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Activated Sludge Design, Startup, Operation, Monitoring and Troubleshooting

Ohio Water Environment Association

Plant Operations Workshop

Columbus, Ohio

September 1, 2010

Phil Anderson

Operations Specialist

• Plant Operations Workshop • Columbus, Ohio • September 1, 2010 • Phil Anderson • Operations
• Plant Operations Workshop • Columbus, Ohio • September 1, 2010 • Phil Anderson • Operations
• Plant Operations Workshop • Columbus, Ohio • September 1, 2010 • Phil Anderson • Operations
• Plant Operations Workshop • Columbus, Ohio • September 1, 2010 • Phil Anderson • Operations

Design - Activated Sludge

Design Team

Treatment Goals

Activated Sludge Processes

Engineering Standards

Preliminary Treatment

Tertiary Treatment

Treatment Goals

BOD Removal

Dissolved wastes are consumed as food by the activated sludge microbes and converted to biomass, water, carbon dioxide, and other gases

Nitrification

The process through which ammonia is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate

Denitrification

A process by which nitrates and nitrites are converted to gaseous end products, primarily nitrogen gas.

– A process by which nitrates and nitrites are converted to gaseous end products, primarily nitrogen

Activated Sludge Processes

Conventional – CBOD Removal

• Plug or Step Feed

Single-Stage Nitrification Oxidation Ditch - Vertical Loop Reactor Extended Aeration MBR BNR

Additional Processes

Preliminary Treatment

Screening Grit Removal

Tertiary Treatment

Filters

Solids Handling

Recycle Flows

Design – Engineering Standards

Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants WEF Manual of Practice No. 8

Wastewater Engineering, Treatment , Disposal, Reuse Metcalf & Eddy

Design – Engineering Standards

Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities

Policies for the Design, Review, and Approval of Plans and Specifications for Wastewater Collection and Treatment Facilities

MEMBER STATES AND PROVINCE Illinois Indiana Iowa Michigan Minnesota Missouri New York Ohio Ontario Pennsylvania Wisconsin

Ten States Standards

Process Design

Physical

Aeration Tank Capacity - lbs. CBOD/1000 CF of Aeration Temperature – Summer/Winter Final Settling – Circular Center Feed or Peripheral Feed

Process Design

Chemical

Ammonia Loading - Nitrification Phosphorous Loading & Removal pH & Alkalinity

Process Design

Biological

CBOD Loading – 15lbs – 40 lbs D.O. in Aeration - 1.1 CBOD – 4.6 NH3 MLSS, MLVSS, RAS F/M Ratio - 0.5 – 1.0 – 2.0 MCRT Days

Nitrification

NH 3

NO 2 -

NO 3

-

Nitrification NH 3 NO 2 - NO 3 - • Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter • Aerobic process (in

Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter

Aerobic process (in the presence of DO)

4.6

lbs O 2 required per lb ammonia-

nitrogen

7.14 lb alkalinity is consumed per pound of ammonia nitrogen

pH sensitive with optimal range between

Denitrification

NO 3 -

NO 2 -

Denitrification NO 3 - NO 2 - NO N 2 O N 2 • Anoxic process
Denitrification NO 3 - NO 2 - NO N 2 O N 2 • Anoxic process

NO

Denitrification NO 3 - NO 2 - NO N 2 O N 2 • Anoxic process

N 2 O

Denitrification NO 3 - NO 2 - NO N 2 O N 2 • Anoxic process

N 2

Anoxic process (not in the presence of DO)

Nitrification can decrease pH

Denitrification recovers 3.57 lb alkalinity per lb of nitrogen removed

DO is consumed by nitrification and denitrification recovers 2.9 lb per lb of nitrogen removed

Plant Startup

Contractor – Wants to push to startup

What are Ohio EPA expectations?

Manufacturer Checkout

Operator Training – Are You Ready

What additional processes are available

Do you and your Engineer have a Process Control Plan

Are you seeding the aeration tanks?

processes are available • Do you and your Engineer have a Process Control Plan • Are

Plant Operation

Summer/Winter

Dry Weather/Wet Weather

DO Control

RAS Rate - % 0f Influent Flow

Chemical Feed

Wasting Sludge – Biological & Chemical

Summer Verses Winter

Summer MCRT - 22.17 days F/M Ratio - 0.13 BOD Loading Rate - 16.5 lbs./1,000 cf

•

Required MCRT No.2 - 7.6 days DT for BOD Oxidation - 13.20 hours DT for NH3 Oxidation - 2.64 hours

Aeration Tanks Required - 4.0 - 4.0

•

MLSS - 3,000 mg/l MLVSS - 2,100 mg/l

Winter MCRT - 35.47 days F/M Ratio - 0.08 BOD Loading Rate - 16.5 lbs./1,000 c.f.

•

Required MCRT No.2 - 13.7 days DT for BOD Oxidation - 13.15 hours DT for NH3 Oxidation = 2.71 hours

Aeration Tanks Required - 4.0 - 4.0

•

MLSS - 4,800 mg/l MLVSS - 3,360 mg/l

Plant Operation

Summer/Winter

Dry Weather/Wet Weather

DO Control

RAS Rate - % 0f Influent Flow

Chemical Feed

Wasting Sludge – Biological & Chemical

Plant Monitoring

Regular Rounds – Visual

Aeration Tanks & FST

Blowers/Aerators

RAS Pumps

Clarity of the Effluent

Plant Monitoring

SCADA – Trending Flow, DO, ORP, pH

Regular Rounds – Visual

Trending Instruments - Flow, DO, ORP, pH Lab Data – MLSS, RAS, Settling

Microbiology

Troubleshooting

Foaming

Bulking

Solids Loss

Turbid Effluent

Odor

No CBOD or Ammonia Removal

Holy Crap!!

Holy Crap!!

Observation of Settlometer Test

Observation of Settlometer Test

Characteristic Sludge Settling

1000 800 Fast 600 Normal Slow 400 200 0 0 30 60 90 120 150
1000
800
Fast
600
Normal
Slow
400
200
0
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
SSV

Time (minutes)

Length of Settleometer Test

Normal - 30 minutes to 2 hours - until complete compaction

Extended - until the sludge begins to rise

Test • Normal - 30 minutes to 2 hours - until complete compaction • Extended -

Look Under the Microscope

Look Under the Microscope

The Bugs - Good/Bad/Ugly

The Bugs - Good/Bad/Ugly

Nocardia

Nocardia

Microthrix parvicella

Microthrix parvicella

Filaments 1851 and 0041

Filaments 1851 and 0041

Filament Type 0092

Filament Type 0092

Filament type 0092

Filament type 0092
 

Phil Anderson - ARCADIS

 

panderson@arcadis-

WWTP:

WWTP

 

By: us.com

 

Summer

Summary

Operation:

Activated Sludge

 

Date: Summer 2009

3,000

MLSS, mg/l

 

MCRT

7.30 days

 

20.0

Degrees C

F/M Ratio

0.24

 

MEAN CELL RESIDENCE TIME (MCRT)

 

7.1

pH

BOD Loading Rate

33.54 lbs./1,000 c.f.

 

5.0

D.O. Aeration

Required MCRT

No.1

3.61 days

 

20.0

Influent Ammonia

1.7

Effluent Ammonia

Required MCRT

No.2

3.93 days

INPUT DATA:

6

Aeration Tanks On Line

DT for BOD

Oxidation

6.02 hours

 

a

2.827

(MG) - Aeration tank volume (total)

0.471

Aeration Tank MG Each

DT for NH3

Oxidation

1.49 hours

b

2,250

(mg/l) - Mixed liquor VOLATILE suspended solids (MLVSS)

 

Aeration Tank Vol Required

2.38 MG

c

0.033

(MGD) - Daily flowrate of waste activated sludge (WAS) [See below]

Aeration Tanks Required

5.05

d

10,000

(mg/l) - WAS suspended solids

Aeration Tanks On Line

6.00

e

7.600

(MGD) - Plant flow

 

MLSS

3,000 mg/l

f

10

(mg/l) - Effluent suspended solids

MLVSS

2,250 mg/l

 

Nitrifiers (8% of MLVSS)

180 mg/l

SUPPLEMENTAL CALCULATIONS (MLVSS):

 
 
a 3,000 b 75.0
a
3,000
b
75.0

(mg/l) Assumed mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)

 

EFF LIMIT

 

(%) - Assumed percent volatile

CBOD Weekly 15 mg/l

 

2,250 (mg/l) - MLVSS

 

TSS Weekly

18 mg/l

WASTE SLUDGE VOLUME:

   

Fecal

Weekly

2,000 (S Only)

 
a 0.70 b 7.600 c 200 d 10
a 0.70
b 7.600
c 200
d 10

Assumed sludge yield (lb. SS generated/lb. BOD removed)

 

Ammonia WK 1.7 mg/l (S Only)

(MGD) - Plant flow

Ammonia Winter WK NA

(mg/l) - BOD concentration entering aeration tanks

 

P

Weekly

1.5 mg/l

(mg/l) - BOD concentration following settling

 
e 8,430 f 10.0
e
8,430
f
10.0

lbs. biological sludge/day

(mg/l) - chemical sludges produced

h 634

lbs. chemical (Fe/AL) sludge generated/day

i 9,064 Total lbs. WAS/day j 10,000 (mg/l) - Assumed WAS concentration (Note: 10,000 mg/l
i 9,064
Total lbs. WAS/day
j
10,000
(mg/l) - Assumed WAS concentration (Note: 10,000 mg/l = 1.0%)

k 0.109 (MGD) - Waste activated sludge quantity

MCRT

7.30 days

F/M Ratio =

BOD Loading Rate =

0.24

33.5 lbs./1,000 c.f.

WWTP:

WWTP

Phil Anderson - ARCADIS By: panderson@arcadis-us.com

 

Winter

Summary

Operation:

Activated Sludge

 

Date: Winter

4,500

MLSS, mg/l

MCRT

10.95 days

 

11.0

Degrees C

F/M Ratio

0.16

 

MEAN CELL RESIDENCE TIME (MCRT)

 

7.0

pH

BOD Loading Rate

33.54 lbs./1,000 c.f.

 

4.0

D.O. Aeration

Required MCRT No.1

12.00 days

 

20.0

Influent Ammonia

4.0

Effluent Ammonia

Required MCRT

No.2

8.66 days

INPUT DATA:

6

Aeration Tanks On Line

DT for BOD Oxidation

10.96hours

 

a

2.827

(MG) - Aeration tank volume (total)

 

0.471

Aeration

Tank MG Each

DT for NH3

Oxidation

2.13 hours

b

3,375

(mg/l) - Mixed liquor VOLATILE suspended solids (MLVSS)

 

Aeration Tank Vol

Required

3.47 MG

c

0.109

(MGD) - Daily flowrate of waste activated sludge (WAS) [See below]

Aeration Tanks Required

7.36

d

10,000

(mg/l) - WAS suspended solids

 

Aeration Tanks On Line

6.00

e

7.600

(MGD) - Plant flow

MLSS

4,500mg/l

f

10

(mg/l) - Effluent suspended solids

 

MLVSS

3,375 mg/l

 

Nitrifiers (8% of MLVSS)

270mg/l

SUPPLEMENTAL CALCULATIONS (MLVSS): a 4,500 b 75.0
SUPPLEMENTAL CALCULATIONS (MLVSS):
a
4,500
b
75.0

(mg/l) Assumed mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)

(%) - Assumed percent volatile

3,375 (mg/l) - MLVSS

WASTE SLUDGE VOLUME:

a 0.70 b 7.600 c 200 d 10
a 0.70
b 7.600
c 200
d 10

Assumed sludge yield (lb. SS generated/lb. BOD removed)

(MGD) - Plant flow

(mg/l) - BOD concentration entering aeration tanks

(mg/l) - BOD concentration following settling

e

8,430

lbs. biological sludge/day

f

10.0

(mg/l) - chemical sludges produced

h

634

lbs. chemical (Fe/AL) sludge generated/day

i

9,064

Total lbs. WAS/day

j

10,000

(mg/l) - Assumed WAS concentration (Note: 10,000 mg/l = 1.0%)

k

0.109 (MGD) - Waste activated sludge quantity

MCRT

10.95 days

F/M Ratio =

BOD Loading Rate =

EFFLUENT LIMITS

CBOD Weekly 15 mg/l

TSS Weekly

18 mg/l

Fecal

Weekly

2,000 (S Only)

Ammonia WK 1.7 mg/l (S Only)

Ammonia Winter WK NA

P

Weekly

1.5 mg/l

0.16

33.5 lbs./1,000 c.f.

Figure 1 Effect of MCRT On Nitrification

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Percent (%)
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

MCRT (Days)

Nitrification Efficiency %

Figure 2 Relationship Between MCRT and F/M Ratio

0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
F/M Ratio
MCRT, Days Ratio
MCRT, Days
Ratio

Ammonnia, mg/l

Figure 3 Ammonia Removal vs Time

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 Time (in 1/4 Hours) Ammonia
8
9
Time (in 1/4 Hours)
Ammonia

10

11

12

13

14

15

Figure 4 Effect of Temperature On Nitrification 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
Figure 4 Effect of Temperature On Nitrification
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Percent (%)
Temperature (C) Removal Rate %
Temperature (C)
Removal Rate %

Figure 5 Effect of D.O. on Nitrification

0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lb.NH/Lb. MLSS/Day
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
Lb.NH/Lb. MLSS/Day

Dissolved Oxygen

0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lb.NH/Lb. MLSS/Day Dissolved

NH3 Oxidation Rate

Figure 6 Effect of pH on Nitrification

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Precent (%)
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5

pH

Maximum Nitrification Rate (%)

Alkalinity mg/l

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Figure 7 Alkalinity Used in Nitrification

200 150 100 50 0 Figure 7 Alkalinity Used in Nitrification 1 2 3 4 5

1

2

3

4

5

Influent Ammonia (mg/l x 10)

200 150 100 50 0 Figure 7 Alkalinity Used in Nitrification 1 2 3 4 5

Alkalinity Required mg/l

Maumee River WWTP

Maumee River WWTP

DO Probe

DO Probe

Single Stage Blower

Single Stage Blower

Center Feed FST

Center Feed FST

Center Feed FST

Center Feed FST

Peripheral Feed FST

Peripheral Feed FST

Peripheral Feed FST

Peripheral Feed FST

Center Feed FST

Center Feed FST

QUESTIONS???

PHIL.ANDERSON@ARCADIS-US.COM

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