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Contents Contents Contents Contents

4. Basics of traffic technology ............................................................................................................. 2


Traffic characteristics .......................................................................................................................... 2
Flow rate .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Speed ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Density ........................................................................................................................................... 12
Relations between traffic typicals ................................................................................................. 13
Traffic signals ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Traffic signs .................................................................................................................................... 1
Road !ar"ings ............................................................................................................................... 2#
Traffic lights ................................................................................................................................... 31
Traffic analyses .................................................................................................................................. 3
$%alification of traffic transaction ................................................................................................ 3
Traffic chec"%p .............................................................................................................................. 4&
Traffic si'ing ................................................................................................................................... 4
Traffic safety ...................................................................................................................................... #1
Traffic safety analysis .................................................................................................................... #2
(as%alty indicators ........................................................................................................................ #3
(onflict analysis ............................................................................................................................. ##




4. Basics of traffic technology

Public traffic technology deals with the features, regulation and control of
public traffic and those methodology and system of instrument. In the
theoretical part it describes the transaction of traffic with mathematical
models, in the practical part it develops the methods of traffic controlling.
This chapter briefly represents the basic traffic definitions and methods
essential for road planning.

The chapter consists of four lessons:
The first lesson discuss about the three main typicals used to the
description of traffic transaction. It shows the definition of the
concentration of traffic, speed and vehicle density, furthermore
represents the relations between them.
The second lesson overviews the major devices used for the controlling
and influencing of traffic: traffic signs, traffic-line markings and traffic
lights.
The third lesson deals with the questions of traffics examination, the
qualification method of traffic transaction and the related basic terms. It
represents the values related to the capacity of the simplest
establishments. It discusses the solutions used for the determination of
planning traffic.
The fourth lesson represents the analyzing methods related to the traffic
safety. It demonstrates the methodology of the traditional analysis and
the major indicators. It overviews the relations between the traffic safety
and traffic transaction, furthermore the methodology of conflict
examination used for the analysis of traffic safety.

The lessons can be completed by approx. 60 minutes learning and exercises
and the knowledge can be deepened by 30 minutes revision. So the whole
chapter takes 5-6 hours to learn.

Traffic characteristics

The task of the road planning is to carry the traffic demands safely in the
adequate quality. Knowledge of traffic characteristics is a must for the suitable
traffic and geometrical planning. With the aid of three main variables flow
rate, traffic speed and density any of the traffic situations can be
characterized.



This lesson defines the flow rate, traffic speed and densitys definition and
their determination method. It represents the relations and correspondences
between them.

Flow rate

Definition
Flow rate is the number of vehicles or passangers passing through on a cross-
section under a given unit time.
i
Typically we use to calculate traffic passing
through under an hour or a day, so the usual measure is vehicle/hour (j/h) or
vehicle/day (j/n).
Variation
Flow rate fluctuates in time, depending on the time of calculation we receive
different results. Variation can be detectable inside a year, a week, a day and
an hour. These variations are important because we would like to serve
properly the peak hours too.
The annual variation reflects the social and economical activities of the area
served by road. The biggest changes are caused by the free time traffic, the
economical traffic (business and travelling to work) follows more continuous
samples. This symptom can be well seen at the comparison of figures 88. and
89..

Figure 1. : Annual change of flow rate in case of significant business traffic.



Figure 89. : Annual change of flow rate in case of significant recreational traffic.
For the elimination of the annual variation we apply the definition of average
daily traffic (NF). The average daily traffic is the ratio of the examined road
sections total annual vehicle number and the 365 days of a year (figure Figure
2. ). We use the average daily traffic for the choice of the establishment types
(going to be planned), furthermore for the determination of the cross-sectional
construction (for example: necessary lane numbers).

Figure 2. : Definition of the average daily traffic.
The daily variation depends on the character of the road. Traffic in the end of
the week is lower on the roads serving principally business traffic, so the value
of change is minimal. Higher traffic can be expected in the end of the week on
the roads serving recreational traffic, so the value of change is more
significant.

Variation inside a day depends on the road type and the given day (figure
Figure 3. ).




Figure 3. : Flow rates change inside a day deending on the road tye.
Variations inside an hour are very important regarding the protection of the
adequate traffic transaction. Bottlenecks - caused by the few minutes long
unsatisfactory transmissivity encumber the traffic for a long time, they leave
off very slowly. Figure Figure 4. the variation of flow rate inside an hour. If
we used the traffic of the whole hour (marked with broken line on the figure)
for the sizing of the establishments, then traffic would be higher than the
transmissivity in the significant part of the hour.
Solution: lets use shorter duration for sizing. But how much should this
shorter duration be? If we dimensioned according to the traffic of five minutes
time period, then we would overplan the establishments, consequently too
much capacity would be at service. Its generally accepted that we execute the
required traffic analyses and sizings according to 15 minutes time periods. We
call this traffic to projected flow rate.




Figure !. : Flow rates change inside an hour.
We determinate the projected flow rate so that we divide the number of
vehicles (passing through under 15 minutes time period of the highest traffic)
with the length of the time period expressed in hour.
ii


Example:
During four sequential 15 minutes time periods 1000, 1200, 1100 and 1000
vehicles pass through.
The traffic of the hour is the sum of the vehicles passed through during the
four time periods, totally 4300 j/h.
The projected flow rate is the ratio of the biggest 15 minutes traffic and the
length of the time period expressed in hour: 1200 j/0.25 h = 4800 j/h.


These 4800 vehicles dont pass through on the examined cross-section
effectively, but the traffic observed in the highest traffic quarter is equivalent
with this value projected to the total hour.

We call the ratio of the projected flow rate and the total hour traffic to peak-
hour factor (PHF)
iii
.


In case of municipal roads the peak-hour factor is typically between 0,80 and
0.98. The more variable the traffic is the smaller this value is and vice versa,
the higher the value of PHF is the less variable the traffic is. Value above 0,95
means very high traffic load, often a traffic transaction near to the capacity
limit.
Flow rate changes also in space, traffic of each directions and lanes are
different. Of course the solid distribution changes also in time: for example
high traffic appears on the approach roads in the morning inward, in the
afternoon outward. However the establishment has to be adequate in both
directions to conduct the peak-time traffic.
iv

Traffic analyses generally focus to traffic travelling to direction with higher
traffic in the peak hours.
Homogeneous vehicle flow
Vehicle flow consists of several types of vehicles, which possess with
significantly different motional characteristics. How shall we consider this?
How can we compare the traffic operations of a motorcyclist and an articulated
vehicle?
Solution is the following: we compare each vehicles, vehicle types to a unit
vehicle. For unit vehicle we choose the automobile which takes the biggest
part of the vehicle flow. As a matter of fact we are concerned that while the
given vehicle executes the examined traffic operations, until then how much
of vehicles could do the same. In another composition: what loading (equal to
how much vehicles passage) does the passage of the given vehicle mean. We
call this to automobile-equivalence.
On behalf of the manageability we classify vehicles into vehicle categories.
Classification can be simple and difficult depending on how much categories
we want to use. The simplest rating deals only with trucks and automobiles.
One equivalence-factor belongs to all of the vehicle categories (figure Figure
5. ).

rate flow Projected
ic hour traff Total
= PHF



We can calculate the flow rate of the homogeneous vehicle flow if we sum up
the vehicle categories(i) flow rate (F
i
) multiplied with the equivalence-factor
(e
i
):


The unit of the homogeneous vehicle flow is unit vehicle/hour (E/h) or unit
vehicle/day (E/n).
Vehicle type K (outer area) B (municipal
area)
automobile 1,0 1,0
solo autobus 2,5 1,8
articulated autobus 2,5 2,5
medium truck 2,5 1,4
heavy truck 2,5 1,8
truck trailer 2,5 2,5
motorcycle 0,8 0,7
bicycle 0,3 0,3
slow vehicle 2,5 2,5
Figure ". : #$uivalence%factors based on the &ungarian 'egulations.
Determination of flow rate
There are two kinds of traffic survey methods: cross-sectional traffic record
and destination traffic record.
During the cross-sectional counting we count the flow rate of the traffic
passing on a given cross-section and fix the type of passing vehicles. Its
purpose is the determination of flow rate, variation in time and content,
directional distribution of the traffic passing on the road section. It can be
executed manually or automatically with sensors. Due to the technical
development in our age there are automatic equipments executing continuous
traffic survey on the most important places, furthermore their number is
increasing.
We use the cross-sectional countings for the control of destination traffic
records too.

=
=
n
i
i i
F e F
1


At the destination traffic record we would like to determine that which way
are vehicles travelling from and where are they driving at. In case of junctions
we are concerned about the traffic stream between the several arms. At larger
scale examinations we want to determine the traffics between the several
zones. The result of destination traffic analysis is the destination traffic matrix
(figure Figure 6. ):

Figure (. : #)a*le for destination traffic *atri).
Each vehicles track has to be followed up for the destination traffic records.
This means that we have to determinate the exit point (from the examined area)
of the vehicle entering in a given point. Possible methods:
Monitoring: if the area is small, then we can follow up the route of vehicles
even with naked eye.
v
This method is not realizable in case of higher
traffics.
Analysis of video recording: this method is actually same to the monitoring.
The difference is that the evaluation gets ready later. There is a possibility
for monitoring higher traffics, but the post-processing takes long time.
Picture processing algorithms make the evaluation process very easy.
Camera has to oversee the total route of motor vehicle between the entering
and exiting points.
Note of registration number: we get an exact picture about the entering and
exiting point of vehicles entering and exiting by the note of their
registration number. Usually we dictate the registration numbers onto
sound recorder, thats why the post-processing requires time. In case of
larger traffics there is no time for the note of registration numbers because
vehicles travel faster than we could dictate the registration number. Note of
registration numbers can be touchy in the aspect of data management.
Tags: if we label the entering vehicles comehow on the entering method,
then we receive the required result at the exit by reading the entering code.
Its simplest point, if we stop vehicles at the entrance and pass over a tag
with the code of the entry place. Afterall vehicle submits this tag at the exit.
First and last the destination traffic record is prepared. This methods


disadvantage is that we have to stop vehicles twice. Because of it only a
part of vehicles are stopped, so as a matter of fact we can determinate the
rate of each directions traffic. Traffic between zones can be calculated by
an additional cross-sectional counting.
Questioning: we stop the vehicles and ask for information related to their
travelling customs. We have to put up short and simply answerable,
preferably closed questions. The number of questions does not have to be
too much, dont hold up the driver for more than one minute. Dont ask
those questions, which are perceptible,
vi
but the questioner registers them.
Questionnaire: we can give questionnaires to the driver to take them home
and fill in and send back later. In this way we can collect a lot of exact
information about the travelling customs. The idea seems to be good, but
there are problems with the execution, only a small percent of
questionnaires arrive back. Which is a much larger problem that the
returners belong to the same road user class characteristically, so the survey
wont be representative.
Household or working interview: if we want to have exact and detailed data,
then we visit the road users (at least one of their representative
subcollection) and put on questions. This is an expensive survey method
which requires well prepare, but in return we get a lot of proper data. This
method is generally used for traffic modeling tasks.

Speed

Speed and its reciprocal, the travelling time are important characteristics
regarding the quality of traffic transaction. We determinate speed as the
distance travelled under unit time, we use dimension km/h for traffic
examinations.
We can observe significant deviations between the speeds of vehicles
travelling in the traffic stream. Thats why we generally use the average speed
for the traffic transactions characterisation, but in special cases we apply other
statistical index numbers.
Several vehicles speed changes also in space and time.
vii
Thats why its
important how to determine the speed.
Spatial average speed
Spatial average speed is the average speed related to one road section. Dividing
the length of the given section (L) with the travelling times belonging to the
section (t
i
) we calculate the travelling speed. Its average is the spatial average
speed:

=
=
= =
n
i i
n
i
i
t
L
n
t
n
L
v
1
1
1






Temporal average speed
Temporal average speed can be calculated as the average of momentary speeds
measured in a given cross section:


The size of spatial and temporal speed is different! It makes difference that
which one we use! Typically the temporal average speed is higher than the
spatial average speed. The higher the average speed is the smaller the
difference between the two kinds of speed is.
We can use more kinds of speed definition for the description of traffic
transaction.
Average travelling speed
We calculate trip speed as the ratio of length and trip time. The average
travelling speed is the average of the trip speeds received so.
viii
It describes the
level of transport service provided to the traveller. Comparison of several
alternative transport ways is based on it, as well as the choice of transport mode
and route.
Average running speed
The average speed of vehicles passing through on a given road section
determinating based on the time spent with movement.
ix
We do not consider
the time loss caused by bottlenecks and traffic lights. It says that on the average
how fast do vehicles travel when they are in motion.
Active running speed,
x
va
Active running speed is the developable speed on longer road section, even on
wet pavement beside traffic by an automobile passing hurriedly. It describes
the geometry and traffic relations together: what speed can driver (undertaking
normal risk) reach. At this speed definition we use the 85% speed value instead
of the average value. Only the 15% of drivers travel faster than this, but they
undertake too much risk.
The highest active running speed, va,max
The highest active running speed is the developable speed on longer road
section, even on wet pavement without traffic by an automobile passing

=
=
n
i
i
v v
1


hurriedly. It assigns that what running speed can be allowed by the geometry.
We use the 85% speed value here too.
Free rate of flow
The average of speeds chosen freely by the drivers beside low traffic. There is
no hindrance and it depends on the geometrical construction of the road
section. It differs from the highest active running speed, because now we take
the average of speed values.


Density

Density is the number of vehicles or pedestrians standing on a given road
section in a given moment. Its unit can be:
j/km (relevantly to one lane)
E/km (relevantly to one lane)
pedestrian/m
2

Density is a spatial typical. Its very useful regarding the quality description of
traffic transaction, because it describes the kinetic freedom. The larger the
density is the better vehicles affect each others speed and kinetic possibility.
Measurement of density is not a simple task. It could be determinated
supremely by the aid of aerial photographs: we just have to count the number
of vehicles on the picture and density is at service.
Unfortunately aerial photographs required to practical consumption cannot be
taken. There are ongoing researches, which determinate density due to the
satellite photographs. However this is too expensive and hardly accessible
solution to apply widely.
We can approximate density to the average of following distances (l). We
define following distance as the distance between the same points (usually the
front bumpers) of two vehicles travelling after each other in one traffic lane
(figure Figure 7. ). If we know the average following distance on a road
section, then we also know the number of vehicles in the examined section.

Figure +. : Following distance.


The approximation of density (D) by the utilization of the average following
distance (l):



However the measurement of following distance is not so easy. By the
development of technology we can expect continuous improvement in this
section. But we can approximate the following distance based on the following
interval and momentary speed.
xi
Following interval (t) is the duration
between the same points (usually the front bumpers) of two vehicles travelling
after each other in a given cross-section. Following interval (t) can be
determinated as the ratio of the following distance (l) and speed (s [m/s]:


Afterall we can simply measure the following interval and speed. Most of the
automatic traffic-counter equipment is suitable for this task. Density (D) can
be approximated by the application of following interval (t) and speed
(s [m/s]):



Relations between traffic typicals

We can write up the basic relation according to the hydrodynamical analogy
between the flow rate (F), speed (v) and density (D):


However according to the basic relation flow rate can be calculated as an
endless number of combinations of speed and density, further relations
determinate the possible traffic conditions (figure Figure 8. ). The three
diagrams are redundant because if one of the relations is known, then the other
two follow from it squarely. The most common is the connection of speed-
density, the other two relations are used for the determination of traffic
transactions quality.
l
D

=
1000
s
l
t

=
t s
D

=
1000
v
F
D =



Figure 8. : ,enerali-ed relation between flow rate. seed and density.
Speed - Density
Connection between the speed and density is demonstrated by figure 97. When
the density is zero, there is no vehicle on the road, then vehicles travel at the
free rate of flow (point A). When the density is so high that all the vehicles
have to stop, then speed is zero. This density we call congestion density (point
B). We hypothesise linear alteration between these two points in the simplest
case. Point C marks the condition belonging to the largest flow rate, when the
product of density and speed is maximal.



Figure 9. : /onnection between seed and density.
Speed flow rate
Relation between speed and flow rate can be seen on figure 98.. Zero flow rate
can be occured in two cases:
if there is no vehicle on the road, so density is null (point A)
if the density is so large that all vehicles have to stop, so speed is null
(point B)
Just as the flow rate starts to grow, density increases so. This has an effect to
the speed, which starts to decrease. At first slowly, imperceptibly, later in
significant rate. Density belonging to the given condition is the tangent of line
pulled from the origin to any point of the curve.
Traffic stream is stable along the curve signed with continuous line between
points A and C.
xii
Curve signed with dotted line between points C and B means
the unstable traffic stream with high density and low speed, where sudden
changes can happen.
xiii




Figure 10. : 'elation between seed and flow rate.
Flow rate - density
Figure 99. shows the connection between the flow rate and density. With the
growth of density flow rate increases until the maximal value, from there it
decreases. Tangent of the line pulled from the origin means the value of speed.

Figure 11. : 'elation between flow rate and density.





Exercises
Please answer the following questions and complete the below exercises!

Exercise 1. :
Please give the definition of flow rate!

Exercise 2. :
Please typify the traffics temporal variation, explain its reasons!

Exercise 3. :
Please explain the definition of projected flow rate! Why its usage is
important?

Exercise 4. :
How can we determinate the PHF peak-hour factor? What does it mean, what
are the typical values of it?

Exercise 5. :
How can we consider the effect of different vehicle types at the examination
of traffic transaction?

Exercise 6. :
Please represent the cross-sectional traffic survey!

Exercise 7. :
Please represent the destination traffic record!

Exercise 8. :
Please represent the determination method of spatial average speed!

Exercise 9. :
Please represent the determination method of temporal average speed!

Exercise 10. :
When are the spatial and temporal average speeds equal?

Exercise 11. :
Please give the definition of the average travelling speed!



Exercise 12. :
Please give the definition of the average running speed!

Exercise 13. :
Please give the definition of the active running speed!

Exercise 14. :
Please give the definition of the highest active running speed!

Exercise 15. :
Please give the definition of the free rate of flow!

Exercise 16. :
What is the difference between the active running speed and the highest active
running speed?

Exercise 17. :
What is the difference between the highest active running speed and the free
rate of flow?

Exercise 18. :
Please give the definition of vehicle density!

Exercise 19. :
How can vehicle density be determinated?

Exercise 20. :
Please explain the relations between the traffic typicals! Please draw the
diagrams, demonstrate the traffic conditions belonging to the significant
points! Please represent the consequences can be put from these!



Traffic signals

The task of traffic technology is the regulation and control of public traffic.
For the safe public traffic transaction its crucial to apply traffic signals
beside the fundamental public traffic rules. We have to pass information to
the drivers on behalf of the notification of local behavioural rules necessary
for traffic control. For this we need visible, easily interpretable signals.

In the lesson we meet the main devices of traffic controlling: with traffic
signs, road markings and traffic lights, furthermore the major related rules.

Traffic signs

Types of traffic signs
Traffic signs
indicate the type of the route,
regulate the priority,
give instruction,
mark interdict and restriction,
sign danger,
give information.
Tables signing the type of route (figure 100.) inform us of the road we want to
access and what kind of road we travel on currently. Termination of the given
route type has to be signed.

Figure 12. : 1ables signing the tye of route.
Signs regulating priority decide who has the priority. Priority sign (figure
Figure 13. ) and Stop! and give way sign (figure Figure 14. ) belong to this
group together with the signs regulating the priority of oncoming traffics
(figure Figure 15. ).
The Priority sign indicates that the coming vehicle has to give priority in the
road-crossing, but its not required to stop if nothing comes.
The Stop! and give way sign indicates that at the road-crossing before the
road marking indicating the place of stop, or before the entering into road-


crossing in the lack of this road marking driver has to stop and give priority
to the vehicle coming from the superordinated direction. We apply this sign
primarily in case of bad perspicuity.

Figure 13. : 23riority sign4.

Figure 1!. : 56to7 and give way4 sign.


Figure 1". : 6igns regulating the riority of onco*ing traffics.
Signs giving instruction are circle shape, their base is blue (figure Figure 16.
). Their role is the indication of travelling direction, the minimal speed or the
road usage.

Figure 1(. : 8nstruction giving signs.
Signs indicating prohibition are circle shape with red edge (figure Figure 17.
). Their role is the stop, furthermore the restriction and prohibition of vehicles
traffic. The scope of traffic sign starts at the table and lasts to the next road-
crossing, except if the additional table marks a shorter distance or if the
dissolvent table dissolves the prohibition earlier.



Figure 1+. : 6igns indicating rohibition.

Signs indicating danger are triangle shape with red edge (figure Figure 18. ).
They draw attention to some kind of dangerous situation. Its subservient to
moderate speed and drive more carefully. Tables cannot be found directly at
the possibility of danger, but before, so we have time to prepare for the
promiscuous dangers. Distance depends on the speed: in built-up area its 50-
100 m, on the open road its 150-200 m, on highways its 250-500 m.

Figure 18. : 6igns indicating danger.
Signs giving information are square shape with blue background (figure Figure
19. ). Information can refer to the road and its application or the establishments
next to or by the road. Signs indicating route (figure 108.) belong to this group,
although they look like different.

Figure 19. : 6igns giving infor*ation.



Figure 20. : 6igns indicating route.
Under the traffic sign one or more additional signs (figure 109.) can give
instruction for the explanation of the signal. The supplementary sign is placed
directly under the table, which by its supplemented.


Figure 21. : #)a*les for additional signs.
There is a possibility to change the signal image of the tables on demand. With
the application of variable signal image tables (figure Figure 22. ) the
dynamical traffic controlling is easy. This means that altering signals and text
messages can be visualized, by which we can control and affect traffic
adequately to the circumstances.


Figure 22. : 9ariable signal i*age table.
Planning principles


We place the traffic signs beside the road, on the right side according to the
running direction. In case of necessity the sign can be repeated on the left side
or above the road. Usually we apply this if from some reason the table placed
on the right side cannot be always seen (for example trucks overlie it) or if we
want to enhance the attention style.
The signal of traffic sign allocated on the right side refers to all of the vehicles
travelling in front of the sign with the following exceptions:
Where on the right side (according to the running direction) there are
two or more traffic lanes indicated with road marking, signal of traffic
sign placed above the traffic lane refers to vehicles running in the traffic
lane under it.
Traffic sign - indicating the compulsory passing direction - placed
together with traffic lights (under or above) refer to the same vehicles.
We can place the stoppage and awaiting prohibitions, furthermore the
sign indicating parking on the left and right side according to the
travelling direction. The scope of these traffic signs extends to that side
of the road, which beside we placed them.
Traffic signs and traffic signals have to be interpreted beside higher speeds
too. Thats why:
Do not place more than 3 tables on a pillar, otherwise message cant be
perceived (figure 111.).
Do not place the pillars of traffic signs too close to each other because
too much of information cant be processed (figure Figure 24. ).
It must be clear that which signal refers to whom (figure Figure 38. ).
The reflecting construction of tables increases the perceptibility and the
visibility in the dark largely (figures Figure 25. and Figure 26. ).



Figure 23. : 1oo *uch signs on one illar.


Figure 2!. : 1oo *uch signs close to each other.

Figure 2". : 'eflecting construction.


At the allocation of traffic signs we have to pay attention to place tables with
definite and adequate information. Mismatching information undermine the
rule following willingness, furthermore they create uncertain traffic
situations.
xiv



Figure 2(. : 8nterretable signs.
Road markings

Basic principles
We apply road markings on roads with pavement wider than 6,00 m. The
traffic order constructed with road markings has to act on to the order suitable
for the natural usage caused by the roads construction in the largest scale
preferably and also to the traffic contolled by traffic lights and signs
unequivocally
xv
. Do not apply optically misleading or false solutions!
Road markings have to be recognizable from far
xvi
. In the night we can
intensify visibility with luminous paint or prisms. On inducement-poor places
(for example highways), where there are a lot of accidents caused by falling
asleep, pavement markings can be made with shaker paint, which makes big
noise and shakes the car if we travel through on it.
In Hungary the colour of road marking cuts no ice. However there are some
conventions: for example the road markings of cyclist establishments are
typically yellow.
The major road markings:
broken white line
continuous white line
line indicating the edge of road


neutral area
position indicator line
bearing indications
crossing-places
Broken white line
We apply the broken white line as the central axis line if pavement is at least
5,50 m wide.
We mark the border of traffic lanes with broken white line too. Allocation
inside the built-up areas is 3,0 m 6,0 m, on the open road it is 4,0 m 8,0 m,
on the express highways it is 6,0 m 12,0 m.
In the junctions we apply broken white line as a safety line for the designation
of the turning lanes edge. In this case the allocation is 1,50 m 1,50 m. We
have to ensure at least 0,5 m distance between the edges of the oncoming
turning lanes.
Continuous white line
Continuous white line is an uninterrupted, narrow line, which cannot be
reached or stepped over by vehicles. It can be used only in a well-founded case
regarding the traffic safety. Its main application fields: indication of overtaking
prohibition, disallowance of changing lanes, seperation of opposite directional
traffics. At the end of continuous white line barrier lines have to be
concentrated in a length of 60 m in the outer area, in a length of 30 m in the
municipal area.
Crossable continuous white line
Crossable continuous white line means a barrier line and a continuous white
line applied next to each others. Continuous white line can be crossed over
from the barrier line. Combination of just two lines can be used if we want to
make the continuous white line crossable from both sides, then we have to jag
on that short road section.
xvii
Its application fields:
overtaking is prohibited only from one direction,
run into property,
Line indicating the edge of road
The role of line indicating the edge of road is to provide the optical leading. It
can be continuous or dashed line. We dont use this line beside the elevated
edge because elevated edge marks the boundry of the road properly.


We apply continual line on roads wider than 7,00 m.
xviii
At the entrance of
properties and the connection of agricultural roads we lead further the
continuous line without alteration.
We use broken line only at the entrance of high traffic establishments and for
the marking of turning main roads edge. The role at the entrance of
establishments is mainly the drawing attention, but the adequate indication of
the turning road boundry is also important in the traffic safety aspect. In the
latter case the width of the line indicating the edge of road is 0,50 m, which
shows the direction of the road optically well sensibly(figure 115.).

Figure 2+. : 8ndication of the edge of turning *ain road.
Street crossing
It serves for the safe conduction of pedestrian traffic. At the street crossing
pedestrians have the priority, so drivers attention have to be called to the
carefully approach of street crossing with every possible devices. The
indication of street crossings with signs is compulsory, this is supplemented
with signal lights and prisms at the dangerous places.
xix

In a basic case the width of street crossing is 3,00 m, at the intersection of main
roads its 4,50 m (figure Figure 28. ). We apply street crossings wider than this
only if the size of pedestrian traffic accounts for it.
In this case we can enlarge the width with the plural of 1,50 m:

The edges of the street crossings strips are parallel to the directions of traffic.
If the two traffic directions dont cross each other, then the strips are not
rectangular, but paralelograms, whose angles are equal to the intersection
angles of the traffic directions.
Street crossing can traverse the road only in the angle larger than 60,
otherwise the walking distances grow inordinately. Intersection angle can be
varied only if a pedestrian island is built up at the breakpoint.
xx

+ = n n Sz , 50 . 1 00 . 3





Figure 28. : 6treet crossing.
Neutral area
On behalf of the avoidance of unsure traffic transaction we prefer to mark
squarely the path has to be followed by each of the vehicles. This principles
part is that we close the emergent unnecessary road surfaces from traffic.
We mark the neutral area on both sides framed with continuous line, between
the lines with striped road line paint (figure 117.). Hatch is variable depending
on the traffics direction:
in case of traffic with same directions on both sides its V-shape
in case of traffic with opposite directions on the two sides its inclined



Figure 29. : :eutral area.
Position indicator line
Position indicator line marks the place of vehicles stoppage if they have to
stop because of the priority obligation or the prohibition signal of traffic light.
Its always perpendicular to the given lane, its width is 0,50 m (figure Figure
30. ). We use continuous line in case of traffic controlled by traffic light and
Stop-table, we use dashed line in case of Priority sign table.
Position indicator line must be allocated the possibly nearest to the edge of
road wanna be crossed, but at least 0,50 m (in case of larger speeds 0,75 m)
safety distance must be kept. Position indicator lines in traffic lanes next to
each other can be pulled away compared to each other (figure Figure 30. ).



Figure 30. . 3osition indicator line.
Bearing indications
In the zone of junctions we use arrows for the indication of the chosen
travelling direction. We apply arrows only in the traffic lanes painted with
road markings. We have to place the signals in the total length of vehicle
classifier
xxi
, in case of necessity in the presorter too. In the municipal area at
least 3 arrows, in the outer area at least 5 arrows are necessary.
We always allocate the arrows into the pitches of the dashed barrier line!
(figure 119.)



Figure 31. : Allocation of bearing indications.
Road markings can also be variable (figure Figure 32. ). Due to the variable
road markings we can change the number of nodal lanes and the application
mode of lanes suitably for traffic demands. They provide a lot of possibilities
for the dynamical traffic controlling. Unfortunately their application has
several practical difficulties, so they are not too prevalent yet.

Figure 32. : #)a*les for variable road *ar;ings.

Traffic lights

Traffic lights belong to the light signalling installations. Their signal image
transmits their meanings and the rules have to be followed. Traffic lights are
dynamic traffic controlling devices, which distribute the available time
between the traffic flows passing in junction, namely they let through vehicles


alternately. The signals of traffic light determinate that when can we enter into
the junction.
From the types of traffic lights we meet the vehicle markers and pedestrian
markers in details.
Green time
Green time is the duration of free signal, when the entrance into the junction
is allowed (figure Figure 33. ). Entering into the junction means the passage
on the position indicator line, in case of pedestrians it means the step off the
sidewalk.
In several countries flashing green signal is used in the last few seconds of
green time. Its goal is the moderation of passing on the yellow signal.
Unfortunately the solution creates unsure traffic situation because ones
decelerate in consideration of the expectable yellow signal (they want to stop),
others accelerate (they want to pass through). The effect of the additional
signal representing the time remaining from the green signal is the same.
Due to the application of additional signals there is possibility to give different
instruction for vehicles running in the same lane. The additional signal can
refer to traffic directions (for example right-turners) or vehicle groups (for
example the vehicles of public transport).
At green signals we discern two kinds of signalling systems:
In case of control according to traffic directions all traffic lanes get single
signal light. Each of the lanes dont get green time in the same time, their
own signals refer to all of the lanes. At this signalling system green signal
is arrow shape and the crossing on the junction is conflict-free, there is no
crossing vehicle traffic.
xxii

In case of cross-sectional control vehicles from all the traffic lanes of the
incoming direction start forward at the same time, in the same phase. At
this time the main signal placed on the right side of the road refers to all
lanes. In case of need we can place further traffic lights, these repeat the
signals of the main signal. We call this kind of traffic control to full green
traffic controlling because the signal image of green signal is a full green
circle. At this traffic controlling system traffics travelling in face of each
other can get free signal in the same time. Between the flows crossing each
other (for example the left-turners and the oncoming drivers travel directly)
the priority is determinated by the right-hand rule.
The flashing green signal of the pedestrian marker is not really refers to the
green time, but according to the present regulations pedestrian can step off the
sidewalk under the flashing green signal. Pedestrians do not have to reach the
other side under the green signal!




Figure 33. : 6ignal i*ages referring to green ti*e: vehicle and edestrian *ar;er.

Red time
During the red time its not allowed to enter into the junction. Three signal
images belong to here: yellow, red and red-yellow.
Yellow signal is the transitional time required to the safe change between
traffic flows following each other. We apply this because of the safe
exhaustion of the junction, before we let the next vehicle flow inside. However
because of this drivers can travel through on the junction during the yellow
signal without any trouble, which is usually played on by the drivers in the big
cities (although they should have to stop).
The duration of yellow signal depends on the allowed speed. Its duration is 3
mp until the allowed speed 50 km/h, above 50 km/h its 5 mp.
Red signal is simple: its not allowed to enter into the junction. We have to
stop at the position indicator line.
We prefer if drivers would already start in the first second of green signal.
xxiii

So two seconds before the green signal we sign that drivers can almost start.
We call these two seconds to preparation time, the related signal image is red-
yellow.
xxiv
For the preparation to green signal and the departure in time the
additional marker - representing the remaining time until green signal - can be
really useful.
xxv






Figure 3!. : 6ignal i*ages related to the red ti*e of vehicle *ar;ers: yellow. red. red%yellow.
At the pedestrian markers two signal images, the flashing green and the red
signal belong to the red time. Duration of flashing green is 5 mp, it suits to the
yellow signal applied at vehicle markers, because this is the transition time
providing safe exhaustion, but its meaning is different, because its the part of
green signal for pedestrians.


Figure 3". : 6ignal i*ages related to the red ti*e of edestrian *ar;ers: flashing green. red.
Period
Signal images follow each other cyclically, we call the sequence of signal
images to period. We call the length of period when signals start to return, the
entrant signal image follows again (figure 124.). Periodic time changes


between 60 and 120 seconds, the most common used periodic times are the 60
and the 90 seconds. The longer the periodic time is the more we have to wait
for the light change, the shorter the periodic time is the more time we spend
with waiting for the junctions exhaustion. Thats why in case of high traffics
(for example in the rush hours) we apply 90-120 seconds periodic time, in case
of low traffics (for example in the evening) we apply 60 seconds periodic time.
Signal plan includes the change of each signals signal images (figure Figure
37. ).

Figure 3(. : Definition of 3eriod.
Peridus



Figure 3+. : #)a*le for signal lan.
Allocation of traffic lights
Traffic lights have to be allocated so they can be visible and unequivocally
identifiable (figure 126.). We must place a signal on the right side of the road:
this is the marker of the outside lane at the controlling according to traffic
lanes, in case of cross-sectional traffic control it is the main marker. Position
indicator line is 1,5 m 3,0 m far from the signal: driver standing in the queue
can see it well and the nodal distances are not too large (figure 127.).
We can place signals for the inside lanes on two different kinds: we can use
the pedestrian islands or we can swag them above the path. If we place signal
onto the pedestrian island, we have to consider one thing: it must be univocal
that which lane the signal refers to. Position indicator line has to be allocated
to the same distance of 1,5 m 3,0 m.
We place the traffic lights suspended above the path into the axis of lanes.
They cannot be neither too close to the position indicator line (driver of the
first vehicle doesnt see), nor too far (because then its not clear that which
junction does it refer to). Thats why we allocate the swaged signals in a
distance 7,0 16,0 m from the position indicator line (figure Figure 39. ).
We always place the pedestrian markers on the side of the pedestrians right
hand. If there is a pedestrian island, then its worth to place signals there too
because then we can regulate the sections of street crossing separately. This is
a good solution because if no vehicle is coming, we can let through the
pedestrians.
xxvi

kzbens
) id)
perid
usid)
zld
piros
srga
piros-srga
villog zld



Figure 38. : <hich one is *y traffic light=



Figure 39. : Allocation of traffic lights.



Exercises
Please answer the following questions and complete the below exercises!

Exercise 1.:
Please list the types of traffic signs!

Exercise 2.:
Please represent the planning principles related to the traffic signs allocation!

Exercise 3.:
Please represent the planning principles related to the allocation of road
markings!

Exercise 4.:
Please represent the broken white line!

Exercise 5.:
Please represent the continuous white line!

Exercise 6.:
Please represent the crossable continuous white line!

Exercise 7.:
Please represent the line indicating the edge of the road!

Exercise 8.:
Please represent the street crossings!

Exercise 9.:
Please represent the neutral area!

Exercise 10.:
Please represent the position indicator line!

Exercise 11.:
Please represent the bearing indications!

Exercise 12.:
Please represent the definition of green time and the related signal images!

Exercise 13.:
Please represent the definition of red time and the related signal images!



Exercise 14.:
Please represent the definition of period! When do we apply the longer and
shorter duration periods? Why?

Exercise 15.:
Please explain the difference between the traffic control according to traffic
lanes and the cross-sectional traffic control!

Exercise 16.:
Please demonstrate the principles referring to the allocation of traffic lights!

Traffic analyses

With the traffic analyses we would like to know the quality of traffic
transaction. Quality can be formulated differently in case of different
establishments: in case of continuous, uninterrupted traffic transaction
kynetic freedom and speed are the most important, while in case of
interrupted, hampered traffic transaction typically the travelling time is the
authoritative.
Our purpose is to ensure a high-toned traffic transaction now and in the
future. This is possible only if we can determinate those traffic conditions,
which we consider authoritative in the aspect of the establishment. This is
not an easy task regarding the present condition, in reference to the future
its more difficult.
In the lesson we meet the typicals and definitions used for the qualification
of traffic. We learn how we can determinate the authoritative traffics
belonging to the traffic examinations.

Qualification of traffic transaction

Traffic transaction
There are two kinds of traffic transaction: undisturbed and disturbed.
Discrimination is important from the aspect of classification, they have to be
managed differently.
Traffic transaction is undisturbed if the flow is continuous without
interruption, vehicles dont influence each other (for example the traffic
transaction of highways).


Disturbed, hampered traffic transaction is full of interruptions, traffic flows
get into conflict with each other.Interruptions typically arosed by the junctions.

Capacity
Capacity is the number of vehicles or passengers able to pass on a given cross
section under a given unit time.

Determination of flow rate and capacity is very similar. Please think over what
is the difference between them!

We call traffic flow to unsaturated if the arriving traffics size does not exceed
the capacity (figure Figure 40. ). Traffic flow is supercharged if the arriving
traffics size exceeds the capacity (figure Figure 41. ). In case of supercharged
traffic flow the size of the oncoming traffic equals to the capacity (figure
Figure 42. ).


Figure !0. : >nsaturated traffic flow.



Figure !1. : 6uercharged traffic flow.


Figure !2. : 6uercharged traffic flow.
At the determination of the traffic lanes capacity we suppose 1,8 s following
time interval. Accordingly 2000 E/h traffic can travel through one lane in an
hour. This is a theoretical value, flow rate higher than 2400 E/h was already
measured at congested traffic.
xxvii




Capacity of one traffic lane: 2000 E/h

If there are more available traffic lanes, then the kinetic freedom increases.
Due to the possibility of the interchange lanes slowlier vehicles can be
overtaken, speed is equalised better, so the value of capacity increases too.
If the route is one-way, then the oncoming direction is closed physically. As
this construction is typical to the highways and freeways, so there are only
different-level junctions and the free rate of flow is 90-120 km/h. If we have
three or more lanes by direction, then the extended kinetic freedom increases
the value of capacity further.

The multi-lane, unidirectional routes capacity:
2200 E/h/lane in case of double-lane
2300 E/h/lane in case of three or more lanes

If the road is bidirectional, then on the first hand we have to count with the
disturbing effect of the oncoming vehicles,
xxviii
on the other hand with the
crossing traffic appearing in the grade junctions. It results that although the
extra capacity (from the possibility of interchange lanes) remains, the presence
of the third lane doesnt increase the throughput any more. The free rate of
flow is approximately 70-110 km/h on these establishments.

Capacity of four- or more traffic lane, bidirectional route:
2200 E/h/lane

If there is only one lane is available by direction, then the kynetic freedom
mostly depends on the overtaking possibility. Thats why we have to handle
the two lanes in one! The number of vehicles able to pass is effected
significantly by the traffics homogeneity and the distribution according to
direction, which is 50-50% in an optimal case.
xxix


Capacity of double-lane, bidirectional route: 2800 E/h/lane

Quality of traffic transaction
Although the capacity demonstrates the size of traffic able to pass, traffic
transaction on the capacity limit is not the right one, its very accident-
sensitive, can be formed into bottleneck. So in the interest of traffic transaction
(adequate regarding the quality) a vehicle amount smaller than capacity pass
through only.




Capacity exploitation (v/c)
The ratio of capacity and the effective traffic demand.

We describe the quality of traffic transaction with service levels. Service level
qualifies the traffic with factors sensible by running peoples. These main
typicals are: speed, travelling time, kynetic freedom, undisturbed traffic flow,
comfort. Traffic safety is not part of the quality characterization! Questions
regarding traffic safety have to be analysed separately.
Each service levels represent one province of traffic flow. In case of
undisturbed traffic flow the highest level becomes in case of low traffic, large
kynetic freedom and slight hindrance. With the growth of traffic these
characters decrease, so proportionately service level becomes lower too.
We count the service levels into six groups:
xxx

Service level marked A: vehicles can choose their speed freely on empty
road, overtakings and lane changes can be executed without any delay
(figure Figure 43. ).
Service level marked B: in case of low traffic vehicles effect each other
slightly.
Service level marked C: in case of medium traffic all of the overtakings
cannot be executed without delay. Vehicle columns start to evolve, but they
are periodic and short. The effect of traffic disorders dissolves fast (figure
Figure 44. ).
Service level marked D: beside larger traffic vehicle columns come to stay
and become longer and longer. Disorders cease more and more slowlier.
Service level marked E: beside traffic size same to the capacity vehicles
travel in closed columns with the same speed. For the affect of the smallest
disorder traffic starts to accumulate (figure Figure 45.).
Service level marked F: Accumulating, unstable traffic, traffic size is
smaller than the capacity, in extreme case traffic stops (figure Figure 46.
).
xxxi

Transition is continual between each groups. For example between the lower
limit of level B and the upper limit of level C the deviation is minimal. The
only difference is between the E and F level: here the limit can be measured,
its crossing results significant change in traffic transaction.



Figure !3. : ?A? service level.


Figure !!. : ?/? service level.

Figure !". : ?#? service level.



Figure !(. : ?F? service level.

High-toned satisfaction of traffic demands would prefer to ensure the freest
traffic flows possibility. However the economical aspects obstruct these
demands.

Permissible traffic size
The exploitation of capacity is so high rate, where the quality of traffic
transaction is still adequate.

Permissible traffic size gives the value belongs to traffic transaction still
adequate in the aspect of quality. Its important to perform the qualification
not according to traffic size, but other characters! So the permissible traffic
size can be calculated according to the value of qualifier character belongs to
the proper traffic transaction. At the calculation we have to consider the
effective conditions, namely we modify the theoretical value with the
corrective factors related to the examined establishment.
Another question is that what reckons an adequate traffic transaction in quality
aspect. Service level E is not suitable, its too sensitive for disorders. Service
level C is the level where traffic goes still leisurely and the establishments
can be constructed economically. In the outer area, where there are higher
driver demands, we plan for service level C.
Situation is different in the municipal area. Providing of service level C
comes up against significant difficulties and extra costs. Otherwise, offering
from the nature of traffic drivers are more tolerant, they accept the obstructive
conditions, so in municipal area we plan for service level D.



Permissible traffic size is the traffic sizes belong to the suitable service level.
In the outer area we plan for service level C, in municipal area we plan for
service level D.

Traffic checkup

The purpose of traffic checkup is the qualification of the present traffic
transaction:
checking the extant construction
statement of service level
determination of capacity reserve
In the course of traffic checkup we determine the service level of traffic
transaction based on the authoritative traffic. In the knowledge of service level
we can qualify the extant construction: is the traffic adequate or sustainable.
xxxii

Capacity reserve is the difference of the capacity and the authoritative traffic
size: it shows the traffic growth endured by the given establishment.
xxxiii

How do we determinate the extent of the authoritative traffic? As we saw it
earlier, the size of traffic changes in time. What value do we consider at the
execution of traffic checkup?
We can answer the above mentioned question with the aid of traffic durability
curve (figure Figure 47. ): we arrange the hour volumes of traffic into
decreasing sequence. On the vertical axis the hour traffic volume can be found,
expressed in the percent of NF; on the horizontal axis there can be found the
number of those hours, whenever this or larger traffic volume occurred during
the year.




Figure !+. : 1raffic durability curve.
Authoritative traffic per hour, MF
The highest traffic per hour is the one that occurs at least 50
xxxiv
times in a year.

The authoritative traffic per hour is the value belongs to the traffic durability
curves 50 hours durability. This means that if we plan for this traffic, then
traffic is not served adequately in one part of the year! There will be such 50
hours, when traffic transaction wont be suitable!
Why do we determinate the authoritative traffic per hour like this? If we notice,
the traffic durability curve is hyperbola shape. We can achieve small changes
with high costs on the steep section: capacity has to be increased significantly
if we want to achieve an unadequate traffic transaction less with one two
hours annually. Its not worth economically.
However on the flatter sections we can revise notably the traffic transaction
with minimal appropriation: small-scale enlargement of capacity increases
significantly the number of proper traffic transactions hours.
It follows from the above statements that why we use the 50 hours durability
for the determination of the authoritative traffic per hour. The 50 hours is
between the steep and flat sections on the traffic durability curve: we cannot


move into the steep direction, because we could only show up a week
improvement from a lot of money. We cannot either move into flatter
direction, because the traffics transaction would fail significantly in exchange
for low cost saving.
The authoritative traffic per hour can be expressed in the function of average
daily traffic:

w is the rush-hour factor,
xxxv
its value changes between 10-21%. The more
even the daily traffic is the smaller the w rush-hour factor is. In case of routes
with significant business traffic the value of w is 10% (figure Figure 48. ),
while in case of routes with significant recreational traffic the value of w can
be 21% (figure Figure 49. ).

Figure !8. : 'oute with significant business traffic: w @ 10A.
NF w MF =



Figure !9. : 'oute with significant recreational traffic: w @ 21A.

Traffic sizing

Purpose of traffic sizing is to provide the service level required to the
expectable traffic. We use it for planning of developments in order to ensure
the required service level for the expectable traffic by the future establishment.
We fulfil the traffic sizing for the planned geometrical configuration: we have
to modify the construction as long as the expectable traffic transaction wont
be suitable.
For the achievement of traffic sizing we have to know the traffic conditions
expectable in the future. The designation concentration of traffic is the
authoritative concentration of traffic expectable in the future. We receive it
with the pre-estimation of traffic and the determination of the expectable value.
We have more methods for this:
projective, pre-projected method (traffic developing multipliers)
analytic, analyzing method (network modelling)

The method of traffic developing multipliers increases proportionately the
present traffics with the expectable development of motorization. Simple,


easily doable, we multiply the value of MF with the annual traffic developing
factors. Road matter regulations contain the value of multipliers to be applied.
However the method does not consider the effects of the networks
development! So it can be only used properly in such cases, when we dont
have to count with the change of travelling samples.
xxxvi

Network modelling describes the factors affecting traffic with the aid of
mathematical relations. With the aid of this model the relations of traffic
system are comprehensible, the effects of the possible changes can be
estimated. The classic network model distributes the process of modelling to
four steps: travel formation, determination of destination, selection of transport
way and the selection of route. Classic model has faults, more developed
models determine the expectable traffic demands according to the equilibrium
states between the travel request and the quality of transport service.

Exercises
Please answer the following questions and complete the below exercises!

Exercise 1. :
Please represent the determination of capacity!

Exercise 2. :
What is the difference between the definition of concentration of traffic and
capacity?

Exercise 3. :
Please typify the unsaturated, saturated and supercharged traffic flow!

Exercise 4. :
How much is the capacity of one traffic lane?

Exercise 5. :
How much is the capacity of a multi-lane, unidirectional route?

Exercise 6. :
How much is the capacity of a four- or more traffic lane, bidirectional route?

Exercise 7. :
How much is the capacity of a double-lane, bidirectional route?



Exercise 8. :
Please represent the determination of capacity exploitation!

Exercise 9. :
Theoretically what is the maximal value of the rate of capacity and the
effective traffic demand? Has a higher value than 1.00 ever been measured,
what can be the reason of it?

Exercise 10. :
Please demonstrate the definition of service levels! Typify each of the levels!

Exercise 11. :
Please represent the definition of permissible traffic!

Exercise 12. :
Please show in the purpose of traffic checkup!

Exercise 13. :
Please draw the traffic durability curve true-to-shape! Please explain the
relations can be read about the figure!

Exercise 14. :
Please represent the definition of the authoritative traffic per hour! Why do we
determine it like this?

Exercise 15. :
Please demonstrate the relation between the NF and MF!

Exercise 16. :
Please represent the methods used for the determination of traffic sizing and
the expectable traffic!


Traffic safety

Traffic accidents are the most serious accompanies of public traffic. In the
supervention of it, over the drivers momentary concentration and practise
the planning engineers expert can interplays too. The examination of
accident reasons demonstrates that there are several other moments, which
could play a part in the accidents also in the case if there was an evident,
main reason of the accident.



So the most important task of traffic engineer is the continuous monitoring
of traffic signals, geometries and all of the traffic conditions and giving
effect to the accident preventive interpositions according to the daily, weekly
and monthly experiences.
xxxvii


In the lesson we meet the methodology of traffic safety analysis and the
casualty indicators used in the analysis. We review the methodology of
conflict examination discovering dangerous traffic situations.

Traffic safety analysis

The duty of transport planner is to find the traffic safety problems and solve
them somehow. We take note of traffic transaction continuously and where its
required, we give effect to accident preventive interpositions.
We aim to find the dangerous situations during the traffic safety analyses. In
the traditional analysis we search those places (by the examination of already
intervened accidents) where there are more accidents, than it could be
expectable from the random distribution. We call these places to centres.
At the casualty spot examination policemen fill in report too. The data of this
report enter into a central database, from which we can read for the purpose of
traffic safety analyses. Unfortunately this method has several disadvantages:
the first is that we have information only about those accidents where there
was police operation. So the smaller accidents are lost for the analyser. The
other problem is the quality of the reports data: policeman executing the spot
examination has a lot of work to do, filling of report is not so important for
him. So the exact site identification and the determination of the real reason of
the accident cause difficulty in most cases.
According to the accident data we determine the casualty indicators related to
each road sections and junctions. With statistic methods we filter those places,
where the value of indicators is extremely high: these are the centres. We can
find the condensation place of accidents with the traditional analysis.
After finding of centres the re-examination of site begins. We are curious about
the reason of accidents. We always have to research the reasons of the
supervention of accidents during the analysis. We determine the reasons with
the analysis of dangerous traffic situations and the conflict examination.
Accidents happen because of the drivers fault: if the driver does not make any
mistake, then there is no accident. The evident casualty reasons: the drivers
unobservance, inexperience and the unsuitable driving for the road- and


visibility conditions. However we must not forget about the construction of
transport establishment because this plays a significant role too.
What can be the reason of that drivers are much less careful on certain places
than elsewhere? Probably here the construction of the establishment doesnt
draw attention to the method of road usage sufficiently. Why do numbers of
drivers fall asleep on the highways in the night? Probably because the tracing
of road and the thin traffic together are specifically inducement-poor, the tired
driver doesnt meet situations requiring interest through long hours.
The examination of relation between safety of traffic and the quality of traffic
transaction
xxxviii
points out that the road sections with good geometry and low
traffic are more dangerous!
xxxix
The advantageous, dynamic tracing,
furthermore the low traffic enable larger speed and requires less attention from
the driver. Consequently the driver will be more impatient, maintaining of
hindrance is much worse, they try to overtake more often and more agressively
(figure Figure 50. ). This may cause accidents.

Capacity increasing projects have to be executed attentively the interests of
traffic safety maximally!!!


Figure "0. : 1ruc; irregularly overta;ing a vehicle irregularly overta;ing a slow vehicle.
Casualty indicators

Traditional analyses conclude to the accident condensation places based on the
already occurred accidents, after all the investigation and the correction of site


follows. At the traditional analyses we can find the accident condensation
according to the following indicators.

Accident density
The prevalence of accidents is the number of the occurred accidents under a
given period (usually 3 or 5 years). This is the most common index-number of
traffic safety because the number of accidents eventuated under the examined
time can be related to most of the influential factors.


Accident number accumulated by weighting
Accidents can be grouped according to seriousness. Its matter that the
accident amounts to only property damage or there are casualties too. From
the aspect of seriousness we differentiate four groups: only property damage
accidents (S
1
), light traumatic accidents (S
2
), serious accidents (S
3
) and mortal
accidents (S
4
).
xl

We compare each of the groups with the aid of severity equivalent. Severity
equivalent-numbers (b
i
) reflect the ratio of the accidents national economical
costs: at property damage accidents b
1
= 1, at light traumatic accidents b
2
= 5,
at serious accidents b
3
= 70, at mortal accidents b
4
= 130.
Accident number accumulated by weighting (B
s
) is the sum (S
i
) of accident
numbers multiplied with severity equivalent (b
i
) belonging to each groups:


Average seriousness of accidents
Average seriousness of accidents (B

) is the relation of accident number


accumulated by weighting to the casualty amount calculated without weights.
It shows that if an accident eventuates, then what the expectable seriousness
will be.
xli




Traffic power
If we are curious about the probability of the accidents supervention, then we
have to take the size and power of traffic into consideration.
xlii
We define the
traffic power as the total length taken by vehicles under the examined period.

=
i
i
S S

=
i
i i S
S b B

=
i
i
S

S
B
B


For its calculation the average daily traffic (NF) has to be multiplied with the
days of the year (365), the number of examined years (t = 3 or t = 5) and the
length of the analysed section (l). In case of junctions we consider the length
as a unit (l = 1).
Traffic power typically will be an uncomfortably large number. For the sake
of simplicity and easier manageability we use ten million vehicle kilometre
[10
7
jkm] as the unit of traffic power.
xliii

Relative casualty indicator
Relative casualty indicator (B
R
) demonstrates the number of accidents in ten
million vehicle kilometre:
xliv




Relative danger degree
Of course we can consider traffic power at the accident number accumulated
by weighting. Relative danger degree (V
R
) gives the number accumulated by
weighting of the accidents occurred in ten million vehicle kilometres:


Safety degree
The operator of public road network is responsible for the most dangerous
elements on the network handled by him. At the determination of safety degree
(B) we compare the relative casualty indicator (B
R
) of the given establishment
with the most dangerous (possessing the worst relative casualty indicator)
establishment (B
Rmax
):


Safety degree indicates the scale of danger in road sections and junctions
correlating to other elements of the network. The sequence - mounted like this
- represents where and in what sequence it is worth to encroach.
xlv



Conflict analysis

Conflict analysis analyse the dangerous traffic situations. Its very useful
device because with its help reasons of accidents can be determined simply
t l NF
S
B
n
i
i
R

=
365
10
1
7
t l NF
B
V
S
R

=
365
10
7
max R
R
B
B
B =


and unequivocally. Conflict analysis is made by the engineer preparing the
analysis, so during the examination he gets a lot of useful information about
the customs of the establishment users, and there arent data service problems.
Traffic conflict is such a perceptible traffic situation, where the danger of
accident exists if the traffic participants continue movement without change,
then for the avoidance of accident sudden deflection or braking is required.
xlvi

Dangerous situations differ from the accident because in the first case drivers
still have the chance for a more or less controlled reaction (figure Figure 51. ).
From the aspect of seriousness we can differentiate light conflict, serious
conflict and almost accident.
Analysis of offences (although these are not certainly conflicts according to
definition) is an important element of the conflict analysis. Offences refer to
unsatisfied traffic demands, uncertain traffic situations. During the inspection
and transformation of site these problems have to be solved too.


Figure "1. : 1yes of *eetings between drivers.
Advantages of conflict analyses:
Number of dangerous traffic situations is much larger than the number of
accidents, so from their examination we can receive more and more trusty
consequences;
Duration of analyses can be short, based on a few hours monitoring we can
receive valuable experiences;


Efficiency of developments can be rated quickly (before-after examinations
sustain the inspection of accidents in 3-3 years to adequate);
Different traffic control versions can be quickly tried and rated;
Imperfections of casualty examinations of the spot (only property damage
accidents data are not available) dont cause any difficulty in conclusions;
By the analysis customs of drivers are well cognizable.

Exercises
Please answer the below questions and complete the following exercises!

Exercise 1. :
Please represent the purpose and process of traffic safety analysis!

Exercise 2. :
Please demonstrate the relation between traffic safety and the quality of traffic
transaction!

Exercise 3. :
Please represent the definition of accident density!

Exercise 4. :
Please represent the definition and determination of accident number
accumulated by weighting!

Exercise 5. :
Please represent the definition and determination of the accidents average
severity!

Exercise 6. :
Please represent the vehicle powers determination!



Exercise 7. :
Please represent the definition and determination of relative casualty indicator!

Exercise 8. :
Please represent the definition and determination of relative danger degree!

Exercise 9. :
Please represent the definition and determination of safety degree!

Exercise 10. :
Please give the definition of traffic conflict!

Exercise 11. :
Please represent the advantages of conflict analysis!

Exercise 12. :
Why is the analysis of offences important?






Control questions

Q4.1. Please represent the definition of flow rate!
Q4.2. What does the flow rates annual variation depend on?
Q4.3. What does the flow rates daily variation depend on?
Q4.4. What does the flow rates variation inside a day depend on?
Q4.5. Please represent the definition of average daily traffic!
Q4.6. Please represent the definition of projected flow rate!
Q4.7. How can we calculate the PHF peak-hour factor?
Q4.8. Between what values does the PHF peak-hour factor change?
Q4.9. How can we consider the content of vehicle traffic?
Q4.10. Please represent the definition of spatial average speed!
Q4.11. Please represent the definition of temporal average speed!
Q4.12. Please represent the definition of average travelling speed!
Q4.13. Please represent the definition of average running speed!
Q4.14. Please represent the definition of active running speed!
Q4.15. Please represent the definition of highest active running speed!
Q4.16. Please represent the definition of free rate of flow!
Q4.17. What is the difference between the highest active running speed and
free rate of flow?
Q4.18. Please represent the definition and unit of density!
Q4.19. What types do the traffic signs have?
Q4.20. Please represent the definition of periodic time!
Q4.21. Please represent the definition of red time and the related signal
images!
Q4.22. Please represent the definition of phase-time and the related signal
images!
Q4.23. Please represent the definition of capacity!
Q4.24. Please represent the saturated traffic flow!
Q4.25. Please represent the unsaturated traffic flow!
Q4.26. Please represent the supercharged traffic flow!
Q4.27. How much is the capacity of one traffic lane?
Q4.28. How much is the capacity of a multi-lane, unidirectional route?


Q4.29. How much is the capacity of a four- or more lane, bidirectional route?
Q4.30. How much is the capacity of a double-lane, bidirectional route?
Q4.31. Please represent the definition of capacity exploitation!
Q4.32. Please represent the definition, role and typical of service levels!
Q4.33. Please represent the permissible flow rates definition!
Q4.34. What service levels belong to the permissible flow rate?
Q4.35. What is the purpose of traffic checkup?
Q4.36. Please represent the definition of authoritative traffic per hour!
Q4.37. Please represent the relation between the NF and MF!
Q4.38. What is the goal of traffic sizing?
Q4.39. Please represent the process of traffic safety analysis!
Q4.40. Please explain the relation between the traffic safety and the quality of
traffic transaction!
Q4.41. Please represent the definition of accident density!
Q4.42. Please represent the definition of accident number accumulated by
weighting!
Q4.43. Please represent the definition of the accidents average severity!
Q4.44. Please represent the definition of the accidentsrelative indicator!
Q4.45. Please represent the definition of relative danger degree!
Q4.46. Please represent the role and determination method of safety degree!
Q4.47. Please give the definition of traffic conflict!
Q4.48. Please list the advantages of conflict analysis!

Answers

A4.1. Flow rate is the number of vehicles or passangers passing through on
a cross-section under a given unit time.
A4.2. The annual variation reflects the social and economical activities of
the area served by road. The biggest changes are caused by the free
time traffic, the economical traffic (business and travelling to work)
follows more continuous samples.
A4.3. The daily variation depends on the character of the road. Traffic in the
end of the week is lower on the roads serving principally business
traffic, so the value of change is minimal. Higher traffic can be


expected in the end of the week on the roads serving recreational
traffic, so the value of change is more significant.
A4.4. Variation inside a day depends on the route type and the given day.
A4.5. The average daily traffic is the ratio of the examined road sections
total annual vehicle number and the 365 days of a year.
A4.6. We determinate the projected flow rate so that we divide the number
of vehicles (passing through under 15 minutes time period of the
highest traffic) with the length of the time period expressed in hour.
A4.7. We call the ratio of the projected flow rate and the total hour traffic to
peak-hour factor (PHF).
A4.8. In case of municipal roads the peak-hour factor is typically between
0,80 and 0.98. The more variable the traffic is the smaller this value is
and vice versa, the higher the value of PHF is the less variable the
traffic is. Value above 0,95 means very high traffic load, often a traffic
transaction near to the capacity limit.
A4.9. We calculate each vehicle types to the automobile-equivalence. We
can calculate the flow rate of the homogeneous vehicle flow if we sum
up the vehicle categories flow rate multiplied with the equivalence-
factor.
A4.10. Spatial average speed is the average speed related to one road section.
Dividing the length of the given section with the travelling times
belonging to the section we calculate the travelling speed. Its average
is the spatial average speed.
A4.11. Temporal average speed can be calculated as the average of
momentary speeds measured in a given cross section.
A4.12. We calculate trip speed as the ratio of length and trip time. The average
travelling speed is the average of the trip speeds received so. Its equal
to the spatial average speed.
A4.13. The average speed of vehicles passing through on a given road section
determinating based on the time spent with movement.
A4.14. Active running speed is the developable speed on longer road section,
even on wet pavement beside traffic by an automobile passing
hurriedly.
A4.15. The highest active running speed is the developable speed on longer
road section, even on wet pavement without traffic by an automobile
passing hurriedly.
A4.16. The average of speeds chosen freely by the drivers beside low traffic.


A4.17. It differs from the highest active running speed, because now we take
the average of speed values.
A4.18. Density is the number of vehicles or pedestrians standing on a given
road section in a given moment. Its unit can be: j/km (relevantly to one
lane); E/km (relevantly to one lane); pedestrian/m2
A4.19. Traffic signs indicate the type of the route, regulate the priority, give
instruction, mark interdict and restriction, sign danger, give
information.
A4.20. Signal images follow each other cyclically, we call the sequence of
signal images to period. We call the length of period when signals start
to return, the entrant signal image follows again.
A4.21. During the red time its not allowed to enter into the junction. Three
signal images belong to here: yellow, red and red-yellow.
A4.22. Green time is the duration of free signal, when the entrance into the
junction is allowed. Green signal image belongs to it.
A4.23. Capacity is the number of vehicles or passengers able to pass on a
given cross section under a given unit time.
A4.24. In case of saturated traffic flow the size of the arriving traffic is equal
to the capacity.
A4.25. We call traffic flow to unsaturated if the arriving traffics size does
not exceed the capacity.
A4.26. Traffic flow is supercharged if the arriving traffics size exceeds the
capacity.
A4.27. Capacity of one traffic lane is 2000 E/h.
A4.28. Capacity of a multi-lane, unidirectional route is 2200 E/h/lane in case
of double-lane, its 2300 E/h/lane in case of three or more lanes.
A4.29. Capacity of a four- or more traffic lane, bidirectional route is 2200
E/h/lane.
A4.30. Capacity of a double-lane, bidirectional route is 2800 E/h for the two
lanes together.
A4.31. Capacity exploitation is the ratio of capacity and the effective traffic
demand.
A4.32. We describe the quality of traffic transaction with service levels.
Service level qualifies the traffic with factors sensible by running
peoples. These main typicals are: speed, travelling time, kynetic
freedom, undisturbed traffic flow, comfort. Traffic safety is not part of
the quality characterization!


A4.33. At the permissible traffic size the exploitation of capacity is so high
rate, where the quality of traffic transaction is still adequate.
A4.34. Permissible traffic size is the traffic sizes belong to the suitable service
level. In the outer area we plan for service level C, in municipal area
we plan for service level D.
A4.35. The purpose of traffic checkup is the qualification of the present traffic
transaction: checking the extant construction, statement of service
level, determination of capacity reserve.
A4.36. Authoritative traffic per hour, MF is the highest traffic per hour is
the one that occurs at least 50 times in a year.
A4.37. The authoritative traffic per hour can be expressed in the function of
average daily traffic: MF = w NF; w is the rush-hour factor, its
value changes between 10-21%. The more even the daily traffic is the
smaller the w rush-hour factor is. In case of routes with significant
business traffic the value of w is 10%, while in case of routes with
significant recreational traffic the value of w can be 21%.
A4.38. Purpose of traffic sizing is to provide the service level required to the
expectable traffic. We use it for planning of developments in order to
ensure the required service level for the expectable traffic by the future
establishment. We fulfil the traffic sizing for the planned geometrical
configuration: we have to modify the construction as long as the
expectable traffic transaction wont be suitable.
A4.39. We aim to find the dangerous situations during the traffic safety
analyses. In the traditional analysis we search those places (by the
examination of already intervened accidents) where there are more
accidents, than it could be expectable from the random distribution.
We call these places to centres. After finding of centres the re-
examination of site begins. We are curious about the reason of
accidents. We always have to research the reasons of the supervention
of accidents during the analysis. We determine the reasons with the
analysis of dangerous traffic situations and the conflict examination.
A4.40. The advantageous, dynamic tracing, furthermore the low traffic enable
larger speed and requires less attention from the driver. Consequently
the driver will be more impatient, maintaining of hindrance is much
worse, they try to overtake more often and more agressively. This may
cause accidents. Capacity increasing projects have to be executed
attentively the interests of traffic safety maximally!
A4.41. The prevalence of accidents is the number of the occurred accidents
under a given period (usually 3 or 5 years).


A4.42. Accident number accumulated by weighting is the sum of accident
numbers multiplied with severity equivalent belonging to each groups.
A4.43. Average seriousness of accidents is the relation of accident number
accumulated by weighting to the casualty amount calculated without
weights. It shows that if an accident eventuates, then what the
expectable seriousness will be.
A4.44. Relative casualty indicator demonstrates the number of accidents in
ten million vehicle kilometre.
A4.45. Relative danger degree gives the number accumulated by weighting
of the accidents occurred in ten million vehicle kilometres.
A4.46. At the determination of safety degree we compare the relative
casualty indicator of the given establishment with the most dangerous
(possessing the worst relative casualty indicator) establishment. Safety
degree indicates the scale of danger in road sections and junctions
correlating to other elements of the network.
A4.47. Traffic conflict is such a perceptible traffic situation, where the danger
of accident exists if the traffic participants continue movement without
change, then for the avoidance of accident sudden deflection or
braking is required.
A4.48. Advantages of conflict analyses: number of dangerous traffic
situations is much larger than the number of accidents, so from their
examination we can receive more and more trusty consequences;
duration of analyses can be short, based on a few hours monitoring we
can receive valuable experiences; efficiency of developments can be
rated quickly (before-after examinations sustain the inspection of
accidents in 3-3 years to adequate); different traffic control versions
can be quickly tried and rated; imperfections of casualty examinations
of the spot (only property damage accidents data are not available)
dont cause any difficulty in conclusions; by the analysis customs of
drivers are well cognizable.

i
* forgalo! lebonyol+d,sa t-r.id) rends'erben t/rt-ni"0 e'-rt a' /ss'es 1elle!')t ebben "ell -rtel!e'n2n". *
forgalo!nagys,g ebben a t-r.id) rends'erben a' id)tengellyel p,rh%'a!osan 3ett !ets'et0 a'a' egy id)beli
1elle!').
ii
4elen esetben e' 0.2#.tel 3al+ os't,st 1elent0 a'a' a legnagyobb 1# perces forgal!at n-ggyel s'oro''%" !eg.
iii
5lyen cs6cs+ra.t-nye')n" les' !-g a' ,tlagos napi forgalo! -s a !-rt-"ad+ +raforgalo! "/'/tti "apcsolat
!eghat,ro',s,n,l. 7e "e3er12" /ss'e a "ett)t8
i3
9' a 1elens-g 3e'etett a s,3o" 3,lto'+ ir,ny6 has'n,lat,ho': reggel befel-0 d-l%t,n "ifel- lehet )"et has'n,lni.
9nne" pers'e so" !,s forgalo!techni"ai -s geo!etriai "/3et"e'!-nye 3an0 ne! lehet a",rhol al"al!a'ni.
3
;-ld,%l figyel12" a cso!+pontban a' adott ir,nyb+l a balra ford%l+ 1,r!<3e"et0 !,so" pedig !,s cso!+ponti
!o'g,so"at "/3etne" s'e!!el.




3i
;-ld,%l a ne! -s a' -let"or egys'er<en !eg,llap=that+. * 1/3edel!i hely'etr)l pedig a "ocsi !,r",1a -s
,llapota so""al 1obban ,r%l"odi"0 !int a 1,r!<3e'et) 3,las'a.
3ii
* t-r.id) rends'erben t-rbeli -s id)beli 3,lto'+ is lehet0 !eghat,ro',s,na" !+ds'er-t)l f2gg)en.
3iii
*' ,tlagos %ta',si sebess-g defin=ci+ s'erint !egegye'i" a t-rbeli ,tlagsebess-ggel.
i>
9' is egy t-rbeli sebess-gfogalo!.
>
?2lter2leti %ta"n,l has'n,latos seberss-gfogalo!.
>i
@i%t,n nagyon r/3id t,3ols,go"r+l 3an s'+0 a t-rbeli -s a' id)beli sebess-g gya"orlatilag a'onos. 9'-rt nincs
gond a t-rbeli A"/3et-si t,3ols,gB -s id)beli A"/3et-si id)0 pillanatnyi sebess-gB !ennyis-ge" 3egyes
has'n,lat,3al.
>ii
* g/rbe fels) s'a"as'a nagyon s'-pen "i!-rhet) a gya"orlatban is. *' als+0 instabil s'a"as'ho' pontfelh)
tarto'i"0 a diagra!on pont3onallal !egra1'olt r-s' csa" el!-leti.
>iii
*' a%t+p,ly,n ny,ri h-t3-g-n ha'afel- tart3a tapas'talhat1%"0 hogy a forgalo! hirtelen le,ll. 9nne" o"a0 hogy
a forgalo!nagys,g !egn/3e"edett0 de a sebess-g ne! cs/""ent 3ele egy2tt. 9!iatt let-rt2n" a stabil
forgalo!,ra!l,st le=r+ g/rb-r)l. * forgalo! ,ra!l,sa instabill, 3,lt0 ,t"er2lt2n" g/rbe pont3onallal 1el/lt als+
r-s'-re. Cs ebb)l !,r "/3et"e'i" a torl+d,s. Dogyan "er2lhet12" e't elE Da a forgalo!nagys,g n/3e"ed-s-3el
egy2tt "orl,to''%" a sebess-get0 a""or stabili',lhat+ a forgalo! ,ra!l,sa. 4obb F0.nal haladni 130 helyett0
!int a d%g+ban ,llni. 9rre s'olg,lna" a 3onali forgalo!s'ab,lyo'+ rends'ere"0 a!elye""el a torl+d,so"
"iala"%l,s,t el lehet "er2lni 3agy legal,bb 1elent)sen "-sleltetni lehet.
>i3
* bi'onytalan forgal!i hely'ete"b)l pedig nagyon gya"ran 3es'-lyes forgal!i hely'ete" ala"%lna" "i.
>3
;-ld,%l a' el)'-s !egtilt,sa eset-n a t,bla "ihelye'-se !ellett b%r"olati 1ellel A',r+3onallalB is 1el/lni "ell a
tilal!at.
>3i
*' 6tb%r"olati 1ele"ne" legal,bb a !eg,ll,si l,t+t,3ols,gna" !egfelel) t,3ols,gb+l felis!erhet)ne" "ell
lenni2"G t/re"edni "ell a'onban arra0 hogy a'o"on a helye"en0 ahol a' el)'-si l,t+t,3ols,g is rendel"e'-sre ,ll0
a' 6t 6tb%r"olati 1ele""el 1el/lt 3onal3e'et-se a' el)'-si l,t+t,3ols,gna" !egfelel) hoss'on is 1+l felis!erhet)
legyen.
>3ii
Ter!-s'etesen lehet l,tni olyan !egold,so"at0 ahol a ',r+3onal !ind"-t oldal,n 3an s'aggatott 3onal. De ne
feled12": e' ne! 1+ !egold,s.
>3iii
7e fele1ts2": b,r 6gy n-' "i0 !int a ',r+3onal0 de ne! a'8 *' 6ttest s'-l-t 1el') 3onalat ny%godtan ,t lehet
l-pni.
>i>
?/nny< ,tesni a l+ t6loldal,ra. Da t6l so" csillog+.3illog+0 forg+ -s p/rg) es'"/'t al"al!a'%n"0 a""or a
g-p1,r!<3e'et) figyel!-t 3al+ban felh=31%" H a' es'"/'/"re. Sa1nos ilyen"or a gyalogoso"ra !,r ne! !arad
el-g figyele!0 -s pont a' ellen"e')1-t -r12" el anna"0 a!it a"art%n".
>>
*!6gy is s'eret2n" 1,rdas'igetet tenni a "-t ir,ny "/'-. S',!os "ed3e') hat,sa 3an: felh=31a a figyel!et a
gyalog,t"el)re0 lelass%l a g-p1,r!<fogalo!0 "/nnyebben !egad1," a gyalogosna" a' els)bbs-get0 3ala!int n)
a gyalogoso" s'%b1e"t=3 bi'tons,g-r'ete -s t-nyleges bi'tons,ga is.
>>i
a 1,r!<os't,lyo'+ a cso!+pontna" a' a r-s'e0 ahol a cso!+ponti t/bblets,3o" tal,lhat+a". *' el)os't,lyo'+
a' e't !egel)') s'a"as'0 ahol a forgalo! rende')d-se !,r !eg"e'd)di".
>>ii
Iyalogosforgalo!!al 3al+ "eres'te'-s lehets-ges.
>>iii
7incs ann,l )r1=t)bb0 a!i"or 3-gre '/ldet "apt%n"0 -s !enn-n": de a' el)tt2n" l-3) 1,r!< 3e'et)1e !-g csa"
!ost "e'di sebess-gbe tenni a "ocsit0 "iengedni a "-'if-"et. 9' a cso!+pont ,teres't)"-pess-ge s'e!pont1,b+l
se! 1+0 a "-s)n ind%l+ 1,r!<3e" a rendel"e'-sre ,ll+ "apacit,s 1elent)s r-s'-t elpa'arol1,".
>>i3
* piros.s,rga 1el'-s nincs !inden ors',gban0 p-ld,%l a' 9gyes2lt Jlla!o"ban se! al"al!a''," elter1edten.
>>3
9't @agyarors',gon a "/ny3 !eg=r,sa"or !,r t/bb 3id-"i 3,rosban has'n,lt,".
>>3i
* gyalogos 6gyis ,t!egy a piroson0 ha t%d1a0 hogy ne! 1/het se!!i. 9'-rt igye"e''2n" el"er2lni a' ilyen
be-p=tett s'ab,lys-rt-se"et.
>>3ii
* torl+d+ forgalo!lebonyol+d,s se!!i"-pp se! te"inthet) !egfelel)ne". Kgy hi,ba ad+dna" l,ts'+lag
nagyobb "apacit,s-rt-"e"0 a 'a3ar-r'-"enys-g !iatt e'e" csa" r/3id ideig ,llna" fent.
>>3iii
* s'e!be1/3) 1,r!<3et oldala"ad,ly"-nt -r'-"el12"0 -s /s't/n/sen cs/""ent12" a sebess-get. 9't a hat,st
pr+b,l1a !-rs-"elni pl. a "ett)s ',r+3onal0 a!i !egn/3eli a s'e!be halad+ 1,r!<3e" "/'/tti t,3ols,got.
>>i>
Da a' ir,ny s'erinti !egos'l,s 0L.100L0 a""or a' egy s,3ras 3onat"o'+ esetet "ap1%"0 a!in"or a "apacit,s
2000 9Mh.
>>>
*' egyes s'inte"he' !egadott le=r,so" a 'a3artalan forgalo!,ra!l,sra 3onat"o'na".
>>>i
* sebess-g.forgalo!nagys,g g/rbe als+0 instabil ,g,n 3agy%n".
>>>ii
* !agyar el)=r,so" s'erint a' elt<rhet) !egne3e'-s arra %tal0 hogy a forgalo! le t%d bonyol+dni0 de e'
!in)s-gi "o!pro!iss'%!o""al 1,r.
>>>iii
9't els)sorban a s'2"s-ges bea3at"o',so" 2te!e'-s-he' has'n,l1,".
>>>i3
Bi'onyos esete"ben ne! #00 hane! 30 +r,s tart+ss,g alap1,n hat,ro''%" !eg a !-rt-"ad+ +raforgal!at.



>>>3
7e! "e3erend) /ss'e a' +r,n bel2li ingado',st "ife1e') cs6cs+ra.t-nye')3el A;DFB8
>>>3i
*'a' a !egl-3) 6t !ellett ne! -p2lne" forgalo!3on'+ l-tes=t!-nye"0 illet3e nincsene" olyan h,l+'ati
bea3at"o',so"0 a!elye" a l-tes=t!-nyt -rint) %ta',si s'o",so"at !eg3,lto'tat1,".
>>>3ii
@eg"2l/nb/'tet2n" a"t=3 -s pass'=3 bi'tons,got. *' a"t=3 bi'tons,g c-l1a a balesete" !egel)'-se0
el"er2l-se. * pass'=3 bi'tons,gn,l a be"/3et"e'ett balesete" s6lyoss,g,na" !-rs-"l-s-re t/re"s'2n". 9' a'
6tter3e'-sben a' 6n. !egbocs,1t+ "/rnye'et "iala"=t,s,t 1elenti: p-ld,%l s'alag"orl,to" has'n,lata 3agy
a%t+3ersenye"en a "a3ics,gy0 a!i !egfog1a a 1,r!<3et a t/!/r a"ad,ly el)tt. A*"t=3 -s pass'=3 bi'tons,g a
1,r!< oldal,r+l is !eg1eleni": p-ld,%l a"t=3 bi'tons,got 1a3=t1a a' *BS0 a pass'=3 bi'tons,got n/3eli a l-g's," -s
a bi'tons,gi /3.B 4elen fe1e'etben csa" a' a"t=3 bi'tons,ggal foglal"o'%n".
>>>3iii
* s'olg,ltat,si s'inte" !eghat,ro',s,n,l a bi'tons,g ne! s'erepelt a !in)s=t) t-nye')" "/'/tt.
>>>i>
;-ld,%l a%t+p,lya -1s'a"a.
>l
*' egyes balesete"et annyi balesetne" s',!ol1%"0 ah,nyan !egs-r2lte" benne. ;-ld,%l egy b%s'baleset0 ahol
F hal,los ,ldo'at 3olt0 F hal,los balesetne" s',!=t.
>li
N-gi "/'le"ed-sn-l0 ha baleset t/rt-ni"0 a""or nagyon "e3-s a t6l-l)0 a'a' a balesete" ,tlagos s6lyoss,ga
!agas. ?/'6ti "/'le"ed-sn-l 3is'ont so""al t/bb a csa" anyagi ",ros balesete" s',!a0 =gy a balesete" ,tlagos
s6lyoss,ga "icsi. 9nne" ellen-re a l-gi "/'le"ed-s so""al bi'tons,gosabb0 !int a "/'6ti0 !ert a balesete"
be"/3et"e't-ne" 3al+s'=n<s-ge 1elent)sen "isebb.
>lii
Oan "-t 6t: a' egyi"en heti egy0 a !,si"on heti t=' baleset t/rt-ni". @elyi" a 3es'-lyesebbE * "-rd-s
!eg3,las'ol,s,ho' is!ern2n" "ell a' %ta"on halad+ forgal!a"at. Da a'on a' 6ton0 ahol heti egy baleset 3an0
hetente egy 1,r!< halad el0 a""or a' /ss'es ott elhalad+ 1,r!<3et baleset -ri. 9' esetben 3,rhat+an e' a' 6t
3es'-lyesebb les'0 !int a !,si" Aahol esetleg heti s','e'er ,thalad+ 1,r!<re 1%t t=' balesetB.
>liii
9' t%la1don"-ppen a't 1elenti0 hogy e't a "-nyel!etlen2l nagy s',!ot elos't1%" t='!illi+3al0 =gy a
ti'edes3ess')t h-t helyi-rt-""el 1obbra tol1%".
>li3
@-rt-"egys-ge balesetM10
P
1"!
>l3
Ter!-s'etesen a bea3at"o',si sorrend eld/nt-s-ben !,s0 pl. ga'das,gi s'e!ponto" is s'erepet 1,ts'ana": a
feladat ,ltal,ban a rendel"e'-sre ,ll+ p-n'2gyi forr,so" leghat-"onyabb felhas'n,l,sa.
>l3i
* pontos defin=ci+: a forgal!i "onfli"t%s olyan !egfigyelhet) hely'et0 a!elyben a "/'le"ed-s r-s't3e3)i
egy!,ssal -sM3agy 3ala!ilyen s'il,rd AterepBt,rggyal oly !+don "er2lne" "apcsolatba0 hogy a' id)beni 3agy
t-rbeli "/'els-g alap1,n a baleset "/'3etlen 3es'-lye ,ll fenn0 ha a !o'g,st 3,lto'atlan%l folytat1," -s
3ala!elyi" "/'le"ed) ne! 3-ge' hirtelen "it-r-st 3agy f-"e'-st.