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FLY ASH CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


By
Dr. S. C. Maiti
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Target 28-Day Compressive Strength of Concrete
= f
ck
+ 1.65 x Standard Deviation
f
ck
= Characteristic strength of concrete
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CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS
Cement OPC 43 grade
Fly Ash Conforming to Part1 of IS 3812
(Fineness : 320 m
2
/kg, min.
Lime Reactivity : 4.5 N/mm
2
, min.
Loss of ignition : 5%, max)
Superplasticizer Normal or retarding type (as required)
Satisfying the requirements of IS 9103
(approx. 1% by wt of cement)
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AGGREGATES
Coarse Aggregate : 10 mm, 20 mm, 40 mm max. size
Fine Aggregate : Zone II Grading
(Natural or crushed stone)
Silt Content : 3% by weight, max. (natural sand)
Silt Content : 15% by weight, max. (crushed stone)
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SUGGESTED STANDARD DEVIATION VALUES
(As per IS 456) For Good Quality Control
5.0
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M50
M 55
4.0
M 20
M 25
3.5
M 10
M15
Standard Deviation
Value (N/mm
2
)
Grade of Concrete
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WATER CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS RATIO
W ratio to be estimated from Fig. 1, for the target 28-
C+F day compressive strength of concrete
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53
47
42
37
33
29
27
0
20
40
60
0.20 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60
W/C+F (by wt.)
2
8
-
d
a
y

C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
,

M
P
a
TYPICAL RELATIONSHIP BEWTEEN W/C+F AND 28-
DAY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
SUPERPLASTICISED FLYASH CONCRETE
Fig. 1
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WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE
(i) Medium : 50 60 mm slump
(ii) High : 80 100 mm slump
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ESTIMATION OF MIXING WATER AND SAND CONTENT
(For sand grading: Zone II & crushed rock coarse aggregate**)
30 35 40 Sand content*, %
190 200 210 80-100
180 190 200 50-60
40 mm 20 mm 10 mm
Max. size of aggregate Slump, mm
* For sand of grading Zone I, (+) 1.5% sand
For grading Zone III, (-) 1.5% sand
** For rounded aggregate, the water requirement will be (-) 10 l/m
3
of concrete
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FINE AGGREGATE GRADINGS
(% passing)
0-15 0-10 0-10 0-10 150 micron
15-50 12-40 8-30 5-20 300 micron
80-100 60-79 35-59 15-34 600 micron
90-100 75-100 55-90 30-70 1.18 mm
95-100 85-100 75-100 60-95 2.36 mm
95-100 90-100 90-100 90-100 4.75 mm
100 100 100 100 10 mm
Grading
Zone IV
Grading
Zone III
Grading
Zone II
Grading
Zone I
IS Sieve
Designation
Note 1: For crushed stone sand, the permissible limit on 150 micron is increased to
20%.
Note 2: Fine aggregate conforming to Grading Zone IV should not be used in
reinforced concrete, unless tests ascertain the suitability of proposed mix
proportions.
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FLY ASH CONTENT
Recommended replacement (% by wt.) : 15-25%
15-20% for good quality of fly ash:
i. Fineness : 320-400 m
2
/kg
ii. L.R. : 4.5-5.0 MPa
21-25% for very good quality of fly ash:
i. Fineness : > 400 m
2
/kg
ii. L.R. : > 5.0 MPa
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TYPICAL GRADING OF CRUSHED SAND
(CRUSHED STONE AGGREGATE)
(IS: 383)
0-10
12-40
60-79
75-100
85-100
90-100
Grading
Zone III
12.0 75 micron
0-10 21.4* 150 micron
8-30 31.8 300 micron
35-59 49.8 600 micron
55-90 66.2 1.18 mm
75-100 90.4 2.36 mm
90-100 99.2 4.75 mm
Grading Zone
II
% passing IS Sieve
Size
* IS: 383 permits upto 20% passing through 150 micron sieve
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DURABILITY REQUIREMENT
(As per IS 456) (For 20 mm MSA)
M 40 0.40 360 M 25 0.40 280 Extreme 5
M 35 0.45 340 M 20 0.45 260 Very
severe
4
M 30 0.45 320 M 20 0.50 250 Severe 3
M 25 0.50 300 M 15 0.60 240 Moderate 2
M 20 0.55 300 - 0.60 220 Mild 1
Minimum
Grade of
Concrete
Minimum
Free
Water
Cement
Ratio
Minimum
Cement
Content
kg/m
3
Minimum
Grade of
Concrete
Minimum
Free
Water
Cement
Ratio
Minimum
Cement
Content
kg/m
3
Reinforced Concrete Plain Concrete Exposure S.
No.
For 10 mm MSA + 40 kg/m
3
For 40 mm MSA - 30 kg/m
3
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AIR CONTENT OF CONCRETE
3.0 10
2.0 20
1.0 40
Entrapped Air (%) Max. size of aggregate
(mm)
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ESTIMATION OF SAND CONTENT AND COARSE AGGREGATE
CONTENT, KG PER CUBIC METER OF CONCRETE
V-Vol. of air = W + C + Quantity of Fly Ash + Quantity of Sand X 1
S
c
Sp. Gr. of Fly Ash p x sp. gr. of sand 1000
V-Vol. of air = W + C + Quantity of Fly Ash + Quantity of coarse aggregate X 1
S
c
Sp. Gr. of Fly Ash (1-p) x sp. gr. of c. aggregate 1000
V = 1 m
3
concrete
W = Weight of water, kg/m
3
C = Weight of cement, kg/m
3
S
c
= Sp. Gr. of OPC = 3.15
p = Proportion of sand (i.e. sand ratio)
Total aggregate
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COARSE AGGREGATE GRADING (COMBINED)
(As per IS 383)
0-10 - - 2.36
27-36 0-10 0-5 4.75
95-100 25-55 10-35 10
100 95-100 30-70 20
- 100 95-100 40
10 mm MSA 20 mm MSA 40 mm MSA
% passing for graded aggregate IS sieve
size (mm)
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EXAMPLES ON COMBINED GRADING
EXAMPLE 1 (% passing)
0-10 0.07 + 1.04
= 1.1
2.60 0.12 4.75
25-55 2.0 + 32
= 32.2
80.12 3.4 10.0
95-100 55.8 + 40
= 95.8
100 93.0 20.0
100.0 40.0
Desired
grading
limit
60% of
Fraction I
+
40% of
Fraction II
Fraction II
(Below 10 mm)
Fraction I
(20-10 mm)
Sieve
size (mm)
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EXAMPLE 2 (% passing)
0.04 + 2.46
= 2.5
1.24 + 42.92
= 44.1
44.8 + 50
= 94.8
-
50% of
Fraction I
+
50% of
Fraction II
0-10 0.048 +
1.968
= 2.01
4.92 0.08 4.75
25-55 1.48 +
34.33
= 35.8
85.84 2.48 10.0
95-100 53.8 + 40
= 93.8
100 89.72 20.0
- - - 100.0 40.0
Desired
grading
limit
60% of
Fraction I
+
40% of
Fraction
II
Fraction II
(Below 10 mm)
Fraction I
(20-10
mm)
Sieve
size
(mm)
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DATA REQUIRED
1. Grade of concrete
2. Desired workability of concrete (slump, mm)
3. Durability requirement exposure condition
4. 28-day compressive strength of cement
5. Quality of superplasticiser (% water-reduction)
6. Data on Fly Ash:
Fineness
Lime reactivity
Loss on ignition, %
7. Gradings of sand, coarse aggregate (different size fractions)
8. Sp. gr. of sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash
9. Water absorption (%) of sand and coarse aggregate