Voltage
High Limit
(TA = Thigh to Tlow)
(Note 5)
VCC = 5.0 V, RL =
2.0 k, TA = 25C

Symbol

Min

Typ

LM324A
Max

Min

Typ

LM324
Max

Min

Typ

LM2902
Max

Min

Typ

LM2902V
Max

Min

Typ

Max

VOH

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.5

VCC = 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V),
RL = 2.0 k

26

26

26

22

22

VCC = 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V),
RL = 10 k

27

28

27

28

27

28

23

24

23

24

5.0

20

5.0

20

5.0

20

5.0

100

5.0

100

Output Voltage
Low Limit,
VCC = 5.0 V,
RL = 10 k,
TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 5)

VOL

Output Source Current


(VID = +1.0 V,
VCC = 15 V)
TA = 25C

IO +

Unit

mV

mA

20

40

20

40

20

40

20

40

20

40

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 5)

5.0

8.0

5.0

8.0

5.0

8.0

5.0

8.0

5.0

8.0

(VID = 1.0 V,
VO = 200 mV,
TA = 25C)

12

50

12

50

12

50

40

60

40

60

40

60

40

60

40

60

mA

TA = Thigh to Tlow
(Note 5)
Output Sink Current
(VID = 1.0 V,
VCC = 15 V)
TA = 25C

IO

Output Short Circuit


to Ground
(Note 6)

ISC

Power Supply Current


(TA = Thigh to Tlow)
(Note 5)
VCC = 30 V
(26 V for LM2902, V),
VO = 0 V, RL =

ICC

VCC = 5.0 V,
VO = 0 V, RL =

mA

mA

3.0

1.4

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

1.2

0.7

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

5. LM224: Tlow = 25C, Thigh = +85C


LM324/LM324A: Tlow = 0C, Thigh = +70C
LM2902: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +105C
LM2902V: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +125C
NCV2902: Tlow = 40C, Thigh = +125C. Guaranteed by design. NCV prefix is for automotive and other applications requiring site and
change control.
6. The input common mode voltage or either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3 V. The upper end of
the common mode voltage range is VCC 1.7 V.

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3

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902

Output

Bias Circuitry
Common to Four
Amplifiers
VCC

Q15
Q16

Q22

Q14
Q13
40 k

Q19
5.0 pF

Q12

Q24
25

Q23

+
Q20

Q18
Inputs
-

Q21

Q17
Q2

Q5
Q3

Q4

Q11

Q9
Q6
Q26

Q25

Q7
Q8

Q10

Q1

2.4 k
2.0 k
VEE/Gnd

Figure 1. Representative Circuit Diagram


(OneFourth of Circuit Shown)

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4

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The LM324 series is made using four internally
compensated, twostage operational amplifiers. The first
stage of each consists of differential input devices Q20 and
Q18 with input buffer transistors Q21 and Q17 and the
differential to single ended converter Q3 and Q4. The first
stage performs not only the first stage gain function but also
performs the level shifting and transconductance reduction
functions. By reducing the transconductance, a smaller
compensation capacitor (only 5.0 pF) can be employed, thus
saving chip area. The transconductance reduction is
accomplished by splitting the collectors of Q20 and Q18.
Another feature of this input stage is that the input common
mode range can include the negative supply or ground, in
single supply operation, without saturating either the input
devices or the differential to singleended converter. The
second stage consists of a standard current source load
amplifier stage.

3.0 V to VCC(max)

1.0 V/DIV

VCC = 15 Vdc
RL = 2.0 k
TA = 25C

5.0 s/DIV

Figure 2. Large Signal Voltage Follower Response

Each amplifier is biased from an internalvoltage


regulator which has a low temperature coefficient thus
giving each amplifier good temperature characteristics as
well as excellent power supply rejection.

VCC

VCC

1.5 V to VCC(max)

1.5 V to VEE(max)

VEE
VEE/Gnd

Single Supply

Split Supplies
Figure 3.

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5

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


20

120
A VOL, LARGE-SIGNAL
OPEN LOOP VOLTAGE GAIN (dB)

V , INPUT VOLTAGE (V)


I

18
16
14
12
10

Negative

8.0

Positive

6.0
4.0
2.0
0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10

12

14

16

18

80
60
40
20
0
-20

20

1.0

10

100

1.0 k

10 k

100 k

VCC/VEE, POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGES (V)

f, FREQUENCY (Hz)

Figure 4. Input Voltage Range

Figure 5. Open Loop Frequency

14

1.0 M

550
RL = 2.0 k
VCC = 15 V
VEE = Gnd
Gain = -100
RI = 1.0 k
RF = 100 k

12
10
8.0

VO , OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)

VOR , OUTPUT VOLTAGE RANGE (Vpp )

VCC = 15 V
VEE = Gnd
TA = 25C

100

6.0
4.0
2.0

500
Input

450

Output

400
350
300
250

VCC = 30 V
VEE = Gnd
TA = 25C
CL = 50 pF

200

0
1.0

10

100

1000

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

f, FREQUENCY (kHz)

t, TIME (s)

Figure 6. LargeSignal Frequency Response

Figure 7. SmallSignal Voltage Follower


Pulse Response (Noninverting)

8.0

TA = 25C
RL = 

2.1
1.8

I IB , INPUT BIAS CURRENT (nA)

I CC , POWER SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

2.4

1.5
1.2
0.9
0.6
0.3
0

5.0

10
15
20
25
VCC, POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

30

90

80

70

35

Figure 8. Power Supply Current versus


Power Supply Voltage

2.0

4.0

6.0 8.0
10
12
14 16
VCC, POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

Figure 9. Input Bias Current versus


Power Supply Voltage

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6

18

20

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


50 k
R1
VCC

R2

MC1403

5.0 k

VCC
-

2.5 V

10 k

Vref
1/4

Vref =

R1
R2

a R1

e2

Vref
1/4

eo

VOH

R1

VO
1/4

LM324
-

Vin

1
CR

LM324
+

VinH =

100 k

1/4

LM324
+

100 k

1/4

LM324
+

Vref
R1

VinH
Vref

Figure 13. Comparator with Hysteresis

R2

VinL

R1
(VOH - VOL)
R1 + R2

R2

VOL

R1
(VOH - Vref) + Vref
R1 + R2

H=

Figure 12. High Impedance Differential Amplifier

C1

VO

R1
(VOL - Vref) + Vref
VinL =
R1 + R2

eo = C (1 + a + b) (e2 - e1)

Vin

For: fo = 1.0 kHz


R = 16 k
C = 0.01 F

Hysteresis

LM324
+

1/4

b R1

Figure 11. Wien Bridge Oscillator

LM324
R1

1
fo = 2 RC

R2

1
CR

1/4

VO

1
V
2 CC

Figure 10. Voltage Reference

VCC
1/4

LM324
+

VO

LM324
+

VO = 2.5 V 1 +

e1

LM324
+

Vref
Bandpass
Output

R3
-

Vref

Vref =

1
V
2 CC

R3 = TN R2
C1 = 10C
For:fo=1.0 kHz
For:Q= 10
For:TBP= 1
For:TN= 1
Notch Output

Where:TBP=Center Frequency Gain


Where:TN=Passband Notch Gain

Figure 14. BiQuad Filter

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Vref

R1 = QR
R1
R2 =
TBP

C1

1/4

LM324
+

1/4

1
fo = 2 RC

R
C
R1
R2
R3

= 160 k
= 0.001 F
= 1.6 M
= 1.6 M
= 1.6 M

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


Vref =
Vref

1
V
2 CC

Triangle Wave
Output
+

R2
300 k
R3

1/4

LM324
-

75 k

VCC
1/4

LM324
-

R1
100 k

Vref

Square
Wave
Output

Vin

R1

R1 + RC
4 CRf R1

R3
-

if R3 =

Vref

R2 R1
R2 + R1

Figure 15. Function Generator

CO

1/4

VO

LM324
+

R2

Rf
f =

CO = 10 C
1
Vref = 2 VCC

Figure 16. Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter

Given:fo=center frequency
A(fo)=gain at center frequency
Choose value fo, C
Then:

R3 =

Q
fo C

R1 =

R3
2 A(fo)

R2 =

R1 R3
4Q2 R1 - R3

For less than 10% error from operational amplifier,

Qo fo
BW

where fo and BW are expressed in Hz.


If source impedance varies, filter may be preceded with
voltage follower buffer to stabilize filter parameters.

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8

< 0.1

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


ORDERING INFORMATION
Device
LM224D
LM224DR2

Package

Operating Temperature Range

SO14

Shipping
55 Units/Rail

SO14

25
5 to
o +85C
85 C

2500 Tape & Reel

LM224N

PDIP14

LM324D

SO14

55 Units/Rail

LM324DR2

SO14

2500 Tape & Reel

LM324N
LM324AD
LM324ADR2

25 Units/Rail

PDIP14

0 to +70C

SO14

25 Units/Rail
55 Units/Rail

SO14

2500 Tape & Reel

LM324AN

PDIP14

25 Units/Rail

LM2902D

SO14

LM2902DR2

SO14

LM2902N

55 Units/Rail
40
0 to
o +105C
05 C

PDIP14

2500 Tape & Reel


25 Units/Rail

LM2902VD

SO14

55 Units/Rail

LM2902VDR2

SO14

2500 Tape & Reel

LM2902VN

PDIP14

NCV2902D

SO14

55 Units/Rail

NCV2902DR2

SO14

2500 Tape & Reel

40
0 to
o +125C
5C

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9

25 Units/Rail

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


MARKING DIAGRAMS

PDIP14
N SUFFIX
CASE 646
14

14

14

LM324AN
AWLYYWW
1

14

LMx24N
AWLYYWW

LM2902N
AWLYYWW

LM2902VN
AWLYYWW

SO14
D SUFFIX
CASE 751A
14

14
LM324AD
AWLYWW

14
LMx24D
AWLYWW

14
LM2902D
AWLYWW

LM2902VD
AWLYWW
1

x
= 2 or 3
A
= Assembly Location
WL = Wafer Lot
YY, Y = Year
WW = Work Week
*This marking diagram also applies to NCV2902.

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10

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902


PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
PDIP14
N SUFFIX
CASE 64606
ISSUE M

14

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
4. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH.
5. ROUNDED CORNERS OPTIONAL.

A
F

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N

T
SEATING
PLANE

K
H

D 14 PL

0.13 (0.005)

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.715
0.770
0.240
0.260
0.145
0.185
0.015
0.021
0.040
0.070
0.100 BSC
0.052
0.095
0.008
0.015
0.115
0.135
0.290
0.310
--10
0.015
0.039

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
18.16
18.80
6.10
6.60
3.69
4.69
0.38
0.53
1.02
1.78
2.54 BSC
1.32
2.41
0.20
0.38
2.92
3.43
7.37
7.87
--10
0.38
1.01

SO14
D SUFFIX
CASE 751A03
ISSUE F
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006)
PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL
IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.

A
14

B
1

P 7 PL
0.25 (0.010)

R X 45 

T
SEATING
PLANE

D 14 PL
0.25 (0.010)

K
M

T B

http://onsemi.com
11

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
M
P
R

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
8.55
8.75
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.35
0.49
0.40
1.25
1.27 BSC
0.19
0.25
0.10
0.25
0
7
5.80
6.20
0.25
0.50

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.337
0.344
0.150
0.157
0.054
0.068
0.014
0.019
0.016
0.049
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0
7
0.228
0.244
0.010
0.019

LM324, LM324A, LM224, LM2902, LM2902V, NCV2902

ON Semiconductor and
are trademarks of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC). SCILLC reserves the right to make changes
without further notice to any products herein. SCILLC makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular
purpose, nor does SCILLC assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability,
including without limitation special, consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters which may be provided in SCILLC data sheets and/or
specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters, including Typicals must be
validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. SCILLC does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others.
SCILLC products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other applications
intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the SCILLC product could create a situation where personal injury or
death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use SCILLC products for any such unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold
SCILLC and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable
attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim
alleges that SCILLC was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. SCILLC is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

PUBLICATION ORDERING INFORMATION


Literature Fulfillment:
Literature Distribution Center for ON Semiconductor
P.O. Box 5163, Denver, Colorado 80217 USA
Phone: 3036752175 or 8003443860 Toll Free USA/Canada
Fax: 3036752176 or 8003443867 Toll Free USA/Canada
Email: ONlit@hibbertco.com

JAPAN: ON Semiconductor, Japan Customer Focus Center


4321 NishiGotanda, Shinagawaku, Tokyo, Japan 1410031
Phone: 81357402700
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ON Semiconductor Website: http://onsemi.com
For additional information, please contact your local
Sales Representative.

N. American Technical Support: 8002829855 Toll Free USA/Canada

http://onsemi.com
12

LM324/D

www.fairchildsemi.com

MC78XX/LM78XX
3-terminal 1A positive voltage regulator

Features

Description

The MC78XX/LM78XX series of three-terminal positive


regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and
with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a
wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat
sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current.
Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators,
these devices can be used with external components to
obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 24V
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating area Protection

TO-220

1
D-PAK

1
1. Input 2. GND 3. Output

Internal Block Digram

Rev. 5.0
2000 Fairchild Semiconductor International

MC78XX/LM78XX

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter

Symbol

Value

Unit

VI
VI

35
40

V
V

Thermal Resistance Junction-Cases

RJC

Thermal Resistance Junction-Air

RJA

65

Operating Temperature Range (MC78XXCT/LM78XXCT/MC78XXCDT)

TOPR

0 ~ +125

-65 ~ +150

Input Voltage (for VO = 5V to 18V)


(for VO = 24V)

Storage Temperature Range

TSTG

C/W

oC/W

C
C

Electrical Characteristics (MC7805/LM7805)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < 125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 10V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

Min.

Typ.

Max.

4.8

5.0

5.2

4.75

5.0

5.25

VO = 7V to 25V

4.0

100

VI = 8V to 12V

1.6

50

IO = 5.0mA to1.5A

100

IO =250mA to
750mA

50

TJ =+25 oC
Output Voltage

VO

5.0mA Io 1.0A, PO 15W


VI = 7V to 20V
VI = 8V to 20V

Line Regulation

VO

TJ=+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

oC

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
IQ

TJ=+25

MC7805/LM7805

Unit

mV

mV

TJ =+25 oC

5.0

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.03

0.5

VI= 7V to 25V

0.3

1.3

-0.8

mV/ oC

42

62

73

dB

VO/T IO= 5mA

mA
mA

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA=+25 oC

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VO = 8V to 18V

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ =+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

15

230

mA

2.2

Short Circuit Current


Peak Current

ISC
IPK

VI = 35V, TA
o

TJ =+25 C

=+25 oC

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in Vo due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7806)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 11V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

Min.

Typ.

Max.

5.75

6.0

6.25

5.7

6.0

6.3

VI = 8V to 25V

120

VI = 9V to 13V

1.5

60

IO =5mA to 1.5A

120

IO =250mA to750A

60

TJ =+25 oC
Output Voltage

VO

MC7806

5.0mA IO 1.0A, PD 15W


VI = 8.0V to 21V
VI = 9.0V to 21V

Unit

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.0

IO = 5mA to 1A

0.5

VI = 8V to 25V

1.3

IO = 5mA

-0.8

mV/ oC

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

45

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 9V to 19V

59

75

dB

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ =+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

19

250

mA

2.2

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift
Output Noise Voltage

IQ
VO/T

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI= 35V, TA

Peak Current

IPK

TJ =+25 oC

=+25 oC

mV
mV
mA
mA

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7808)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 14V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions
TJ =+25 oC

Output Voltage

VO

MC7808
Min.

Typ. Max.

7.7

8.0

8.3

7.6

8.0

8.4

VI = 10.5V to 25V

5.0

160

VI = 11.5V to 17V

2.0

80

IO = 5.0mA to 1.5A

10

160

IO= 250mA to 750mA

5.0

80

5.0mA IO 1.0A, PO 15W


VI = 10.5V to 23V
VI = 11.5V to 23V

Unit

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.0

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.05

0.5

VI = 10.5A to 25V

0.5

1.0

VI = 11.5V to 25V

IO = 5mA

-0.8

mV/ oC

52

56

73

dB

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
VO/T

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz, VI= 11.5V to 21.5


o

mV
mV
mA
mA

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 C

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

17

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI= 35V, TA =+25 C

230

mA

Peak Current

IPK

TJ =+25 oC

2.2

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7809)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 15V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

MC7809
Min.

Typ.

Max.

TJ =+25 oC

8.65

9.35

5.0mA IO 1.0A, PD 15W


VI= 11.5V to 24V
VI = 12.5V to 24V

8.6

9.4

VI = 11.5V to 25V

180

VI = 12V to 25v

90

IO = 5mA to 1.5A

12

180

IO = 250mA to 750mA

90

Unit

Output Voltage

VO

Line Regulation

VO

TJ=+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ=+25 oC

IQ

TJ=+25 oC

5.0

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.5

VI = 11.5V to 26V

1.3

VI = 12.5V to 26V

IO = 5mA

-1

mV/ oC

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

58

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 13V to 23V

56

71

dB

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

17

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI= 35V, TA =+25 oC

250

mA

2.2

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift
Output Noise Voltage
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

Peak Current

IQ
VO/T

IPK

TJ= +25 C

mV
mV
mA
mA

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7812)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 19V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

MC7812
Min.

Typ. Max.

TJ =+25 oC

11.5

12

12.5

5.0mA IO1.0A, PD15W


VI = 14.5V to 27V
VI= 15.5V to 27V

11.4

12

12.6

VI = 14.5V to 30V

10

240

VI = 16V to 22V

3.0

120

IO = 5mA to 1.5A

11

240

IO = 250mA to 750mA

5.0

120

Unit

Output Voltage

VO

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.1

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.1

0.5

VI = 14.5V to 30V

0.5

1.0

VI = 15V to 30V

IO = 5mA

-1

mV/ oC

76

55

71

dB

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
VO/T

mV
mV
mA
mA

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 15V to 25V

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

18

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI = 35V, TA=+25 oC

230

mA

2.2

Peak Current

IPK

TJ = +25 C

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7815)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 23V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

MC7815
Min.

Typ.

Max.

TJ =+25 oC

14.4

15

15.6

5.0mA IO1.0A, PD15W


VI = 17.5V to 30V
VI= 18.5V to 30V

14.25

15

15.75

VI = 17.5V to 30V

11

300

VI = 20V to 26V

150

IO = 5mA to 1.5A

12

300

IO = 250mA to
750mA

150

Unit

Output Voltage

VO

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.2

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.5

VI = 17.5V to 30V

1.0

VI = 18.5V to 30V

-1

mV/ oC

90

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
VO/T

IO = 5mA
=+25 oC

mV

mV
mA
mA

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 18.5V to 28.5V

54

70

dB

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

19

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI = 35V, TA=+25 oC

250

mA

2.2

Peak Current

IPK

TJ =+25 C

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7818)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 27V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions

MC7818
Min.

Typ. Max.

TJ =+25 oC

17.3

18

18.7

5.0mA IO 1.0A, PD 15W


VI = 21V to 33V
VI= 22V to 33V

17.1

18

18.9

VI = 21V to 33V

15

360

VI = 24V to 30V

180

IO = 5mA to 1.5A

15

360

IO = 250mA to 750mA

5.0

180

Unit

Output Voltage

VO

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.2

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.5

VI = 21V to 33V

mA

VI = 22V to 33V

IO = 5mA

-1

mV/ oC

110

53

69

dB

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
VO/T

mV
mV
mA

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 22V to 32V

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

22

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI = 35V, TA=+25 oC

250

mA

2.2

Peak Current

IPK

TJ =+25 C

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Electrical Characteristics (MC7824)


(Refer to test circuit ,0oC < TJ < +125oC, IO = 500mA, VI = 33V, CI= 0.33F, CO= 0.1F, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter

Symbol

Conditions
TJ =+25 oC

MC7824
Min.

Typ. Max.

23

24

25

22.8

24

25.25

VI = 27V to 38V

17

480

VI = 30V to 36V

240

IO = 5mA to 1.5A

15

480

IO = 250mA to 750mA

5.0

240

5.0mA IO 1.0A, PD 15W


VI = 27V to 38V
VI= 28V to 38V

Unit

Output Voltage

VO

Line Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

Load Regulation

VO

TJ =+25 oC

IQ

TJ =+25 oC

5.2

IO = 5mA to 1.0A

0.1

0.5

VI = 27V to 38V

0.5

VI = 28V to 38V

IO = 5mA

-1.5

mV/ oC

60

50

67

dB

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Voltage Drift

IQ
VO/T

mV
mV
mA
mA

Output Noise Voltage

VN

f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC

Ripple Rejection

RR

f = 120Hz
VI = 28V to 38V

Dropout Voltage

VO

IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC

Output Resistance

RO

f = 1KHz

28

Short Circuit Current

ISC

VI = 35V, TA=+25 oC

230

mA

2.2

Peak Current

IPK

TJ =+25 C

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in VO due to heating effects must be taken
into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

MC78XX/LM78XX

Typical Perfomance Characteristics

10

Figure 1. Quiescent Current

Figure 2. Peak Output Current

Figure 3. Output Voltage

Figure 4. Quiescent Current

MC78XX/LM78XX

Typical Applications

MC78XX/LM78XX
Input

Output

Figure 5. DC Parameters

MC78XX/LM78XX
Input

Output

Figure 6. Load Regulation

MC78XX/LM78XX
Input

Output

Figure 7. Ripple Rejection

Input

MC78XX/LM78XX

Output

Figure 8. Fixed Output Regulator

11

MC78XX/LM78XX

Input

MC78XX/LM78XX

Output

Figure 9. Constant Current Regulator


Notes:
(1) To specify an output voltage. substitute voltage value for "XX." A common ground is required between the input and the Output
voltage. The input voltage must remain typically 2.0V above the output voltage even during the low point on the input ripple
voltage.
(2) CI is required if regulator is located an appreciable distance from power Supply filter.
(3) CO improves stability and transient response.

Output

Input
MC78XX/LM78XX

I RI 5IQ
VO = VXX(1+R2/R1)+IQR2
Figure 10. Circuit for Increasing Output Voltage

Input

Output

MC7805
LM7805

LM741

IRI 5 IQ
VO = VXX(1+R2/R1)+IQR2
Figure 11. Adjustable Output Regulator (7 to 30V)

12

MC78XX/LM78XX

Input

Output
MC78XX/LM78XX

Figure 12. High Current Voltage Regulator

Input

MC78XX/LM78XX

Output

Figure 13. High Output Current with Short Circuit Protection

MC78XX/LM78XX

LM741

Figure 14. Tracking Voltage Regulator

13

MC78XX/LM78XX

MC7815

MC7915

Figure 15. Split Power Supply ( 15V-1A)

Output
Input

MC78XX/LM78XX

Figure 16. Negative Output Voltage Circuit

Output

Input

MC78XX/LM78XX

Figure 17. Switching Regulator

14

MC78XX/LM78XX

Mechanical Dimensions
Package

TO-220
4.50 0.20
2.80 0.10
(3.00)

+0.10

1.30 0.05

18.95MAX.

(3.70)

3.60 0.10

15.90 0.20

1.30 0.10

(8.70)

(1.46)

9.20 0.20

(1.70)

9.90 0.20

(45
1.52 0.10

0.80 0.10
2.54TYP
[2.54 0.20]

10.08 0.30

(1.00)

13.08 0.20

1.27 0.10

+0.10

0.50 0.05

2.40 0.20

2.54TYP
[2.54 0.20]

10.00 0.20

15

MC78XX/LM78XX

Mechancal Dimensions (Continued)


Package

D-PAK

MIN0.55

0.91 0.10

9.50 0.30

0.50 0.10

0.76 0.10

0.50 0.10
1.02 0.20

2.30TYP
[2.300.20]

(3.05)

(2XR0.25)

(0.10)

2.70 0.20

6.10 0.20

9.50 0.30

0.76 0.10

16

(1.00)

6.60 0.20
(5.34)
(5.04)
(1.50)

(0.90)

2.30 0.20

(0.70)

2.30TYP
[2.300.20]

(0.50)

2.30 0.10

0.89 0.10

MAX0.96

(4.34)

2.70 0.20

0.80 0.20

0.60 0.20

(0.50)

6.10 0.20

5.34 0.30

0.70 0.20

6.60 0.20

MC78XX/LM78XX

Ordering Information
Product Number

Output Voltage Tolerance

Package

Operating Temperature

LM7805CT

4%

TO-220

0 ~ + 125C

Product Number

Output Voltage Tolerance

Package

Operating Temperature

MC7805CT
MC7806CT
MC7808CT
MC7809CT
MC7812CT

4%

TO-220

0 ~ + 125C

MC7815CT
MC7818CT
MC7824CT
MC7809CDT

D-PAK

17

MC78XX/LM78XX

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


FAIRCHILDS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES
OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR
INTERNATIONAL. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems
which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body,
or (b) support or sustain life, and (c) whose failure to
perform when properly used in accordance with
instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be
reasonably expected to result in a significant injury of the
user.

2. A critical component in any component of a life support


device or system whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support
device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.

www.fairchildsemi.com
8/17/00 0.0m 001
Stock#DSxxxxxxxx
2000 Fairchild Semiconductor International

  

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA

   



The MC14566B industrial time base generator is constructed with MOS


Pchannel and Nchannel enhancement mode devices in a single
monolithic structure. This device consists of a divideby10 ripple counter
and a divideby5 or divideby6 ripple counter to permit stable time
generation from a 50 or 60 Hz line. By cascading this device as divideby60
counters, seconds and minutes can be counted and are available in BCD
format at the circuit outputs. An internal monostable multivibrator is included
whose output can be used as a reset or clock pulse providing additional
frequency flexibility. Also a pin has been included to allow divideby5
counting for generating 1.0 Hz from European 50 Hz line. Pin 11 = VDD will
cause 5.

L SUFFIX
CERAMIC
CASE 620

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC
CASE 648

D SUFFIX
SOIC
CASE 751B

Negative Edge Triggered Counters for Ease of Cascading


Pulse Shapers on Counter Inputs Accept Slow Input Rise Times
Monostable Multivibrator Positive or Negative Edge Triggered
Diode Protection on All Inputs
Supply Voltage Range = 3.0 Vdc to 18 Vdc
Capable of Driving Two Lowpower TTL Loads or One Lowpower
Schottky TTL Load Over the Rated Temperature Range

ORDERING INFORMATION

MC14XXXBCP
MC14XXXBCL
MC14XXXBD

Plastic
Ceramic
SOIC

TA = 55 to 125C for all packages.

MAXIMUM RATINGS* (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Parameter

Symbol
VDD

DC Supply Voltage

Value

Unit

PIN ASSIGNMENT

0.5 to + 18.0

CA

16

VDD

Vin, Vout

Input or Output Voltage (DC or Transient)

0.5 to VDD + 0.5

RESET

15

Input or Output Current (DC or Transient),


per Pin

10

CB

Iin, Iout

mA

Q0A

14

Q2B

Q1A

13

Q1B

Q2A

12

Q0B

Q3A

11

B5/B6

10

Qm

VSS

PD

Power Dissipation, per Package

Tstg

Storage Temperature

500
65 to + 150

mW

_C

TL
Lead Temperature (8Second Soldering)
260
_C
* Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur.
Temperature Derating:
Plastic P and D/DW Packages: 7.0 mW/_C From 65_C To 125_C
Ceramic L Packages: 12 mW/_C From 100_C To 125_C

BLOCK DIAGRAM

CA
10

PULSE
SHAPER

Q0A
Q1A

C
R

RESET
5/ 6 CONTROL

Q2A
Q3A

B
A

5
6

BCD
OUT

2
R

11

Q0B
Q1B

CB
5/ 6

3
4

15

PULSE
SHAPER

7
9

Q2B

12
13
14

BCD
OUT

MONO
STABLE
MULTI
VIBRATOR

10

Qm

REV 3
1/94

MOTOROLA
Motorola, Inc. 1995
CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14566B
1

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Characteristic
Output Voltage
Vin = VDD or 0

Symbol

55_C

25_C

125_C

VDD
Vdc

Min

Max

Min

Typ #

Max

Min

Max

Unit

0 Level

VOL

5.0
10
15

0.05
0.05
0.05

0
0
0

0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05

Vdc

1 Level

VOH

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

4.95
9.95
14.95

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

Vdc

5.0
10
15

1.5
3.0
4.0

2.25
4.50
6.75

1.5
3.0
4.0

1.5
3.0
4.0

5.0
10
15

3.5
7.0
11

3.5
7.0
11

2.75
5.50
8.25

3.5
7.0
11

5.0
5.0
10
15

3.0
0.64
1.6
4.2

2.4
0.51
1.3
3.4

4.2
0.88
2.25
8.8

1.7
0.36
0.9
2.4

IOL

5.0
10
15

0.64
1.6
4.2

0.51
1.3
3.4

0.88
2.25
8.8

0.36
0.9
2.4

mAdc

Input Current

Iin

15

0.1

0.00001

0.1

1.0

Adc

Input Capacitance
(Vin = 0)

Cin

5.0

7.5

pF

Quiescent Current
(Per Package)

IDD

5.0
10
15

5.0
10
20

0.005
0.010
0.015

5.0
10
20

150
300
600

Adc

IT

5.0
10
15

Vin = 0 or VDD
Input Voltage
0 Level
(VO = 4.5 or 0.5 Vdc)
(VO = 9.0 or 1.0 Vdc)
(VO = 13.5 or 1.5 Vdc)

VIL

1 Level

VIH

(VO = 0.5 or 4.5 Vdc)


(VO = 1.0 or 9.0 Vdc)
(VO = 1.5 or 13.5 Vdc)
Output Drive Current
(VOH = 2.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 4.6 Vdc)
(VOH = 9.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 13.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.4 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 1.5 Vdc)

Vdc

Vdc

IOH
Source

Sink

Total Supply Current**


(Dynamic plus Quiescent,
Per Package)
(CL = 50 pF on all outputs, all
buffers switching)

mAdc

IT = (1.0 A/kHz) f + IDD


IT = (2.0 A/kHz) f + IDD
IT = (3.0 A/kHz) f + IDD

Adc

#Data labelled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.
** The formulas given are for the typical characteristics only at 25_C.
To calculate total supply current at loads other than 50 pF:
IT(CL) = IT(50 pF) + (CL 50) Vfk
where: IT is in A (per package), CL in pF, V = (VDD VSS) in volts, f in kHz is input frequency, and k = 0.001.

This device contains protection circuitry to guard against damage due to high static voltages or electric fields. However,
precautions must be taken to avoid applications of any voltage higher than maximum rated voltages to this high-impedance
circuit. For proper operation, Vin and Vout should be constrained to the range VSS (Vin or Vout) VDD.
Unused inputs must always be tied to an appropriate logic voltage level (e.g., either VSS or VDD). Unused outputs must
be left open.

MC14566B
2

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS* (CL = 50 pF, TA = 25_C)


Characteristic

Symbol

Output Rise and Fall Time


tTLH, tTHL = (1.5 ns/pF) CL + 25 ns
tTLH, tTHL = (0.75 ns/pF) CL + 12.5 ns
tTLH, tTHL = (0.55 ns/pF) CL + 9.5 ns

tTLH,
tTHL

Propagation Delay Time, Clock to Q3A


tPLH, tPHL = (1.7 ns/pF) CL + 1365 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.66 ns/pF) CL + 497 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.5 ns/pF) CL + 295 ns

tPLH,
tPHL

Propagation Delay Time, Reset to Q3A


tPHL = (1.7 ns/pF) CL + 845 ns
tPHL = (0.66 ns/pF) CL + 282 ns
tPHL = (0.5 ns/pF) CL + 185 ns

tPHL

Clock Pulse Width

VDD

Min

Typ #

Max

5.0
10
15

100
50
40

200
100
80

5.0
10
15

1450
530
320

4500
1500
1000

5.0
10
15

930
315
210

3000
1000
750

5.0
10
15

1200
400
270

400
125
90

5.0
10
15

1200
400
270

400
125
90

5.0
10
15

1.0
2.5
4.2

0.3
1.0
1.5

ns

ns

ns

tWH(cl)

Reset Pulse Width

ns

tWH(R)

Clock Pulse Frequency

ns

fcl

Clock Pulse Rise and Fall Time

MHz

tTLH,
tTHL

5.0
10
15

No Limit

tWH(Qm)

Monostable Multivibrator Pulse Width

Unit

ns
5.0
10
15

1200
400
300

2800
900
600

* The formulas given are for the typical characteristics only at 25_C.
#Data labelled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.

VDD

20 ns

20 ns

VDD

90%
50%
10%

500 F

ID

Vin

VSS

VARIABLE
WIDTH

Vin
PULSE
GENERATOR

CA
CB
RESET
5/ 6
CONTROL
B
A

Q0A
Q1A
Q2A
Q3A
Q0B
Q1B
Q2B
Qm
VSS

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

Figure 1. Power Dissipation Test Circuit and Waveform

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14566B
3

VDD

CA

PROGRAMMABLE
PULSE
GENERATOR

CB
RESET
5/ 6
CONTROL
B
A

Q0A
Q1A
Q2A
Q3A
Q0B
Q1B
Q2B
Qm
CL

VSS

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

CL

NOTE: Assume 10 Counter at 6 and 5/ 6 Counter at 2 at beginning of sequence.


20 ns
10 OR 5/ 6 90%
CLOCK AND B

tWH(cl)
50%

10%
fcl

20 ns
90%

RESET

Q3A OR
Q2B

10%
tPLH

tWH(R)
tPHL
90%
10%

tPLH

50%

tTLH

50%
Qm

50%

tWH(Qm)

tTHL
50%
t WHQm

Figure 2. Switching Time Test Circuit and Waveforms

MC14566B
4

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

TIMING DIAGRAM
DivideBy10 Counter
0

CLOCK

RESET

Q0

Q1

Q2

Q3

DivideBy5/DivideBy6
0

CLOCK

RESET

CONTROL
5/ 6
Q0

Q1

Q2

Monostable Multivibrator

Qm
= DONT CARE

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14566B
5

APPLICATION 12 HOUR CLOCK

5/ 6
< 1.0 M*
60 Hz

10
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3

Q0

Q1

> 1500 pF*

Q2

10
C

A
B

Qm

+ VDD

Q0

Q1

Qm

Q2

SECONDS

10

5/ 6

Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3

TENTH
SECONDS

5/ 6

Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3

VDD

Q0

Q1

Qm

Q2
MINUTES
A

B
C
MC14011B
10
Q0
C
Q1
Q2
R Q3

5/ 6
C
HOURS

Q0

Q1

Qm

R Q2

5/ 6 Control not shown = VSS


Reset pins not shown = VSS
* Care must be taken in the indicated circuit to filter line
transients which may cause false counting.

MC14566B
6

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
L SUFFIX
CERAMIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 62010
ISSUE V
A
16

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER
ANSI Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEAD WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
4. DIMENSION F MAY NARROW TO 0.76 (0.030)
WHERE THE LEAD ENTERS THE CERAMIC
BODY.

B
C

DIM
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
K
L
M
N

T
K

SEATING
PLANE

E
F

G
D

16 PL

0.25 (0.010)

16 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T A

T B

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.750
0.785
0.240
0.295

0.200
0.015
0.020
0.050 BSC
0.055
0.065
0.100 BSC
0.008
0.015
0.125
0.170
0.300 BSC
0_
15 _
0.020
0.040

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
19.05
19.93
6.10
7.49

5.08
0.39
0.50
1.27 BSC
1.40
1.65
2.54 BSC
0.21
0.38
3.18
4.31
7.62 BSC
0_
15 _
0.51
1.01

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 64808
ISSUE R
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
4. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH.
5. ROUNDED CORNERS OPTIONAL.

A
16

S
T

SEATING
PLANE

H
G

16 PL

0.25 (0.010)

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

T A

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
S

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.740
0.770
0.250
0.270
0.145
0.175
0.015
0.021
0.040
0.70
0.100 BSC
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.015
0.110
0.130
0.295
0.305
0_
10 _
0.020
0.040

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
18.80
19.55
6.35
6.85
3.69
4.44
0.39
0.53
1.02
1.77
2.54 BSC
1.27 BSC
0.21
0.38
2.80
3.30
7.50
7.74
0_
10 _
0.51
1.01

MC14566B
7

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
D SUFFIX
PLASTIC SOIC PACKAGE
CASE 751B05
ISSUE J
A

16

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006)
PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL
IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.

B
1

8 PL

0.25 (0.010)

X 45 _

C
T

SEATING
PLANE

M
D

16 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T B

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
M
P
R

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
9.80
10.00
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.35
0.49
0.40
1.25
1.27 BSC
0.19
0.25
0.10
0.25
0_
7_
5.80
6.20
0.25
0.50

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.386
0.393
0.150
0.157
0.054
0.068
0.014
0.019
0.016
0.049
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0_
7_
0.229
0.244
0.010
0.019

Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding
the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit,
and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters which may be provided
in Motorola data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters,
including Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent
rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant
into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product could create a
situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such unintended or unauthorized application,
Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and
expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or
unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. Motorola and
are registered
trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
How to reach us:
USA/EUROPE/Locations Not Listed: Motorola Literature Distribution;
P.O. Box 20912; Phoenix, Arizona 85036. 18004412447 or 6023035454

JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd.; TatsumiSPDJLDC, 6F SeibuButsuryuCenter,


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MFAX: RMFAX0@email.sps.mot.com TOUCHTONE 6022446609


INTERNET: http://DesignNET.com

ASIA/PACIFIC: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.; 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park,


51 Ting Kok Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong. 85226629298

MC14566B
8

*MC14566B/D*

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC


DATA
MC14566B/D



   + 
!  
         +

! 

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA

 
) %&)( *
"$#(( '#!! '

L SUFFIX
CERAMIC
CASE 632

The MC14093B Schmitt trigger is constructed with MOS Pchannel and


Nchannel enhancement mode devices in a single monolithic structure.
These devices find primary use where low power dissipation and/or high
noise immunity is desired. The MC14093B may be used in place of the
MC14011B quad 2input NAND gate for enhanced noise immunity or to
square up slowly changing waveforms.
Supply Voltage Range = 3.0 Vdc to 18 Vdc
Capable of Driving Two LowPower TTL Loads or One LowPower
Schottky TTL Load Over the Rated Temperature Range
Triple Diode Protection on All Inputs
PinforPin Compatible with CD4093
Can be Used to Replace MC14011B
Independent SchmittTrigger at each Input

MAXIMUM RATINGS* (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Symbol
VDD

Parameter

DC Supply Voltage

Value

Unit

0.5 to + 18.0

Vin, Vout

Input or Output Voltage (DC or Transient)

0.5 to VDD + 0.5

Iin, Iout

Input or Output Current (DC or Transient),


per Pin

10

mA

PD

Power Dissipation, per Package

500

mW

Tstg

Storage Temperature

65 to + 150

_C

260

_C

TL

Lead Temperature (8Second Soldering)

* Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur.
Temperature Derating:
Plastic P and D/DW Packages: 7.0 mW/_C From 65_C To 125_C
Ceramic L Packages: 12 mW/_C From 100_C To 125_C

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC


(1/4 OF CIRCUIT SHOWN)

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC
CASE 646

D SUFFIX
SOIC
CASE 751A

ORDERING INFORMATION
MC14XXXBCP
MC14XXXBCL
MC14XXXBD

Plastic
Ceramic
SOIC

TA = 55 to 125C for all packages.

LOGIC DIAGRAM
1
2

5
6

8
9

10

12
13

11
VDD = PIN 14
VSS = PIN 7

This device contains protection circuitry to guard against damage


due to high static voltages or electric fields. However, precautions must
be taken to avoid applications of any voltage higher than maximum rated
voltages to this high-impedance circuit. For proper operation, Vin and
Vout should be constrained to the range VSS (Vin or Vout) VDD.
Unused inputs must always be tied to an appropriate logic voltage
level (e.g., either VSS or VDD). Unused outputs must be left open.

REV 3
1/94

MOTOROLA
Motorola, Inc. 1995
CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14093B
1

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Characteristic

Output Voltage
Vin = VDD or 0

Symbol

55_C

25_C

125_C

VDD
Vdc

Min

Max

Min

Typ #

Max

Min

Max

Unit

0 Level

VOL

5.0
10
15

0.05
0.05
0.05

0
0
0

0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05

Vdc

1 Level

VOH

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

4.95
9.95
14.95

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

Vdc

5.0
5.0
10
15

3.0
0.64
1.6
4.2

2.4
0.51
1.3
3.4

4.2
0.88
2.25
8.8

1.7
0.36
0.9
2.4

IOL

5.0
10
15

0.64
1.6
4.2

0.51
1.3
3.4

0.88
2.25
8.8

0.36
0.9
2.4

mAdc

Input Current

Iin

15

0.1

0.00001

0.1

1.0

Adc

Input Capacitance
(Vin = 0)

Cin

5.0

7.5

pF

Quiescent Current
(Per Package)

IDD

5.0
10
15

0.25
0.5
1.0

0.0005
0.0010
0.0015

0.25
0.5
1.0

7.5
15
30

Adc

IT

5.0
10
15

Hysteresis Voltage

VH

5.0
10
15

0.3
1.2
1.6

2.0
3.4
5.0

0.3
1.2
1.6

1.1
1.7
2.1

2.0
3.4
5.0

0.3
1.2
1.6

2.0
3.4
5.0

Threshold Voltage
PositiveGoing

VT+

5.0
10
15

2.2
4.6
6.8

3.6
7.1
10.8

2.2
4.6
6.8

2.9
5.9
8.8

3.6
7.1
10.8

2.2
4.6
6.8

3.6
7.1
10.8

VT

5.0
10
15

0.9
2.5
4.0

2.8
5.2
7.4

0.9
2.5
4.0

1.9
3.9
5.8

2.8
5.2
7.4

0.9
2.5
4.0

2.8
5.2
7.4

Vin = 0 or VDD

Output Drive Current


(VOH = 2.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 4.6 Vdc)
(VOH = 9.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 13.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.4 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 1.5 Vdc)

IOH

Source

Sink

Total Supply Current**


(Dynamic plus Quiescent,
Per Package)
(CL = 50 pF on all outputs, all
buffers switching)

NegativeGoing

mAdc

IT = (1.2 A/kHz) f + IDD


IT = (2.4 A/kHz) f + IDD
IT = (3.6 A/kHz) f + IDD

Adc

Vdc

Vdc

Vdc

#Data labelled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.

** The formulas given are for the typical characteristics only at 25_C.
To calculate total supply current at loads other than 50 pF:

IT(CL) = IT(50 pF) + (CL 50) Vfk


where: IT is in A (per package), CL in pF, V = (VDD VSS) in volts, f in kHz is input frequency, and k = 0.004.

MC14093B
2

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS (CL = 50 pF, TA = 25_C)


Characteristic

Symbol

VDD
Vdc

Min

Typ #

Max

Unit

Output Rise Time

tTLH

5.0
10
15

100
50
40

200
100
80

ns

Output Fall Time

tTHL

5.0
10
15

100
50
40

200
100
80

ns

tPLH, tPHL

5.0
10
15

125
50
40

250
100
80

ns

Propagation Delay Time

#Data labeled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.

VDD

20 ns

14
PULSE
GENERATOR

INPUT
OUTPUT

20 ns
VDD

90%
50%
10%

tPHL

INPUT
7

VSS

CL

OUTPUT

tPLH
90%
50%
10%
tTHL

VSS
VOH
VOL

tTLH

Figure 1. Switching Time Test Circuit and Waveforms

VH

VH

VDD

VDD

Vin

Vin
VSS

VSS

VDD

VDD

Vout

Vout
VSS

(a) Schmitt Triggers will square up


(a) inputs with slow rise and fall times.

VSS

(b) A Schmitt trigger offers maximum


(b) noise immunity in gate applications.

Figure 2. Typical Schmitt Trigger Applications

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14093B
3

14

14

IOH
Vout

All unused inputs


connected to ground.

7
All unused inputs
connected to ground.

VGS
10

c
b
VGS = 5.0 Vdc

2.0
a
b
b

4.0

TA = 55C
TA = + 25C
TA = + 125C
c

6.0
10 Vdc

8.0

8.0

15 Vdc

10
10

6.0
4.0
VDS, DRAIN VOLTAGE (Vdc)

b c

15 Vdc
a

8.0

VGS = 10 Vdc

b
c

6.0

a
b
c

4.0

TA = 55C
TA = + 25C
TA = + 125C

2.0

5.0 Vdc

c
a
2.0

Figure 3. Typical Output Source


Characteristics Test Circuit

2.0

4.0
6.0
VDS, DRAIN VOLTAGE (Vdc)

8.0

10

Figure 4. Typical Output Sink


Characteristics Test Circuit

VDD

PIN ASSIGNMENT

Vout , OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Vdc)


0

Vout

IOL , DRAIN CURRENT (mAdc)

IOH, DRAIN CURRENT (mAdc)

IOL

VGS

VT

VT+
VH
Vin, INPUT VOLTAGE (Vdc)

IN 1A

14

VDD

IN 2A

13

IN 2D

OUTA

12

IN 1D

OUTB

11

OUTD

IN 1B

10

OUTC

IN 2B

IN 2C

VSS

IN 1C

VDD

Figure 5. Typical Transfer Characteristics

MC14093B
4

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
L SUFFIX
CERAMIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 63208
ISSUE Y

A
14

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEAD WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
4. DIMENSION F MAY NARROW TO 0.76 (0.030)
WHERE THE LEAD ENTERS THE CERAMIC
BODY.

SEATING
PLANE

G
D

M
J

14 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T A

14 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T B

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 64606
ISSUE L
14

A
F

L
C
J

N
H

SEATING
PLANE

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

K
M

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
L
M
N

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.750
0.785
0.245
0.280
0.155
0.200
0.015
0.020
0.055
0.065
0.100 BSC
0.008
0.015
0.125
0.170
0.300 BSC
0_
15_
0.020
0.040

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
19.05
19.94
6.23
7.11
3.94
5.08
0.39
0.50
1.40
1.65
2.54 BSC
0.21
0.38
3.18
4.31
7.62 BSC
0_
15_
0.51
1.01

NOTES:
1. LEADS WITHIN 0.13 (0.005) RADIUS OF TRUE
POSITION AT SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM
MATERIAL CONDITION.
2. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
3. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD
FLASH.
4. ROUNDED CORNERS OPTIONAL.
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.715
0.770
0.240
0.260
0.145
0.185
0.015
0.021
0.040
0.070
0.100 BSC
0.052
0.095
0.008
0.015
0.115
0.135
0.300 BSC
0_
10_
0.015
0.039

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
18.16
19.56
6.10
6.60
3.69
4.69
0.38
0.53
1.02
1.78
2.54 BSC
1.32
2.41
0.20
0.38
2.92
3.43
7.62 BSC
0_
10_
0.39
1.01

MC14093B
5

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
D SUFFIX
PLASTIC SOIC PACKAGE
CASE 751A03
ISSUE F

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006)
PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL
IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.

A
14

B
1

P 7 PL
0.25 (0.010)

T
M

D 14 PL
0.25 (0.010)

T B

R X 45 _

SEATING
PLANE

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
M
P
R

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
8.55
8.75
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.35
0.49
0.40
1.25
1.27 BSC
0.19
0.25
0.10
0.25
0_
7_
5.80
6.20
0.25
0.50

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.337
0.344
0.150
0.157
0.054
0.068
0.014
0.019
0.016
0.049
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0_
7_
0.228
0.244
0.010
0.019

Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding
the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit,
and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters which may be provided
in Motorola data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters,
including Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent
rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant
into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product could create a
situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such unintended or unauthorized application,
Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and
expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or
unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. Motorola and
are registered
trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
How to reach us:
USA/EUROPE/Locations Not Listed: Motorola Literature Distribution;
P.O. Box 20912; Phoenix, Arizona 85036. 18004412447 or 6023035454

JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd.; TatsumiSPDJLDC, 6F SeibuButsuryuCenter,


3142 Tatsumi KotoKu, Tokyo 135, Japan. 038135218315

MFAX: RMFAX0@email.sps.mot.com TOUCHTONE 6022446609


INTERNET: http://DesignNET.com

ASIA/PACIFIC: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.; 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park,


51 Ting Kok Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong. 85226629298

MC14093B
6

*MC14093B/D*

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC


DATA
MC14093B/D




    

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA


   



 
  !  
L SUFFIX
CERAMIC
CASE 632

The MC14013B dual type D flipflop is constructed with MOS Pchannel


and Nchannel enhancement mode devices in a single monolithic structure.
Each flipflop has independent Data, (D), Direct Set, (S), Direct Reset, (R),
and Clock (C) inputs and complementary outputs (Q and Q). These devices
may be used as shift register elements or as type T flipflops for counter and
toggle applications.

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC
CASE 646

Static Operation
Diode Protection on All Inputs
Supply Voltage Range = 3.0 Vdc to 18 Vdc
Logic EdgeClocked FlipFlop Design
Logic state is retained indefinitely with clock level either high or low;
information is transferred to the output only on the positivegoing edge
of the clock pulse
Capable of Driving Two Lowpower TTL Loads or One Lowpower
Schottky TTL Load Over the Rated Temperature Range
PinforPin Replacement for CD4013B

MAXIMUM RATINGS* (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Symbol

Parameter

VDD

DC Supply Voltage

Value

Unit

0.5 to + 18.0

D SUFFIX
SOIC
CASE 751A

ORDERING INFORMATION
MC14XXXBCP
MC14XXXBCL
MC14XXXBD

TA = 55 to 125C for all packages.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Vin, Vout

Input or Output Voltage (DC or Transient)

0.5 to VDD + 0.5

lin, lout

Input or Output Current (DC or Transient),


per Pin

10

mA

PD

Power Dissipation, per Package

500

mW

Tstg

Storage Temperature

65 to + 150

_C

260

_C

TL

Lead Temperature (8Second Soldering)

* Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur.
Temperature Derating:
Plastic P and D/DW Packages: 7.0 mW/_C From 65_C To 125_C
Ceramic L Packages: 12 mW/_C From 100_C To 125_C

TRUTH TABLE
Inputs
Clock

Plastic
Ceramic
SOIC

13

12

4
8
9

11

Outputs

Data

Reset

Set

10
No
Change

VDD = PIN 14
VSS = PIN 7

X = Dont Care
= Level Change

REV 3
1/94

MOTOROLA
Motorola, Inc. 1995
CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14013B
45

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Voltages Referenced to VSS)


Characteristic

Symbol

55_C

25_C

125_C

VDD
Vdc

Min

Max

Min

Typ #

Max

Min

Max

Unit

Output Voltage
Vin = VDD or 0

0 Level

VOL

5.0
10
15

0.05
0.05
0.05

0
0
0

0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05

Vdc

Vin = 0 or VDD

1 Level

VOH

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

4.95
9.95
14.95

5.0
10
15

4.95
9.95
14.95

Vdc

5.0
10
15

1.5
3.0
4.0

2.25
4.50
6.75

1.5
3.0
4.0

1.5
3.0
4.0

5.0
10
15

3.5
7.0
11

3.5
7.0
11

2.75
5.50
8.25

3.5
7.0
11

5.0
5.0
10
15

3.0
0.64
1.6
4.2

2.4
0.51
1.3
3.4

4.2
0.88
2.25
8.8

1.7
0.36
0.9
2.4

IOL

5.0
10
15

0.64
1.6
4.2

0.51
1.3
3.4

0.88
2.25
8.8

0.36
0.9
2.4

mAdc

Input Current

Iin

15

0.1

0.00001

0.1

1.0

Adc

Input Capacitance
(Vin = 0)

Cin

5.0

7.5

pF

Quiescent Current
(Per Package)

IDD

5.0
10
15

1.0
2.0
4.0

0.002
0.004
0.006

1.0
2.0
4.0

30
60
120

Adc

IT

5.0
10
15

Input Voltage
0 Level
(VO = 4.5 or 0.5 Vdc)
(VO = 9.0 or 1.0 Vdc)
(VO = 13.5 or 1.5 Vdc)

VIL

(VO = 0.5 or 4.5 Vdc) 1 Level


(VO = 1.0 or 9.0 Vdc)
(VO = 1.5 or 13.5 Vdc)

VIH

Output Drive Current


(VOH = 2.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 4.6 Vdc)
(VOH = 9.5 Vdc)
(VOH = 13.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.4 Vdc)
(VOL = 0.5 Vdc)
(VOL = 1.5 Vdc)

Vdc

Vdc

IOH

Source

Sink

Total Supply Current**


(Dynamic plus Quiescent,
Per Package)
(CL = 50 pF on all outputs, all
buffers switching)

mAdc

IT = (0.75 A/kHz) f + IDD


IT = (1.5 A/kHz) f + IDD
IT = (2.3 A/kHz) f + IDD

Adc

#Data labelled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.

** The formulas given are for the typical characteristics only at 25_C.
To calculate total supply current at loads other than 50 pF:

IT(CL) = IT(50 pF) + (CL 50) Vfk


where: IT is in A (per package), CL in pF, V = (VDD VSS) in volts, f in kHz is input frequency, and k = 0.002.

This device contains protection circuitry to guard against damage


due to high static voltages or electric fields. However, precautions must
be taken to avoid applications of any voltage higher than maximum rated
voltages to this high-impedance circuit. For proper operation, Vin and
Vout should be constrained to the range VSS (Vin or Vout) VDD.
Unused inputs must always be tied to an appropriate logic voltage
level (e.g., either VSS or VDD). Unused outputs must be left open.

MC14013B
46

PIN ASSIGNMENT
QA

14

VDD

QA

13

QB

CA

12

QB

RA

11

CB

DA

10

RB

SA

DB

VSS

SB

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS* (CL = 50 pF, TA = 25_C)


Characteristic

Symbol

Output Rise and Fall Time


tTLH, tTHL = (1.5 ns/pF) CL + 25 ns
tTLH, tTHL = (0.75 ns/pF) CL + 12.5 ns
tTLH, tTHL = (0.55 ns/pF) CL + 9.5 ns

tTLH,
tTHL

Propagation Delay Time


Clock to Q, Q
tPLH, tPHL = (1.7 ns/pF) CL + 90 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.66 ns/pF) CL + 42 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.5 ns/pF) CL + 25 ns

tPLH
tPHL

VDD

Min

Typ #

Max

5.0
10
15

100
50
40

200
100
80

Unit
ns

ns

5.0
10
15

175
75
50

350
150
100

Set to Q, Q
tPLH, tPHL = (1.7 ns/pF) CL + 90 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.66 ns/pF) CL + 42 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.5 ns/pF) CL + 25 ns

5.0
10
15

175
75
50

350
150
100

Reset to Q, Q
tPLH, tPHL = (1.7 ns/pF) CL + 265 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.66 ns/pF) CL + 67 ns
tPLH, tPHL = (0.5 ns/pF) CL + 50 ns

5.0
10
15

225
100
75

450
200
150

Setup Times**

tsu

5.0
10
15

40
20
15

20
10
7.5

ns

Hold Times**

th

5.0
10
15

40
20
15

20
10
7.5

ns

tWL, tWH

5.0
10
15

250
100
70

125
50
35

ns

fcl

5.0
10
15

4.0
10
14

2.0
5.0
7.0

MHz

tTLH
tTHL

5.0
10
15

15
5.0
4.0

tWL, tWH

5.0
10
15

250
100
70

125
50
35

ns

5
10
15

80
45
35

0
5
5

5
10
15

50
30
25

35
10
5

Clock Pulse Width

Clock Pulse Frequency

Clock Pulse Rise and Fall Time

Set and Reset Pulse Width

trem

Removal Times
Set

Reset

ns

* The formulas given are for the typical characteristics only at 25_C.
#Data labelled Typ is not to be used for design purposes but is intended as an indication of the ICs potential performance.
** Data must be valid for 250 ns with a 5 V supply, 100 ns with 10 V, and 70 ns with 15 V.

LOGIC DIAGRAM
(1/2 of Device Shown)
S
C

D
C

C
C

C
C

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

MC14013B
47

20 ns

20 ns
90%
50%
10%

tsu (L)
th

tsu (H)
C
tWH

SET OR
RESET

20 ns
VDD

90%
50%
tw

VSS

10%

tPHL

VSS
20 ns

90%
50%
tw

tPLH
tPHL

VOH

10%

VDD
VSS
VOH

50%

Q OR Q

VOL

tTLH

trem

20 ns

CLOCK

90%
50%
10%

20 ns

VSS
20 ns
VDD

90%
50%
10%
tWL

1
fcl

tPLH

VDD

VOL

tTHL

Inputs R and S low.

Figure 1. Dynamic Signal Waveforms


(Data, Clock, and Output)

Figure 2. Dynamic Signal Waveforms


(Set, Reset, Clock, and Output)

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
nSTAGE SHIFT REGISTER
1
D

nth

CLOCK

BINARY RIPPLE UPCOUNTER (Divideby2n)


1

CLOCK

nth

T FLIPFLOP

MODIFIED RING COUNTER (Divideby(n+1))


1

nth

CLOCK

MC14013B
48

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
L SUFFIX
CERAMIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 63208
ISSUE Y

A
14

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEAD WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
4. DIMENSION F MAY NARROW TO 0.76 (0.030)
WHERE THE LEAD ENTERS THE CERAMIC
BODY.

SEATING
PLANE

G
D

M
J

14 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T A

14 PL

0.25 (0.010)

T B

P SUFFIX
PLASTIC DIP PACKAGE
CASE 64606
ISSUE L
14

A
F

L
C
J

N
H

SEATING
PLANE

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC DATA

K
M

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
L
M
N

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.750
0.785
0.245
0.280
0.155
0.200
0.015
0.020
0.055
0.065
0.100 BSC
0.008
0.015
0.125
0.170
0.300 BSC
0_
15_
0.020
0.040

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
19.05
19.94
6.23
7.11
3.94
5.08
0.39
0.50
1.40
1.65
2.54 BSC
0.21
0.38
3.18
4.31
7.62 BSC
0_
15_
0.51
1.01

NOTES:
1. LEADS WITHIN 0.13 (0.005) RADIUS OF TRUE
POSITION AT SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM
MATERIAL CONDITION.
2. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
3. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD
FLASH.
4. ROUNDED CORNERS OPTIONAL.
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.715
0.770
0.240
0.260
0.145
0.185
0.015
0.021
0.040
0.070
0.100 BSC
0.052
0.095
0.008
0.015
0.115
0.135
0.300 BSC
0_
10_
0.015
0.039

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
18.16
19.56
6.10
6.60
3.69
4.69
0.38
0.53
1.02
1.78
2.54 BSC
1.32
2.41
0.20
0.38
2.92
3.43
7.62 BSC
0_
10_
0.39
1.01

MC14013B
49

OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
D SUFFIX
PLASTIC SOIC PACKAGE
CASE 751A03
ISSUE F

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006)
PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL
IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.

A
14

B
1

P 7 PL
0.25 (0.010)

T
M

D 14 PL
0.25 (0.010)

T B

R X 45 _

SEATING
PLANE

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
M
P
R

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
8.55
8.75
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.35
0.49
0.40
1.25
1.27 BSC
0.19
0.25
0.10
0.25
0_
7_
5.80
6.20
0.25
0.50

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.337
0.344
0.150
0.157
0.054
0.068
0.014
0.019
0.016
0.049
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0_
7_
0.228
0.244
0.010
0.019

Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding
the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit,
and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters which may be provided
in Motorola data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters,
including Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent
rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant
into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product could create a
situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such unintended or unauthorized application,
Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and
expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or
unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. Motorola and
are registered
trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
How to reach us:
USA/EUROPE/Locations Not Listed: Motorola Literature Distribution;
P.O. Box 20912; Phoenix, Arizona 85036. 18004412447 or 6023035454

JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd.; TatsumiSPDJLDC, 6F SeibuButsuryuCenter,


3142 Tatsumi KotoKu, Tokyo 135, Japan. 038135218315

MFAX: RMFAX0@email.sps.mot.com TOUCHTONE 6022446609


INTERNET: http://DesignNET.com

ASIA/PACIFIC: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.; 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park,


51 Ting Kok Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong. 85226629298

MC14013B
50

*MC14013B/D*

MOTOROLA CMOS LOGIC


DATA
MC14013B/D