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Step
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
Soft Ground Soft Ground
Soft Ground Tutorial
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Step
00
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
Overview
Banked consolidation analysis
applying drain material of both
sides drainage condition will be
performed using Modified Cam
Clay(MCC)Model.
Model the vertical drainage using
Embankment
g g
draining boundary condition
Simulate the Initial, Embankment
and Leave stages.
Clay 1
Clay 2
The ground settlements and
excess pore pressure due to
embankment will be checked.
Clay 3
Weathered Rock
Vertical Drainage
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 1
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Step
01
Material Property
ID 1 2~4 5
Ground Material Properties
Name Embankment Clay 1~3 Weathered Rock
Constitutive Model MC MCC MC
Modulus of Elasticity
[tonf/m
2
]
3,000 300 15,000
P i R ti ( ) 0 30 0 38 0 30 Poissons Ratio () 0.30 0.38 0.30
Unit Weight (Y) [tonf/m
3
] 1.80 1.96 2.10
Saturated Unit Weight
(Ysat) [tonf/m
3
]
1.85 2.00 2.10
Cohesion (c) [tonf/m
2
] 1.5 - 3.0 ( ) [ ]
Internal Friction Angle () 25 - 35
P bilit (k) [ /d ] 1 0 0001 1
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 2
Permeability (k) [m/day] 1 0.0001 1
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Step
01
Material Property
Ground Material Properties (MCC Properties)
ID 2 3 4
Name Clay 1 Clay 2 Clay 3
Over Consolidation Ratio (OCR) 1 1 1
Slope of Normal Consolidation Line () 0.217 0.217 0.217
Slope of Over Consolidation Line () 0.043 0.043 0.043
Critical State Specific Volume () 3.579 3.817 4.928
Slope of Critical State Line (M) 0.772 0.772 0.772
Although MCC Model properties determined by triaxial compression test, which also can be estimated through
using general properties calculated by the formulations shown below in roundabout way.
C C
|
'
i 6
303 . 2
c
C
=
303 . 2
s
C
= k
z
p
sub c
=
'

e + = 1
0
v
|
|
|

|
'
'
=
0
ln
p
c
c
k v v
c c
p N
'
+ = ln v
2 ln ) ( k = I N
|
|
'

'
= M
sin 3
sin 6
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
2
p
sub c

0 |
.

\
'
0
0
p
c
c c
p
2 ln ) ( k I N
3
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Step
02
Import > CAD file(*.dwg/*.dxf)
Procedure
Select the SoilWorks excution
icon from the Desktop.
2
1
Project Manager > click Soft
Ground
Initial Parameters > click User
Defined
2
1

4
Defined
Select [ton], [m] and [day]
Main Icon > Import > select CAD
file
3
3
4
file.
Select the Vertical Drainage
Consolidation Analysis with MCC
Model.dwg, and click [Open]
5
Unit of Force and Length are
converted automatically, but unit of
Time is not converted
automatically Therefore specify

5
automatically. Therefore, specify
the unit of Time when performing
the consolidation analysis.
User can copy and paste the
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 4
objects in CAD program directly
into SoilWorks.
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Step
03
Model > Ground Material Property
Procedure
From Main Menu, select Model >
Ground Material Property
(command : gm)
1
2
11
(command : gm)
Refer to Step 01. to enter the
ground material properties and
click Add.
22
Click [Close]
33
SoilWorks permits ground material
properties used in projects to be
compiled in a database. The

3
p
database is created by editing the
*.gdb file in SoilWorks/Dbase in the
Install folder.
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
5
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Step
04
Geometry > Smart Surface
Procedure
For generating the surfaces to
assign the material properties
2
4
3
1
From the Main Menu, select
Geometric Shape > Auto-
generate Surfaces (command: ss)
For checking the assignment status
1
For checking the assignment status
From the Main Menu, select
Window > Display Settings ( )
Select General > Screen Object
2
3
5
Select General > Screen Object
Select Change Background
Color > Attribute Color
Click [OK]
3
4
5
Click [OK]
Property not entered currently will


be set basically as gray and
changed as property color defined
when property data entered, which
is useful to check property defined
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
is useful to check property defined
for composite model.
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Step
05
Assign Material Property
Procedure
Assign the ground material property.
Refer to Page 1 to select the
1
surface of Embankment, and
select Embankment under
Ground Material Property from
th W k T d D & the Works Tree and Drag &
Drop.
1

Using the same way to assign the


property to area relevant to [clay
layer 1~clay layer 3, weathered
rock]

Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model


rock]
7
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Step
06
Generate Mesh Set
Procedure
Generate ground mesh sets.
From the Main Menu, select
1
1
2
6
Model > Edge Seed (command :
es)
Click the Select All 2
3
Specify 0.5m as the Division
Interval
Check the location of generated
nodes by using the preview
3
4
5
4
7
8
nodes by using the preview
Click [OK]
From the Main Menu, select
Model > Smart Mesh (command :
5
6
Model Smart Mesh (command :
sm)
Check off Register each Mech Set
by Domains
In case that there is no calculated element between drainage materials, mesh should be generated
for more than 3 elements to be existed at least, because normal analysis is hard to be performed.
7
Click [OK]
Generated mesh will be registered
, y p

8
1 1 2 3 4
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
to Works Tree > Mesh > bottom of
mesh set with assigned name.
8
(O) (X) (O)
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Step
07
Define Boundary Conditions
Procedure
Define the ground supports.
From the Main Menu, select
1
1
4
Loads | Boundaries > Smart
Support (command : as)
Enter the name of Boundary Set
2
Click [OK]
Define the boundary condition for
the drainage
2
3
3
From the Main Menu, select
Loads | Boundaries >
Draining Condition
4
Enter the name of Boundary Set
Select the Curve from Type
Select the line(vertical drain
5
6
7
5
material, both sides drain) relevant
to drain condition
Click [OK]
8
8
5
6
7
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 9
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Step
07
Define Boundary Conditions
Procedure
Define the Non-consolidation
Boundary Condition
1
6
From the Main Menu, select
Loads | Boudnaries >Non-
Consolidation Boundary
Element
1
2
3
4
3
Element
Enter the name of Boundary Set
Select the Mesh from the Type
2
3
5
Select the mesh relevant to
embankment material.
Click [OK]
4
5
Define the water level
From the Main Menu, select
Loads | Boundaries >Water
6
Level
Select line placed by the water
level.
7
7
8
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
Click [OK]
10
8
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Step
08
Define Construction Stages
Procedure
Define the construction stages
From the Main Menu, select
1
1
Analysis | Design > Construction
Stage
Click the Add Construction Stage
2
2
3
4
Enter 3
Click [OK]
Select the Construction Stage 1
3
4
5
Enter Initial
Click the [Time Steps]
Create the time and number of
6
5
7
8
8
steps (Period: 1, No. of Steps: 1)
Click [OK]
Check on Water Level, and select
9
10
10
7
6
the Water Level function
Check on Initialize Displacement
Click [Modify]
11
10
11
12
9
12
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
.
11
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Step
08
Define Construction Stages
Procedure
Define the time steps for each stage
Select the Construction Stage 2, and
1
1
2
3
4
5
enter Embankment
Click the [Time Steps]
Enter Period > 45, No. of Steps > 10
2
3
5
Check on Save Result
Click [Create Steps]
Click [OK]
4
5
6 6
7
Click [Modify] 7
The number of step is an item
defining the force increment size
Although defining more number of

g g
step to generate the unequribrium
force can get excellent astringency,
the analysis time will be longer at the
same time Using the same way
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
same time . Using the same way,
input 300 to period, 20 to number of
step in stage of Leave.
12
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Step
08
Define Construction Stages
Procedure
Define the mesh set, boundary and
load set for each stage
1
From the Main Menu, select
Analysis|Design > Stage
Models
2 4
1
Select the Initial stage
Drag&Drop the Clay Layer,
Ground Support, Drainage
Conditions relevant to primary
2
3
Conditions relevant to primary
stage as data for adding to current
stage.
Click [Apply]
4
3
Apply the mesh and boundary set Apply the mesh and boundary set
of construction stage in same way.
Checking the Simulate Each
Stage, the element added/removed
b h k d il

Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model


can be checked easily.
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Step
08
Define Construction Stages
Procedure
Define the mesh set, boundary and
load set for each stage
3
1
Select the Embankment stage
Drag&Drop the banking material
mesh and banking
underconsolidation boundary
2
1
2
underconsolidation boundary
condition as data added to current
stage.
Click [Apply]
3
In the Leave stage, there is no
add/ remove for element
4
4
Apply the mesh and boundary set Apply the mesh and boundary set
of construction stage in same way.
Checking the Simulate Each
Stage, the element added/removed
b h k d il

Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model


can be checked easily.
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Step
09
Define Analysis Case
Procedure
Define the analysis case.
From the Main Menu, select
1
7 1
Analysis | Design >Analysis
Case
Click [Add]
2
3
4
2
Enter Consolidation Analysis
Select Construction Stage Analysis
from Analysis Method
3
4
6
Click [OK]
Click [Close]
5
6
Perform analysis
From the Main Menu, select
Analysis | Design > Analysis
5
7
y | g y
Click [Perform Analysis] 8
8
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 15
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Step
10
Analysis of Results (Settlements)
Procedure
Check the settlement of ground
surface due to embankment
2 4
Select Workstree > Results >
Leave [Time:346, Load Factor :
1.000] > Displacement > Vertical
Displacement(DZ(V))
3
1
From the Main Menu, select
Results > Result Tag ( )
Click the node on the ground
2
3
1
3
g
surface
From the Main Menu, select
Results > Extract Result
4
5
Value ( )
Select Vertical Displacement(DZ(V))
Click [Select All]
5
6
Select the nodes of earth surface or
enter the nodes number.
Click [Table]
7
8
6
7
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
Check the results
16
9
8
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Step
10
Analysis of Results (Settlements)
Procedure
Analyze the settlement with time
Paste the previous earth surface
1
nodes result table to Excel Sheet.
Using time on step as time unit
to generate graph.
2
In consolidation analysis, because
of the settlement happened by
di f h d t ti

disperse of excess hydrostatic


pressure depends on time, the
Time Step should be adjusted to
perform analysis until judging the
excess hydrostatic pressure has
been completely dispersed, in
other words the settlement of
earth surface is converged to a
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
certain value.
17
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Step
10
Analysis of Results (Excessive Pore Pressure)
Procedure
Check the excess pore pressure
due to embankment
2 5
Select Workstree > Results > Leave
[Time:346, Load Factor : 1.000] >
Ground Element Stresses >
Excessive Pore Pressure
4
1
4
3
From the Main Menu, select
Results > Result Tag ( )
Select Element from Type
2
1
4
yp
Click an element
From the Main Menu, select
Results > Extract Result Value
3
4
5
Results > Extract Result Value
( )
Select Excessive Pore Pressure
Click [Select All]
5
6
5
Click [Select All]
Select the nodes of earth surface or
enter the nodes number.
Click [Table]
6
7
8
6
7
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
Click [Table]
Check the result
18
8
9
8
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Step
10
Analysis of Results (Excessive Pore Pressure)
Procedure
Check the excessive pore pressure
with time.
Paste the previous earth surface
nodes result table to Excel Sheet.
Using time on step as time unit to
generate graph
22
11
generate graph.
Because of the settlement
h d b di f

happened by disperse of excess


hydrostatic pressure depends on
time, the Time Step should be
adjusted to perform analysis until
judging the excess hydrostatic
pressure has been completely
dispersed, in other words the
settlement of earth surface is
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model
converged to a certain value.
19
Embankment
Leave
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Step
11
Analysis Guide
Consolidation Analysis
Consolidation Analysis is an analysis method calculating the process that excess pore water pressure disperses depending on time in case that water resist to
external force. Because water which cannot escape due to undrained condition and resisting to load will escape slowly as time goes by through drain condition
boundary, excess pore pressure decreases over time, and internal force shared by water is transferred to be resisted by soil to raise soil deformation, also
increase the soil effective stress. The method of performing consolidation analysis can be divided into 1 one-dimensional consolidation according to theoretical
function and finite element method.
In case of one-dimensional consolidation, there is an advantage by which result can be easily obtained with simple procedure. But it is limited to two-
dimensional analysis and can not be used in general composite shape of ground analysis.
For finite element method, the limitation for shape mentioned previously or general analysis is not so much but a weakness is exist that time spent on modeling
and analysis is much. Soilworks supports both one-dimensional consolidation analysis and finite element consolidation analysis. y pp y y
In consolidation analysis, elements will get DOF of pore water pressure additionally with displacement DOF at nodes.
Consolidation analysis in SoliWorks will assume all elements get DOF of pore water pressure if two kinds of boundaries, non-consolidation condition and drain
condition are not assigned So the element like banking material with no directional consolidation behavior defines non consolidation condition to act like condition are not assigned. So the element like banking material with no directional consolidation behavior, defines non-consolidation condition to act like
general structure element as shown below. In case of boundary happened drain in consolidation element, the drain condition must be defined. When the
boundary condition defined normally and consolidation analysis has been performed, the excess pore pressure applied non-consolidation condition and drain
condition should be 0.
Vertical Drainage Consolidation Analysis with MCC Model 20
[ Boundary Condition of Consolidation Analysis ]