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Bread by Henry Longerich August 2, 2009

To make bread the following ingredients are used, although many are optional as
noted. The inclusion or omission of various ingredients are what make various
types of bread different. Any ingredient can be used in reasonable quantities.
Water is required although milk may be substituted. The use of dry milk powder
however makes the job much easier. If more fat is desired to replace that lost
through the use of non fat dry milk power, any kind of fat can be added later.
Yeast is almost required. If the batter is allowed to sit for a while yeasts from the
air will inoculate the batter and the bread will rise. Dry yeast is however easier and
more reliable. Fresh yeast is not readily available in Canada but seems to offer no
advantages, although fresh would surely work although it is reputed to die with
time if dried out. Instant yeast is available in the US, and only saves a few minutes
which seems of no advantage.
Sugar, at least a little bit is needed. More is normal, a lot is used for sweet breads,
but do not use too much. For sweet breads only add a little sugar to start. After the
yeast is growing well then add additional sugar. Any kind of sugar can be used,
white, light or dark brown, honey, molasses or any other kind of syrup.
Fat is optional, any kind will do, oil or solid. Solid is deemed better but oil works
fine. Adds to the long life of bread. Fat is not used in French, but can be added and
then is often called Italian. Any oil is fine, olive oil is nice for pizza.
Flour is essential, some wheat flour is essential. Any other kind of grain or flour
can be added up to approximately half of the total. Some interesting examples are
oats, gluten flour, corn, rye, bran, germ, etc.
Egg adds lightness and richness, can be used in any bread, but often requested in
soft dinner rolls, sweet rolls, and adds interesting lightness to pizza.
Always make a batter. Regardless what the recipe says always make a batter first.
If a sweet bread only add a little sugar (a pinch) to start the batter. Add the all the
fat, and all salt, and additional sugar later regardless what the recipe says.
Needed is a warm place for the yeast to reproduce. An oven with the light on or a
gas oven with the pilot light on is usually just about right. Or the oven may be
turned on for 10 seconds or so to bring the temperature up; do not take your hand
off the controller.
Measure the water. One cup for one large pizza, about 3 cups for two loafs of
bread. Four cups is a good maximum as the quantity of dough becomes harder to
manage with more than 4 cups (one litre) of water. The water should be warm,
warm as a babys bottle, but not too hot. If it is too hot the poor yeasts will die, if
it is too cold they will not get started.
Add minimum of one pinch of sugar, or approximately 1/4 teaspoon total for any
amount of water, especially for example for pizza or pita bread. Add 1 Table
spoon of sugar per cup of water for normal bread. For sweet breads where more
than 1 Table spoon of sugar per cup of water is used always add the remaining
later with the salt and fat.
Stir, add one teaspoon of yeast or one half package of dry yeast. More is really not
needed as the little yeasts will reproduce and make more in time.
Wait till the yeasts get started. A time of 5 to 10 minutes is usually adequate,
unless the water is too cold. An hour is more than needed, but if other pursuits
calls, the yeasts will be just fine.
Add the dry milk, 1/3 cup dry milk for each cup of water. Helps make the bread
moist and keep, not used for French or Pizza. I almost always forget the milk.
Stir, add flour, usually some kind of wheat flour at this point. Approximately 1.5
cups flour for each cup of water to make a thick batter. Some lumps may remain,
but do not worry unless you would like to beat the batter some more.
Wait at least 10 minutes, an hour is better, two is more than needed.
Add the fat, one Table spoon per cup of water. Fat is not used in French. For nice
pizza use olive oil. Solid fat is reputed to make better bread, in which case melt it
first in the microwave or in a small pan. Butter is fine and is usually used in sweet
breads. Oil is reputed to be better for you.
Add salt, one tea spoon per cup of water. Almost always used. Add it now so it
will not have inhibited the yeast when they were getting started.
Mix and add more flour until a dough results. Kneed the dough until the outside is
dry to the touch. Easier said than done, and words do not describe the feel. Rotate
the dough a quarter turn and pull the top part towards you, fold over and push
down. Repeat until the dough feels nice. Should take about 10 minutes. It will take
a lot less time than if you had not made the batter first.
Let rise on hour, more is fine, less is ok.
Shape into the final desired shape. Place on sheets, in muffin pans, in bread pans,
in juice cans, in just about any thing which is oven proof. Let rise 45 minutes,
bake bread 45 minutes at 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Small breads, like dinner rolls
and buns, cook a shorter time at a higher temperature of usually 400 degrees
Fahrenheit. Pizza for 20 minutes at 450 degrees Fahrenheit. Remove from pans,
optionally cool and eat.
Regular Regular Pizza Rolls French
Water (cup) 1 3 1 2 1
Sugar (Table spoon) 1 3 pinch 4 1
Yeast (tea spoon) 1 1 1 1 1
Dry milk (cup) 1/3 1 0 2/3 0
Flour approximately
(cup) to make the
1.5 4.5 1.5 3 1.5
Salt (tea spoon) 1 3 1 2 1
Fat (Table spoon) 1 3 1 4 0
Egg 0 0 0 1 0
Note 1:1:1:1/3:1.5:1:1 for bread, multiply by any amount except yeast which
remains fixed.
Note the quantity of flour is to make the batter. Some unknown quantity of flour is
required to make the dough. This additional flour is never measure, but the
dough is simply worked up right. The actual quantity will vary with the
density and water content of the flour used, which in turn will vary between
brands and with the time of year and the relative humidity.
Pizza is for one large pizza which uses one cup water; use 2/3 cup for small.
French is for one small loaf, typically use 3 cups water for two large loafs, steam
inject the oven for French by tossing in the bottom of the oven a half cup of
water every 15 minutes or so.
This is the fifth edition. I probably left out some thing, but I hope it is not
Chocolate Chip Ring
1 cup water (warm)
pinch ( teaspoon) sugar
1 teaspoon yeast
a cup dry milk
2 eggs
flour to make thin batter
cup margarine or butter melted
a cup sugar
1 teaspoon salt
flour to make thick batter
1 cup chocolate chips
stir gently
bake 350 deg F, 45 minutes ring pan (angle food)