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CANTEEN ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION AT MAYSAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL: AN ASSESSMENT

A Special Project Presented to The Faculty of the College of Science Philippine


Normal University Manila

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Education With
Specialization in Home Economics

by:

ARLENE B. MANIQUIZ March 2009

9
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The gratitude,

researcher

wishes and

to

extend

her to

profound all the

acknowledgment

appreciation

people who have inspired her to conduct and finally finish this study. Dr. Leonora
Basbas, Head of the Department of Allied Sciences and her adviser for the support
and advice she

has given to the researcher that helped her to this study. Dr. Ernesto Callo, for
the encouragement, hope, and motivation he gave. His insights, and fatherly advice
to the researcher inspired her to pursue this study. Our employed Lady for of the
Fatima University, the where she currently to

pressure

administrators

applied

make her finish the study immediately. Dr. Erlinda Evangelista, her principal for
allowing her to conduct this study and allow the faculty, students,

and non teaching staff to answer the questionnaire. Mr. Dennis Cabais, her co-
faculty and served as her statistician for his invaluable help and support. He
shared a lot of knowledge, insights, spent a lot of time to help the researcher
finish this study.

iii
Mrs. Lenilyn Robles , a teacher of English who helped in correcting grammar and
assisted the researcher in many ways. Mr. Eric Maniquiz, her husband for his love,
moral support, inspirational words TO personnel cooperation Lastly, All faculty of
Maysan that cannot be measured. students, High non – teaching their

members, National

School,

for

and willingness to answer the questionnaire. to the Lord Almighty who gave her
good

health, energy, and determination to make this piece of work a reality.

iv
DEDICATION

TO MY BELOVED HUSBAND

RODERICK L. MANIQUIZ

MY PRECIOUS

GEMS

ERIKA AND EARL

MY PARENTS

DOMINGO

BUNAG AND CELIA TERESA

THIS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IS HEARTLY

DEDICATED

-A.B.M.

ii
ABSTRACT

Title

Canteen Administration and Operation at Maysan National High School: An Assessment


Guidelines on the Operation and Management of School Canteen in Public Elementary
and Secondary Schools Arlene B. Maniquiz Home Economics Dr. Leonora D. Basbas

Key Concepts

Researcher Specialization Adviser

: : :

Statement of the Problem The study sought and to assess which the is school
managed High canteen by the in

administration Teacher’s

operation at

Cooperative

Maysan

National

School

Valenzuela. Specifically, following questions. 1. What is the status of the school


canteen as perceived by the student respondents, the faculty, and the non-teaching
personnel in terms of: 1.1 Quality and quantity of food served the study attempted
to answer the

vi
1.2 1.3

Kinds of services rendered to the customers Prices of the commodities

2. How do the student; teacher; non-teaching personnel respondents 1.1. 1.2.


assess the school canteen in terms of:

Management of Canteen activities Utilization of Facilities

3. Is there a correlation between the management of the canteen and each of the
following? 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Utilization of canteen facilities Quantity and quality
of food served Kinds of services rendered Prices of commodities

4. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of the three groups of


respondents in terms of the following: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Management of canteen
activities. Utilization of Canteen Facilities Quality of food offered Kinds of
services rendered to the customers Prices of commodities and the prices of
commodity as sold at the canteen

vii
METHODOLOGY The descriptive method was used and gathered

information through the use of a survey questionnaire as an instrument. The


descriptive method was used to asses the operations Maysan and policies High
involved School in the management The three and of

National same the

Canteen. to the

researcher groups the of

administered respondents:

questionnaires students, the

faculty

school

canteen staff. The Respondents were 100 students 25 from each year level, 20
faculty members, and 20 non-teaching personnel. The study was also conducted to
determine the effectiveness of the management skills of the canteen manager. The
results of were the analyzed to determine data the were

observations

respondents.

Research

encoded, analyzed and presented in table. The appropriate statistical analysis


using SPSS was also used to interpret data.

viii
FINDINGS 1. The assessment on the effectiveness of the management of school
canteen activities by the respondents

yielded a mean score of 2.44, interpreted as “seldom” 2. The staff of the school
canteen did not properly

utilized the canteen facilities. 3. The perceptions of the three groups of


respondents on the quality and quantity of food served yielded the highest mean
value of 3.09, for the item: sells

appropriate amount of foods that can sustain the needs of the students, and the
lowest mean value of 2.04 was obtained for the item: serves food that are fresh,
newly cooked or prepared. 4. There was a negative effect of the manager’s skill on
certain factors that affect the canteen status. 5. There are no significant
differences in the assessment of the student respondents and the teacher

respondents; neither was there a difference between the students and non-teaching
personnel’s observation.

ix
CONCLUSIONS 1. The most important finding of this study is the need to provide
proper training for canteen staff. Enough

knowledge is imperative to canteen managers for their role is to make decisions


that will affect the entire canteen organization. 2. Given all the sets of
criteria, standards and rules set by the cooperative but not followed religiously,
would result to the ability of the school canteen to accomplish its target
objectives, thus creating more problems in the future. 3. Formal trainings and
seminars needed by all canteen staff and officials so that they will improve their
skills on the food proper handling of food, food

preparation, through

selection,

customer skills

satisfaction and total

effective

interpersonal

quality management of all the aspects necessary for an improved and well-managed
canteen. 4. Failure of canteen managers to utilize equipment

present in the canteen.

x
5. The respondents found the food repetitive and limited lacking the necessary
nutritional value needed by the students. 6. Among the major findings, the quality
of service given was found to be adequate since the canteen officials and staff
are doing their assigned roles. 7. In terms of price of commodities, students find

canteen food quite expensive so they resort to buying synthetic food outside the
school. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The recommended measures to improve the management

styles of canteen managers and staff as cited by the respondents implemented. 2.


The recruitment policy should be tightened or improved to ensure that canteen
staff and manager possess the necessary qualifications and competencies
specifically on the knowledge of food handling and food preparation plus serving a
variety of food. 3. Members of the cooperative, especially the head, must
vigorously promote educating the canteen officials and staff in order to develop
and enhance their skills. in this study should be adopted and

xi
The cooperative can provide financial help to those who want to attend seminars to
update themselves of the rudiments of managing a school canteen. 4. The Chairs or
Heads of the Teachers’ Cooperative

supervise the activities of their canteen staff for proper monitoring emphasizing
efficiency and

effectivity. 5. Canteen facilities must be properly utilized in order to maximize


and systematize the use of these instruments. 6. Commodities must be affordable
yet nutritious so that the clientele will be satisfied. 7. Canteen staff must
provide variety of food geared towards the total well being of the clients. 8.
Cooperative incentives Officials or merits should in provide form some in kind
order of to

whatever

motivate and encourage canteen staff.

xii
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..i
Approval Sheet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…v
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………vi Table of
Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………xiii List of
Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xv List of
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………xvi CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS
BACKGROUND Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………1 Background of the
Study ………………………………………………………………………3 Statement of the Problem
……………………………………………………………………5 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………6
Scope and Delimitation of the Study ……………………………………8 Definition of
Terms……………………………………………………………………………………9 II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND
STUDIES Related Literature and Studies …………………………………………………12 Conceptual Framework
……………………………………………………………………………28 Research Framework …………………………………………………………………………………
30 Assumptions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………30 Hypothesis of the Study
……………………………………………………………………31 III. METHOD AND PROCEDURES Research Design
…………………………………………………………………………………………32 Research Locale
…………………………………………………………………………………………33 Samples and Sampling Techniques
………………………………………………33

xiii
Research Instrument ………………………………………………………………………………34 Validation of Instrument
…………………………………………………………………35 Data Gathering Procedure …………………………………………………………………36
Data Processing and Statistical Treatment ……………………36 IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS,
AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Assessment of the Management of School Canteen
Activities…………………………………………………………39 Assessment of Utilization of School Canteen
Facilities ………………………………………………………42 Status of Quality of Food
Served………………………………………………46 Status of Kinds of Services Rendered to the
Customers…………………………………………………………………………………48 Status of Price of
Commodities……………………………………………………51 Results of Analysis of Variance Management of
School Canteen ………………………………………………57 Utilization of School Canteen
Facilities…………………58 Quality and Quantity of Food Served ……………………………59 Kinds of
Services Rendered ……………………………………………………60 Prices of Commodities
…………………………………………………………………61 V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings ………………………………………………………………………………63 Conclusions
……………………………………………………………………………………………………64 Recommendations
…………………………………………………………………………………………66
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………67
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………69 Curriculum Vitae
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………94

xiv
LIST OF TABLES Table 1 2 Population and Samples of the Study Weighted Mean on the
Assessment of the Management of the School Canteen Weighted Means on the
Assessment of Utilization of School Canteen Facilities Weighted Mean on the
Quality and Quantity of Food Served dents Weighted Means on the Kinds of Services
Rendered to the Customers Weighted Mean on the Prices of Commodities Analysis of
Variance of the Perceptions of the Three Groups of Respondents on Management of
School Canteen Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Perception of the
Respondents on the Utilization of Canteen Facilities Results of the Analysis of
Variance of the Perceptions of the Respondents on Quality and Quantity of Food
Served Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Perceptions of the Respondents
on the Kinds of Services Rendered to Customers Results of the Analysis of Variance
of the Perception of the Respondents on the Prices of Commodities Page 34

39

42

46

48 51

6 7

57

58

59

10

60

11

61

xv
Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The Department of Education
is strongly committed to support student health and well-being through its
curriculum in schools and a range of initiatives that offer

opportunities that promote physically fit individuals who love eating healthy
food. Schools and are encouraged to

implement

comprehensive

health

well-being

programs,

including food and nutrition education. The establishment and operation of a


school canteen is important in developing love and interest in buying

nutritious and healthy food among students, faculty and the school personnel,
making it possible for them to enjoy

nutritious and healthy food at affordable prices during the school day. The
canteen should also provide a variety of foods and dishes that enhance the skills
and knowledge

learnt in the classroom about food and nutrition Recognizing the importance of
eating the right kind of food in children's growth and development, many schools

today accept food services as an integral part of the school program. Canteen
operation can be considered one of the

1
auxiliary services of the school. teacher or a hired private

Although, a classroom often handles the

person

operation, it is still considered as an important component of school


administration. Hence, greater effort must be

exerted in its operation. It is imperative therefore, that the child who spends
the greater part of his/her waking hours in school be given food that are
nutritious and

economical. There are plenty of students with meager allowance for snacks in the
public schools, therefore it is necessary that daily foods served in the school
canteen are assured to be within the mean of the children. Considerations are
given to the nutritive value of the food items being served to them. However,
there are other factors in the process which are not given attention which may
adversely affect the school’s total development program especially if the canteen
is being managed privately by a group or an individual. Based on the foregoing,
the researcher thinks that there is a need for a thorough assessment of the
program being implemented in the school.

2
Background of the Study The Maysan National High School Canteen was formerly
managed by the T.L.E. teachers. The researcher served as one of the assigned
managers in the past. Before it was run by the Teachers Cooperative, quality and
low cost food were

being served to students and faculty members as well. The management and operation
of the school canteen was overtaken by the teachers’ cooperative following the
rules and

regulations set by the Department of Education headed then by Secretary Ricardo


Gloria (D.O. no. 55 s. 1996). Just about every important decision about canteen

utilization-whether the manager is certified as competent, hired, receives tenure,


is recognized meritorious-depends on someone’s judgment of how well the manager
performs. Often, the judgments are informal. When they are formal, they are
usually recorded as ratings on a multi-factor manager rating scale. A multi-factor
the manager which rating by the scale head as is of being the in used in

selecting Several

cooperative. selecting a

criteria

serve

basis

qualified applicant to manage the canteen are included in the scale. Since the
head has the right to choose, subjectivity comes into the selection of canteen
manager. then

3
There is a perceived problem in the operation of the Maysan National High School’s
canteen, particularly in the selection of manager and staff. The one who is now

supervising in the canteen operation is not a Home Economics teacher nor has she
finished a management course. The

process of hiring based on an objective set of standards and qualifications can be


manipulated, a recommendation from a number of major cooperative members has
greater weight in hiring canteen staff. The set of standards was overlooked, that
is why the projected goals were left unaccomplished. On the other on hand, the
committee of the claims said that there based is on no it

failure

supervision

canteen

generated profits. Aside from mismanagement, the need for facilities is of great
concern, which facilities is the are needed why to provide quality keep on

services

reason

customers

patronizing its products and services. Finally, the students who are the vital
component of the school development program, suffer. The canteen, in its mission
to nourish the children’s mind and provide quality services failed to accomplish
its target goal which is

evident in the complaints raised and presented to the board.

4
This dilemma continuous to exist and remains unsolved. The quality and quantity of
food served is also affected. This results in getting more complaints from the
canteen’s

clientele. Statement of the Problem The study was conducted to make an assessment
of the school canteen which is managed by the Teacher’s Cooperative in Maysan
National High School during the School Year 20082009 as perceived by the school
personnel, teachers, and students. Specifically, following questions. 1. How do
the student, teacher, and non-teaching personnel respondents terms of: 1.1. 1.2.
Management of Canteen activities Utilization of Facilities assess the school
canteen in the study attempted to answer the

2. What is the status of the school canteen as perceived by the student


respondents, the faculty, and the nonteaching personnel in terms of: 2.1 2.2
Quality and quantity of food served Kinds of services rendered to the customers
5
2.3

Prices of the commodities

3. Is there a correlation between the management of the canteen and each of the
following? 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Utilization of canteen facilities Quantity and quality
of food served Kinds of services rendered Prices of commodities

4. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of the three groups of


respondents in terms of the following: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Management of canteen
activities. Utilization of Canteen Facilities Quality of food offered Kinds of
services rendered to the customers Prices of commodities and the prices of
commodity as sold at the canteen Significance of the Study This study aimed to
determine the status of the school canteen, operation particularly that should
identifying be improved. the aspects it in was the the

Likewise,

6
objective

of

this

study

to

evaluate

the

difficulties

encountered by the students as to the kind of service that they received.


Moreover, the research attempted to provide the most appropriate and effective
ways in hiring managers who will oversee all matter pertaining to school canteen
supervision. opportunities Finally, for this research and may thereby provide
enhance

reflective

thought

professionalism among members of the cooperative, so that they improve efficiency


and offer delicious yet affordable food. The results of this study could provide
the management of the cooperative with the information about the present status of
the school canteen and to let them know that the existing situation really affects
the totality of the

service that they are rendering. The results of the study will also make a
management realize the need to objectively solve the problems encountered in the
canteen operations. The findings may also serve as guide for canteen managers in
the planning, preparation and implementation of their new programs. The study will
provide some insights and the the

information on how they will manage the canteen for benefit of the customers such
as the teachers and

7
students who are their main clients who must be served and be satisfied. Scope and
Delimitation of the Study The study focused on the assessment of the
cooperativemanaged canteen as perceived by the school personnel and students of
Maysan National High School. The respondents of this study consisted of the 40
school personnel and 80

students from different year levels. This study was limited to the assessment of
the school canteen of in terms of

management

activities,

utilization

facilities,

quality

and quantity of food served, kinds of services rendered and prices of the
commodities offered. The study was conducted during the School Year 2008-2009. The
researcher limited

this assessment to the over all performance of the canteen management, and it did
not seek to include solutions on how the canteen will be operated.

8
Definition of Terms For the better understanding of this study, some of the terms
and variables used are defined below. Assessment. It refers the observations of
the students, the faculty, the non-teaching staff as means of evaluating the
effectiveness canteen. It means how the

respondents feel about what they actually experience or see of the situation of
the school, particularly in the management of the activities, utilization of

facilities, quality and quantity of food served, kind of services rendered to the
consumers and the price of the commodities offered to the consumers in the

canteen. Canteen Management. In this research, it includes the

management of the daily routine of the canteen. It is the administration of the


direction of the means and objectives operation, of the school service canteen
which include physical

food

management,

facilities, and canteen services.

9
Clientele.

In

this

study,

it

refers

to

the

students,

faculty, and non-teaching personnel who regularly eat or dine in the school
canteen. Cooperative-Managed Canteen. It refers to a school canteen that is
operated and managed by the teachers’

cooperative under the supervision of its board members and officers. Facilities.
In this research, it refers to the chairs,

tables, tools, utensils, and other cooking equipment used in food preparation and
dining. Food. It refers to the newly cooked, ready-to-eat meals, beverages
canteen. Meal Management. It is the efficient use of available and other items
bought in the school

resources in providing meals that are nutritionally adequate, sanitary,


economical, and aesthetically

pleasing to the clients. Kind of Service Rendered to the Client. It is the way the
canteen staff provide assistance to the buyers, such as checking the cleanliness
and safety of food served.

10
Operation. In this study it refers to the process on how the canteen manager,
canteen staff work and perform their functions in the school canteen to achieve

effective and efficient food production and services Price of Commodities. It


means the cost of foods and other commodities offered in the school canteen.
Quality and Quantity of Food Served. It refers to the

manner in which space and facilities available in the school canteen are utilized.
Quality of Food. This refers to the aspect of food which is describes or
characterized in terms of nutrition,

palatability, variety, appearance and the like. School Canteen. In this study, it
is the place where the students, teachers, non-teaching staff take their

snacks and lunch. Newly cooked food and ready to eat food are served. School
Personnel. As used in this study, it refers to the teaching and non-teaching staff
of the school.

11
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This researcher

section

presents and

related

and

studies to

which

the

reviewed

found

significant

the

present

study. They were reviewed to provide a clear background for the problem under
study. The school canteen follows guidelines on operational management set by the
Department of Education through DECS Order No. 93, s. 1998, the Revised
Implementing Guidelines for the Turn-Over of the School Canteen Teachers

Cooperative. The teachers’ cooperative shall see to it that none of its members
shall use their official time attending to the activities of the canteen and the
cooperative. Hence, a cooperative shall hire a fulltime manager to manage and
operate the school canteen. The designated Home Economics canteen Teacher shall
inspect the quality and handling of food served, canteen sanitation, use of
facilities for

laboratory purpose. The school canteen should provide cheap, sanitary,

nutritious food such as fresh milk, fresh fruits and fresh drinks, boiled root
crops, high calorie indigenous recipes and the like.
12
Hired people handling food in the canteen should be required to undergo training
for food handlers, obtain a certificate of good health from the municipal health

department and observe hygiene. Operational practices that will be detrimental and

prejudicial to the welfare of the students, teachers and to the school as a whole
as well as any violation of the

provision of the Memorandum of Agreement and the operational management guidelines


should be considered as ground for the return of the canteen operation to the
school. The Catholic Education Commission placed an electronic copy of the Self-
Assessment tool in their website. It consists of a check list to review the
current level of an action plan for schools

implementation of the Strategy,

to identify where more work may need to be done and to plan follow up actions for
2008. Support information clarifies aspects of the Strategy and provides relevant
sources of assistance, if required. During Term IV, many schools were busy
completing the tool. Principals have been in discussion with their canteen
managers to see how their healthy school canteens are

progressing. It has been pleasing to hear the comments of

13
many

school

principals

and

canteen

managers

who

have

completed the tool, and the enthusiasm expressed to support healthy canteens has
been greatly appreciated. Many schools reported they are now planning for the next
term and filling the menu with plenty of GREEN foods. For those schools still
looking to change existing menu items, or have yet to

complete the tool, assistance is available. The tool will help the canteen staff
to assess their performance services. to be will able guide to the maintain
manager or in improve deciding their which

This

meals must be served each day to satisfy the students’ need for nutritious food.
The different concepts and findings, as reflected in several studies, revealed the
following insights as they are related to the present researcher’s study. 1.
Management someone of the is canteen must be managed and by

who

capable,

qualified

honest

personnel. 2. Adequate facilities maintain the services needed and enhance the
efficiency of the canteen workers in doing their job.

14
Management of School Canteen The following about literature the deal on the
significant in the

information

administration’s

role

management of a school canteen. Dizon (2000) investigated the management of the


school canteens in the district of Dinalupihan, Bataan and their implications to
the nutritional needs of pupils. Based on the findings of this study, the
following conclusions were drawn: 1. Majority of the All canteens canteen were
managed and by private

individuals.

facilities

equipment

were moderately adequate; 2. Food procurement was supervised by outside paid

helpers; 3. The canteen managers saw to it that the food to be cooked are washed
thoroughly; 4. Majority of the canteens were implementing self-

service food serving; and 5. The problems in the operation of the canteens were
lack of personnel, lack of time in food preparation,

15
source of water supply and pupils’ preference for junk foods instead of nutritious
one. Mendoza (2004) made a study on canteen administration and operation in public
elementary schools in the division of Lipa city. The descriptive method of
research was used in this research with two sets of questionnaires used to gather
the perceptions of the respondents. The highest rating were given for the
strategic value where the building is located for canteen teachers, the safety of
the foods for sale and for non-canteen teachers, accessibility of the building to
pupils and teachers. The lowest ratings given were noted in the following: time
schedule for recess of intermediate

grade pupils and distribution of time allowance for recess, regarding the quality
and quantity of foods being served, the highest ratings was on the nutritional
value of foods for scale and the lowest rating was on the perception of quantity
of fruits vegetables for sale. All the respondents gave the highest ratings to the
drive to put up normal size canteen room/building. On the contrary, the lowest
ratings were noted in terms of ability to solicit assistance from NGOs and GOs for
canteen improvement, and the ability to put up the needed accessories in the
canteen.

16
The conclusions made on this study were as follows: canteens in public elementary
schools are properly managed, systematically teachers have run by the staff and
personnel on some involved, policy food

different particularly

reactions in class

implementations,

programming,

service operations and teachers’ assignment. This conclusion led to the


recommendations that the school heads should

prepare a workable and viable long range master plan on canteen operations and
personnel functions. Similarly, it is suggested that part of the canteen proceeds
should also be used for to other school projects. Service assistance of government
and non-government organizations should also be tapped and finally, a wider and
deeper study should be made in order validate and compare the findings of this
study. Manahan’s (1998) work supported the findings of the present work on canteen
management. Manahan (1998) conducted a research on the canteen

management of VALENZUELA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL. The aim of this study wa to make a
system analysis of the canteen that to

management of the said school. The results revealed efficient canteen management
is necessary in order

provide food of lowest cost and highest nutritive value. Common problems met in
the management of the canteen were as
17
follows: lack of space to accommodate the students; helper chores were given to
the canteen teacher in-charge of the task to manage the canteen; lack of full time
canteen

manager; the time allotted for cooking is so limited, the food being prepared are
not enough for the consumers and finally, the buyers do not have plenty of choices
of food. Possible solutions were provided to lessen or totally

eliminate the existing problems such as: expansion of school facilities; utensils,
addition of more of tables well and chairs, better cooking water

installation

deep

and

connection, hiring of more helpers, having a dialogue with the consigners to asses
the quality and quantity of services should they be render from and finally, the
to canteen enable the

teachers her to

free

teaching

loads

supervise the helpers in food preparation. In countries like the UNITED STATES and
other Asian countries, canteen operations and management are considered one of the
services offered by the school, and thus become part of the school administrators’
tasks and part of daily operations. In fact most of these schools already have

handbooks on how to properly maintain and operate a canteen. Canteen management is


also considered not just a school

18
function but also a full time job that needs formal training and that many
universities offer such courses. In 2000, SINDARATANA PORN studied the canteen

management of YUDARAS WITTAYALAI SCHOOL IN MAI to determine how well the school
canteen was managed in accordance with the regulations given by the canteen
regulation board. Her study involved 170 respondents from the lower and upper

secondary education levels and 130 teachers. Results showed that physically, the
canteen food was clean were and neat with set were

appropriate with regard

settings; to food

prices

appropriately and utensils

quantity;

dishes

cleaned, and tables and chairs in the canteen were in good condition and being
maintained regularly. Academically, the canteen billboard helped students to have
knowledge of

nutrition with practical application. Nutrition information about meals prepared


were posted in the board, along with other similarly nutritious meals. Also, the
canteen board, detailing its regulations. showed steps of canteen services. In
addition, its frame of opening at 6:30 a.m. and closing

at 4:00 p.m. was established for the needs of the students, serving breakfast for
those who have early classes and late snack for those who will travel home.

19
In

related SCHOOL

study, LUNCH

WONGKHUM PROGRAM

(2000) in

evaluated the

the

WATWERUWAN

(found

Saraphi

district in CHIANG MAI PROVINCE). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the
lunch programs implemented by the school administrator included evaluated 296
during the academic parents lunch year 1999. Respondents The study of

students, the

and

teachers. management

whether

program

aims

students having good health with good hygienic habit and saving attitudes, were
achieved and realized. Evaluation

results revealed conserving context, input processes, and product indicated in the
performance in all aspects. Details of the performance understand habits; 2)
include: the aim 1) of students, the program and parents and and

teachers hygienic

develop are

personnel,

budget

materials

adequate. 3) on duty teacher gives or helps 4) serving clean food with proper

hand out lunch; 5) and


nutrition.

students are requested to clean dishes and put dishes in place. The study
concluded that the lunch program was able to reach or achieve its aims for the
program that is

students with good health and hygienic habit who knew how to save. Both
SINDARATANA PORN (2000) and WONG KHUM (2000)

studied whether their respective school were managing the


20
canteen according to the standards set by the schools board. The assumption here
is that the canteen is operated maintained by the school, meaning everyone from
and the

purchasing officer to the cook and food servers are employed by the school.
According to RAY, et.al. (2001) auxiliary services in school like the operation of
school canteens, provide the school administrators and canteen teachers with the
most

severe day-to-day problems. While school canteen services are not directly related
to teaching-learning situation,

their absence makes it impossible for the school to perform its primary function.
Canteen operation is very significant to the efficient management. In view of
this, considerable planning effort, more specifically in giving assignment to
teachers, must be given consideration in the total operation of the school system.
Realizing that the hungry child has a severe learning independence and that for
many children a balance meal is the most important factor that can influence their
mental ability. Utilization of School Canteen Facilities DE GUZMAN (1992) cited
that another important component of the food service system is the physical
facilities which

21
include

equipment

like

the

machinery,

furnishings

and

supplies which are used in the production of service meals in the school canteens.
The kind and number of equipment to be purchased for food services should not be
determined by rule of thumb but rather by the operation and needs. The ST. LOUIS
BOARD OF EDUCATION (1999) in TASMANIA has issued a resolution stating the
involvement of head teachers in canteen operations. The resolution states that the
head teachers must be involved in the dining room supervision during the periods
of meal service, custodial activities

relating to the cleanliness of the dinning areas of canteen teachers and other
canteen personnel. One of the writers made a comment on the role of the school
administration and teachers in canteen management. Quality and Quantity of Food
Served The children school by canteen it should be established for to benefit to
buy

making

possible

children

nutritious and healthy food at competitive prices, through providing a variety of


food and dishes and charging prices which allow moderate profits. It is imperative
that the

principals, ensure the practice of serving the right kind of food for the
students. A canteen policy which has this as

22
basis would be valuable as they encourage those in control of providing food to
reduce health risks from poor nutrition is about having knowledge and skills,
making healthy food choices, having healthy attitudes towards food, having

access to healthy food choices and balance nutrition (the school canteen handbook,
1999). The members of the school community may need to become aware of the
connection between nutrition and health as well as the role of the canteen in
providing healthy food ways the

choices. Awareness can be achieved in a variety of using appropriate physical and


human resources from

wider school community. These can be done by finding out what is already
happening, building awareness, forming a

work party and finding out what people think. School canteen makes an important
contribution to the education and being of the students and school communities
they serve. Their responsibility is to provide nutritious food to students as part
of their development as healthy individuals. The ideal school canteen provides a
wide

variety of appetizing, nutritious food at reasonable prices; different food


preparations method including grilling,

23
steaming, stir frying as well as fresh food, (schools policy handbook, January
1998) According to MEDRANA (2004) in her article, school

canteens have always been an integral part of any wellestablish educational


institution. But the school canteen or cafeteria is different from a commercial
outfit that is also subjected commercial to government and sanitary controls. are
Whereas for

canteens

restaurants

established

profit as the main object, a school canteen is set-up mainly to benefit the
students while offering them decent yet

affordable fare. The school canteen should also serve as the showcase of skills
and knowledge learned in the classroom about food and nutrition. It can also
provide an avenue for parental

involvement in the school by using volunteer workers in the school. It is the duty
of the school and parents to educate students about nutrition. The school canteen
as part of the school community, is in a vantage position to make a

positive contribution to student health. The school canteen should encourage the
students to buy nutritious should and healthy the foods at affordable from prices.
off They the

prevent

school

children

staying

24
school

campus

during

recess

time

and

lunch

break.

Well

prepared and clean food are vital feature of an efficiently run school canteen. It
should also prepare food that is both appealing and nutritious for the students.
Facilities of the school are considered as one of the variables investigated in
this study and the literature

below give insights on this matter. Kinds of Services Rendered Recalled program
was by MORPHET then (1994), a the school division food of service school

since

major

operations. It was estimated that the gross expenditures for the school lunch
program was approximately one billion

dollars during the year 1956-1957. Fifty percent or more of the public elementary
and secondary school pupils were

served some type of lunch or food supplement in that year. Quality of Service
Effectiveness of the cafeteria management is not only reflected by the quality of
food served but also by quality of services rendered which are characterized the
as

courteous, friendly, fair, democratic, sanitary and speedy. There are thousands of
food service programs that are

25
drab and monotonous which turn the kids off because they are not planned to
respond to the needs of the children. To be in competition with the array of foods
available to kids both in and out of schools, service is the key. The selling
point in most food service and programs is service, emphasis the on

attitude,

environment

charisma.

Greater

service will produce higher participation, which will permit greater efficiency of
the canteen operation. With limited resources and inflation, the only choice for
the food

service leader is to find ways to use

technology to free

manpower details, and allow them to concentrate in planning and service, highest
future ethical of relations with student, interest, and

anticipating handling

needs of

customers

serving

complaints

students,

handling

request

positive public relations. (Crucillo: 1963). Courteous and Friendly Service If


service is rendered it should have quality, must prove to be pleasant and
efficient to the patron (Augustin: 1980). A successful operation, depends on
courtesy, friendly and democratic attitudes (Crucilo: 1963). Agreeing, Lattin
(1979) stated that for a successful beverage operation warfel is vital. He said
that there is no

26
good

operation

without

good

environment,

good

food

and

friendly service. In this regard, an extensive cooperative study of

school lunch policies and standards was done. This was made by school lunch
specialists, principals, state professors superintendent, department and of

supervisor, education

classroom members,

teachers, university

others

interested in the programs. Price of Commodities The right product at the right
price is an important combination. Few children would consider nutrition to be

more important than price, especially if there is a large price difference between
the nutritious and the less

nutritious food. Children will look for something to fill them up at the cheapest
price. They will also consider how much change they will have for “extras”. When
there is a new food to be served, the price should be based not only on what is
likely to be appealing but also on what one can realistically charge. If the price
appears to be high,

consider same variations which may bring the price back to a reasonable level.

27
Manufactured items like fruit juices provide proportion of canteen sales, the
canteen should change the recommended price for these items. Some canteens opt to
increase the price of their unhealthier items to help subsidize and

therefore reduce the prices of their healthier items. A fair price for make up
item, such as sandwich, should take into account the cost of the ingredients and
the cost of paid labor. A make up of approximately 25 percent of the original
price. (The School Handbook 1999) Conceptual Framework Operations in any
organization are always reflective of their management skills demonstrated by the
manager. The standard of performance, work rate, and application must be highly
visible to attain positive results and highest approval. Figure 1. The Research
Conceptual Framework

28
Following this paradigm, examples are presented that illustrate proposed
activities which will help yield

positive results. This plan shows a detailed procedure that will be of help to the
researcher. Since administrators are paid to make major decisions, competencies
and skills of manager to supervise is needed. Clear guidelines in the

hiring of staff must be present to allow the manager to accomplish required of


their them. task so they can provide the services should

Lastly,

school

canteen

managers

know how to maximize the use of canteen equipment for overall client satisfaction.

The results from among these attempts would be a more systematic ways of hiring,
improved canteen service, proper utilization of canteen equipment, a more
productive human force and an updated techniques in food handling.

29
Research Framework Based on the foregoing discussion of related literature and
studies, this study utilized paradigm below: Figure 2. Independent Variables Area
of Assessment Management Skills of the canteen Officials Education of canteen
staff Adequacy of Facilities Services rendered Level of Performance Of Teacher’s
Cooperative-Managed Canteen Research Framework Dependent Variables

Assumptions There are certain qualifications that one should

possess before he can be a manager. There are also required trainings, seminars
for the staff that will make their

service more efficient. Lastly, there are needed facilities that a canteen should
acquire before they can serve better.

30
Hypothesis of the Study In the light of the foregoing research paradigm and
problem statements, this research will test these hypotheses. 1. There is no
significant relationship between the management of the school canteen and the
utilization of the facilities therewith. 2. There is no significant relationship
between the management of the school canteen and the quality and quantity of food
served. 3. There is no significant relationship between the management and the
kind of service offered at the canteen. 4. There is no significant relationship
between the quality and quantity of food and the price of commodities sold at the
canteen. 5. There is no significant difference between the assessment of the
students, faculty and non-teaching personnel.

31
32
Definition of Terms For the better understanding of this study, some of the terms
and variables are defined below: School Canteen - refers to one of the ancillary
services in the school system to sells food items to the

pupils/students and serves as a support mechanism in the effort to eliminate


malnutrition concerns of the school. Cooperative-Managed Canteen – refers to a
school canteen that is operated and managed by the teacher’s cooperative under the
supervision of its board members and officers. Management – the act or art of
managing, conducting or supervising of something as in business. Canteen – also
known as cafeteria, a restaurant in which customers serve themselves or are served
at a counter and take the food to eat. Food – is any substance organic or
inorganic when ingested or eaten nourishes the body building and repairing

tissues, supplying heat and energy and regulating body processes.

33
Meal Management – the efficient use of available resources in providing meals that
are nutritionally adequate,

sanitary, economical, and aesthetically pleasing to the client. Clientele –


customers who eat or dine regularly,

specifically the persons served by the canteen. Facility – physical equipments,


materials or instruments which will be needed for use in performing a job that is
to be done. Adequacy capacity of of Facilities facilities and and Equipment
equipment – refers to to the the

satisfy

client’s needs. Quality of Food – this refers to the aspect of food which
describes or characterize in terms of nutrition,

palatability, variety appearance and the like. Quality of service – This refers to
the manner of service employed by the cafeteria personnel reflecting the

personality of the server.

34
CHAPTER III Method and Procedures

This chapter shows the methods and techniques of the study, the population and
samples, the research instrument, the data gathering procedure and processing and
the

statistical treatment of data.

A. Research Design

The gathered

researcher information as to an

used

the

descriptive the to use give of the

method a

and

through instrument,

survey

questionnaire more time

respondents freely and

provide

their

answers

independently. The descriptive method was used to asses the operations Maysan and
policies High the involved in the This management research on of was the

National with

School approval

Canteen. of the

conducted

clientele

services rendered by the school canteen staff. It gathered the data on the
observations of the respondents about how the management handles the daily
operations and how they want it to be efficient and maintained so that they

continue to uphold its mission and vision.

32
B. Research Locale The Maysan National High School canteen has been run by Maysan
Teacher’s Cooperative for several years. Ever

since the carried burden to make sure of the nourishment of the students while
they are in the school campus. This was the first and ultimate concern of the
school canteen.

Hiring a competent manager to supervise the operation was made to ensure that
teachers may not neglect and leave their classes especially during time of recess
time. Today, while the school canteen has almost reached its goal to serve and
profit a lot, the researcher decided to conduct this study as to far determine as
how the and clientele canteen perceive services the are

canteen

management

concerned including their total well being. C. Samples and Sampling Techniques The
target population of the study includes the

students from all year levels, the members of the faculty, and non-teaching
personnel. To maintain the adequacy and balance of the results of this study, the
researcher used the stratified random sampling technique. An equal number of
respondents were taken from each stratum of the

population.

33
The table below shows population and the sample sizes in the study. Table 1

Population and Samples of the Study

Population Number of Samples First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth Year Faculty
Members Non-Teaching Personnel Total 603 561 443 549 72 20 2248 20 20 20 20 20 20
120

D. Research Instrument The researcher formulated the necessary items of the


instrument (Appendix: 71) to measure the variables in the study. A Likert Scale
type of questionnaire was designed to determine the respondent’s extent of
agreement to the

statement. Four areas of assessment were set, and at least 28 questions were
prepared. The researcher then consulted

34
her adviser for the revision of the questionnaire for more than three days. The
researcher adapted the set of questions from other studies which are similar to
her study. A Table of

Specifications was prepared to guide the researcher in the preparation of the


questions. The first draft of the

questionnaire was submitted to the researcher’s adviser for comments and


suggestions. Few changes were made. Some items were paraphrased and others were
reworded. The revised form was then pretested The the among criterion study of the
used canteen in staff and was

administration. adapted from

validation

MENDOZA:2004

(Canteen

Administration and Operation in Public Elementary School in the Division of Lipa


City.) All answers were confirmatory, hence, the research instrument was valid.
Finally, the

questionnaire was ready for distribution. Items on the perceptions of the


respondents were rated along a 5 point scale ranging from a high of 5 (Always) to
a low of 1 (Never). The legend below was used to help the respondents

answer the questionnaire.


1.00 – 1.49 = Never 2.50 – 3.49 = Sometimes 1.50 – 2.49 = Seldom 3.50 – 4.49 =
Often 4.50 – 5.00 = Always

35
E. Data Gathering Procedure Having secured the permission of the School Principal
and with the cooperation of the selected students from

Maysan National High School, the researcher was able to collect the data. With the
help of the school’s Registrar, the researcher determined the number of samples to
whom the questionnaire was administered. The faculty members were also considerate
in helping the researcher finish the data collection and so they also answered the
given questionnaire. Two days were spent in gathering all the necessary data. F.
Data Processing And Statistical Treatment The results were analyzed to determine
the

observations of the respondents. After the data collection the researcher encoded
the data on Microsoft Excel. Then, the using researcher SPSS. applied appropriate
the statistical analysis

Afterwards,

researcher

classified,

analyzed, interpreted and presented the findings in form of table. The following
statistical techniques were used in

analyzing the data: mean level of each variable assessed, F-test to determine the
significance of the differences in

36
the variables being assessed, Pearson R product moment of correlation to determine
the nature and extent of the

relationship between paired variables.

37
Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter focuses on the over-all assessment of the school canteen operation of
Maysan National High School in terms quality of management, quantity utilization
of food of school kinds facilities, of services

and

served,

available for customers, and prices of commodities. The researcher hypothesized


that there is a significant relationship between the following pairs of variables:
1.) the management and the utilization of canteen facilities, 2.) the management
and the quality and quantity of food

served at the school canteen, 3.) the management and the kinds of services
rendered to customers, the management and the prices of the commodities available
for the customers, and 5.) the quality and quantity of food served and the price
of commodities. To statistically Coefficient prove was this claim, In the Pearson
the

Correlation

computed.

this

study,

researcher adopted a significance level of 0.05.

38
Problem 1. How do the student, teacher, and non-teaching personnel respondents
assess the school canteen in terms of: 1.1 Management of School Canteen Activities
Table 2 presents the respondents’ observation on the effectiveness of the school
canteen management. Table 2 Weighted Mean (Xw) on the Assessment of the Management
of the School Canteen
NonStudents Faculty 1. The management and planning of the canteen's staff are
perceived to be effective and successful 2. Canteen management is committed to the
promotion of healthy food in schools 3. The Canteen manager and staff are informed
and aware of the canteen policy, as ordered by the Department of Education 4.
Canteen staff are aware and have access to the information about the status of the
canteen, Thus, the management practices transparency and honesty 5. Canteen staff
informed of relevant school activities such as school events, functions, and other
school programs 6. Canteen staff have the opportunity to receive training for
professional development Xx
Legend:

Overall Mean

Teaching Personnel

2.06

1.85

2.30

2.05

2.76

1.95

2.10

2.52

2.29

3.20

3.20

2.54

3.06

3.05

3.00

3.05

2.04

1.95

2.25
2.06

2.55 2.46

1.95 2.33

2.25 2.52

2.40 2.44

4.50–5.00=Always 3.50–4.49=Often 2.50–3.49=Sometimes 1.50–2.49=Seldom 1.00–


1.49=Never

The

management

of

the

school

canteen

activities

was

given an overall rating of 2.44 (in a scale of 1 to 5) by

39
the respondents, which is interpreted as seldom. This means that the respondents
are seldom satisfied of the management of the school canteen activities. The
student respondents gave the highest rating for the awareness of the school
canteen staff of the information about the status This of means the school the
canteen student (Xw = 3.06), are

“sometimes”.

that

respondents

sometimes satisfied with the way canteen staff managed the school canteen. On the
other hand, the lowest mean value was obtained for item # 5 i.e. awareness of the
canteen staff regarding the relevant activities of the school events,

functions, and other school programs (X = 2.04). The teacher respondents gave the
highest rating for the item (#3) pertaining to the awareness of the canteen staff
about the information on the policies prescribed by the the

Department of Education (X = 3.20). This means that teacher respondents perceived


this item to be

observed

sometimes. The lowest mean value (X = 1.85) was obtained for the item #1 i.e. the
management and planning of school

canteen’s staff is perceived to be effective and successful. This mean value is


interpreted as “seldom”

40
The non-teaching personnel gave the highest mean for the item (#3) on the
management being informed of canteen policies as ordered by DepEd. The lowest mean
rating was for the third item: canteen management is committed to the

promotion of health food in school (X = 2.10). Overall the mean obtained from the
student respondents on their perception about the status of the management of
school canteen was 2.46 interpreted as “seldom”. Similarly the teacher respondents
gave ratings with a mean of 2.33, likewise interpreted as “seldom”. On the other
hand the mean value obtained was on 2.52, the perception as of the non-teaching
Ranking personnel

personnel these mean

interpreted apparently

“sometimes”. non-teaching

values,

the

gave a better perception of the management of the canteen compared with the
faculty and the student respondents. With respect to the over all mean value of
the three groups of respondents, the result was 2.44, interpreted as “seldom”.
This means that the perception of the respondents on the effective management
effective management of the

school canteen activities only “seldom” happened. According to MANAHAN (1988), the
management of school canteen activities should be analyzed in order to make some
necessary improvement to the school canteen.

41
1.2 Utilization of School Canteen Facilities Weight means given by the respondents
on this variable are presented in Table 3. As observed, respondents rated as
“seldom”, (X = 2.30) that the school canteen facilities were properly utilized or
maximized. Apparently, such findings reflect little importance given to equipment
and facilities by canteen personnel. Table 3 Weighted Means (Xw)on the Assessment
of Utilization of School Canteen Facilities
NonStudents Faculty Teaching Personnel Overall Mean

1. Arrange chairs and tables to attain comfort and pleasant atmosphere of the
canteen 2. Provide appropriate places for cooking, washing, storage of utensils
and display of food for sale 3. Has enough space to accommodate the diners 4. The
equipment and working areas are arranged efficiently to save time and effort 5.
Enough Spoon and fork, etc. are ready for use 6. Discard worn out materials or
equipment to utilize the space for canteen work activities XX
Legend:

2.04

1.95

2.20

2.05

2.79

2.75

2.70

2.77

2.04

1.95

2.10

2.03

2.31

2.30

2.35

2.32

2.04

1.95

2.10

2.03

2.68 2.32
2.55 2.24

2.60 2.34

2.64 2.30

4.50–5.00=Always 3.50–4.49=Often 2.50–3.49=Sometimes 1.50–2.49=Seldom 1.00–


1.49=Never

42
The highest mean obtained from the perception of the student respondents was for
the item i.e. the canteen

provides appropriate place for cooking, washing, storage of utensils and display
of food for sale (X = 2.79), which is interpreted as “sometimes”. The lowest mean
values computed were on the following two items: (3 and 5) enough space to
accommodate the diners and spoon and; fork are ready for use and enough in number
which received weighted means of (X = 2.04) each interpreted as “seldom”. The
highest mean obtained from the teacher respondents was 2.75, for item 2: provide
appropriate places for

cooking, washing, storage of food and display of food for sale, and the item
lowest 1: mean value chairs of computed and the was to on the

following: comfort and

arrange

tables

attain item 3:

pleasant

atmosphere

canteen,

enough space to accommodate the diners, item 5: enough spoon and fork, etc. are
ready for use. On the perception of the non-teaching personnel, the highest mean
value was 2.70, for the item Provide

appropriate places for cooking, washing, storage of utensils and display of food
for sale, and the lowest mean values were on item 3: has enough space to
accommodate the diners, and item 5: spoon and fork, etc. are ready for use.

43
In terms of the overall perception on the utilization of the canteen facilities,
the highest mean was obtained for the second item: (X = 2.77) which means that
sometimes the canteen provides appropriate places for cooking, washing,

storage of utensils and display of food for sale. The lowest mean was 2.03,
obtained from the items 3 and 5.which means that the canteen seldom has enough
space to accommodate

diners and likewise seldom has enough spoons and forks ready for use. Overall
assessment of the utilization of the canteen facilities by the student respondents
was 2.32, by the

faculty respondents 2.24, and by the non-teaching personnel 2.34. Therefore the
over all mean derived from the three groups of respondents was 2.3, interpreted as
“seldom”. Facilities and equipment help the canteen staff to

prepare food, and render service to the customers properly and with ease. A Well
managed school canteen is expected to utilize all the present canteen facilities
properly. Lack of equipment posed as a problem among school

canteens (Augustin, 1980). Furthermore, productivity which refers to increased


workers efficiency, minimized labor and time as well as simplified operations, is
reflected by the extent of proper utilization of school canteen facilities.

44
Problem 2. What is the status of the school canteen as perceived by the student
respondents, faculty, and nonteaching personnel in terms of:

2.1 Quality and Quantity of Food Served

Table 4 shows the mean values obtained for the items on quality and quantity of
food served.
Table 4 Weighted Mean (Xw)on the Quality and Quantity of Food Served As Perceived
by the Respondents
NonTeaching Students 1. The canteen promotes and sells healthy choices of food
with nutritional value 2. Sells appropriate amount of foods that can sustain the
needs of the students 3. Serves foods that are fresh, newly cooked or prepared 4.
The canteen has a registered food safety and hygiene plan that is regularly
audited and followed by the canteen staff 5. Canteen staff members undertake food
safety training to ensure the quality offered and maintain food safety 2.04
Faculty Personnel 1.95 2.25 Overall Mean 2.06

3.05 2.04

3.15 1.95

3.20 2.15

3.09 2.04

3.08

3.05

3.00

3.06

2.04

1.95

2.25

2.06

Legend:

4.50 – 5.00 = Always 2.50 – 3.49 = Sometimes 1.00 – 1.49 = Never

3.50 – 4.49 = Often 1.50 – 2.49 = Seldom

Based on the assessment of the student respondents the highest mean value obtained
was for item 4: the canteen has

45
a registered food safety and hygiene plan that is regularly audited and followed
by the canteen staff (X = 3.08),

interpreted as “sometimes” and the lowest mean values were obtained for items 1
and 5. 1.) the canteen serves food that are fresh, newly cooked or prepared, and
5.)canteen staff members undertake food safety training to ensure quality and
maintain food safety,(X = 2.04) interpreted as “seldom”. On highest the mean
perception gained was of for the item teacher 2: respondents canteen the sells

the

appropriate amount of foods that can sustain the needs of the students, (X =
3.15), interpreted as sometimes, and the lowest mean values ((X = 1.95) were for
the items 1, 3, and 5, interpreted as “seldom”. The highest mean value on the
assessment of the nonteaching personnel was also obtained for the second item: the
canteen the sells needs appropriate of the amount (X of = foods 3.20), that and
can the

sustain

students,

lowest mean value computed was on the third item: serves foods that are fresh,
newly cooked or prepared, (X = 2.15). Overall mean obtained on the assessment of
quality and quantity of food served according to groups was as follows: by the
student respondents was (X = 2.45), by faculty

respondents was (X = 2.41), by non-teaching personnel was (X

46
=

2.57).

The

overall

mean

obtained

was

(X

2.48),

interpreted as “seldom”.
The findings indicate that the canteen management should be careful that they
serve quality foods which affect the success of canteen operation. Efficient and
effective implementation by the management of the set goals of food service is
greatly affected by the quality of food (Zamora:1982).

2.2 Kinds of Services Rendered to the Customers Table 5 shows the means of the
respondent’s assessment of the kinds of services they receive from the school

canteen. Table 5 Weighted Means (Xw)on the Kinds of Services Rendered to the
Customers As Perceived by the Respondents
Kinds of Services Rendered to the Customers Maintains safety and uses good quality
equipment and facilities Provides ventilation and lighting facilities to make the
diners comfortable Establishes a harmonious and friendly relationship with
customers Payments are properly and accurately changed and counted Entertains
suggestions and easily manages complaints Students Faculty NonOverall Teaching
Mean Personnel

1.

2.10

2.25

2.15

2.17

2.

2.04

2.90

2.25

2.40
3.

2.42

2.15

2.35

2.31

4.

2.04 2.31

2.90 2.30

2.20 2.35

2.38 2.32

5.

Legend:

4.50 – 5.00 = Always 3.50 – 4.49 = Often 2.50 – 3.49 = Sometimes 1.50 – 2.49 =
Seldom 1.00 – 1.49 = Never

47
The highest mean value on the perception of the student respondents was 2.42,
obtained for the item: the canteen establishes customers, a and harmonious the
lowest and friendly value relationship was 2.04 for with the

mean

following items: 2.) the canteen provides ventilation and lighting facilities to
make the diners comfortable, and 4.) payments are properly and accurately changed
and counted. From the perception of teacher respondents on this

variable, the highest mean value acquired was 2.90, this was for the following two
items also: 1.) the canteen provides ventilation and lighting facilities to make
the diners

comfortable, and 2.) payments are properly and accurately changed and counted. It
signifies that the faculty members are a little more positive on their observation
with regard to the services of the school canteen. The researcher

expected this result because majority of the faculty members are also members of
the cooperative who own and manage the school canteen. In terms of services, most
of the students compared how they are treated and how the teachers are

served by the canteen staff. According to them as students, they don’t feel that
special service that the teachers

enjoy. As to the perception of the non-teaching personnel the

48
highest mean value obtained was 2.35, for the item: canteen staff establish a
harmonious and

the

friendly

relationship with customers. The lowest mean value computed was 2.15, for the
item: the canteen maintains safety and good quality equipment and facilities. The
highest mean value obtained from the three groups of respondents was 2.50 from the
faculty, followed by 2.26 from the non-teaching personnel, and the lowest mean
value was 2.18 from the student respondents. Table 5 shows that the three groups
of respondents

perceived the extent of services rendered as “seldom”, (X = 2.31). The canteen


management should review and upgrade the services available at the canteen. It is
important that the customers get what they need in return for their payments.
Should the canteen fail to render good service, the

customers’ satisfaction also declines. According to Lattin (1979), no operation


would be

successful without good environment and friendly service. This is the selling
point in any service program which means thoughtful complaints personalized and
service, the prompt future handling needs of of the

anticipating

customers. Improvement can be done along these areas.

49
2.3 Price of Commodities Table 6 shows the computed mean values on the

respondents’ perceptions on this variable to determine the status of the school


canteen. As to the perceived

appropriateness of the prices of the food, it is revealed in Table 6 that this is


“seldom” done, (X = 2.23). Table 6 Weighted Mean (Xw)on the Prices of Commodities
As Perceived by the Respondents
NonStudents 1. Healthy canteen choices are sold at competitive prices 2. Sells
food at affordable prices 3. Provides cheap but nutritious foods for snacks and
lunch supplements 4. Offers cost saving meals to the customers like in value or
combo meals 5. Variation in prices of foods depends on quality and quantity
Faculty Teaching Personnel 2.01 2.69 2.15 2.55 1.85 2.60 Overall Mean

2.01 2.65

2.04

1.90

2.35

2.07

2.40

2.25

2.35

2.37

2.04

1.90

2.30

2.06

Legend:

4.50 – 5.00 = Always 2.50 – 3.49 = Sometimes 1.00 – 1.49 = Never

3.50 – 4.49 = Often 1.50 – 2.49 = Seldom

50
The highest mean value from the student respondents was for item No. 2 Sells food
at affordable prices with a mean of 2.69 interpreted as “sometimes”, while the
lowest mean value from this group was on item No. 1.) Healthy canteen choices are
sold at competitive prices, (X = 2.01),

interpreted as “seldom”.

On the other hand the highest mean value obtained from the faculty respondents was
on item no. 2.) Sells food at affordable prices, (X = 2.55), while the lowest mean
of 1.90 was for items no. 3 and 5. 3.) provides cheap but nutritious foods for
snacks and lunch supplements, 5.) variation in prices of foods depends on its
quality and quantity.

Meanwhile

on

the

perception

of

the

non-teaching

personnel respondents, the highest rating obtained was item No. 2.) Sells food at
affordable price, (X = 2.60), and the lowest rating was for item Nos. 3 and 4.
1.)Provides cheap but nutritious foods for snacks and lunch supplements,

2.)Variation in prices of foods depends on its quality and quantity), (X = 2.35).

51
For the students the item with the highest rating was for No. 2. Sells food at
affordable price, (X =2.65), while the item with the lowest rating was No.
1.)Healthy canteen choices are sold at competitive prices, X = 2.01. Among the
three groups of respondents, the highest mean was on the perception of the non-
teaching personnel (X = 2.29), the second was from the perception of the student
respondents (X = 2.24), and the lowest mean among all was from the faculty
respondents (X = 2.15). The overall mean rating from the three groups of
respondents was 2.23 or

“seldom”. The manager’s role in food costing is important. If the manager decides
to set a high cost of a particular meal, this will also cause in a higher price of
the commodity. But it does not mean that to lower the price is to lower the
quantity of food. If the price of the food will remain at this state, students
will no longer visit the canteen

instead they will bring their own snacks bought outside the school, or will bring
cooked food from their home.

52
Problem # 3. Is there a correlation between the management of the canteen and each
of the following variables:

3.1 Utilization of canteen facilities It between appears the that there of is the
a negative relationship and the

management

school

canteen

utilization of the canteen facilities, but the Pearson R coefficient of -0.034 is


not significant at 0.05 level, 2 – tailed test. The result reveals that there is a
slight

negative relationship between the two variables, Therefore the null hypothesis is
accepted, between the that there is and no the

significant

relationship

management

utilization of school canteen facilities. Table 7 Correlation Coefficients


Management of School Canteen and Utilization of the Canteen Facilities
Management of School Canteen Management of School Canteen Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

Utilization of Canteen Facilities -.034 .711

Utilization of Canteen Facilities

Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

-.034 .711

The result implies that the relationship of the two variables is not significant
since the probability value is
53
greater canteen

than staff

.05. to

The

Management use and

should

encourage all of

the the

properly

maximize

available facilities they have. The management is capable and can afford to buy
another set of facilities for food preparation and other uses, but this does not
mean they are acquired for use or display purposes only. Good maintenance and
proper utilization may add another year for the facilities to remain functional
for everyday use. Quantity and quality of food served The Pearson correlation
coefficient obtained between

3.2

the canteen management and the quality and quantity of food served was 0.064 at
the probability level 0.485.
Table 8 Pearson Correlation Coefficient Management of School Canteen and Quality
and Quantity of Food Served Quality and Quantity of Food Served .064 .485 .064 .
485 1

Management of School Canteen Management of School Canteen Quality and Quantity of


Food Serve Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed)
1

54
This findings means that no significant relationship exists between the management
of the canteen and the quality and quantity of food served. The correlation
coefficient is not significant at 0.05 level. There is only slight

insignificant relationship. The result of this assessment should not be ignored by


the canteen manager, it is very alarming that the canteen earns much everyday but
could not give the exact or right nutritional value for the food they sell to the
customers especially to the students. 3.3 Kinds of Services Rendered to Customers

There

is

low

negative

relationship

between

the

management of the School Canteen, and the services rendered customers. The result
only implies that the reason why the services fail to satisfy the needs of the
customers is

because of the management style and the lack of skills of the manager who
supervises the canteen daily operation. Line up of food, quality of service, and
good customer relation should be established by the canteen staff, not only for
the benefit of the teachers but also for the students who

comprise the bigger population of customers. If the students

55
are not served better and they know it, they will no longer patronize their the
canteen’s and buy products, their instead they will keep their

allowance

snack

later

after

classes.
Table 9 Pearson Correlation Coefficients Management of the School Canteen and The
Kinds of Services Rendered to Customers Management Kinds of of Services School
Rendered to Canteen Customers Management of Pearson 1 .149 School Canteen
Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .104 Kinds of Services Rendered to Customers Pearson
Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .149 .104 1

As shown on Table 19 there is a negative relationship between the management of


the School Canteen, as the result of the assessment for the area of management and
the

services available for customers are concern to goes also negative. The result
only implies that the reason why the services fail to satisfy the need of the
customers is

because of the management style and skills of the manager who supervises the
canteen daily operation.

56
3.4 Price of Commodities In order to determine whether there exists significant
relationship between Management and the Price of Commodities the data were
subjected to correlation.
Table 10 Pearson Correlation Coefficients Management of School Canteen And Price
of Commodities Management of Price School of Canteen Commodities Management of
Pearson Correlation 1 .882 School Canteen Sig. (2-tailed) .375 Price of
Commodities Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .882 .375 1

It was found out that the price of commodities and the management of school
canteen have a correlation of 0.375

which is not significant at 0.05 level. In other words, the price of the
commodities is being affected by the manager’s skills.

57
Problem # 4. Is there a Significant Assessment of the Respondents? The table below
displays the

Difference

on

the

significance

of

the

difference in the perception of the respondents about the Management of the School
canteen. Table 11 Results Analysis of Variance of the Perceptions of the Three
Groups of Respondents on Management of School Canteen

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .442 5 .088 .093 .91 Within
Groups 108.150 114 .949 Total 108.592 119

The table shows that the F-value obtained was .093, with significance value of .
993. Since the significance value is more than .05, it means that there is no
significant difference between the perceptions of the respondents. Therefore, the
result shows that the group’s perception on the management of the school

canteen activities are the same. Generally, the whole population gave a negative
observation on how the school canteen is presently managed.

58
The table below shows the results of the analysis of variance on the respondents
on the utilization of canteen facilities. Table 12 Results of the Analysis of
Variance of the Perception of the Respondents on the Utilization of Canteen
Facilities

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .767 5 .153 .196 .963 Within
Groups 89.200 114 .782 Total 89.967 119

Table 12 shows that the F-value obtained was 0.196. Since the significance value
of 0.963 is greater than .05, there is no significance difference among the
group’s

observations. The results imply that there is no significant difference in the


students’ observations, the faculty and non-teaching utilized. As personnel a
whole, on the how the canteen facilities that are the

respondents

observed

staff of the school canteen did not properly utilize the canteen facilities.

Lack

of

equipment

posed

as

problem

among

school

canteens (Augustin, 1980). Furthermore, productivity which refers to increased


workers’ efficiency, minimized labor and time as well as simplified operations are
the results of the proper utilization of school canteen facilities.
59
Table 13 shows the significance of the difference of the respondents’ perception
on quality and quantity of food served. Table 13 Results of the Analysis of
Variance of the Perceptions of the Respondents on Quality and Quantity of Food
Served

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 4.942 5 .988 1.173 .327 Within
Groups 96.050 114 .843 Total 100.992 119 Table 13 exhibits the significance of the
differences in the perception of the respondents in term of the quality and
quantity of food served at the school canteen. The Fvalue was 1.173, with
significance value of .327. Since the significance value is more than .05, there
is no

significance difference in the observations of the different group. Therefore, the


result says that there is no

significant difference among the students, the faculty and the non-teaching
personnel assessment on the quality and

quantity of food served at the school canteen. This only indicates that the
canteen management should see to it that they serve of quality canteen food
because this will affects the

success

operation.

Efficient

and

effective

functioning of the management toward the set goals of food

60
service

is

greatly

affected

by

the

quality

of

food

(Zamora:1982).

To find out the significance of the differences in the respondents’ perceptions on


kinds of services rendered, the F-test was computed and the results of the
analysis presented at Table 14. are

Table 14 Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Perceptions of the Respondents


on the Kinds of Services Rendered to Customers

Between Groups Within Groups Total Table 14

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 2.742 5 .548 .596 .703 104.850 114 .920
107.592 119 reveals that there is no significant

difference among the observation of the students, faculty and personnel with
respect to the kinds of services rendered to them. There that is no other canteen
expectation exists to set as it all was its

understood customers.

the

feed

61
Table

15

contains

the

level

of

significance

of

the

differences of the respondents’ prices of commodities as one of the variables that


affect the overall status of the

school canteen. Table 15 Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Perception of


the Respondents on the Prices of Commodities

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1.367 5 .273 .310 .906 100.500 114 .882
101.867 119

The F value obtained was 0.310 at 0.906 significance level. It is therefore


concluded that there is no

significant difference in the assessment of the respondents since it is greater


than .05. The three groups of

respondents observed that there are items sold to them which are either at high or
not reasonable prices. The result in the table above also implies that the school
canteen focuses only on the sales and not on the welfare of the customers. Prices
of food refers to the monetary value of services and products sold at the school
canteen. Healthy canteen choices at competitive Considering prices that should of
be the offered to all are

customers.

most

customers

students, the canteen should provide cheap but nutritious foods for snacks and
lunch supplements. In variation,

62
offering of cost saving meals to the customers in the form of value or combo meals
allow them to maximize their budget. Prices of food depend on their quality but it
seems that the quantity is the most important in the weekly menu planning. Problem
# 5. Is there a correlation in the perception of the following pairs of
respondents?

5.1

Students versus Faculty The correlation coefficient of this perception between

the

student to

respondents be -0.06077,

and

the

faculty indicates

respondents a

was

found

which

negligible

correlation, interpreted that the responses of the groups of students were not
related. 5.2 Students versus Non-Teaching Personnel The computed correlation
coefficient of the perceptions of the student respondents and not-teaching
personnel

respondents was -0.3635 which indicates a low correlation. 5.3 Faculty versus Non-
Teaching Personnel The faculty computed coefficient and of the perception of the

respondents was

the which

non-teaching indicates perception a

personnel negligible of the two

respondents correlation,

-0.027,

interpreted

that

the
groups of respondents were not related.

63
64
Chapter V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter
presents the summary of findings, the

conclusions drawn from the findings and the recommendations deduced based from the
conclusions of the study. Summary of findings The findings of this study were: 1.
The assessment of on school the effectiveness activities score means of that of by
the the

management respondents interpreted

canteen a mean

yielded as

2.44, the

“seldom”.

This

groups’ were seldom satisfied on the management of school canteen activities. 2.


The staff of the school canteen did not properly utilized the canteen facilities.
It was rated as “seldom” that the school canteen facilities were properly utilized
or maximized (X=2.30) 3. The perceptions of the three groups of respondents on the
quality and quantity of food served yielded the highest mean value of 3.09, for
the item:

sells appropriate amount of foods that can sustain the needs of the students, and
the lowest mean

65
value of 2.04 was obtained for the item: serves food that are fresh, newly cooked
or prepared. 4. There was a negative effect of the manager’s skill on certain
factors that affect the canteen status. The overall mean obtained for all areas of

assessment was 2, interpreted as “seldom”. 5. There are no significant differences


in the

assessment of the groups perception with respect to the management of school


canteen activities,

quality and quantity of service rendered, and the prices of commodities.


Conclusions The findings of this investigation led to the following conclusions:
1. The management and planning of the canteen’s staff need more effort towards its
affectivity and success. Effective management has something to do with

professional development that should be undertaken by anyone who wants to lead a


group or a department. The most important finding of this study is the need to
provide proper training for canteen staff. Enough

knowledge is imperative to canteen managers for their

66
role is to make decisions that will affect the entire canteen organization. 2. Why
should this be? For one thing, it is far more difficult to hire the most qualified
person for the job who is in charge of the promotion of nutritious and affordable
food. Given all the sets of criteria, standards and rules set by the cooperative
but not followed religiously, would result to the ability of the school canteen
thus to accomplish more its target in the

objectives, future. 3. The second

creating

problems

major

finding

of

this

study

was

the

failure of canteen staff to utilize equipment present in the canteen. There are
some of these equipments that are not maximized for utilization, others are worn
out due to lack of care and improper usage. 4. The respondents found the food
repetitive, limited, and lacking with the necessary nutritional value

needed by the students. 5. Among given the was major found findings, to be the
quality since of the service canteen

adequate

officials and staff are doing their assigned roles.

67
6. In

terms

of

price

of

commodities,

students

find

canteen food quite expensive so they resort to buying synthetic food like fish
balls, kikiam and other junk food outside the school.

Recommendations In as much as the canteen management and the status of the school
canteen were assessed by the respondents to be inadequate and have not reached the
level of excellence

which everyone, the following recommendations are made: 1. The recommended


measures to improve the management

styles of canteen managers and staff as cited by the respondents implemented. 2.


In terms of proper preparation, formal trainings and seminars should be conducted
and participated in by in this study should be adopted and

canteen staff and officials so that they will improve their skills on food the
proper handling of food, food

preparation, through

selection,

customer skills

satisfaction and total

effective

interpersonal

quality management of all the aspects necessary for an improved and well-managed
canteen.

68
3. The recruitment policy should be tightened or improved to ensure that canteen
staff and manager possess the necessary qualifications and competencies
specifically on the knowledge of food handling and food preparation plus serving a
variety of food. 4. Members of the cooperative, especially the head, must
vigorously promote educating the canteen officials and staff in order to develop
and enhance their skills. The cooperative can provide financial help to those who

want to attend seminars to update themselves of the rudiments of managing a school


canteen. 5. The Chairs or Heads of the of Teachers’ canteen Cooperative staff for
and

supervise proper

the

activities

their

monitoring

emphasizing

efficiency

effectivity. 6. Canteen facilities must be properly utilized in order to maximize


and systematize the use of these instruments. 7. Commodities must be affordable
yet nutritious so that the clientele will be satisfied. 8. Canteen staff must
provide variety of food geared towards the total well being of the clients.

69
9. Cooperative incentives

Officials or merits

should in

provide form

some in

kind order

of to

whatever

motivate and encourage canteen staff.

70
BIBLIOGRAPHY Books:

Guzman, Inez de. Food Service and Management. Manila: Saint Berradilla Publication
Inc. 1992 Garmo, Mary C. The School Cafeteria. New York, AppletonCentury Crafts
Inc. 1978

Unpublished Materials:

Bonoy, Rosaria C. Canteen Management in Mankayan District, Benguet, Division.


Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Baguio. Central University, 1995 Dizon, Elma P.
Management Practices of School Canteens in the District of Dinalupihan and their
Implications to the Nutritional Needs of the Pupils. Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
Virgen Delos Remedios College, March 2000 Jatayna, Teresita M. An Assessment of
the Privatization of the School Canteen of San Pedro Relocation Center National
High School: Input for Food And Nutrition Policy Formulation. San Pedro, Laguna
Jindaratana Porn Orawan. Canteen Management in the Public Elementary Schools
Tarlac West District: An Evaluation Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Harvadian
Colleges, May 1999 Manahan, Remedios J. The Canteen Management of Valenzuela
National High School. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Meycauyan College, March 1998
Manguerra, Alberta C. Factors Associated with the Effectiveness of Cafeteria
Management at The Technological University of the Philippines. March 1993

xvi
Mendoza, Mario R. Canteen Administration and Operation in Public Elementary School
in Division of Lipa City. It’s Implications on the Supplementary Feeding Program
of Schools”, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Tanuan Institute, March 2004 Wongkhum,
Surachai Evaluation of Wkt-Wruwa Lunch Program: Saraphi District Ghang Mai
Province, The Graduate School of Chang Mae University, Unpublished Master’s
Thesis, 2000

OTHERS: DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2007 DECS Order No.93, s.1998 Regional Memorandum
No. 70,s.2008 Schools Policy handbook, January 1998 Texas Department of Education,
2003 The School Center Handbook. Department of Education 1999

xvii
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE SCHOOL CANTEEN Name:____________________________ Directions:
Give your perception regarding the school canteen. Use the scales below in
providing response to item given for each area. Please put a checkmark ( ) in the
space provided for your answer. Scales Description 5 Always 4 Often 3 Sometimes 2
Seldom 1 Never

PART I. ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL CANTEEN A. Management of School Canteen The


management and planning of the canteen’s staff is perceived to be run effectively
and successfully Canteen management is committed to the promotion of healthy food
in schools? The canteen manager and staff are informed and aware of the canteen
policies prescribed by the Department of Education The canteen staff are aware and
have access to the information about the status of the canteen, Thus, the
management practice transparency and honesty. Canteen staff informed of relevant
school activities such as school events, functions, and other school programs.
Canteen staff have the opportunity to receive training or professional development
_ _ _ _ _ B. Utilization of Canteen Facilities

_
_

_ 5 _ _

_ 4 _ _

_ 3 _ _

_ 2 _ _

_ 1 _ _

Chairs and tables are arranged to attain comfort and pleasant atmosphere of the
canteen. Provide appropriate places for cooking, washing, storage of utensils and
display of food for sale are provided. There is enough space to accommodate the
diners. The equipment and working areas are arranged efficiently to save time and
effort. Spoons and forks, etc. are ready for use and enough Worn out materials or
equipment are discarded to utilize the space for canteen work activities.

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _
PART II. STATUS OF SCHOOL CANTEEN A. Quality and Quantity of Food Served 5 4 3 2 1

The canteen promotes and sells healthy choices of food with nutritional value. The
canteen sells appropriate amounts of foods that can sustain the needs of the
students sold. The canteen serves foods that are fresh, newly cooked or prepared.
The canteen has a registered food safety and hygiene plan that is regularly
audited and followed by canteen staff. The canteen staff members undertake food
safety training to ensure quality and maintain food safety. _ _ _ _ _ B. Kinds of
Services Rendered to Customers

_ _

_ _

_ _

_ _

_ _

5 _ _

4 _ _

3 _ _

2 _ _

1 _ _

Safety and good quality of equipments and facilities are maintained. The
ventilation and lighting facilities to make the diners comfortable are provided A
harmonious and friendly relationship with customers is established. Payments are
properly and accurately changed and counted. Suggestions and easily manage
complaints are entertained C. Price of Commodities

_ _ _
_ _ _

_ _ _

_ _ _

_ _ _

5 _ _ _

4 _ _ _

3 _ _ _

2 _ _ _

1 _ _ _

Healthy canteen choices are sold at competitive prices. The canteen sells food at
affordable prices The canteen provides cheap but nutritious foods for snacks and
lunch supplements. The canteen offers cost saving meals to the customers as in
value or combo meal. Variation in prices of foods depends on quality and quantity.

_ _

_ _

_ _

_ _

_ _
Level q1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

q2 1 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 5 4 2 3 4 2 1 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3

q3 2 3 4 2 1 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3

q4 4 2 3 4 3 2 1 4 5 2 3 4 2

q5 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

q6 4 2 3 5 3 1 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

q7 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3

4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2

5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 4

3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 4

2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3

2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4

3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3

3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3

2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3

3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2

3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2

3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3

4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 5

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3

2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4

2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3
2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2

4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3

2 3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5

3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

4 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3

2 3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3
q8 2 3 4 2 3 1 3 4 5 3 2 3 4

q9 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5

q10 5 2 3 4 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 3 1

q11 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 5

q12 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 1 5 3 2 3 4

q13 4 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 1 4 2 5

q14 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 3 4 3 2 3

q15 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 1 3
2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 3

2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 3

2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2

2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3

4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4
4 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 3

4 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 1 3

1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 3

2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 3

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 2
4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2

1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2

4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4

4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3
3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1

3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3

2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1

4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3

2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3
4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1 3

2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1 2

4 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3 4

2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 2

2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2

3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3
2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1

2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3

2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 1

2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3

4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 1 2

4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3

2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4
3 4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1

3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1

3 4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2

3 4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2

2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2
2 3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1

2 3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1

2 3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3

4 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1

3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3

3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5

3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2
q16 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 1 3 4 2

q17 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 1 2

q18 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 3

q19 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 1 5 3

q20 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 1 5 3 2 3 4

q21 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 1 3 4

q22 5 2 3 4 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 3 1

q23 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2

5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3

2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

5 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 3

2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 3

2 1 5 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2
4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 4

3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 4

2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 5

4 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 3

4 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 1 3

1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 3
2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4

3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2

4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2

1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2

4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4
3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3

2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3

3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2

3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1

3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3

2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1
4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3

4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 5

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 4

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1 3

2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1 2

4 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3 4

2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1 2
4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3

3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4

2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 1

2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3

2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 1

2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3
4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3

2 3 5 3 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4

3 4 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1

3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 1

3 4 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2
2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

4 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 3

2 3 4 2 3 5 3 2 3

2 3 4 3 1 3 4 2 1

2 3 1 2 3 3 4 3 1

2 3 4 2 1 3 1 2 3

4 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1
q24 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5 3 1 3 4

q25 4 2 5 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 1 3

q26 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 3

q27 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 1 3 85 67 90 86 80 81 76 68 82 76 77 72 85
2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3

4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4

83 75 78 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 79
2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 3

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 4 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 2

80 59 76 92 71 70 77 81 74 74 75 74 72 78
4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3

3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3

81 81 75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74
4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3

2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2

4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3

79 80 59 76 78 81 81 75 75 75 86 78 72 68
2 3 4 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 2

2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2

3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 2

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3

77 78 81 69 74 79 80 59 76 78 81 81 75 75
4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 1 2

4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3

3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3

2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 79 80 59 76
3 4 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2

2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 2

2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 2

78 81 81 75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69
3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 3

3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4

2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 5

3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

74 80 79 60 76 78 81 81 75
X 78 77 81 79 75 79 80 75 70 74 81 76 76 76 77 78 72 74 77 76 1,529 76.45

X-XMEAN W 2 0 5 3 -2 3 3 -2 -6 -2 5 -1 0 -1 1 1 -4 -2 0 -1 0

Y 81 75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 79 80 59 76 78 81 81 1,523 76.15

Y-YMEAN XY Z 5 6318 -1 5737.5 -1 6075 -1 5943.75 10 6428.5 2 6162 -4 5742 -8 5066


1 5409.25 2 5791.5 5 6561 -7 5209.5 -2 5642.5 3 5984.25 4 6180 -17 4587.25 0 5472
2 5772 5 6196.5 5 6135.75 0 116414.3

X2 6084 5852.25 6561 6280.5625 5587.5625 6241 6360.0625 5550.25 4935.0625


5513.0625 6561 5700.25 5814.0625 5738.0625 5967.5625 6045.0625 5184 5476 5852.25
5738.0625 117041.125

Y2 6561 5625 5625 5625 7396 6084 5184 4624 5929 6084 6561 4761 5476 6241 6400 3481
5776 6084 6561 6561 116639 WZ 7.5175 -0.0575 -5.2325 -3.22 -16.745 4.7175 -13.695
15.8925 -5.27 -4.07 22.0675 6.7925 0.43 -1.995 3.08 -22.295 0.6675 -4.5325 0.2425
-3.395 -19.1 W2 2.4025 0.0025 20.7025 7.84 2.89 6.5025 10.89 3.8025 38.44 4.84
20.7025 0.9025 0.04 0.49 0.64 1.69 19.8025 6.0025 0.0025 0.49 149.075

students and faculty NEGATIVE -0.06077


Z2 23.5225 1.3225 1.3225 1.3225 97.0225 3.4225 17.2225 66.4225 0.7225 3.4225
23.5225 51.1225 4.6225 8.1225 14.8225 294.1225 0.0225 3.4225 23.5225 23.5225
662.55
X 78 77 81 79 75 79 80 75 70 74 81 76 76 76 77 78 72 74 77 76 1,529 76.45

X-XMEAN Y W 2 0 5 3 -2 3 3 -2 -6 -2 5 -1 0 -1 1 1 -4 -2 0 -1 0

75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 80 79 60 76 78 81 81 75 1,518 75.9

Y-YMEAN XY X2 Y2 Z WZ W2 -1 5850 6084 5625 -1.7825 -1 5737.5 5852.25 5625 -0.0575


-1 6075 6561 5625 -5.2325 10 6815.5 6280.5625 7396 27.58 2 5830.5 5587.5625 6084
-3.145 -4 5688 6241 5184 -10.5825 -8 5423 6360.0625 4624 -26.895 1 5736.5 5550.25
5929 -1.6575 2 5479.5 4935.0625 6084 -11.47 5 6014.25 5513.0625 6561 -10.67 -7
5589 6561 4761 -32.5325 -2 5587 5700.25 5476 2.0425 4 6100 5814.0625 6400 -0.77 3
5984.25 5738.0625 6241 -1.995 -16 4635 5967.5625 3600 -12.92 0 5909 6045.0625 5776
-0.195 2 5616 5184 6084 -8.2325 5 5994 5476 6561 -11.8825 5 6196.5 5852.25 6561
0.2425 -1 5681.25 5738.0625 5625 0.805 -5 115941.8 117041.125 115822 -109.35

2.4025 0.0025 20.7025 7.84 2.89 6.5025 10.89 3.8025 38.44 4.84 20.7025 0.9025 0.04
0.49 0.64 1.69 19.8025 6.0025 0.0025 0.49 149.075

students and non-teaching NEGATIVE -0.3635


Z2 1.3225 1.3225 1.3225 97.0225 3.4225 17.2225 66.4225 0.7225 3.4225 23.5225
51.1225 4.6225 14.8225 8.1225 260.8225 0.0225 3.4225 23.5225 23.5225 1.3225 607.05
X 81 75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 79 80 59 76 78 81 81 1,523 76.15

X-XMEAN Y W 5 -1 -1 -1 10 2 -4 -8 1 2 5 -7 -2 3 4 -17 0 2 5 5 -6

75 75 75 86 78 72 68 77 78 81 69 74 80 79 60 76 78 81 81 75 1,518 75.9

Y-YMEAN XY X2 Z -1 6075 -1 5625 -1 5625 10 6450 2 6708 -4 5616 -8 4896 1 5236 2


6006 5 6318 -7 5589 -2 5106 4 5920 3 6241 -16 4800 0 4484 2 5928 5 6318 5 6561 -1
6075 -5 115577

Y2 WZ 6561 5625 5625 5625 7396 6084 5184 4624 5929 6084 6561 4761 5476 6241 6400
3481 5776 6084 6561 6561 116639 5625 5625 5625 7396 6084 5184 4624 5929 6084 6561
4761 5476 6400 6241 3600 5776 6084 6561 6561 5625 115822 -5.2325 1.6675 1.6675
-14.2825 17.6675 -6.4325 36.2675 -7.1825 1.0175 7.5175 -32.5325 16.0175 -9.4325
7.2675 -57.3325 2.6175 -0.8325 7.5175 22.0675 -5.2325 -17.2 W2 20.7025 2.1025
2.1025 2.1025 91.2025 2.4025 19.8025 71.4025 0.3025 2.4025 20.7025 55.5025 6.0025
6.5025 12.6025 304.5025 0.2025 2.4025 20.7025 20.7025 664.35

faculty and non-teaching NEGATIVE -0.02708


Z2 1.3225 1.3225 1.3225 97.0225 3.4225 17.2225 66.4225 0.7225 3.4225 23.5225
51.1225 4.6225 14.8225 8.1225 260.8225 0.0225 3.4225 23.5225 23.5225 1.3225 607.05