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Fragments

Run-ons
Sentence Variety
English 100BC
Eng 100BC
Fragments
Fragments
A sentence is a group of words that has three
elements:
Subject
Verb
And a Complete thought
A fragment seems to be a complete sentence but
it lacks either a
Subject
Verb
Or a complete thought.
Fragments
What are the two basic ways to correct sentence
fragments?
Add what is missing (subject, verb, or both)
Attach fragment to sentence before or after it
Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal
possible fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with a preposition
I pounded as hard as I could. Against the
door.
*correct by joining*
I pounded as hard as I could against the door.
Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal
possible fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with a dependent word
Since I moved. I have eaten out every day.
Common Dependent words: after, although, as/as
if/ as though, because, before, how, once,
since, that, unless, while, until, etc.
*Correct by joining*
Since moving, I have eaten out every day.
Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal
possible fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
-ing verb form
Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with an -ing form verb
I ran as fast as I could. Hoping to get there on time.
*Correct by joining*
I was running as fast as I could, hoping to get there on
time.
*correct by adding missing elements*
I was running as fast as I could. I was still hoping to get
there on time.
Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal
possible fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
-ing verb form
to and a verb
Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with to and a verb
Cheri got underneath the car. To change the oil.
*correct by joining*
Cheri got underneath the car to change the oil.
To change the oil, Cheri got underneath the car.
*correct by adding elements*
Cheri got underneath the car. She needed to change
the oil.
Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal
possible fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
-ing verb form
to and a verb
an example or explanation
Spotting Fragments
Word groups that are examples or explanations
Freecycle.com recycles usable items. Such as
clothing.
*correct by joining*
Freecycle.com recycles usable items such as
clothing.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
1. There are older and more valuable
manuscripts. Than the Voynich.
There are older and more valuable manuscripts
than the Voynich.
2. However, there is none more mysterious. The
Voynich still puzzling scholars many years
after its discovery.
However, there is none more mysterious. The
Voynich is still puzzling scholars many years
after its discovery.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
3. This manuscript was written in a code. So far
unable to solve it.
This manuscript was written in a code. So far no
one has been able to solve it.
4. Because the origins of the manuscript are
unclear; the puzzle is doubly difficult.
Because the origins of the manuscript are
unclear, the puzzle is doubly difficult.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
5. No one knows. What country it came from.
No one knows what country it came from.
6. Therefore, it very hard to determine the
language the code represents. This makes
decoding it even more troublesome.
Therefore, it is very hard to determine the
language the code represents. This makes
decoding it even more troublesome.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
7. Handwriting specialists can only guess at its
age. It may date back to the Middle Ages.
correct
8. The writing does not resemble. Any letters
that can be traced to a known alphabet.
The writing does not resemble any letters that
can be traced to a known alphabet.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
9. The manuscript which contains many
beautiful illustrations. Of plants, people, and
other seemingly unrelated images.
The manuscript contains many beautiful
illustrations. It depicts plants, people, and
other seemingly unrelated images.
Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments
10. Because the Voynich manuscript is such an
intriguing mystery. That some scholars might
actually be disappointed to learn all of its
secrets.
The Voynich manuscript is such an intriguing
mystery that some scholars might actually be
disappointed to learn all of its secrets.
Eng 100
Run-ons
Students will be able to
Indentify and correct run-on
sentences.
Run-Ons
1. Whats another name for a sentence?
Independent clause
2. What term describes two complete
sentences joined without any punctuation?
Fused sentence
All of us went to the movies Jack and Joan did
not stay long.
Run-Ons
2. What term describes two complete
sentences joined without any punctuation?
Fused sentence
All of us went to the movies Jack and Joan did
not stay long.
3. What term describes two complete
sentences joined by only a comma?
Comma splice
All of us went to the movies, Jack and Joan did
not stay long.
Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons?
Add a period
All of us went to the movies. Jack and Joan did
not stay long.
Add a semicolon
All of us went to the movies; Jack and Joan did
not stay long.
Add a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a
comma
All of us went to the movies; however, Jack
and Joan did not stay long.
Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons?
Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction
All of us went to the movies, but Jack and Joan
did not stay long.
Add a dependent word
Although all of us went to the movies, Jack and
Joan did not stay long.
Ex. 4.1 Run-On Sentences
1. Mae West began as a child star the career of
Baby Mae took off when she performed at a
local Brooklyn theaters amateur night.
Mae West began as a child star. The career of
Baby Mae took off when she performed at a
local Brooklyn theaters amateur night.
2. At the age of nineteen, West began
performing on Broadway she shocked
audiences in 1911.
At the age of nineteen, West began performing
on Broadway; she shocked audiences in 1911.
Ex. 4.1 Run-On Sentences
3. The voluptuous West became known for her
suggestive clothing, even more famous were
her suggestive wisecracks.
The voluptuous West became known for her
suggestive clothing and even more famous for
her suggestive wisecracks.
4. Attending black jazz clubs had introduced her
to a new dance movement she performed this
shimmy on Broadway, and it became a
trademark for her.
Attending black jazz clubs had introduced her to
a new dance movement. She performed this
shimmy on Broadway, and it became a
trademark for her.
Ex. 4.1 Run-On Sentences
5. West was not satisfied for long with the
theatrical roles she was offered writing her
own plays was one way to find good parts.
West was not satisfied for long with the
theatrical roles she was offered; writing her
own plays was one way to find good parts.
6. In 1925, she wrote a play called Sex, no
producer she contacted would bring it to the
stage.
In 1925, she wrote a play called Sex, but no
producer she contacted would bring it to the
stage.
Ex. 4.1 Run-On Sentences
7. The following year, West produced the play
herself, advertisements for Sex were banned.
The following year, when West produced the
play herself, advertisements for Sex were
banned.
8. Nevertheless, the show played for nine
months until it was closed down by the Society
for the Suppression of Vice, West was arrested
and spent eight days in jail.
Nevertheless, the show played for nine months
until it was closed down by the Society for the
Suppression of Vice. West was arrested and
spent eight days in jail.
Ex. 4.1 Run-On Sentences
9. In the 1930s and 1940s, Mae West took her naughty
humor to Hollywood, while there she made a series of
hit films and often wrote her own screenplays.
In the 1930s and 1940s, Mae West took her naughty
humor to Hollywood. While there she made a series of
hit films and often wrote her own screenplays.
10. West made her final films in the 1970s by that time,
Americans found her less scandalous, but her name was
still a household word.
West made her final films in the 1970s. By that time
Americans found her less scandalous, but her name was
still a household word.
Sentence Variety
Providing Sentence Variety
Use a variety of sentence structures
Move adverbial modifiers
A few drops of sap eventually began
to trickle into the bucket.
Eventually a few drops of sap began
to trickle into the bucket.
Move adjectives and participial phrases
Edward, dejected and withdrawn,
nearly gave up his search for a job.
Dejected and withdrawn, Edward
nearly gave up his search for a job.
Providing Sentence Variety
Use a variety of sentence structures
Simple - A sentence with one independent clause and no
dependent clauses
My aunt enjoys eating cake.
Compound - A sentence with multiple independent clauses but no
dependent clauses.
The clown frightened the little girl, and she ran off screaming.
Complex - A sentence with one independent clause and at least
one dependent clause.
After Mary added up all the sales, she discovered that the
lemonade stand was 32 cents short.
Compound-complex - A sentence with multiple independent
clauses and at least one dependent clause.
Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go
lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
Providing Sentence Variety
Try inverting sentence occasionally
A refrigerated case of mouthwatering cheeses is
opposite the produce section; a friendly attendant will
cut off just the amount you want.
Opposite the produce section is a refrigerated case of
mouthwatering cheeses; a friendly attendant will cut off
just the amount you want.
Huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights
were set at the top two corners of the stage.
Set at the top two corners of the stage were huge
lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights.
For Wednesday...
Rough draft of either narrative OR
description
Sentence outlines of narrative & description
Read chapter about compare/contrast
Read in glossary definitions of conclusion
and introductions