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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers


96
Multiply Whole Numbers
Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction
Develop Skills and Strategies
You have learned how to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10. Take a
look at this problem.
There are 100 stickers on each roll, and a box of stickers has 3 rolls.
How many stickers are there in 4 boxes?
Explore It
Use the math you already know to solve the problem.
How many boxes are there?
How many rolls of stickers are in each box?
What multiplication expression shows how many rolls of stickers there are in all
the boxes?
How many stickers are on each roll?
What multiplication expression shows how many stickers there are in all?

How can you show 100 using tens as factors? Write an expression that is equal to
the one above using tens as factors.
Explain how to use what you know about multiplying by 10 to solve the problem.



CCLS
4.NBT.B.5
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97
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction
Find Out More
To multiply with 3-digit and 4-digit numbers, you need to understand how to
multiply by multiples of 10, 100, and 1,000. Take a look at the chart below.
Expression Think of it as... Think of it as... Product
4 3 3 4 3 3 ones 12 ones 12
4 3 30 4 3 3 tens 12 tens 120
4 3 300 4 3 3 hundreds 12 hundreds 1,200
4 3 3,000 4 3 3 thousands 12 thousands 12,000
In each expression, the factor 4 is the same. The other factor increases by one place
value each time.
Look at the products. The digits 1 and 2 from the basic fact 4 3 3 5 12 appear in each
product. In the second expression, 4 is multiplied by 30, which is the same as 3 tens.
Thats 4 times 3 tens which is 12 tens or 120. The factor 30 is 10 times as great as 3 and
the product 120 is 10 times as great as 12.
Reflect
1

Choose a basic multiplication fact that you know. Show how to multiply the
product of the fact by 10, 100, and 1,000. Explain how you know your answer is
correct.




Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
98
Part 2: Modeled Instruction
Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 4-digit number
by a 1-digit number.
Ezekiel has 3 building sets. Each set includes 1,125 pieces. How many pieces
are in all 3 sets?
Picture It
You can use an area model to help understand the problem.

3
1,000 100 20 5 1 1 1
3 3 1,000 3 3 100 3 3 20 3 3 5
3 3 1,125 5 (3 3 1,000) 1 (3 3 100) 1 (3 3 20) 1 (3 3 5)
5 3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15
5 3,375
Model It
You can also use partial products to multiply the numbers.

1,125
3 3
15
60
300
1 3,000
3,375

3 3 5 ones
3 3 2 tens
3 3 1 hundred
3 3 1 thousand
Lesson 11
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99
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Part 2: Guided Instruction
Connect It
Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.
2

What is the expanded form of 1,125? 1 1 1
3

Where do you see the expanded form in the area model?

4

How is the expanded form used in the partial products equation?

5

The partial products equation shows the 3 being multiplied by the ones column
rst. Would the product change if you multiplied the 3 by the thousands column
rst, followed by the hundreds, tens, and ones? Explain.


6

Describe how the factor 3 is used with the factor 1,125 to nd the product.


7

Explain how you multiply a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number.


Try It
Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a
separate sheet of paper.
8

2,041 3 6 5
9

5,342 3 4 5
Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
100
Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 2-digit
number by a 2-digit number.
Folding chairs are set up in a school auditorium for a play. There are 16 rows of
chairs, each with 28 chairs. How many folding chairs are there?
Picture It
You can use an area model to multiply 2-digit numbers.
To solve this problem, multiply 16 3 28.

20
8
10 6
1
1
20 3 10
2 tens 3 1 ten 5 2 hundreds
200
8 3 10
8 3 1 ten 5 8 tens
80
20 3 6
2 tens 3 6 5 12 tens
120
8 3 6 5 48
200 1 80 1 120 1 48 5 448
Model It
You can also use partial products to multiply 2-digit numbers.

16
3 28
48
80
120
1 200
448

8 ones 3 6 ones
8 ones 3 1 ten
2 tens 3 6 ones
2 tens 3 1 ten
Part 3: Modeled Instruction
Lesson 11
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101
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Connect It
Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.
10

Why is the area model divided into four sections?


11

How do the four steps in the partial products equation relate to the four sections
in the area model?

12

Would the product change if 20 1 8 on the left side of the area model were
changed to 10 1 10 1 8? Explain.



13

List two dierent ways that you could break up the numbers in 34 3 12 to nd the
product. Explain why both ways would have the same product.



Try It
Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a
separate sheet of paper.
14

27 3 21 5
15

37 3 23 5
Part 3: Guided Instruction
Student Model
Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
102
How did you decide
which model to use to
help you solve the
problem?
Pair/Share
Should you multiply
15 3 24 or 24 3 15?
How else could you
solve this problem?
Pair/Share
The student multiplied
6 by the value of the digit
in each place in 1,785.
Study the model below. Then solve problems 1618.
An aquarium has 6 female sea turtles. Each turtle lays up to
1,785 eggs a year. If each turtle lays 1,785 eggs this year, how
many eggs will there be in all?
Look at how you could show your work using an area model.
6 3 1,000 6 3 700 6 3 80 6 3 5
1,000 700 80 5
6
1 1 1
6 3 1,785 5 (6 3 1,000) 1 (6 3 700) 1 (6 3 80) 1 (6 3 5)
5 6,000 1 4,200 1 480 1 30
5 10,710
Solution:
16

A deli is preparing trays of sandwiches. There are 15 trays, each
with 24 sandwiches. How many sandwiches are there?
Show your work.
Solution:
10,710 eggs
Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11
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103
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Could you use an area
model to help solve the
problem?
How is this problem
different than the one
modeled on page 102?
Pair/Share
Multiply 5 by the value
of the digit in each place
in 147.
Does Dales answer
make sense?
Pair/Share
17

The owner of 12 bookstores is buying 32 copies of a new book for
each of the stores. How many books is the owner buying in all?
Show your work.
Solution:
18

A hardware store has 147 containers of paint. If each container
holds 5 gallons of paint, how many gallons of paint are at the
store? Circle the letter of the correct answer.
A 235
B 505
C 735
D 905
Dale chose A as the correct answer. How did he get that answer?


Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
104
Solve the problems.
1 A person blinks about 16 times per minute. About how many times does a person
blink in 3 hours? [Hint: 1 hour 5 60 minutes]
A 48
B 96
C 960
D 2,880
2 Mr. Larson is planning a pizza party for 273 people. He plans on 3 slices of pizza for
each person. How many slices of pizza is this in all?
A 276
B 546
C 619
D 819
3 Tell whether each expression can be used to solve 29 3 14.
a. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 1) 1 (20 3 1) Yes No
b. (14 3 9) 1 (14 3 20) Yes No
c. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 10) 1 (20 3 10) Yes No
d. (29 3 4) 1 (29 3 10) Yes No
Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11
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105
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
4 Which model(s) below could represent the solution to the problem 45 3 15? Circle the
letter for all that apply.
A
40 5
5
10
B
0 15 30 45
C (4 3 1) 1 (4 3 5) 1 (5 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)
D (4 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)
E
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675
5 Mo attended 14 tutoring sessions. Each session was 45 minutes long.
How many minutes long were all 14 sessions?
Show your work.
Answer Mo was tutored for minutes.
6 Fourth grade students held a recycling drive. During one week they collected an
average of 1,238 water bottles each day. How many water bottles did the fourth
graders collect? [Hint: There are 7 days in one week.]
Show your work.
Answer The fourth grade students collected water bottles.
Go back and see what you can check o on the Self Check on page 95. Self Check
Multiply Whole Numbers
Lesson 11
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
105
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Develop Skills and Strategies
(Student Book pages 96105)
LESSON OBJECTIVES
Multiply whole numbers of up to four digits by
one-digit whole numbers.
Multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number.
Use equations, rectangular arrays, and area models
to illustrate and explain calculations.
PREREQUISITE SKILLS
In order to be procient with the concepts/skills in this
lesson, students should:
Recall basic multiplication facts.
Know properties of operations.
Understand place value.
Understand and use rectangular arrays and
areamodels.
VOCABULARY
There is no new vocabulary. Review the following
key terms.
multiplication: an operation used to nd the total
number of items in equal-sized groups
product: the answer to a multiplication problem
factor: numbers that are multiplied together to get
a product
multiple: the product of the number and any other
whole number (0, 4, 8, 12, etc. are multiples of 4)
THE LEARNING PROGRESSION
In Grade 3, students used equations, rectangular
arrays, and the properties of operations to develop an
understanding of multiplication. They multiplied
one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10, within
100. In Grade 4, students should continue to utilize
equations, rectangular arrays, and the properties of
operations as they multiply a whole number up to four
digits by a one-digit number, and as they multiply
two-digit numbers. This foundation will prepare them
for Grade 5, when they become uent with the
standard multiplication algorithm with multi-digit
whole numbers.
Teacher Toolbox
Teacher-Toolbox.com


Prerequisite
Skills 4.NBT.B.5
Ready Lessons
Tools for Instruction
Interactive Tutorials
CCLS Focus
4.NBT.B.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using
strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations,
rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
ADDITIONAL STANDARDS: 4.OA.A.2, 4.OA.A.3, 4.NBT.A.1 (See page A44 for full text.)
STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE: SMP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 (See page A11 for full text.)
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
106
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Part 1: Introduction Lesson 11
AT A GLANCE
Students read a word problem and answer a series of
questions designed to explore a method for multiplying
a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number.
STEP BY STEP
Tell students that this page models how to multiply
two numbers by a factor of 10.
Have students read the problem at the top of the page.
Work through Explore It as a class.
Ask students to explain how they found the total
number of rolls of stickers in all of the boxes. Point
out that they may nd it helpful to write 100 under
each roll of stickers.
Explain to students that putting a zero at the end of a
number is a shortcut for multiplying by 10. Make
sure they understand what is happening to the value
of the number when it is multiplied by a factor of 10.
SMP Tip: Point out to students that when
multiplying by multiples of 10, there is a pattern
of putting zeros at the end of the number you are
multiplying. In other words, when multiplying
by 10, add 1 place value or 1 zero; when multiplying
by 100, add 2 places or 2 zeros; when multiplying
by 1,000, add 3 place values, or 3 zeros, and so on.
(SMP 1)
If you have a multiplication problem such as
100 3 12, will it change your answer if you write it
as 12 3 100?
Students responses should be that both
problems have the same answer. This is an
example of the Commutative Property of
Multiplication, of which students understand
the concept, but may not necessarily know the
name. It states that regardless of the order in
which you multiply two numbers, the product
is the same.
Mathematical Discourse
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 96
Multiply Whole Numbers
Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction
DevelopSkills andStrategies
You have learned how to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10. Take a
look at this problem.
There are 100 stickers on each roll, and a box of stickers has 3 rolls.
How many stickers are there in 4 boxes?
Explore It
Use the math you already know to solve the problem.
How many boxes are there?
How many rolls of stickers are in each box?
What multiplication expression shows how many rolls of stickers there are in all
the boxes?
How many stickers are on each roll?
What multiplication expression shows how many stickers there are in all?

How can you show 100 using tens as factors? Write an expression that is equal to
the one above using tens as factors.
Explain how to use what you know about multiplying by 10 to solve the problem.



CCLS
4.NBT.B.5
Possible explanation: When you multiply by 10, the digits in the other
factor move one place to the left and a 0 goes in the ones place.
4 3 3 3 10 3 10
4
3
4 3 3
100
4 3 3 3 100
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
107
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Part 1: Introduction Lesson 11
AT A GLANCE
Students nd a pattern for multiplying by multiples of
10, such as 10, 100, and 1,000. They learn that when
multiplying basic facts by a multiple of 10, the product
increases by the same place value as the multiple of 10.
STEP BY STEP
Read Find Out More as a class.
Using base-ten blocks, emphasize to students that
120 is 10 times greater than 12.
Use the chart to show how the product increases by
one place-value position as the multiple of 10
increases.
Make sure students know how many zeros are
associated with each place value name.
[ones 5 no zeros, tens 5 1 zero, hundreds 5 2 zeros,
thousands 5 3 zeros]
Use a Bingo game to understand multiplying
numbers (multiples of ten).
Materials: Bingo game cards that have squares lled
with various types of answers to multiplication
problems involving multiples of ten.
Distribute a bingo card and some markers to each
student or pair of students.
Choose a multiplication problem (from a set you
have) and read it aloud (e.g., 5 times 60).
Students will then look for any way that this
problem may be represented on their bingo card.
Repeat the steps of reading problems and covering
spaces until a student has covered all the spaces
in a column or in a row on his or her card.
Hands-On Activity
Encourage students to think of any everyday
situation where they may encounter the need to
multiply.
Examples: calculating the number of minutes in a
given number of hours, calculating the number of
pennies, nickels, or dimes in a given number of
dollars, calculating the number of rows of items
Real-World Connection
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97 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction
Find Out More
To multiply with 3-digit and 4-digit numbers, you need to understand how to
multiply by multiples of 10, 100, and 1,000. Take a look at the chart below.
Expression Think of it as... Think of it as... Product
4 3 3 4 3 3 ones 12 ones 12
4 3 30 4 3 3 tens 12 tens 120
4 3 300 4 3 3 hundreds 12 hundreds 1,200
4 3 3,000 4 3 3 thousands 12 thousands 12,000
In each expression, the factor 4 is the same. The other factor increases by one place
value each time.
Look at the products. The digits 1 and 2 from the basic fact 4 3 3 5 12 appear in each
product. In the second expression, 4 is multiplied by 30, which is the same as 3 tens.
Thats 4 times 3 tens which is 12 tens or 120. The factor 30 is 10 times as great as 3 and
the product 120 is 10 times as great as 12.
Reflect
1

Choose a basic multiplication fact that you know. Show how to multiply the
product of the fact by 10, 100, and 1,000. Explain how you know your answer is
correct.




Answers may vary. Look for explanations that include following a pattern
of shifting the product one place to the left or adding a place value to each
product.
108
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
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Lesson 11 Part 2: Modeled Instruction
AT A GLANCE
Students use partial products and an area model to nd
the product of a 4-digit number and a 1-digit number.
STEP BY STEP
Read the problem at the top of the page as a class.
Read Picture It. Have a volunteer explain how the
number is written in the area model and why it is
written this way. [The number 1,125 is written in
expanded form to multiply 3 by a multiple of 10 and
make calculations easier.]
Ask students how they could use addition to check
the answer. [1,125 1 1,125 1 1,125 5 3,375]
Read Model It.
Make sure students understand that the digits in the
tens, hundreds, and thousands places represent 20,
100, and 1,000.
SMP Tip: Discuss with students the benets of
using an area model. An area model is a tool they
can use to help visualize the multiplication
problem, which can sometimes seem abstract.
Models also break down the problem into smaller,
simpler pieces that can be easier to multiply.
(SMP5)
To help students understand the concept of
multiplication, let them know that multiplication is
the same as repeated addition. Show a few simple
examples, such as:
3 3 7 5 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
ELL Support
How can you determine if your answer to the
problem is reasonable?
Students should explain that 1,125 is close to
1,000. Replacing 1,125 with 1,000 in the
problem, you get an estimate of 3,000. The
actual product should be close to 3,000.
Mathematical Discourse
Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 98
Part 2: Modeled Instruction
Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 4-digit number
by a 1-digit number.
Ezekiel has 3 building sets. Each set includes 1,125 pieces. How many pieces
are in all 3 sets?
Picture It
You can use an area model to help understand the problem.

3
1,000 100 20 5 1 1 1
3 3 1,000 3 3 100 3 3 20 3 3 5
3 3 1,125 5 (3 3 1,000) 1 (3 3 100) 1 (3 3 20) 1 (3 3 5)
5 3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15
5 3,375
Model It
You can also use partial products to multiply the numbers.

1,125
3 3
15
60
300
1 3,000
3,375
3 3 5 ones
3 3 2 tens
3 3 1 hundred
3 3 1 thousand
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
109
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Lesson 11 Part 2: Guided Instruction
AT A GLANCE
Students revisit the problem on page 98.
STEP BY STEP
Read Connect It as a class. Be sure to point out that
the questions refer to the problem on page 98.
Make sure that students see the connection between
the expanded form and base-ten blocks: 5 is 5 ones
blocks, 20 is 2 tens rods, 100 is 1 hundreds at,
1,000 is 1 thousands cube.
Have students explain their answer to problem 4.
Have them use colored pencils to connect the partial
products in the Model It to the area model in the
Picture It.
Have students explain their answer to problem 5.
Make sure they understand that multiplication can
be performed in any order and the product remains
the same.
TRY IT SOLUTIONS
8 Solution: 12,246; Multiply 6 by each digit in 2,041:
(2,000 3 6) 1 (0 3 6) 1 (40 3 6) 1 (1 3 6).
Find the partial products: 12,000 1 240 1 6.
Add to nd the product: 12,246
9 Solution: 21,368; Multiply 4 by each digit in 5,342:
(5,000 3 4) 1 (300 3 4) 1 (40 3 4) 1 (2 3 4).
Find the partial products:
20,000 1 1,200 1 160 1 8.
Add to nd the product: 21,368.
Relate the partial products method to the
Distributive Property.
The partial products method is an example of the
Distributive Property.
The Distributive Property states that you can
multiply a number and a sum by multiplying the
number by each part of the sum and then adding
these products.
Explain that when breaking down the numbers
into expanded form, you get 1,000 1 100 1
20 1 5.
You can write the problem like this:
3 3 1,125 5 3(1,000 1 100 1 20 1 5)
Using the Distributive Property, this simplies to
3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15, which matches the
partial products shown.
Concept Extension
ERROR ALERT: Students who wrote 1,446
multiplied 6 by 241 instead of 2,041. Those students
added partial products of 1,200, 240, and 6.
Lesson 11
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99 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Part 2: Guided Instruction
Connect It
Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.
2

What is the expanded form of 1,125? 1 1 1
3

Where do you see the expanded form in the area model?

4

How is the expanded form used in the partial products equation?

5

The partial products equation shows the 3 being multiplied by the ones column
rst. Would the product change if you multiplied the 3 by the thousands column
rst, followed by the hundreds, tens, and ones? Explain.


6

Describe how the factor 3 is used with the factor 1,125 to nd the product.


7

Explain how you multiply a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number.


Try It
Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a
separate sheet of paper.
8

2,041 3 6 5
9

5,342 3 4 5
One side of the area model is separated into the expanded form.
The 3 is multiplied by the number in each place-value position in 1,125.
Then all the partial products are added.
Multiply the
numbers in each place-value position of the 4-digit number by the 1-digit
number. Find the partial products and then add to find the final product.
Each number in the expanded form is multiplied by the other factor, 3.
No, the product
would be the same. You would add the partial sums in a different order,
but the sum doesnt change when you add in a different order.
12,246
21,368
1,000 100 20 5
110
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
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Lesson 11 Part 3: Modeled Instruction
AT A GLANCE
Students use an area model and partial products to
multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number.
STEP BY STEP
Read the problem at the top of the page as a class.
Read Picture It.
Relate one side of the area model to the number of
rows and one side of the area model to the number of
chairs in each row.
Have students identify the multiplication expression
for each section of the area model.
[10 3 20, 10 3 8, 6 3 20, 6 3 8]
Encourage students to circle the partial products
within each section to help them distinguish the
addends for the nal step.
Read Model It.
Be sure students use placeholder zeros as they
multiply by the multiples of ten.
Present the lattice multiplication method for multiplying two 2-digit numbers. The following is an example of
how to use this method to nd 53341.
1 Draw a 2-by-2 table. Draw diagonal lines through
all four squares. Write the digits in 53 above the
columns and the digits in 41 next to the rows.
2 Multiply 3 times 4, and record the product, 12, in
the corresponding box (keeping the digit in the
tens place above the diagonal and the digit in the
ones place below the diagonal).
3 Repeat Step 2 for the other numbers.
4 Add the numbers you recorded in the diagonals,
writing their sums outside the lattice boxes.
(In the sample shown, the answers are underlined.)
5 Read the answer from top left to bottom right,
so the nal product is 2,173.
Visual Model
Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 100
Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 2-digit
number by a 2-digit number.
Folding chairs are set up in a school auditorium for a play. There are 16 rows of
chairs, each with 28 chairs. How many folding chairs are there?
Picture It
You can use an area model to multiply 2-digit numbers.
To solve this problem, multiply 16 3 28.

20
8
10 6
1
1
20 3 10
2 tens 3 1 ten 5 2 hundreds
200
8 3 10
8 3 1 ten 5 8 tens
80
20 3 6
2 tens 3 6 5 12 tens
120
8 3 6 5 48
200 1 80 1 120 1 48 5 448
Model It
You can also use partial products to multiply 2-digit numbers.

16
3 28
48
80
120
1 200
448
8 ones 3 6 ones
8 ones 3 1 ten
2 tens 3 6 ones
2 tens 3 1 ten
Part 3: Modeled Instruction
5
2
1
7 3
2
0
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
1
3
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
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Lesson 11 Part 3: Guided Instruction
AT A GLANCE
Students revisit the problem on page 100.
STEP BY STEP
Read Connect It as a class. Be sure to point out that
the questions refer to the problem on page 100.
Have students explain their answer to problem 10.
Ask, When you multiply the ones in 28 and the tens in
16, why is the product 80 and not 8? [There are
8groups of 10, which is 80.]
Have students explain their answer to problem 11.
Students should understand how the partial products
and the area model are related. [The partial products
are the same numbers as the areas in each section of
the area model.]
TRY IT SOLUTIONS
14 Solution: 567; Students can use any method shown
to nd the product. The partial products are
(20 3 20) 1 (20 3 7) 1 (1 3 20) 1 (1 3 7) 5
400 1 140 1 20 1 7.
15 Solution: 851; Students can use any method shown
to nd the product. The partial products are
(20 3 30) 1 (20 3 7) 1 (3 3 30) 1 (3 3 7) 5
600 1 140 1 90 1 21.
SMP Tip: Discuss the importance of being able to
use mathematical language accurately. Review the
meanings of the terms digit, factor, and product,
showing examples of each. Encourage students to
practice using these terms in the right context at
the appropriate time. (SMP 1)
Use base-ten blocks to multiply a 2-digit
number by a 2-digit number.
Materials: base-ten blocks
Group students in pairs. Distribute base-ten
blocks to each pair. Use the steps below to model
43 3 14 (similar to using an area model).
Model 43 on a at surface by displaying 4 tens
rods and 3 unit cubes in a single row.
Model 14 by displaying 1 tens rod and 4 unit
cubes in a single column to the left and below the
row showing 43.
Fill the inside with the largest blocks that match
the area of each row and column. For this
example, use 4 ats, 19 rods, and 12 unit cubes.
The product is the value of the inside blocks.
[4001 190 1 12 5 602]
Model other products as time allows.
Concept Extension
Lesson 11
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101 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Connect It
Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.
10

Why is the area model divided into four sections?


11

How do the four steps in the partial products equation relate to the four sections
in the area model?

12

Would the product change if 20 1 8 on the left side of the area model were
changed to 10 1 10 1 8? Explain.



13

List two dierent ways that you could break up the numbers in 34 3 12 to nd the
product. Explain why both ways would have the same product.



Try It
Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a
separate sheet of paper.
14

27 3 21 5
15

37 3 23 5
Part 3: Guided Instruction
567
851
Each step shows the product in one section of the
area model.
No, the product would be the same.
Instead of a partial product of 200, you would have two partial products of
100. Instead of a partial product of 120, you would have two partial
products of 60. The total of all the partial products would still be the same.
Each number in the
expanded form of one factor is multiplied by each number in the
expanded form of the other factor. Each section shows a product.
Possible answer: 30 1 4 and 10 1 2 or 20 1 10 1 4 and 5 1 5 1 2. As long
as the sum of the numbers equals the factor, the partial products will add
up to the same product.
112
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
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Lesson 11 Part 4: Guided Practice
AT A GLANCE
Students solve problems involving multiplication of a
whole number of up to 4 digits by a 1-digit number and
a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number.
STEP BY STEP
Ask students to solve the problems individually and
label units in their calculations.
When students have completed each problem, have
them Pair/Share to discuss their solutions with a
partner or in a group.
SOLUTIONS
Ex Multiplying using partial products in an area model
is shown as one way to solve the problem. Students
need to multiply 6 by each digit in 1,785. Then add
the partial products.
16 Solution: 360 sandwiches; Multiply 10 by each digit
in 24, and multiply 5 by each digit in 24 to nd the
partial products: 200 1 40 1 100 1 20. Then add.
(DOK 1)
17 Solution: 384 books; Multiply 10 by each digit in 32
and multiply 2 by each digit in 32 to nd the partial
products: 300 1 20 1 60 1 4. Then add. (DOK 1)
18 Solution: C; Multiply 5 by each digit in 147, and
then add the partial products.
Explain to students why the other two answer
choices are not correct:
B is not correct because 5 3 100 5 500 and
47 3 5 is more than 5.
D is not correct because 5 should be multiplied by
(100 1 40 1 7), not (1 1 40 1 700) (DOK 3)
Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11
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103 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
Could you use an area
model to help solve the
problem?
How is this problem
different than the one
modeled on page 102?
Pair/Share
Multiply 5 by the value
of the digit in each place
in 147.
Does Dales answer
make sense?
Pair/Share
17

The owner of 12 bookstores is buying 32 copies of a new book for
each of the stores. How many books is the owner buying in all?
Show your work.
Solution:
18

A hardware store has 147 containers of paint. If each container
holds 5 gallons of paint, how many gallons of paint are at the
store? Circle the letter of the correct answer.
A 235
B 505
C 735
D 905
Dale chose A as the correct answer. How did he get that answer?


384 books
Dale multiplied 5 by the tens and 5 by the ones. He did not
multiply 5 by the hundreds.
30 3 10
3 tens 3 1 ten 5 3 hundreds
300
2 3 10
2 3 1 ten 5 2 tens
20
30 3 2
3 tens 3 2 5 6 tens
60
2 3 2 5 4
10 2
30
2
1
1
Student Model
Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 102
How did you decide
which model to use to
help you solve the
problem?
Pair/Share
Should you multiply
15 3 24 or 24 3 15?
How else could you
solve this problem?
Pair/Share
The student multiplied
6 by the value of the digit
in each place in 1,785.
Study the model below. Then solve problems 1618.
An aquarium has 6 female sea turtles. Each turtle lays up to
1,785 eggs a year. If each turtle lays 1,785 eggs this year, how
many eggs will there be in all?
Look at how you could show your work using an area model.
6 3 1,000 6 3 700 6 3 80 6 3 5
1,000 700 80 5
6
1 1 1
6 3 1,785 5 (6 3 1,000) 1 (6 3 700) 1 (6 3 80) 1 (6 3 5)
5 6,000 1 4,200 1 480 1 30
5 10,710
Solution:
16

A deli is preparing trays of sandwiches. There are 15 trays, each
with 24 sandwiches. How many sandwiches are there?
Show your work.
Solution:
10,710 eggs
360 sandwiches
15
3 24
20
40
100
1 200
360
4 ones 3 5 ones
4 ones 3 1 ten
2 tens 3 5 ones
2 tens 3 1 ten
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
113
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Lesson 11 Part 5: Common Core Practice
AT A GLANCE
Students solve multiplication problems that might
appear on a mathematics test.
SOLUTIONS
1 Solution: D; Multiply 3 by each digit in 16:
(10 3 3) 1 (6 3 3). Add the partial products:
30 1 18 5 48. Multiply 60 by each digit in 48:
(60 3 40) 1 (6038). Add the partial products:
2,400 1 480 5 2,880. (DOK 1)
2 Solution: D; Multiply 3 by each digit in 273. Find
the partial products. Add to nd the product.
(DOK 1)
3 Solution: a. No; b. Yes; c. Yes; d. Yes (DOK 2)
4 Solution: A; The area model can be split into four
sections: 40 3 10, 40 3 5, 5 3 10, and 5 3 5. Those
partial products can be added together to equal the
product of 45 3 15.
E; The number line shows 45 added 15 times, which
is the same as multiplying 45 3 15. (DOK 2)
5 630; Multiply 10 by each digit in 45 and multiply
4 by each digit in 45. Add the partial products:
400 1 50 1 160 1 20 5 630 (DOK 1)
6 8,666; Multiply 7 by each digit in 1,238.
Add the partial products:
7,000 1 1,400 1 210 1 56 5 8,666 (DOK 1)
Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11
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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 104
Solve the problems.
1 A person blinks about 16 times per minute. About how many times does a person
blink in 3 hours? [Hint: 1 hour 5 60 minutes]
A 48
B 96
C 960
D 2,880
2 Mr. Larson is planning a pizza party for 273 people. He plans on 3 slices of pizza for
each person. How many slices of pizza is this in all?
A 276
B 546
C 619
D 819
3 Tell whether each expression can be used to solve 29 3 14.
a. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 1) 1 (20 3 1) Yes No
b. (14 3 9) 1 (14 3 20) Yes No
c. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 10) 1 (20 3 10) Yes No
d. (29 3 4) 1 (29 3 10) Yes No
3
3
3
3
Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11
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105 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
4 Which model(s) below could represent the solution to the problem 45 3 15? Circle the
letter for all that apply.
A
40 5
5
10
B
0 15 30 45
C (4 3 1) 1 (4 3 5) 1 (5 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)
D (4 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)
E
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675
5 Mo attended 14 tutoring sessions. Each session was 45 minutes long.
How many minutes long were all 14 sessions?
Show your work.
Answer Mo was tutored for minutes.
6 Fourth grade students held a recycling drive. During one week they collected an
average of 1,238 water bottles each day. How many water bottles did the fourth
graders collect? [Hint: There are 7 days in one week.]
Show your work.
Answer The fourth grade students collected water bottles.
Go back and see what you can check o on the Self Check on page 95. Self Check
630
8,666
Dierentiated Instruction Lesson 11
L11: Multiply Whole Numbers
114
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Assessment and Remediation
Hands-On Activity Challenge Activity
Present the students with the following
problems.
Each problem will require two steps to solve,
multiplication being one of the steps involved.
Brandon had 48 collectible cards. He gave 3 cards
to each of his 10 friends. How many cards does
Brandon have left? [18 cards]
Amelia earns $12 an hour babysitting. She babysat
for 16 hours. She also earned $25 for watering her
neighbors tomato garden. How much has Amelia
earned altogether? [$217]
Mr. Rutledge is taking inventory of the items
on the shelves of his store. He has 9 unopened
boxes of soap and 16 bars of soap on the shelf.
Each unopened box of soap has 312 bars in it.
How many total bars of soap does Mr. Rutledge
have? [2,824 bars]
Use play money to understand multiplying
numbers.
Materials: play money: one-dollar bills (for
hundreds); dimes (for tens); pennies (for ones)
(You can also use hundred-dollar bills for hundreds,
ten-dollar bills for tens, and one-dollar bills
for ones.)
Have students work in pairs.
Present a multiplication problem to students.
Have students model the problem with the play
money. For example: 154 3 3 would be modeled
with 3 sets of 1 one-dollar bill, 5 dimes, and
4 pennies.
Have students exchange 10 of the pennies for
1 dime and 10 of the dimes for a one-dollar bill.
The nal result would be: 4 one dollar bills,
6dimes, and 2 pennies, which is 462.
Ask students to nd the product of 36 and 15. [540]
For students who are still struggling, use the chart below to guide remediation.
After providing remediation, check students understanding. Ask students to explain their thinking while
nding the product of 18 and 27. [486]
If a student is still having difculty, use Ready Instruction, Level 3, Lesson 2.
If the error is . . . Students may . . . To remediate . . .
51 have added. Remind students that product means multiplication.
54 have found all partial
products as ones times
ones.
Demonstrate using base-ten blocks that 36 is 30 1 6 and 15 is
10 1 5. Draw an area model to show students each partial
product.
270 have incorrectly found
the tens by tens partial
product as 3 3 10.
Remind students that when multiplying tens by tens, the result is
30 3 10 5 300, not 3 3 10 5 30.
440 have incorrectly added
partial products.
Remind students that they must regroup 14 tens as 1 hundred
and 4 tens when adding partial products.