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Bowditch method has used the assumptions: Errors in linear measurements are proportional to under root of L.;
Correction to latitude or departure of any side = Total error in L(or D) * (Length of that side/ Perimeter of traverse).
To determine the length of a bridge proposed to be built across a wide river, the triangulation method of surveying will be
preferred over tacheometry, chain surveying.
Heliograph is a type of sun signal used in triangulation work.
A 100 m tape is held 1 m out of line. The true length will be 99.995 m
When the line of collimation is not perpendicular to the horizontal axis taking face-left and face-right observations reduces
the error.
It is not necessary to do the exact centering of plane table to do the small scale surveys.
Saddle line is also known as ridge line or valley line.
Line of drainage basin is the line which passes through ridges and saddles setting up a domain.
Longitude of a place is measured by wireless time signal and transportation of chronometers.
In tilting level the vertical axis is not perpendicular to the line of collimation.
Inverted staff readings are taken for the points above the line of collimation.
Reciprocal levelling eliminates the error due to inclined line of collimation also.
To find the R.L. of a roof slab of a building, staff readings were taken from a particular set-up of the levelling instrument.
The readings were 1.050 m with staff on the benchmark and 2.300 m with staff below the roof slab and held inverted.
Taking the R.L. of the B.M. as 135.150 m, the R.L. of the roof slab will be 138.500 m.
Operations involved in a spire test are : 1) Sight a well-defined high point on a high building 2) Clamp horizontal plates 3)
Depress the telescope and sight a point on the ground nearer to the instrument 4) Change face and repeat the procedure.
Accurate centering in plane table surveying is necessary for large scale maps.
Exact orientation is more important than accurate centering for small scale maps.
The intersection method of plane table surveying is particularly employed for inaccessible points.
Plane table survey is useful for open country with good inter-visibility.
Simpson's method estimates best the area of an irregular and curved boundary.
In a closed traverse, the sum of south latitudes exceeds the sum of north latitudes and the sum of east departures
exceeds the sum of west departures. The closing line will lie in N-W quadrant.
In reciprocal levelling, the difference in elevation of two points is calculated by taking the average of the differences
obtained by taking measurements from two different instrument settings, one at near to first station and second at near to
second station.
A lemniscate curve between the tangents is transitional throughout,the polar deflection angle of its apex is equal to A/6
If quantity A has a weight of 3, then the weight of A/3 will be 27.
In a parabolic vertical curve, the rising grade g1= +0.80% and the falling grade g2= -0.70%. The rate of change of grade is
0.05 per chain, then the length of the vertical curve is 30 chains.
While measuring horizontal angles by the method of repetition with a theodolite, readings are taken on both the vernier.
Error due to imperfect graduations will be eliminated.
An angle-measuring instrument reading up to one-sixth of a degree on the main scale is equipped with a vernier having
19 main scale divisions divided into 20 parts. The correct least count for the instrument is 30 seconds.
If it is required to produce the plan of a small area under the magnetic influence, plane table survey will be the best
Clinometer- An angle measuring instrument.
Tellurometer - microwave instrument
Pantograph- Plan enlarging instrument
Ghat tracer - Grading finding instrument.
Offsets are lateral measurements made with respect to main survey line
A curve tangential to four straight lines and consisting of arcs of different radii is known asthree centred compound

The length of the tangent of a curve of radius R and angle of deflection D is given byR.tan(D/2).
The length of the long chord of a simple circular curve of radius R and angle of deflection D is 2R.sin(D/2).
Setting out a curve by two Theodolite method does not require linear measurements.
If r is the radius of curvature at any point of a transition curve and l is the distance from the beginning of the transition
curve to that point, then for ideal transition l is inversely proportional to r.
In a reverse curve, the super-elevation provided at the point of reverse curvature is zero.
Total angle of deflection of a spiral curve is (spiral angle/4).
The shape of vertical curve generally provided is parabolic.
Perpendicular offset from the junction of transition curve and circular curve to the tangent is equal to four times the shift.
If L is the length of transition curve and R is the radius of circular curve, then the shift of the curve is directly proportional
to L^2 and inversely proportional to R.
The difference in elevation of points between a vertical and a tangent is directly proportional to the square of its horizontal
distance from the point of tangency.
Shift bisects the transition curve and transition curve bisects the shift.
The maximum value of centrifugal ratio on roads and railways respectively are 1/4 and 1/8.
Agonic line is the line joining points having zero declination.
For a circumpolar star, declination must be more than co-latitude.
For a star at its upper transit, the local sidereal time is equal to R.A. of the star.
Sidereal year(SY) is greater than Tropical year(TY).
The limiting minimum value of declination of a circumpolar star having latitude 40 degrees North is (90-40) = 50 degrees.
Two point problem and three problems are methods of orientation and resection.
Resection by two point problem requires more labor than by three point problem.
Methods used to locate the plane table station are resection and traversing.
After fixing the plane table to the tripod, the main operations which are needed at each plane table station are levelling,
centering and orientation respectively.
Bowditch rule is applied to a closed traverse for adjustment of closing error.
If in a closed traverse, sum of south latitudes is more than sum of north latitudes and also sum of east departures is more
than west departures, the bearing of closing line is in NW quadrant.
The angle between prolongation of preceding line and the forward line of a traverse is called deflection angle.
Transit rule of adjusting the consecutive co-ordinates of a traverse is used where angular measurements are more
accurate than linear measurements.
While theodolite traversing, angles are measured from at least two stations to locate a point which is at a far distance.
Subtense bar is an instrument used fr measurement of horizontal distances in undulated areas.
Horizontal distances obtained by tacheometric observations do not require slope and tension corrections.
There are three horizontal corss hairs- in a stadia diaphragms.
In movable hair method, the intercept on leveling staff is kept constant and stadia hair interval is variable.
In fixed hair method the intercept on leveling staff is variable and stadia hair interval is fixed.
In tangential hair method the stadia hairs are not used.
The angle subtended by the long chord of a simple circular curve at its centre is equal to angle of deflection.
In Levelling, a station is the point where the levelling staff is held and not where level is set up.
The inner surface of a bubble tube is an arc of a circle.
Sensitivity of a level tube can be increased by the increase in length of bubble.
Dumply level is most suitable when a numbers of readings are to be taken from single setting of the instrument.
The difference of levels between two stations A and B is to be determined. For best results, the instrument station should
be equidistant from A and B.

contour interval is inversely proportional to the scale of the map.
An imaginary line lying throughout the surface of ground and preserving a constant inclination to the horizontal is known
as contour gradient.
Two contours of different elevations do not cross each other except in case of an overhanging cliff.
A series of closely spaced contour lines represents a steep slope.
Direct method of contouring is most accurate method.
In direct method of contouring, the process of locating or identifying points lying on a contour is called vertical control.
In the cross section method of indirect contouring, the spacing of cross-sections depends upon contour interval, scale of
plan and characteristics of ground.
For hilly terrains Tacheometric method of contouring is most suitable.
contour interval for any map is kept constant.
Closed contours, with higher values inside represents a hillock.
Benchmark is established by spirit leveling.
Plane table is the type of survey which requires least office work.
Intersection method of detailed plotting is most suitable for hilly areas where the points are not accessible.
Detailed plotting is generally done by radiation method.
Three point problem can be solved by Tracing paper method, Bessels method and Lehman's method.
The size of a plane table is 600 mm * 750 mm.
The process of determining the locations of the instrument station by drawing resectors from the locations of the known
stations is called resection
Plumbing fork is used for accurate centering of plane table.
Error due to curvature and refraction can be neutralized by setting the level midway between the two stations.
Height of instrument method of levelling is quicker and less tedious for large numbers of intermediate sights.
The rise and fall method provides a check on the reduction of intermediate point levels.
If the staff is not held vertical at a levelling station, the reduced level calculated from the observation would be less than
true R.L.
The difference between a level line and a horizontal line is that a level line is a curved line while horizontal line is a straight
The sensitivity of a bubble tube can be increase by increasing the diameter of the bubble tube.
With the rise in temperature sensitivity of a bubble tube decreases, because with rise in temperature the liquid expands
and bubble gets smaller.
Refraction correction partially eliminates the curvature correction.
As applied to staff readings, the corrections for curvature and refraction are respectively "-" and "+".
The correction for refraction as applied to staff reading is +1/7[d^2/(2R)].
Sensitivity of a bubble tube is designated by radius of level tube.
A gate cap is fitted with a prismatic compass
The temporary adjustments of a prismatic compass are Centering, Leveling and Focusing the prism respectively in order.
Swinging is the process of turning the telescope about the vertical axis in horizontal plane.
Size of a Theodolite is specified by the diameter of the lower plate.
If the lower clamp screw is tightened and upper clamp screw is loosened, the Theodolite may be rotated on its inner
spindle with a relative motion between the vernier and the graduated scale of lower plate.
A telescope is said to be inverted if its vertical circle is to its right and the bubble of the telescope is down.
The cross hairs in the surveying telescope are placed much closer to the eye-piece than the objective piece.
For the adjustment of horizontal axis, the spire test is used for its permanent adjustment.
The adjustment of horizontal cross hair is required when the instrument is used for levelling.

Error due to displacement of the station signal can not be eliminated by repetition method of angle measurement.
The error due to eccentricity of inner and outer axes can be eliminated by reading both verniers and taking the mean of
the two.
In the double application of principle of reversion, the apparent error is four times the true error.
Error due to line of collimation not being perpendicular to the horizontal line can be eliminated by taking mean of both face
If a tripod settles in the interval that elapses between taking a back sight reading and the following foresight reading, then
the elevation of turning point will increase.
If altitude bubble is provided both on index frame as well as on telescope of a theodolite, then the instrument is levelled
with reference to altitude level on the index frame or altitude level on telescope if it is to be used as a level.
A 'level line' is a line parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of earth.
Turning point is the station where both back sight and fore-sights are taken
A rise and fall method provides us check on back-sights, foresight as well as on intermediate sights.
In internal focusing type of telescope a concave lens is provided.
If W is the weight of the chain, L is the span and P is the tension or pull, then sag correction for
chain line will be (W^2L)/(24.P^2).
Normal tension is that pull which neutralizes the effect due to pull and sag in chain/tape.
If O is the angle of slope, L is the length of the slope and H is the difference in elevation between
two ends of the line, then slope correction will be 2.L.sin^2(O/2).
Limiting length of offset depends upon the accuracy desired, scale of plotting and nature of the
Sag correction for chain or tape is always negative.
Plane tabling is a graphical method of surveying.
Chaining or tape is the best method for the linear measurements.
Curves are necessary to change the direction and vertical alignments of the routes.
Incorrect holding of a chain at arrow is compensating error.
French cross staff is used to set out 45 degrees offset with a chain.
A discrepancy is the difference between two measured values of the same quantity.
A revenue chain is 33 feet long and consist of 16 links.
Every 20 m chain must be accurate to within +-5 mm.
For chaining on the slopping ground one can use the stepping method and hypotenuse allowance
method etc.
Compensating errors in chain are proportional to the square root of the length of the line.
Error due to bad ranging is cumulative positive.
Negative errors in the chain are caused in chain, when its length is more than the standard length.
An error under the same condition always of the same size and sign is called, systematic and
cumulative error.
Theory of probability is applied to accidental errors.
Most probable value of an observed quantity available from a given set of observation is the one
for which the sum of the square of errors is a minimum. This statement is called principle of
least square.
For a measured distance L along a slope, the required slope correction is 2L.[sin(A/2)]^2.
A 30 m chain was found to be 20 cm too long after chaining 1500 m. Correct length of the total
distance chained will be 1510 m.

If n observations are taken then the accidental errors are proportional to n^(1/2).
If a chain is found too short on testing then it can be adjusted by straightening the links,
inserting additional circular links and flattening the circular rings.
Permissible limits of error in chaining for measurement on rough or hilly ground is 1:250
Position of point can be fixed more accurately by perpendicular offset.
Positive error is caused if length of chain is shorter than standard, slope and sag corrections in
not applied and measurements are made along the incorrectly aligned line
If during a chain survey along a straight line, leader of the survey party has three arrows and
while follower has five arrows, then distance of the follower from the starting point is Five
The tolerance for a 20 m chain is +-5mm.
A chain length is measured from outside end of one handle to the outside of other handle while
chain is held straight.
Normal tension/pull is the amount of tension which neutralizes the pull and sag correction.
Surveying map prepared by any country are prepared with reference to the true meridian not
magnetic meridian.
Prismatic compass has the WCB(Whole Circle bearing system) while Surveying compass has a
quadrant bearing system.
French cross staff can be used to locate the 45 degrees and 90 degrees offset.
Prismatic compass has the circular graduations with zero at South and the needle attached
together so, they do not move along with the box, while in surveying compass only needle is
constant in North-south direction but the graduation move along with the box.
The horizontal angle between magnetic meridian and true meridian at a place is known as the
magnetic declination of that place.
The difference between the fore bearing and back bearing of a line AB is 180 degrees.
The permissible error in the chain survey for rough and hilly areas is 1 in 250