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# 7/12/2014 Divisibility Rules a note by Arron Kau | Brilliant

When learning about multiples and divisors, there are several rules of divisibility that a student may
encounter. Below, we list some famous rules of divisibility:
When dividing by...
2: The last digit is even.
3: The sum of digits is a multiple of 3.
4: The last 2 numbers are a multiple of 4.
5: The last digit is either 0 or 5.
6: Multiple of 2 and 3
8: The last 3 digits are a multiple of 8.
9: The sum of digits is a multiple of 9.
10: The last digit is 0.
11: The alternating sum of digits is a multiple of 11.
We will show the proofs of rules of 8 and 11. The rest follow in a similar manner.
Proof: When a number is divisible by 8, the last 3 digits are a multiple of 8.
Let the number be , where are digits and is a non-
negative integer.
Clearly, is a multiple of 8, since . Hence, is a multiple of 8 if and only if
is a multiple of 8.
Proof: When a number is divisible by 11, the alternating sum of digits is a multiple of
11.
From Factorization , we know that
is always a multiple of 11.
Hence, if , then
Since the terms in the square brackets consist of multiples of 11, it follows that is a
multiple of 11 if and only if the alternating sum is a multiple of 11.
Divisibility Rules
Shared by Arron Kau 32, USA 3 months, 2 weeks ago
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7/12/2014 Divisibility Rules a note by Arron Kau | Brilliant
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APPLICATION AND EXTENTIONS
Find all possible values of such that the number is a multiple of 3.
From the rules of divisibility, the number is a multiple of 3 if and only if the sum of
the digits is a multiple of 3. Since , this implies that
are all the possible values.

Show that if the last 3 digits of a number are , then is a multiple of 8 if and
only if is a multiple of 8.
This follows because . Hence, by the divisibility
rule of 8, is a multiple of 8 if and only if is a multiple of 8 if and only if is
a multiple of 8.

Divisibility rule of 7: Break up the number into blocks of 6, starting from the right. Add
up all these blocks, and the resultant number has to be a multiple of 7.
This follows because , so
is a multiple of 7 if and only if
is a multiple of 7. If we use , we get the result as
stated.

Show that the 6 digit number is a multiple of 7 if and only if
is a multiple of 7.
Solution: This follows because
Hence is a multiple of 7 if and only if is a multiple of 7.