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Cisco Networking Academy Program

CCNA 1 and 2 Companion Guide


Third Edition
Cisco Systems, Inc
Cisco Networking Academy Program
Copyright ! 2""# Cisco Systems, Inc
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:outers and :outing 5asics o- the Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA course
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,
E,er,iew
6oreword ..,
Introduction ..,ii
Part I CCNA 1& Networking 5asics #
Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking 1
Chapter 2 Networking 6undamenta%s (#
Chapter # Networking ?edia 111
Chapter ( Ca$%e Testing and Ca$%ing 4ANs and 'ANs 13#
Chapter 1 Ethernet 6undamenta%s 211
Chapter ) Ethernet Techno%ogies and Ethernet Switching #11
Chapter 2 TCP=IP Protoco% Suite and IP Addressing #21
Chapter 3 :outing 6undamenta%s and Su$nets (22
Chapter * TCP=IP Transport and App%ication 4ayer (22
Part II CCNA 2& :outers and :outing 5asics 1"*
Chapter 1" 'ANs and :outers 111
Chapter 11 :outer 6undamenta%s 11#
Chapter 12 :outer Con-iguration 132
Chapter 1# 4earning A$out Neigh$oring and :emote 9e,ices )21
Chapter 1( ?anaging Cisco IES So-tware )(1
Chapter 11 :outing and :outing Protoco%s )21
Chapter 1) 9istance Fector :outing Protoco%s 211
Chapter 12 TCP=IP Error and Contro% ?essages 2)1
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Chapter 13 5asic :outer Trou$%eshooting 232
Chapter 1* Intermediate TCP 311
Chapter 2" Access Contro% 4ists 3(1
Part III Appendi.es 322
Appendi. A Structured Ca$%ing 32*
Appendi. 5 G%ossary o- Bey Terms *2*
Appendi. C Check Gour +nderstanding Answer Bey 1""*
Inde. 1"(2
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Ta$%e o- Contents
6oreword ..,
Introduction ..,ii
Part I CCNA 1& Networking 5asics #
Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking 1
The 6undamenta%s o- Internet Connecti,ity 1
PC 5asics )
E%ectronic Components 2
PC Components 2
?other$oard Components 1"
9esktop Fersus 4aptop 11
Network Inter-ace Cards 12
NIC and ?odem Insta%%ation 1#
E,er,iew o- Digh/Speed and 9ia%up Connecti,ity 1(
TCP=IP Con-iguration 11
Testing Connecti,ity with Ping 11
'e$ 5rowsers and P%ug/Ins 1)
Ether Common Computer App%ications 13
5inary Num$ers 13
5inary :epresentation o- 9ata 1*
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 1*
5ase 1" Num$er System 21
5ase 2 Num$er System 22
5ase 1) Num$er System 2#
9ecima%/to/5inary Con,ersion 2(
5inary/to/9ecima% Con,ersion 2)
De.adecima% and 5inary Con,ersion 23
6our/Ectet 9otted/9ecima% :epresentation o- a #2/5it 5inary
Num$er #"
5oo%ean 4ogic #"
IP Addresses and Su$net ?asks #2
Summary ##
Bey Terms #1
Check Gour +nderstanding #*
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Chapter 2 Networking 6undamenta%s (#
Networking Termino%ogy (#
9ata Networks ((
Computer Networking Distory (2
Network Protoco%s (*
4oca%/Area Networks H4ANsI (*
'ide/Area Networks H'ANsI 1"
?etropo%itan/Area Networks H?ANsI 12
Specia%i8ed Networks 4ocated 'ithin the 4AN 1#
Firtua% Pri,ate Networks 1)
9igita% 5andwidth 13
The Importance o- 5andwidth 13
Ana%ogies That 9escri$e 9igita% 5andwidth 1*
9igita% 5andwidth ?easurements )1
5andwidth 4imitations )1
9ata Throughput )#
9ata Trans-er Ca%cu%ation )(
9igita% 5andwidth Fersus Ana%og 5andwidth ))
Networking ?ode%s )2
+sing 4ayers to Ana%y8e Pro$%ems in a 6%ow o- ?ateria%s )2
+sing 4ayers to 9escri$e 9ata Communication )3
The ESI :e-erence ?ode% )*
ESI 4ayers and 6unctions 21
Peer/to/Peer Communications 22
9o9 HTCP=IPI ?ode% 2(
9etai%ed Encapsu%ation Process 21
Networking 9e,ices 23
:epeaters 2*
Du$s 2*
Network Inter-ace Cards 31
5ridges 32
4ayer 2 Switches 3#
:outers 3(
Foice, 9S4, Ca$%e ?odem, and Eptica% 9e,ices 3)
Security 9e,ices 3*
'ire%ess 9e,ices *1
Network Topo%ogies *#
5us Topo%ogy *1
Star and E.tended/Star Topo%ogies *1
:ing Topo%ogy *2
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Dierarchica% Topo%ogy *3
6u%%/?esh and Partia%/?esh Topo%ogies *3
4ogica% Topo%ogy **
Summary 1""
Bey Terms 1"#
Check Gour +nderstanding 1")
Chapter # Networking ?edia 111
E%ectricity 5asics 111
Atoms and ?o%ecu%es 111
E%ectrica% Properties o- ?atter 112
?easuring E%ectricity 113
Fo%tage 11*
Current 12"
'attage 12"
:esistance and Impedance 12"
Circuits 121
Copper ?edia 12#
American 'ire Gauge System 12#
Twisted/Pair Ca$%e 12(
Shie%ded Twisted/Pair Ca$%e 12(
+nshie%ded Twisted/Pair Ca$%e 121
Coa.ia% Ca$%e 123
Ca$%e Speci-ication and Termination 1#"
Eptica% ?edia 1##
The E%ectromagnetic Spectrum 1#(
The :ay ?ode% o- 4ight 1#1
The 4aw o- :e-%ection 1#2
The 4aw o- :e-raction HSne%%@s 4awI 1#3
Tota% Interna% :e-%ection 1#*
6i$er/Eptic Ca$%es 1(1
?u%timode 6i$er 1((
Sing%e/?ode 6i$er 1(1
Ca$%e 9esigns 1()
Ether Eptica% Networking Components 1(2
Signa%s and Noise in Eptica% 6i$er 1(*
Insta%%ation, Care, and Testing o- Eptica% 6i$er 111
'ire%ess Communications 11(
'ire%ess 9ata Communications 11(
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'ire%ess Signa% 111
:adio 6re0uency 5ands 112
Spread/Spectrum Techno%ogy 11*
6DSS Fersus 9SSS 11*
'ire%ess Networking 1)1
'ire%ess 4AN Ergani8ation and Standards 1)1
'ire%ess 9e,ices and Topo%ogies 1)2
Dow 'ire%ess 4ANs Communicate 1)1
Authentication and Association 1))
The :adio 'a,e=?icrowa,e Spectrum 1)3
Signa%s and Noise on a '4AN 1)*
'ire%ess Security 12"
'EP 12"
FPN, EAP, and 4EAP 121
Summary 122
Bey Terms 12(
Check Gour +nderstanding 12)
Chapter ( Ca$%e Testing and Ca$%ing 4ANs and 'ANs 13#
5ackground -or Studying 6re0uency/5ased Ca$%e Testing 13(
'a,es 13(
Sine 'a,es and S0uare 'a,es 131
E.ponents and 4ogarithms 13)
9eci$e%s 132
Fiewing Signa%s in Time and 6re0uency 133
Noise in Time and 6re0uency 13*
Ana%og and 9igita% 5andwidth 1*"
Signa%s and Noise on Networking ?edia 1*1
Signa%ing o,er Copper and 6i$er/Eptic Ca$%ing 1*2
Attenuation and Insertion 4oss on Copper ?edia 1*1
Source o- Noise on Copper ?edia 1*)
Ca$%e Testing Standards 1**
Ether Test Parameters 2"2
Time/5ased Parameters 2"2
Testing 6i$er/Eptic Ca$%es 2"#
A New Ca$%ing Standard 2"(
Ca$%ing the 4ANs 2"1
4AN Physica% 4ayer 2"1
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Ethernet in the Campus 2")
Ethernet ?edia and Connector :e0uirement 2"3
Connection ?edia 21"
+TP Imp%ementation 212
4AN Connection 9e,ices 21)
:epeaters 21)
Du$s 212
5ridges 213
Switches 221
'ire%ess Networking ?edia 222
Dost 4AN Connecti,ity& NICs and Inter-aces 221
'orkstation and Ser,er :e%ationships 22)
Peer/to/Peer Networks 222
C%ient=Ser,er Networks 223
Ca$%ing the 'AN 2#1
'AN Physica% 4ayer 2#2
'AN Seria% Connections 2#2
:outers and Seria% Connections 2#(
:outers and IS9N 5:I Connections 2#)
:outers and 9S4 Connections 2#3
:outers and Ca$%e Connections 2#*
Setting +p Conso%e Connections 2("
Summary 2(2
Bey Terms 2((
Check Gour +nderstanding 2(2
Chapter 1 Ethernet 6undamenta%s 211
Distory and E,o%ution o- Ethernet 211
Introduction to Ethernet 212
IEEE Ethernet Naming :u%es 21#
IEEE 3"2#=Ethernet and the ESI ?ode% 211
?AC Addressing 213
6raming in Genera% 21*
Ethernet 6rame Structure 2)2
Ethernet 6rame 6ie%ds 2)(
Ethernet Eperation 2))
?edia Access Contro% 2))
Ethernet ?AC 2)3
Simp%e., Da%-/9up%e., and 6u%%/9up%e. Eperation 221
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Ethernet Timing 222
Inter-rame Spacing and 5acko-- 221
Error Dand%ing 222
Types o- Co%%isions 22*
Ethernet Errors 232
Ethernet Autonegotiation 231
4ink Esta$%ishment and 6u%%=Da%- 9up%e. 233
Co%%ision 9omains and 5roadcast 9omains 2*"
9irect%y Connected Networks 2*"
Indirect%y Connected Networks 2*1
Co%%isions and Co%%ision 9omains 2*2
Segmentation 2*1
4ayer 2 5roadcasts 2*2
5roadcast 9omains #""
Introduction to 9ata 6%ow #""
Network Segment #"2
Summary #"(
Bey Terms #")
Check Gour +nderstanding #"*
Chapter ) Ethernet Techno%ogies and Ethernet Switching #11
1"/?$ps and 1""/?$ps Ethernet #11
1"/?$ps Fersions o- Ethernet #1)
1"5ASE1 #2"
1"5ASE2 #21
1"5ASE/T #22
1"5ASE/T Architecture #2)
1""5ASE/TJ #2*
1""5ASE/6J ##2
6ast Ethernet Architecture ##(
Giga$it, 1"/G$, and 6uture Ethernet ##2
1"""/?$ps Fersions o- Ethernet HGiga$itI ##2
1"""5ASE/T ##*
1"""5ASE/SJ and 1"""5ASE/4J #(2
Giga$it Ethernet Architecture #(1
1"/G$ps Fersions o- Ethernet #(2
1"G$E ?edia, Connections, and Architecture #1"
The 6uture o- Ethernet #1(
Ethernet Switching #11
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4ayer 2 5ridging #1)
4ayer 2 Switching #12
?icrosegmentation #1*
6u%%/9up%e. Transmission #)"
4atency #)"
Switch ?odes #)1
Introduction to the Spanning Tree Protoco% #)2
Summary #))
Bey Terms #)3
Check Gour +nderstanding #2"
Chapter 2 TCP=IP Protoco% Suite and IP Addressing #21
Introduction to TCP=IP #21
App%ication 4ayer #22
Transport 4ayer #23
Internet 4ayer #3"
Network Access 4ayer #31
Comparing the ESI :e-erence ?ode% 4ayers
and the TCP=IP :e-erence ?ode% 4ayers #32
Internet Architecture #3#
IP Addresses #3)
#2/5it 9otted/9ecima% IP Address #3)
9ecima% and 5inary Con,ersion #3*
IP,( Addressing #*2
IP Address C%asses #*(
:eser,ed IP Addresses #*3
Pu$%ic and Pri,ate Addresses (""
Introduction to Su$netting ("2
IP,( Fersus IP,) ("(
IP Address Assignment, Ac0uisition, and Dierarchy ("2
E$taining an Internet Address ("2
Static Assignment o- an IP Address ("3
Address :eso%ution Protoco% ("3
:A:P IP Address Assignment (12
5ootstrap Protoco% H5EETPI IP Address Assignment (1(
9ynamic Dost Con-iguration Protoco% H9DCPI
IP Address Assignment (11
Pro$%ems in Address :eso%ution (12
Summary (1*
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Bey Terms (21
:e,iew Cuestions (22
Chapter 3 :outing 6undamenta%s and Su$nets (22
:outed, :outa$%e, and :outing Protoco%s (22
:outing E,er,iew (#"
:outing Fersus Switching (#2
:outed Fersus :outing (#1
Path 9etermination (#2
:outing Ta$%es (("
:outing A%gorithms and ?etrics ((1
Interior and E.terior :outing Protoco%s ((#
:outing Protoco%s (((
IP as a :outed Protoco% ((3
Packet Propagation and Switching 'ithin a :outer ((*
Connection%ess Fersus Connection/Eriented
Network Ser,ices (11
Anatomy o- an IP Packet (1#
The ?echanics o- Su$netting (11
Introduction to and :easons -or Su$netting (11
Esta$%ishing the Su$net ?ask Address (13
Creating a Su$net ()"
Ca%cu%ating the :esident Su$network Through AN9ing ()#
Summary ()1
Bey Terms ()2
Check Gour +nderstanding (2"
Chapter * TCP=IP Transport and App%ication 4ayer (22
+nderstanding the TCP=IP Transport 4ayer (23
6%ow Contro% (2*
Session Esta$%ishment, ?aintenance, and Termination
E,er,iew (3"
Three/'ay Dandshake (32
'indowing (3#
Acknow%edgment (3(
TCP (3)
+9P (32
TCP and +9P Port Num$ers (33
TCP=IP App%ication 4ayer (*1
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Introduction to the App%ication 4ayer (*1
9NS (*(
6TP and T6TP (*1
DTTP (*)
S?TP (*2
SN?P (*3
Te%net (**
Summary 1""
Bey Terms 1"1
Check Gour +nderstanding 1"2
Part II CCNA 2& :outers and :outing 5asics 1"*
Chapter 1" 'ANs and :outers 111
'AN Characteristics 111
'AN 9e,ices 111
'AN Standards 111
'AN Connection Eptions 11*
'AN :outers 12*
:outer Interna% Components 12*
:outer E.terna% Connections 1#1
?anagement Port Connections 1#1
The 6unction o- a :outer in a 'AN 1#)
4a$ 'AN Simu%ation 1(1
Summary 1((
Bey Terms 1(1
Check Gour +nderstanding 1()
Chapter 11 :outer 6undamenta%s 11#
:outer 5oot Se0uence and Setup ?ode 11#
:outer Startup Se0uence 11(
System Con-iguration 9ia%og 111
Setting +p G%o$a% Parameters 11)
:outer 4E9 Indicators 11*
Initia% :outer 5oot/+p Eutput 1)"
Esta$%ishing a DyperTermina% Session 1)2
4ogging into the :outer 1)1
Bey$oard De%p 1))
:outer De%p 6unctions 1)*
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Cisco IES So-tware Editing Commands 121
:outer Command Distory 122
Cisco IES So-tware 6undamenta%s 12(
Eperation o- Cisco IES So-tware 12(
Cisco IES So-tware 6eatures 121
The show ,ersion Command 122
:outer +ser Inter-ace 122
:outer +ser Inter-ace and ?odes 123
Trou$%eshooting Cisco IES So-tware 12*
Summary 131
Bey Terms 132
Check Gour +nderstanding 132
Chapter 12 :outer Con-iguration 132
Command/4ine Inter-ace Command ?odes 132
+ser Command 4ist 132
Pri,i%eged ?ode Command 4ist 13*
:outer Con-iguration ?odes 1*2
:outer Startup ?odes 1*(
Con-iguring a :outer Name 1*1
Con-iguring and Protecting :outer Passwords 1*)
E.amining the show Commands 1*2
Con-iguring a Seria% Inter-ace )""
Con-iguring an Ethernet Inter-ace )"1
E.ecuting Changes to the :outer )"2
6inishing the Con-iguration )"#
Importance o- Con-iguration Standards )"#
Pro,iding Inter-ace 9escriptions )"(
Con-iguring Inter-ace 9escriptions )"(
4ogin 5anners )"1
Con-iguring a ?essage o- the 9ay )")
Dost Name :eso%ution )")
Con-iguration 5ackup and 9ocumentation )"2
Password :eco,ery )"*
E,er,iew o- Password :eco,ery )"*
Password :eco,ery Techni0ue 1 )1"
Password :eco,ery Techni0ue 2 )11
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Summary )1(
Bey Terms )11
Check Gour +nderstanding )11
Chapter 1# 4earning A$out Neigh$oring and :emote 9e,ices )21
Introduction to C9P )21
E$taining In-ormation with C9P )22
Showing C9P Neigh$ors )2#
Imp%ementating, ?onitoring, and ?aintaining
C9P In-ormation )21
Creating a Network ?ap o- the En,ironment )22
9isa$%ing and Trou$%eshooting C9P )22
Getting In-ormation A$out :emote 9e,ices )2*
Te%net )2*
A%ternati,e Connecti,ity Tests )#2
Summary )("
Bey Terms )(1
Check Gour +nderstanding )(1
Chapter 1( ?anaging Cisco IES So-tware )(1
Stages o- the :outer Power/En=5oot Se0uence )(1
4ocating and 4oading Cisco IES So-tware )()
+sing the $oot system Command )(2
Con-iguration :egister Fa%ues )(*
9isp%aying the Current%y :unning Cisco IES So-tware
Fersion )1"
?anaging Cisco IES So-tware Images )11
Cisco IES So-tware Naming Con,entions )1(
?anaging Con-iguration 6i%e +sing T6TP )1)
?anaging Con-iguration 6i%es with DyperTermina% )13
?anaging Cisco IES So-tware Images with T6TP ))"
?anaging Cisco IES So-tware Images with :E?mon ))2
Feri-ying the 6i%e System ))2
Summary ))*
Bey Terms )2"
Check Gour +nderstanding )2"
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Chapter 11 :outing and :outing Protoco%s )21
:outing 5asics )21
Dow :outers :oute Packets -rom Source to 9estination )2)
Network and Dost Addressing )22
Path Se%ection and Packet Switching )23
:outed Protoco%s Fersus :outing Protoco%s )23
Network 4ayer Protoco% Eperations )2*
?u%tiprotoco% :outing )3"
Static :outing )31
Static Fersus 9ynamic :outes )31
The Purpose o- a Static :oute )31
Static :oute Eperation )31
Con-iguring Static :outes )3(
Dow a 9e-au%t :oute Is +sed )32
Con-iguring 9e-au%t :oute 6orwarding )32
Feri-ying Static :oute Con-iguration )3*
Trou$%eshooting Static :oute Con-iguration )3*
9ynamic :outing E,er,iew )*"
:outing Protoco% E.amp%es )*1
Purpose o- a :outing Protoco% and Autonomous Systems )*2
9ynamic :outing Eperations )*#
Dow 9istances on Network Paths Are 9etermined $y
Farious ?etrics )*#
Identi-ying the C%asses o- :outing Protoco%s )*(
9istance Fector :outing Protoco% 6eatures )*1
4ink/State :outing 5asics )*2
Dy$rid :outing Protoco% 6eatures 2"1
Con-iguring a :outer to +se :outing Protoco%s 2"1
Autonomous Systems and IGP ,s EGP 2"#
Summary 2"(
Bey Terms 2"1
Check Gour +nderstanding 2")
Chapter 1) 9istance Fector :outing Protoco%s 211
Initia% :outer Con-iguration 211
9istance Fector :outing 212
?aintaining :outing In-ormation Through 9istance
Fector Protoco%s 212
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4oad 5a%ancing Across ?u%tip%e Paths 21#
Dow :outing 4oops Eccur in 9istance Fector 21(
9e-ining a ?a.imum to Pre,ent Count to In-inity 211
E%iminating :outing 4oops Through Sp%it Dori8on 21)
:oute Poisoning 212
A,oiding :outing 4oops with Triggered +pdates 213
Pre,enting :outing 4oops with Do%d/9own Timers 21*
Pre,enting :outing +pdates Through an Inter-ace 22"
E.amining the :outing Ta$%e 221
The show ip route Command 221
9etermining the Gateway o- 4ast :esort 222
9etermining :oute Source to :oute 9estination 22#
9etermining 4ayer 2 and 4ayer # Addresses -rom the Source to the
9estination 22#
9etermining :oute Administrati,e 9istance 22(
9etermining :oute ?etric 221
9etermining :oute Ne.t Dop 22)
9etermining 4ast :oute +pdates 22)
E$ser,ing ?u%tip%e Paths to 9estination 22*
:IP 6eatures 22*
Ena$%ing :IP on an IP Network 2#"
+sing the ip c%ass%ess Command 2#1
Common :IP Con-iguration Issues 2#2
Feri-ying :IP Con-iguration 2#1
Trou$%eshooting :IP 2#3
4oad 5a%ancing with :IP 2("
Integrating Static :outes with :IP 2(1
IG:P 2((
IG:P 6eatures 2((
IG:P ?etrics 2(1
Interior, System, and E.terior IG:P :outes 2()
IG:P Sta$i%ity 6eatures 2(2
Con-iguring IG:P 2(3
Feri-ying the IG:P Con-iguration 2(*
Trou$%eshooting IG:P 211
Summary 21(
Bey Terms 211
Check Gour +nderstanding 21)
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Chapter 12 TCP=IP Error and Contro% ?essages 2)1
6unctiona%ity and :o%e o- IP in Error Contro% 2)1
IC?P 2)2
IC?P ?essage 9e%i,ery 2)2
Error :eporting and Error Correction 2)#
+nreacha$%e Networks 2)(
+sing ping to Test 9estination :eacha$i%ity 2)1
9etecting E.cessi,e%y 4ong :outes 2)*
IC?P ?essage 6ormat& Echo ?essages 2)*
IC?P ?essage 6ormat& 9estination +nreacha$%e ?essage 221
?isce%%aneous Error :eporting 22#
TCP=IP Suite Contro% ?essages 22#
IC?P :edirect=Change :e0uests 22#
C%ock Synchroni8ation and Transit Time Estimation 221
In-ormation :e0uests and :ep%y ?essage 6ormats 22)
Address ?ask :e0uests 222
:outer/9isco,ery ?essage 223
:outer/So%icitation ?essage 23"
Congestion and 6%ow/Contro% ?essages 23"
Summary 231
Bey Terms 232
Check Gour +nderstanding 232
Chapter 13 5asic :outer Trou$%eshooting 232
Introduction to Network Testing 232
Structured Approach to Trou$%eshooting 233
Testing $y ESI 4ayers 2*"
Trou$%eshooting 4ayer 1 +sing Indicators 2*1
Trou$%eshooting 4ayer 2 +sing the show inter-ace
Command 2*2
Trou$%eshooting 4ayer # +sing ping 2*#
Trou$%eshooting 4ayer # Issues +sing traceroute 2*1
Trou$%eshooting 4ayer 2 +sing Te%net 2*2
Trou$%eshooting :outer Issues +sing the show inter-ace
and show inter-aces Commands 2*3
Trou$%eshooting :outing Issues +sing the show cdp
neigh$ors Command 3"1
Trou$%eshooting :outing Issues +sing show ip route and
show ip protoco% 3"#
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Trou$%eshooting :outer Connections +sing the show
contro%%ers seria% Command 3"1
Introduction to de$ug 3")
Summary 3"*
Bey Terms 31"
Check Gour +nderstanding 31"
Chapter 1* Intermediate TCP 311
The TCP=IP Protoco% Suite 311
TCP=IP Protoco% Stack and the App%ication 4ayer 31)
TCP=IP Protoco% Stack and the Transport 4ayer 313
TCP and +9P Segment 6ormat 31*
TCP Eperation 32"
Three/'ay Dandshake 321
9enia%/o-/Ser,ice Attacks 9uring Synchroni8ation 322
'indowing and 'indow Si8e 32#
Se0uencing Num$ers 321
Positi,e ACB 32)
+9P Eperation 322
E,er,iew o- Transport 4ayer Ports 323
?u%tip%e Con,ersations 5etween Dosts 323
Ports -or Ser,ices 3#1
Ports -or C%ients 3#2
Port Num$ering and 'e%%/Bnown Ports 3#2
E.amp%e o- ?u%tip%e Sessions 5etween Dosts 3#2
Comparison o- ?AC Addresses, IP Addresses, and
Port Num$ers 3##
TCP=IP and the Internet 4ayer 3##
Dow A:P 'orks 3#(
Summary 3#1
Bey Terms 3#)
Check Gour +nderstanding 3#)
Chapter 2" Access Contro% 4ists 3(1
AC4 E,er,iew 3(1
'hy Create AC4sK 3(#
Creating an AC4& 'hy Erder ?atters 3((
+sing AC4s 3((
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Dow AC4s 'ork 3(1
AC4 Con-iguration Tasks 3(2
Assigning a +ni0ue Num$er to Each AC4 3(2
+sing 'i%dcard ?ask 5its 3(3
+sing the 'i%dcard any 31"
+sing the 'i%dcard host 311
Standard AC4s 312
E.tended AC4s 311
Con-iguring E.tended AC4s -or IC?P 3)1
Con-iguring E.tended AC4s -or IG?P 3)1
Con-iguring E.tended AC4s -or TCP 3)1
Con-iguring E.tended AC4s -or +9P 3)2
E.tended AC4 9e-au%ts 3)2
Named AC4s 3)#
P%acing AC4s 3))
6irewa%%s 3)2
+sing AC4s with 6irewa%%s 3)3
:estricting Firtua% Termina% Access 3)*
Feri-ying AC4s 32"
Summary 321
Bey Terms 322
Check Gour +nderstanding 322
Part III Appendi.es 322
Appendi. A Structured Ca$%ing 32*
?ounting 7acks in 9rywa%% *23
?ounting 7acks in P%aster *2*
?ounting 7acks in 'ood *#"
6%ush/?ounting a 7ack in a 'a%% *#"
Pu%%ing Ca$%e to the 7acks *#"
6ishing Ca$%e -rom 5e%ow a 'a%% *#1
Appendi. 5 G%ossary o- Bey Terms *2*
Appendi. C Check Gour +nderstanding Answer Bey 1""*
Inde. 1"(2
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Cisco Systems Networking Icon 4egend
Cisco Systems, Inc, uses a standardi8ed set o- icons to represent de,ices in network
topo%ogy i%%ustrations The -o%%owing icon %egend shows the most common%y used icons
that you might encounter throughout this $ook
9S+=CS+
:outer 5ridge Du$ 9S+=CS+
Cata%yst
Switch
?u%ti%ayer
Switch
AT?
Switch
IS9N=6rame
:e%ay Switch
Communication
Ser,er
Gateway Access
Ser,er
PC with
So-tware
PC
Sun
'orkstation
?acintosh Termina%
6i%e
Ser,er
'e$
Ser,er
Cisco 'orks
'orkstation
Printer 4aptop
6ront End
Processor
C%uster
Contro%%er
?odem
Network C%oud
Token
:ing
Token :ing
4ine& Ethernet
699I
699I
4ine& Seria% 4ine& Switched Seria%
I5?
?ain-rame
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Command Synta. Con,entions
The con,entions used to present command synta. in this $ook are the same con,en/
tions used in the Cisco IES So-tware Command :e-erence The Command :e-erence
descri$es these con,entions as -o%%ows&
L Fertica% $ars HMI separate a%ternati,e, mutua%%y e.c%usi,e e%ements
L S0uare $rackets HN OI indicate optiona% e%ements
L 5races HP QI indicate a re0uired choice
L 5races within $rackets HNP QOI indicate a re0uired choice within an optiona%
e%ement
L 5o%d-ace indicates commands and keywords that are entered e.act%y as shown
L Ita%ic indicates arguments -or which you supp%y ,a%ues
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6oreword
Throughout the wor%d, the Internet has $rought tremendous new opportunities -or
indi,idua%s and their emp%oyers Companies and other organi8ations are seeing dramatic
increases in producti,ity $y in,esting in ro$ust networking capa$i%ities Some studies
ha,e shown measura$%e producti,ity impro,ements in entire economies The promise
o- enhanced e--iciency, pro-ita$i%ity, and standard o- %i,ing is rea% and growing
Such producti,ity gains aren@t achie,ed $y simp%y purchasing networking e0uipment
Ski%%ed pro-essiona%s are needed to p%an, design, insta%%, dep%oy, con-igure, operate,
maintain, and trou$%eshoot today@s networks Network managers must assure that
they ha,e p%anned -or network security and -or continued operation They need to
design -or the re0uired per-ormance %e,e% in their organi8ation They must imp%ement
new capa$i%ities as the demands o- their organi8ation, and its re%iance on the network,
e.pands
To meet the many educationa% needs o- the internetworking community, Cisco Systems
esta$%ished the Cisco Networking Academy Program The Networking Academy is a
comprehensi,e %earning program that pro,ides students with the Internet techno%ogy
ski%%s essentia% in a g%o$a% economy The Networking Academy integrates -ace/to/-ace
teaching, we$/$ased content, on%ine assessment, student per-ormance tracking, hands/on
%a$s, instructor training and support, and preparation -or industry/standard certi-ications
The Networking Academy continua%%y raises the $ar on $%ended %earning and educationa%
processes The Internet/$ased assessment and instructor support systems are some o-
the most e.tensi,e and ,a%idated e,er de,e%oped, inc%uding a 2(=2 customer ser,ice
system -or Networking Academy instructors Through community -eed$ack and e%ec/
tronic assessment, the Networking Academy adapts the curricu%um to impro,e outcomes
and student achie,ement The Cisco G%o$a% 4earning Network in-rastructure designed
-or the Networking Academy de%i,ers a rich, interacti,e, and persona%i8ed curricu%um
to students wor%dwide The Internet has the power to change the way peop%e work,
%i,e, p%ay, and %earn, and the Cisco Networking Academy Program is in the -ore-ront
o- this trans-ormation
This Cisco Press tit%e is one o- a series o- $est/se%%ing companion tit%es -or the Cisco
Networking Academy Program 9esigned $y Cisco 'or%dwide Education and Cisco
Press,
these $ooks pro,ide integrated support -or the on%ine %earning content that is made
a,ai%a$%e to Academies a%% o,er the wor%d These Cisco Press $ooks are the on%y
authori8ed
$ooks -or the Networking Academy $y Cisco Systems, and pro,ide print and C9/:E?
materia%s that ensure the greatest possi$%e %earning e.perience -or Networking Academy
students
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..,i
I hope you are success-u% as you em$ark on your %earning path with Cisco Systems and
the Internet I a%so hope that you wi%% choose to continue your %earning a-ter you com/
p%ete the Networking Academy curricu%um In addition to its Cisco Networking Academy
Program tit%es, Cisco Press a%so pu$%ishes an e.tensi,e %ist o- networking techno%ogy
and certi-ication pu$%ications that pro,ide a wide range o- resources Cisco Systems
has a%so esta$%ished a network o- pro-essiona% training companiesRthe Cisco 4earning
PartnersRwho pro,ide a -u%% range o- Cisco training courses They o--er training in
many -ormats, inc%uding e/%earning, se%-/paced, and instructor/%ed c%asses Their
instructors
are Cisco certi-ied, and Cisco creates their materia%s 'hen you are ready, p%ease ,isit
the 4earning S E,ents area on Ciscocom to %earn a$out a%% the educationa% support
that Cisco and its partners ha,e to o--er
Thank you -or choosing this $ook and the Cisco Networking Academy Program
Be,in 'arner
Senior 9irector, ?arketing
'or%dwide Education
Cisco Systems, Inc
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Introduction
Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA 1 and 2 Companion Guide, Third Edition,
supp%ements your c%assroom and %a$oratory e.perience with the Cisco Networking
Academy Program, whose curricu%um is designed to empower you to enter emp%oyment
or -urther education and training in the computer networking -ie%d
This $ook trains you $eyond the on%ine materia%s that you a%ready ha,e used in this
program, and introduces you to topics pertaining to the Cisco Certi-ied Network
Associate HCCNAI certi-ication e.am This $ook c%ose%y -o%%ows the sty%e and -ormat
that Cisco Systems has incorporated into the curricu%um
This $ook introduces and e.tends your know%edge and practica% e.perience with the
design, con-iguration, and maintenance o- %oca%/area networks H4ANsI The concepts
co,ered in this $ook ena$%e you to de,e%op practica% e.perience in ski%%s re%ated to
ca$%ing, routing, IP addressing, routing protoco%s, and network trou$%eshooting This
$ook introduces the ESI mode%, discusses co%%isions and segmentations, and inc%udes
a new chapter on Ethernet techno%ogies and Ethernet switching This Companion
Guide a%so -eatures great%y enhanced chapters on IES and TCP=IP and an additiona%
chapter on access contro% %ists
This $ook not on%y prepares you -or the CCNA certi-ication e.am, $ut a%so -or the
CompTIA NetworkT certi-ication e.am
The Goa% o- This 5ook
The goa% o- this $ook is to educate you a$out Cisco supported networking techno%ogies,
and to he%p you understand how to design and $ui%d networks and to con-igure Cisco
routers It is designed -or use in conUunction with the Cisco Networking Academy
Program
on%ine curricu%um
The Audience -or This 5ook
This $ook@s main audience is students interested in networking techno%ogies In partic/
u%ar, it is targeted toward students in the Cisco Networking Academy Program In the
c%assroom, this $ook can ser,e as a supp%ement to the on%ine curricu%um
This $ook is a%so appropriate -or corporate training -acu%ty and sta-- mem$ers, as we%%
as genera% users The $ook@s user/-riend%y, nontechnica% approach is idea% -or readers
who pre-er to stay away -rom technica% manua%s
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5ook 6eatures
?any o- this $ook@s -eatures he%p -aci%itate a -u%% understanding o- the networking and
routing co,ered in this $ook&
L E$Uecti,esREach chapter starts with a %ist o- o$Uecti,es that shou%d $e mastered
$y the end o- the chapter The o$Uecti,es pro,ide a re-erence o- the concepts
co,ered in the chapter
L 6igures, e.amp%es, ta$%es, and scenariosRThis $ook contains -igures, e.amp%es,
and ta$%es that he%p e.p%ain theories, concepts, commands, and setup se0uences
that rein-orce concepts and he%p ,isua%i8e the content co,ered in the chapter In
addition, the speci-ic scenarios pro,ide rea%/%i-e situations that detai% the pro$%em
and the so%ution
L Chapter summariesRAt the end o- each chapter is a summary o- the concepts
co,ered in the chapter It pro,ides a synopsis o- the chapter and ser,es as a
study aid
L Bey termsREach chapter inc%udes a %ist o- de-ined key terms that are co,ered in
the chapter These terms ser,e as a study aid In addition, the key terms rein-orce
the concepts introduced in the chapter and he%p you understand the chapter
materia% $e-ore you mo,e on to new concepts Gou can -ind the key terms high/
%ighted in $%ue throughout the chapter where they are used in practice
L Check Gour +nderstanding 0uestionsR:e,iew 0uestions, presented at the end o-
each chapter, ser,e as an assessment In addition, the 0uestions rein-orce the con/
cepts introduced in the chapter and he%p test your understanding $e-ore you
mo,e on to new chapters
L 4a$ Acti,ity re-erencesRThroughout the $ook are re-erences to worksheet and
%a$ acti,ities -ound in Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA 1 and 2 4a$
Companion, Third Edition These %a$s he%p you make a connection $etween
theory and practice
Dow This 5ook Is Ergani8ed
This $ook is di,ided into 2" chapters and # appendi.es&
L Chapter 1, ;Introduction to Networking,< presents the $asics o- connecting to
the Internet It a%so introduces di--erent num$er systems and the processes used
to con,ert a num$er -rom one num$er system to another This chapter corre/
sponds to the ?odu%e 1 content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
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L Chapter 2, ;Networking 6undamenta%s,< introduces some o- the termino%ogy
used $y networking pro-essiona%s and ,arious types o- computer networks It
a%so descri$es how the ESI re-erence mode% networking scheme supports net/
working standards In addition, this chapter descri$es the $asic -unctions that
occur at each %ayer o- the ESI mode% 6ina%%y, this chapter descri$es ,arious
network de,ices and networking topo%ogies This chapter corresponds to the
?odu%e 2 content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter #, ;Networking ?edia,< introduces the $asic theory o- e%ectricity, which
pro,ides a -oundation -or understanding networking at the physica% %ayer o- the
ESI mode% This chapter a%so discusses di--erent types o- networking media that
are used at the physica% %ayer, inc%uding shie%ded twisted/pair ca$%e, unshie%ded
twisted/pair ca$%e, coa.ia% ca$%e, and -i$er/optic ca$%e, as we%% as wire%ess media
This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e # content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine
curricu%um
L Chapter (, ;Ca$%e Testing and Ca$%ing 4ANs and 'ANs,< descri$es issues
re%ated to the testing o- media used -or physica% %ayer connecti,ity in %oca%/area
networks H4ANsI Networking media is %itera%%y and physica%%y the $ack$one o-
a network In-erior 0ua%ity o- network ca$%ing resu%ts in network -ai%ures and in
networks with unre%ia$%e per-ormance The e0uipment used to per-orm these
tests in,o%,es certain e%ectrica% and mathematica% concepts and terms, such as
signa%, wa,e, -re0uency, and noise +nderstanding this ,oca$u%ary is he%p-u%
when %earning a$out networking, ca$%ing, and ca$%e testing This chapter corre/
sponds to the ?odu%e ( and 1 content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 1, ;Ethernet 6undamenta%s,< discusses the operation o- Ethernet, Ethernet
-raming, error hand%ing, and the di--erent type o- the co%%isions on Ethernet net/
works In addition, this chapter introduces the co%%ision domains and $roadcast
domains 6ina%%y, this chapter descri$es segmentation and the de,ices used to
create the network segments This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e ) content
-rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter ), ;Ethernet Techno%ogies and Ethernet Switching,< introduces 4ayer 2
$ridging and switching techni0ues It introduces the Spanning Tree Protoco%
HSTPI, te%%s how STP works, and co,ers the STP switch port states This chapter
corresponds to the ?odu%e 2 and 3 content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
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L Chapter 2, ;TCP=IP Protoco% Suite and IP Addressing,< presents an o,er,iew
o- the TCP=IP protoco% suite It starts with the history and -uture o- TCP=IP, com/
pares the TCP=IP protoco% mode% to the ESI mode%, and identi-ies and descri$es
each %ayer o- the TCP=IP protoco% suite This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e *
content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 3, ;:outing 6undamenta%s and Su$nets,< co,ers the topics re%ated to the
Internet Protoco% HIPI This chapter a%so discusses the di--erence $etween routing
and routed protoco%s, and te%%s how routers track distance $etween %ocations
6ina%%y, this chapter introduces the distance ,ector, %ink/state, and hy$rid routing
approaches, as we%% as how each reso%,es common routing pro$%ems This chapter
corresponds to the ?odu%e 1" content -rom the CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter *, ;TCP=IP Transport and App%ication 4ayer,< co,ers the issues re%ated
to the transport %ayer and how it uses the ser,ices pro,ided $y the network %ayer,
such as $est path se%ection and %ogica% addressing, to pro,ide end/to/end commu/
nication $etween source and destination This chapter descri$es how the trans/
port %ayer regu%ates the -%ow o- in-ormation -rom source to destination re%ia$%y
and accurate%y This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 11 content -rom the
CCNA 1 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 1", ;'ANs and :outers,< introduces 'AN de,ices, techno%ogies, and
standards In addition, it discusses the -unction o- a router in a 'AN This chap/
ter corresponds to the ?odu%e 1 content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 11, ; :outer 6undamenta%s,< descri$es how to start a router -or the -irst
time $y using the correct commands and startup se0uence to do an initia% con-ig/
uration o- the router This chapter a%so e.p%ains the startup se0uence o- a router
and the setup dia%og that the router uses to create an initia% con-iguration -i%e
using current ,ersions o- Cisco IES So-tware This chapter corresponds to the
?odu%e 2 content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 12, ;:outer Con-iguration,< discusses the router modes and con-igura/
tion methods -or updating a router@s con-iguration -i%e It is important that a -irm
understand Cisco IES So-tware and know the procedures -or starting a router In
addition, this chapter descri$es the tasks necessary -or password reco,ery This
chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e # content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 1#, ;4earning A$out Neigh$oring and :emote 9e,ices,< co,ers how
to imp%ement, monitor, and maintain Cisco 9isco,ery Protoco% $y using the
correct router commands In addition, this chapter e.p%ains the three most used
commands This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e ( content -rom the CCNA 2
on%ine curricu%um
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L Chapter 1(, ;?anaging Cisco IES So-tware,< e.amines the stages o- the router
$oot se0uence It a%so co,ers how to use a ,ariety o- Cisco IES So-tware source
options, e.ecute commands to %oad Cisco IES So-tware onto the router, maintain
$ackup -i%es, and upgrade Cisco IES So-tware In addition, this chapter discusses
the -unctions o- the con-iguration register and te%%s how to determine the ,ersion
o- the IES -i%e 6ina%%y, this chapter descri$es how to use a T6TP ser,er as a so-t/
ware source This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 1 content -rom the CCNA 2
on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 11, ;:outing and :outing Protoco%s,< co,ers the router@s use and oper/
ations in per-orming the key internetworking -unction o- the Epen System Inter/
connection HESII re-erence mode%@s network %ayer, 4ayer # In addition, this
chapter discusses the di--erence $etween routing and routed protoco%s and te%%s
how routers track distance $etween %ocations 6ina%%y, this chapter introduces
distance ,ector, %ink/state, and hy$rid routing approaches and detai%s how each
reso%,es common routing pro$%ems This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e )
content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 1), ;9istance Fector :outing Protoco%s,< co,ers the initia% con-iguration
o- the router to ena$%e the :outing In-ormation Protoco% H:IPI and the Interior
Gateway :outing Protoco% HIG:PI In addition, this chapter descri$es how to
monitor IP routing protoco%s This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 2 content
-rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%umThis chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 2
content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 12, ;TCP=IP Error and Contro% ?essages,< co,ers IC?P, the IC?P
message -ormat, IC?P error message types, potentia% causes o- speci-ic IC?P
error messages, a ,ariety o- IC?P contro% messages used in networks today, and
the causes -or IC?P contro% messages This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 3
content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 13, ;5asic :outer Trou$%eshooting,< pro,ides an introduction to network
testing It emphasi8es the necessity o- using a structured approach to trou$%e/
shooting 6ina%%y, this chapter descri$ers the -undamenta%s o- trou$%eshooting
routers This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e * content -rom the CCNA 2
on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 1*, ;Intermediate TCP,< descri$es TCP=IP operation to ensure commu/
nication across any set o- interconnected networks In addition, this chapter
co,ers the TCP=IP protoco% stack components, such as protoco%s to support -i%e
trans-er, e/mai%, remote %ogin, and other app%ications This chapter a%so introduces
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re%ia$%e and unre%ia$%e transport %ayer protoco%s and detai%s connection%ess data/
gram HpacketI de%i,ery at the network %ayer 6ina%%y, it e.p%ains how A:P and
:A:P work This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 1" content -rom the
CCNA 2 on%ine curricu%um
L Chapter 2", ;Access Contro% 4ists,<inc%udes tips, considerations, recommendations,
and genera% guide%ines on how to use AC4s, and inc%udes the commands and
con-igurations needed to create AC4s 6ina%%y, this chapter pro,ides e.amp%es o-
standard and e.tended AC4s and te%%s how to app%y AC4s to router inter-aces
This chapter corresponds to the ?odu%e 11 content -rom the CCNA 2 on%ine
curricu%um
L Appendi. A, ;Structured Ca$%ing,< inc%udes co,erage o- structured ca$%ing
systems, standards, and codes In addition, this appendi. pro,ides co,erage o-
ca$%ing sa-ety, too%s o- the trade, insta%%ation process, -inish phase, o,er,iew o-
the ca$%ing $usiness This appendi. a%so pro,ides a ca$%ing case study that co,ers
how to app%y a%% o- the in-ormation in this chapter to a rea%/wor%d scenario The
materia% in this appendi. does not appear in the on%ine curricu%um, $ut pro,ides
some ,a%ua$%e in-ormation that you wi%% need to know as a CCNA
L Appendi. 5, ;G%ossary o- Bey Terms,< pro,ides a compi%ed %ist o- a%% the key
terms that appear throughout this $ook
L Appendi. C, ;Check Gour +nderstanding Answer Bey,< pro,ides the answers to
the Check Gour +nderstanding 0uestions that you -ind at the end o- each chapter
A$out the C9/:E?
A C9/:E? accompanies this $ook to -urther enhance your %earning e.perience The
C9 contains additiona% chapters not -ound on%ine, a test engine with CCNA practice
e.am 0uestions, interacti,e e/4a$ Acti,ities, PhotoVooms o- networking e0uipment
and hardware, and instructiona% Fideos and animations that high%ight potentia%%y
di--icu%t concepts These materia%s support se%-/directed study $y a%%owing you to
engage in %earning and ski%% $ui%ding e.ercises outside o- the c%assroom The C9 a%so
pro,ides the -o%%owing&
L An easy/to/use graphica% user inter-ace
L Chapter/$y/chapter acti,ities and resources
L In-ormation and acti,ities not -ound on%ine
11"2$ook Page ...ii Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
...iii
L Accurate and concise -eed$ack on practice e.am 0uestions
L 4earner/directed practice and study
L 6%e.i$i%ity -or %earners o- a%% %e,e%s
6ina%%y, these %earning too%s emphasi8e not on%y conceptua% materia%, $ut a%so the impor/
tance o- practicing what you ha,e %earned The C9 he%ps you understand routing and
switching, and make the connection $etween theory and practice
11"2$ook Page ...iii Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
11"2$ook Page 2 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Part I
CCNA 1& Networking
5asics
Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking
Chapter 2 Networking 6undamenta%s
Chapter # Networking ?edia
Chapter ( Ca$%e Testing and Ca$%ing 4ANs and 'ANs
Chapter 1 Ethernet 6undamenta%s
Chapter ) Ethernet Techno%ogies and Ethernet Switching
Chapter 2 TCP=IP Protoco% Suite and IP Addressing
Chapter 3 :outing 6undamenta%s and Su$nets
Chapter * TCP=IP Transport and App%ication 4ayer
11"2$ook Page # Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
E$Uecti,es
+pon comp%etion o- this chapter, you wi%% $e a$%e to
L Identi-y the re0uirements -or Internet connection
L Identi-y the maUor components o- a persona% computer
L Name the Ethernet adapter used -or a %aptop computer
L State the -unctions o- network inter-ace cards HNICsI
L 4ist the components needed -or NIC insta%%ation
L Identi-y the -unctions o- the ping command
L Identi-y the -eatures o- we$ $rowsers
L 9escri$e the units used to measure the si8e o- digita% data
L Con,ert a decima% num$er to a $inary num$er
L Con,ert a $inary num$er to a decima% num$er
L Con,ert a he.adecima% num$er to a $inary num$er
L Con,ert a $inary num$er to a he.adecima% num$er
11"2$ook Page ( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Chapter 1
Introduction to Networking
This chapter presents the $asics o- computers and connection to the Internet It a%so
introduces di--erent num$er systems and the processes used to con,ert a num$er -rom
one num$er system to another
P%ease $e sure to %ook at this chapter@s associated e/4a$ Acti,ities, Fideos, and Photo/
Vooms that you wi%% -ind on the C9/:E? accompanying this $ook These C9 e%ements
are designed to supp%ement the materia% and rein-orce the concepts introduced in this
chapter
The 6undamenta%s o- Internet Connecti,ity
To understand the ro%e that computers p%ay in a networking system, consider the Internet
The Internet can $e thought o- as a tree with computers as %ea,es Computers are the
sources and recei,ers o- in-ormation $y way o- the Internet Computers can -unction
without the Internet, $ut the Internet cannot e.ist without computers The Internet is
growing rapid%y, and users are $ecoming increasing%y dependent on it -or a myriad o-
ser,ices
Computers, a%ong with $eing an integra% part o- a network, a%so p%ay a ,ita% ro%e in the
wor%d o- work 5usinesses use their computers -or a ,ariety o- purposes, $ut they a%so use
them in some common ways They use ser,ers to store important data to manage
customer
and emp%oyee accounts They use spreadsheet so-tware to organi8e -inancia% in-ormation,
word processor so-tware to maintain records and correspondence, and $rowsers to access
interna% and e.terna% we$sites
Digh/speed accesses to the Internet, such as ca$%e modem and 9S4 ser,ices, are now
a,ai%a$%e to the home and sma%% o--ice, which is increasing the demand -or support ser/
,ices No %onger satis-ied with a sing%e computer connected to the Internet, the consumer
needs the too%s to $e a$%e to share the connection
11"2$ook Page 1 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
) Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
The Internet is the %argest data network in the wor%d The Internet consists o- a mu%ti/
tude o- interconnected networks, $oth %arge and sma%% At the edge o- this giant network
is the indi,idua% consumer computer
Connection to the Internet can $e $roken down into the -o%%owing components&
L The physica% connectionRA physica% connection to a network is made $y con/
necting a specia%i8ed e.pansion card, such as a modem or a network inter-ace
card HNICI, to a PC with a ca$%e The physica% connection is used to trans-er
signa%s $etween PCs in the %oca% network and remote de,ices on the Internet
L The %ogica% connectionRThe %ogica% connection uses standards ca%%ed protoco%s
A protoco% is a -orma% description o- a set o- ru%es and con,entions that go,ern
how de,ices on a network communicate Connections to the Internet may use
mu%tip%e protoco%s The Transmission Contro% Protoco%=Internet Protoco% HTCP=
IPI suite is the primary protoco% used on the Internet TCP=IP is a suite o- proto/
co%s that work together to send and recei,e data Gou %earn more a$out TCP=IP
in Chapter 2, ;TCP=IP Protoco% Suite and IP Addressing<
L App%icationsRThe app%ication that interprets the data and disp%ays the in-orma/
tion in a comprehensi$%e -ormat is the %ast part o- the connection App%ications
work with protoco%s to send and recei,e data across the Internet A we$ $rowser
disp%ays DT?4 as a we$ page 6i%e Trans-er Protoco% H6TPI is used to down%oad
-i%es and programs -rom the Internet 'e$ $rowsers a%so use proprietary p%ug/in
app%ications to disp%ay specia% data types such as ,ideo, audio, and animation
This introductory ,iew might make the Internet seem %ike an o,er%y simp%e process
Dowe,er, as this topic is e.p%ored in greater depth %ater in this $ook, it wi%% $ecome
apparent that sending data across the Internet is a comp%icated task
PC 5asics
5ecause computers are important $ui%ding $%ocks in a network, it is important to $e
a$%e to recogni8e and name the maUor components o- a PC Think o- the interna% com/
ponents o- a PC as a network o- de,ices, a%% attached to the system $us In a sense, a
PC is a sma%% computer network
?any networking de,ices, such as routers and switches, are specia%/purpose comput/
ers and ha,e many o- the same parts as norma% PCs 6or a computer to $e a re%ia$%e
means o- o$taining in-ormation, it must $e in good working order Gou shou%d $e a$%e
to recogni8e, name, and state the purpose o- the PC components Hthis in-ormation per/
tains to %aptops as we%%I descri$ed in the -o%%owing sections
11"2$ook Page ) Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
PC 5asics 2
E%ectronic Components
E%ectronic components are uni0ue in that they are designed to conduct or transmit
data or signa%s in e%ectronic -orm ?ost e%ectronic components are -ound on the
mother$oard and e.pansion cards that p%ug into the mother$oard Dere are some
o- the parts that common%y are -ound on e%ectronic components&
L TransistorRA de,ice that amp%i-ies a signa% or opens and c%oses a circuit ?icro/
processors can ha,e mi%%ions o- transistors
L Integrated circuit HICIRA de,ice made o- semiconductor materia% It contains
many transistors and per-orms a speci-ic task
L :esistorRA de,ice that is made o- materia% that opposes the -%ow o- e%ectric
current
L CapacitorRAn e%ectronic component that stores energy in the -orm o- an e%ectro/
static -ie%d It consists o- two conducting meta% p%ates separated $y an insu%ating
materia%
L ConnectorRA port or inter-ace that a ca$%e p%ugs into E.amp%es inc%ude seria%,
para%%e%, +S5, and disk dri,e inter-aces
L 4ight emitting diode H4E9IRA semiconductor de,ice that emits %ight when a
current passes through it These are common%y used as indicator %ights
PC Components
PC components are typica%%y thought o- as packaged or add/on parts that pro,ide
additiona% -unctiona%ity to a PC This is in contrast to ,ita% e%ectronic components
that are necessary in e,ery PC These inc%ude things such as media dri,es, memory,
hard dri,es, processors, and the power supp%y Dere are some o- the most common PC
components&
L Printed circuit $oard HPC5IRA thin p%ate on which chips Hintegrated circuitsI
and other e%ectronic components are p%aced E.amp%es inc%ude the mother$oard
and ,arious e.pansion adapters
L C9/:E? dri,eRAn optica% dri,e that can read in-ormation -rom a C9/:E?
This can a%so $e a C9/:' Hcompact disc read/writeI dri,e or a 9F9 Hdigita%
,ideo discI dri,e or a com$ination o- a%% three in one dri,e
L Centra% processing unit HCP+IRThe ;$rain< o- the computer, where most o- the
ca%cu%ations take p%ace Hsee 6igure 1/1I
L 6%oppy disk dri,eRCan read and write to -%oppy disks Hsee 6igure 1/2I
L Dard disk dri,eR:eads and writes data on a hard disk The primary storage
de,ice in the computer
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3 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
6igure 1/1 Centra% Processing +nit
6igure 1/2 6%oppy 9isk 9ri,e
L ?icroprocessorRA si%icon chip that contains a CP+ A typica% PC has a num$er
o- microprocessors, inc%uding the main CP+
L ?other$oardRThe computer@s main circuit $oard Hsee 6igure 1/#I The mother/
$oard is crucia% $ecause it is the computer@s ner,e center E,erything e%se in the
system p%ugs into it, is contro%%ed $y it, and depends on it to communicate with
other de,ices in the system
L 5usRA co%%ection o- circuits through which data is transmitted -rom one part o-
a computer to another The $us connects a%% the interna% computer components
to the CP+ The Industry/Standard Architecture HISAI and the periphera% compo/
nent interconnect HPCII are two types o- $uses
L :andom/access memory H:A?IRA%so known as read/write memory, :A? can
ha,e new data written to it and can ha,e stored data read -rom it :A? is the
main working area used $y the CP+ -or most processing and operations A draw/
$ack o- :A? is that it re0uires e%ectrica% power to maintain data storage I- the
computer is turned o-- or %oses power, a%% data stored in :A? is %ost un%ess the
data was pre,ious%y sa,ed to disk ?emory $oards with :A? chips p%ug into
the mother$oard
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PC 5asics *
6igure 1/# ?other$oard
L :ead/on%y memory H:E?IRA type o- computer memory in which data has
$een prerecorded A-ter data has $een written onto a :E? chip, it cannot $e
remo,ed and can on%y $e read A ,ersion o- :E? known as EEP:E? He%ectron/
ica%%y erasa$%e programma$%e read/on%y memoryI can $e written to It is ca%%ed
6%ash memory or -irmware The $asic input=output system H5IESI in most PCs is
stored in EEP:E?
L E.pansion s%otRAn opening in a computer, usua%%y on the mother$oard, where
an e.pansion card can $e inserted to add new capa$i%ities to the computer Hsee
6igure 1/(I
L System unitRThe main component o- the PC system It inc%udes the case, chassis,
power supp%y, microprocessor, main memory, $us, e.pansion cards, disk dri,es
H-%oppy, C9 hard disk, and so onI, and ports The system unit does not inc%ude
the key$oard, the monitor, or any other e.terna% de,ices connected to the computer
L Power supp%yRSupp%ies power to a computer
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1" Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
6igure 1/( E.pansion S%ot
?other$oard Components
The mother$oard is the computer@s main circuit $oard It is crucia% $ecause it is the
ner,e center o- the computer system E,erything e%se in the system p%ugs into it, is con/
tro%%ed $y it, and depends on it to communicate with other de,ices in the system The
-o%%owing %ist descri$es the mother$oard@s ,arious components&
L 5ackp%aneRA %arge circuit $oard that contains sockets -or e.pansion cards
L ?emory chipsR:A? chips on memory cards p%ug into the mother$oard
L Network inter-ace card HNICIRA printed circuit $oard that pro,ides network
communication capa$i%ities to and -rom a PC ?any newer desktop and %aptop
computers ha,e an Ethernet NIC $ui%t into the mother$oard
L Fideo cardRA $oard that p%ugs into a PC to gi,e it disp%ay capa$i%ities Fideo
cards typica%%y inc%ude on$oard microprocessors and additiona% memory to
speed up and enhance graphics disp%ay
L Sound cardRAn e.pansion $oard that hand%es a%% sound -unctions
L Para%%e% portRAn inter-ace that can trans-er more than 1 $it at a time It is used
to connect e.terna% de,ices, such as printers
L Seria% portRAn inter-ace used -or seria% communication in which on%y 1 $it is
transmitted at a time The seria% port can connect to an e.terna% modem, p%otter,
or seria% printer It can a%so $e used to connect to networking de,ices such as
routers and switches as a conso%e connection
L ?ouse portRConnects a mouse to a PC
L Bey$oard portRConnects a key$oard to a PC
NETE
Some computers ha,e
a network card,
sound card, ,ideo
card, and other cards
integrated into the
mother$oard
11"2$ook Page 1" Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
PC 5asics 11
L Power cordRConnects an e%ectrica% de,ice to an e%ectrica% out%et to pro,ide
power to the de,ice
L +ni,ersa% Seria% 5us H+S5I portRThis inter-ace %ets periphera% de,ices such as
mice, modems, key$oards, scanners, and printers $e p%ugged in and unp%ugged
without resetting the system +S5 ports e,entua%%y might rep%ace seria% and para%/
%e% ports
9esktop Fersus 4aptop
4aptop and note$ook computers are $ecoming increasing%y popu%ar The main di--er/
ence $etween desktop PCs and %aptops, other than the -act that %aptop components are
sma%%er than those -ound in a PC, is that %aptops o--er more mo$i%ity and porta$i%ity
than desktop PCs The e.pansion s%ots are ca%%ed Persona% Computer ?emory Card
Internationa% Association HPC?CIAI card s%ots or PC card s%ots in %aptop computers
The PC card s%ots are where de,ices such as NICs, modems, hard dri,es, and other
use-u% de,ices Husua%%y the si8e o- a thick credit cardI are connected 6igure 1/1 shows
a PC card adapter -or a wire%ess %oca%/area network H'4ANI
6igure 1/1 PC Card
4a$ Acti,ity PC Dardware
This %a$ he%ps you $ecome -ami%iar with the $asic periphera% components o- a
PC system and their connections, inc%uding network attachment Gou e.amine
the interna% PC con-iguration and identi-y maUor components Gou a%so o$ser,e
the $oot process -or the 'indows operating system and use the Contro% Pane%
to -ind out in-ormation a$out the PC hardware
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12 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
Network Inter-ace Cards
As shown in 6igure 1/), a NIC is a printed circuit $oard that pro,ides network com/
munication capa$i%ities to and -rom a PC A%so ca%%ed a 4AN adapter, a NIC p%ugs into
a mother$oard and pro,ides a port -or connecting to the network The NIC consti/
tutes the computer inter-ace with the 4AN
6igure 1/) Network Inter-ace Card
The NIC communicates with the network through a ca$%e and with the computer ,ia an
e.pansion s%ot 'hen a NIC is insta%%ed in a computer, it re0uires an interrupt re0uest
HI:CI -or ser,ice -rom the CP+, as we%% as an input=output HI=EI address, a memory
space -or the operating system Hsuch as 4inu. or 'indowsI, and dri,ers to per-orm its
-unction An I:C is a signa% that in-orms a CP+ that an e,ent needing its attention has
occurred An I:C is sent o,er a hardware %ine to the microprocessor An e.amp%e o- an
interrupt $eing issued is a key $eing pressed on the key$oard The CP+ must mo,e the
character -rom the key$oard to :A? An I=E address is a %ocation in memory used to
enter data into or retrie,e data -rom a computer using an au.i%iary de,ice
'hen se%ecting a NIC -or a network, consider the -o%%owing&
L Type o- networkR9i--erent types o- networks use di--erent types o- NICs 6or
e.amp%e, Ethernet NICs are designed -or Ethernet 4ANs Some other types o-
networks inc%ude Token :ing and 6i$er 9istri$uted 9ata Inter-ace H699II
Ethernet is $y -ar the most common
L Type o- mediumRThe type o- port or connector used $y the NIC -or network
connection is speci-ic to the medium type, such as twisted/pair, coa.ia%, -i$er/
optic, or wire%ess Coa.ia% is $ecoming increasing%y rare
11"2$ook Page 12 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
PC 5asics 1#
L Type o- system $usRThere are di--erent types o- system $uses, such as PCI and
ISA 5ecause PCI s%ots are -aster than ISA s%ots, the %atter are $eing phased out
NIC and ?odem Insta%%ation
Connecti,ity to the Internet re0uires an adapter card, which might $e a modem or NIC
A modem is an e%ectronic de,ice that is used -or computer communications through
te%ephone %ines It a%%ows data trans-er $etween one computer and another o,er the
Pu$%ic Switched Te%ephone Network HPSTNI 6igure 1/2 shows an e.amp%e o- an
e.terna% modem Typica%%y, modems send data in $%ocks o- $ytes A-ter each $%ock,
$asic math is per-ormed to ana%y8e the $%ock, and the computer on the recei,ing end is
asked whether it agrees with the resu%ts I- any di--erences appear, the $%ock is sent
again The modems con,ert digita% data to ana%og signa%s -or transmission o,er the
PSTN and then con,ert ana%og signa%s $ack to digita% data on the recei,ing end
6igure 1/2 E.terna% ?odem
The term modem deri,es -rom the -unction o- this de,ice The process o- con,erting
digita% signa%s to ana%og and $ack again is ca%%ed modu%ation=demodu%ation Hhence the
term modemI ?odems can $e insta%%ed interna%%y or attached to the computer ,ia a
seria% or +S5 inter-ace e.terna%%y ?odems connect a computer to the network $y dia%/
ing the te%ephone num$er o- another computer@s modem, typica%%y that o- the Internet
ser,ice pro,ider HISPI
The NIC %ets hosts connect to the network The NIC is considered a key component
NICs are a,ai%a$%e in di--erent types, depending on the indi,idua% de,ice con-iguration
Note$ook computers can ha,e a $ui%t/in inter-ace or use a PC?CIA card 9esktop
systems can use a $ui%t/in or adapter card/type NIC
11"2$ook Page 1# Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
1( Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
Situations that re0uire NIC insta%%ation inc%ude the -o%%owing&
L Adding a NIC to a PC that does not a%ready ha,e one
L :ep%acing a $ad or damaged NIC
L +pgrading -rom a 1"/mega$its per second H?$psI NIC to a 1"=1""/?$ps NIC
To insta%% a NIC, as shown in 6igure 1/3, you need the -o%%owing resources&
L Bnow%edge o- how the adapter is con-igured, inc%uding Uumpers and p%ug/and/p%ay
so-tware ?ost modern NICs do not re0uire Uumpers and are p%ug/and/p%ay,
re0uiring %itt%e or no con-iguration They can $e con-igured using so-tware that
comes with the NIC i- necessary
L +se o- network card diagnostics, inc%uding the ,endor/supp%ied diagnostics and
%oop$ack test Hsee the card@s documentationI
L The a$i%ity to reso%,e hardware resource con-%icts, inc%uding I:C, I=E $ase
address, and direct memory address H9?AI, which is used to trans-er data -rom
:A? to a de,ice without going through the CP+
6igure 1/3 Insta%%ing a NIC
E,er,iew o- Digh/Speed and 9ia%up Connecti,ity
In the ear%y 1*)"s, modems were introduced to pro,ide data communications connec/
ti,ity -or dum$ termina%s to a centra%%y $ased computer ?any companies rented com/
puter time $ecause owning an onsite system was cost/prohi$iti,e The connection rate
was ,ery s%owR#"" $its per second H$psI, which trans%ates to a$out #" characters per
second
As PCs $ecame a--orda$%e in the 1*2"s, 5u%%etin 5oard Systems H55SsI appeared,
a%%owing users to connect and post or read messages on a discussion $oard :unning at
#"" $ps was accepta$%e, $ecause this e.ceeds the speed at which most peop%e can read
or type 55Ss did not $ecome wide%y used unti% the ear%y 1*3"s, and the trans-er o-
11"2$ook Page 1( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Testing Connecti,ity with Ping 11
-i%es and graphics $egan to $e desira$%e The #"" $ps speed 0uick%y $ecame into%era$%e,
and modem speeds started to increase 5y the 1**"s, modems were running at *)""
$ps They reached the current standard o- 1) k$ps H1),""" $psI $y 1**3
Ine,ita$%y, the high/speed ser,ices used in the corporate en,ironment, such as digita%
su$scri$er %ine H9S4I and ca$%e modem access, migrated to the consumer market
These ser,ices no %onger re0uired e.pensi,e e0uipment or a second phone %ine They
are a%so a%ways/on ser,ices and there-ore pro,ide instant access that does not re0uire a
connection to $e esta$%ished -or each session This resu%ts in greater re%ia$i%ity and -%e./
i$i%ity It has a%so %ed to the ease o- Internet connection sharing and sma%% o--ice and
home networks
TCP=IP Con-iguration
TCP=IP is a set o- protoco%s or ru%es de,e%oped to a%%ow cooperating computers to
share resources across a network A computer must $e running the TCP=IP protoco%
suite to access the Internet To ena$%e TCP=IP on the workstation, it must $e con-ig/
ured using the operating system too%s The PC re0uires an IP address, su$net mask,
de-au%t gateway, 9NS Hdomain name ser,erI in-ormation These can $e assigned man/
ua%%y or o$tained -rom a 9ynamic Dost Con-iguration Protoco% H9DCPI ser,er The
in-ormation necessary to con-igure TCP=IP on a computer is typica%%y o$tained -rom
a network administrator or an ISP The process is simi%ar whether you@re using a
'indows or App%e ?acintosh operating system TCP=IP, 9DCP, and 9NS are co,ered
in su$se0uent chapters
Testing Connecti,ity with Ping
Ping is a program that is use-u% -or ,eri-ying a success-u% TCP=IP insta%%ation It is named
a-ter the sonar operation used to %ocate and determine the distance to an underwater
o$Uect Ping stands -or Packet Internet Groper
The ping command works $y sending mu%tip%e IP packets to a speci-ied destination
Each packet sent is a re0uest -or a rep%y The output response -or a ping contains the
success ratio and round/trip time to the destination 6rom this in-ormation, you can
4a$ Acti,ity PC TCP=IP Network Settings
This %a$ introduces you to the methods o- disco,ering your computer@s net/
work connection, host name, ?AC H4ayer 2I address, and network H4ayer #I
address
11"2$ook Page 11 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
1) Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
determine i- there is connecti,ity to a destination The ping command is used to test
the NIC transmit=recei,e -unction, the TCP=IP con-iguration, and network connecti,ity
The -o%%owing are some usages o- the ping command&
L ping 122""1 Hinterna% %oop$ack testIRThis ,eri-ies the operation o- the TCP=IP
stack and NIC transmit=recei,e -unction 6igure 1/* shows the ping 122""1 test
L ping IP address o- host computerRFeri-ies the TCP=IP address con-iguration -or
the %oca% host
L ping de-au%t/gateway IP addressRFeri-ies whether the router that connects the
%oca% network to other networks can $e accessed
L ping remote destination IP addressRFeri-ies connecti,ity to a remote host
6igure 1/* ping 122""1
'e$ 5rowsers and P%ug/Ins
A we$ $rowser acts on a user@s $eha%- $y
L Contacting a we$ ser,er
L :e0uesting in-ormation
L :ecei,ing in-ormation
L 9isp%aying the resu%ts on the screen
4a$ Acti,ity +sing ping and tracert
In this %a$, you %earn to use the TCP=IP ping and traceroute commands to test
connecti,ity in a network In the process, you see name reso%ution occur
11"2$ook Page 1) Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
'e$ 5rowsers and P%ug/Ins 12
A we$ $rowser is so-tware that interprets Dyperte.t ?arkup 4anguage HDT?4I, one
o- the %anguages used to code we$ page content Ether markup %anguages, such as
SG?4 and J?4, pro,ide more ad,anced -eatures -or creating dynamic and interac/
ti,e we$ pages than does DT?4 DT?4, the most common markup %anguage, can
disp%ay graphics and p%ay sound, mo,ies, and other mu%timedia -i%es Dyper%inks are
computer program commands that point to other DT?4 -i%es on a we$ ser,er or other
p%aces in the same documents, which pro,ide shortcuts to other we$ pages and -i%es
Two o- the most popu%ar we$ $rowsers are Internet E.p%orer HIEI and NetscapeA%though
they are identica% in the task they per-orm, there are di--erences $etween them Some
we$sites might not support the use o- one or the other, so it can $e $ene-icia% to ha,e
$oth programs insta%%ed on the computer
Ta$%e 1/1 compares the characteristics o- these two we$ $rowsers
Standard we$ $rowsers cannot disp%ay many specia%, or proprietary, -i%e types To ,iew
these -i%es, the $rowser must $e con-igured to use p%ug/in app%ications These app%ica/
tions work in conUunction with the $rowser to %aunch the program re0uired to ,iew
the specia% -i%es Dere are some o- the more popu%ar proprietary p%ug/ins&
L 6%ash P%ayer=Shockwa,e P%ayerRA p%ug/in that p%ays mu%timedia -i%es created $y
?acromedia 6%ash
L Ado$e Acro$at :eaderRA so-tware program that a%%ows the user to ,iew and
print Ado$e Porta$%e 9ocument 6ormat HP96I -i%es
L 'indows ?edia P%ayerRA so-tware program that a%%ows the user to p%ay audio
and ,ideo -i%es
L CuicktimeRA so-tware program created $y App%e that a%%ows the user to p%ay
,ideo and audio -i%es
L :ea% P%ayerRA so-tware program that a%%ows the user to p%ay audio -i%es
Ta$%e 1/1 ?icroso-t Internet E.p%orer Fersus Netscape Communicator
IE Communicator
Integrated with other ?icroso-t products 6irst popu%ar $rowser
Takes up more disk space Takes up %ess disk space
9isp%ays DT?4 -i%es and per-orms e/mai%,
-i%e trans-ers, and other -unctions
9isp%ays DT?4 -i%es and per-orms
e/mai%, -i%e trans-ers, and other
-unctions
11"2$ook Page 12 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
13 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
Ether Common Computer App%ications
Computers per-orm many other use-u% tasks In $usiness, emp%oyees regu%ar%y use a set
o- app%ications that come in the -orm o- an o--ice suite, such as ?icroso-t E--ice or
4otus Smart Suite E--ice app%ications typica%%y inc%ude the -o%%owing&
L Spreadsheet so-twareRAn app%ication that %ets users construct spreadsheets
consisting o- co%umns and rows It is o-ten used with -ormu%as to process and
ana%y8e data
L A word processorRAn app%ication that %ets users create and edit te.t documents
?odern word processors a%%ow the user to create sophisticated documents that
inc%ude graphics and rich%y -ormatted te.t
L 9ata$ase so-twareRAn app%ication that %ets users store, maintain, organi8e, sort,
and -i%ter records A record is a co%%ection o- in-ormation identi-ied $y a common
theme, such as a customer name
L Presentation so-twareRAn app%ication that %ets users design and de,e%op presen/
tations to de%i,er at meetings, c%asses, or sa%es presentations
L Persona% in-ormation managersRApp%ications that can inc%ude -eatures such as
e/mai%, contact %ists, a ca%endar, and a to/do %ist
5inary Num$ers
This section introduces the way in which data is represented inside a computer and the
-orm in which it is transmitted across a network Gou a%so %earn a$out the ,arious
num$er systems and %ogic used with computers
4a$ Acti,ity 'e$ 5rowser 5asics
In this %a$, you %earn how to use a we$ $rowser to access Internet sites, $ecome
-ami%iar with the concept o- a +:4, and use a search engine to %ocate in-orma/
tion on the Internet Gou access se%ected we$sites to %earn the de-initions o- net/
working terms and use hyper%inks to Uump -rom the current we$site to other
we$sites
4a$ Acti,ity The 5asic PC=Network Trou$%eshooting Process
In this %a$, you app%y the $asic trou$%eshooting mode% to simp%e and common
network pro$%ems Gou a%so $ecome -ami%iar with the more common hard/
ware and so-tware pro$%ems
11"2$ook Page 13 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 1*
5inary :epresentation o- 9ata
Computers are e%ectromechanica% de,ices made up o- e%ectronic switches At the %owest
%e,e%s o- computation, computers depend on these e%ectronic switches to make decisions
As such, computers react on%y to e%ectrica% impu%ses These impu%ses are understood $y
the computer as either on or o-- states H1s or "sI
Computers work with and store data using e%ectronic switches that are either on or o--
Computers can on%y understand and use data that is in this two/state H$inaryI -ormat
1 represents an on state, and " represents an o-- state These 1s and "s represent the
two possi$%e states o- an e%ectronic component in a computer These 1s and "s are
ca%%ed $inary digits or $its
The American Standard Code -or In-ormation Interchange HASCIII, the most com/
mon%y used code -or representing a%phanumeric data in a computer, uses $inary digits
to represent the sym$o%s typed on the key$oard 'hen computers send on=o-- states
o,er a network, e%ectricity, %ight, or radio wa,es represent the 1s and "s Each charac/
ter has a uni0ue pattern o- eight $inary digits assigned to represent the character
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms
5its are $inary digits They are either "s or 1s In a computer, they are represented $y
on=o-- switches or the presence or a$sence o- e%ectrica% charges, %ight pu%ses, or radio
wa,es
6or e.amp%e&
L A $inary " might $e represented $y " ,o%ts o- e%ectricity H" W " ,o%tsI
L A $inary 1 might $e represented $y T1 ,o%ts o- e%ectricity H1 W T1 ,o%tsI
Computers are designed to use groupings o- 3 $its This grouping o- 3 $its is ca%%ed a
$yte In a computer, 1 $yte represents a sing%e addressa$%e storage %ocation These stor/
age %ocations represent a ,a%ue or a sing%e character o- data, such as an ASCII code
The tota% num$er o- com$inations o- the eight switches $eing turned on and o-- is 21)
Hor 2 3 I The ,a%ue range o- a $yte is -rom " to 211 So, a $yte is an important concept
to understand when working with computers and networks
?ost computer coding schemes use 3 $its to represent each num$er, %etter, or sym$o%
A series o- 3 $its is ca%%ed a $yteX 1 $yte represents a sing%e addressa$%e storage %ocation
Hsee Ta$%e 1/2I
11"2$ook Page 1* Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
2" Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
The -o%%owing are common%y used computer measurement terms&
L 5itRThe sma%%est unit o- data in a computer A $it e0ua%s 1 or ", and it is the
$inary -ormat in which data is processed, stored, and transmitted $y computers
L 5yteRA unit o- measure used to descri$e the si8e o- a data -i%e, the amount o-
space on a disk or another storage medium, or the amount o- data $eing sent
o,er a network 1 $yte e0ua%s 3 $its o- data
L B$ Hki%o$itIRAppro.imate%y 1""" $its
L B5 Hki%o$yteIRAppro.imate%y 1""" $ytes H1"2( $ytes e.act%yI
L ?$ Hmega$itIRAppro.imate%y 1 mi%%ion $its
L ?5 Hmega$yteIRAppro.imate%y 1 mi%%ion $ytes H1,"(3,12) $ytes e.act%yI
A mega$yte is sometimes ca%%ed a ;meg< The amount o- :A? in most PCs is
typica%%y measured in ?5 4arge -i%es are o-ten some num$er o- ?5 in si8e
L G5 Hgiga$yteIRAppro.imate%y 1 $i%%ion $ytes A giga$yte is sometimes ca%%ed a
;gig< Dard dri,e capacity on most PCs is typica%%y measured in G5
L T5 Htera$yteIRAppro.imate%y 1 tri%%ion $ytes Dard dri,e capacity on some
high/end computers is measured in T5
L k$ps Hki%o$its per secondIREne thousand $its per second This is a standard
measurement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
L k5ps Hki%o$ytes per secondIREne thousand $ytes per second This is a standard
measurement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
Ta$%e 1/2 +nits o- In-ormation
+nit 5ytes Y 5its Y
5it H$I 1=3 $yte 1 $it
5yte H5I 1 $yte 3 $its
Bi%o$yte HB5I 1""" $ytes 3""" $its
?ega$yte H?5I 1 mi%%ion $ytes 3 mi%%ion $its
Giga$yte HG5I 1 $i%%ion $ytes 3 $i%%ion $its
Tera$yte HT5I 1 tri%%ion $ytes 3 tri%%ion $its
Y Common or appro.imate $ytes or $its
NETE
It is common to con/
-use B5 with B$ and
?5 with ?$ :emem/
$er to do the proper
ca%cu%ations when
comparing transmis/
sion speeds that are
measured in B5 with
those measured in B$
6or e.amp%e, modem
so-tware usua%%y shows
the connection speed
in ki%o$its per second
H-or e.amp%e, (1 k$psI
Dowe,er, popu%ar
$rowsers disp%ay -i%e/
down%oad speeds in
ki%o$ytes per second
This means that with
a (1/k$ps connec/
tion, the down%oad
speed wou%d $e a
ma.imum o- 12)
k5ps In practice,
this down%oad speed
cannot $e reached
$ecause o- other -ac/
tors that consume
$andwidth at the
same time A%so, -i%e
si8es are typica%%y
e.pressed in $ytes,
whereas 4AN $and/
width and 'AN
%inks are typica%%y
e.pressed in ki%o$its
per second Hk$psI or
?ega$its per second
H?$psI Gou must
mu%tip%y the num$er
o- $ytes in the -i%e $y
3 to determine the
amount o- $andwidth
consumed in $ps
11"2$ook Page 2" Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 21
L ?$ps Hmega$its per secondIREne mi%%ion $its per second This is a standard
measurement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection 5asic
Ethernet operates at 1" ?$ps
L ?5ps Hmega$ytes per secondIREne mi%%ion $ytes per second This is a standard
measurement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
L G$ps Hgiga$its per secondIREne $i%%ion $its per second This is a standard mea/
surement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection 1"G or
1" Giga$it Ethernet operates at 1" G$ps
L T$ps Htera$its per secondIREne tri%%ion $its per second This is a standard mea/
surement o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection Some
high/speed core Internet routers and switches operate at more than T$ps
L D8 Hhert8IRA unit o- -re0uency It is the rate o- change in the state or cyc%e in a
sound wa,e, a%ternating current, or other cyc%ica% wa,e-orm It represents one
cyc%e per second
L ?D8 Hmegahert8IREne mi%%ion cyc%es per second This is a common measure/
ment o- the speed o- a processing chip, such as a computer microprocessor Some
cord%ess phones operate in this range H-or e.amp%e, *"" ?D8I
L GD8 Hgigahert8IREne thousand mi%%ion, or 1 $i%%ion H1,""",""","""I, cyc%es per
second This is a common measurement o- the speed o- a processing chip, such as
a computer microprocessor Some cord%ess phones and wire%ess 4ANs operate in
this range H-or e.amp%e, 3"211$ at 2( GD8I
5ecause computers are designed to work with on=o-- switches, $inary digits and $inary
num$ers are natura% to them Dowe,er, humans use the decima% num$er system in
their dai%y %i,es It is hard to remem$er the %ong series o- 1s and "s that computers use
There-ore, the computer@s $inary num$ers need to $e con,erted to decima% num$ers
Sometimes, $inary num$ers need to $e con,erted to he.adecima% Hhe.I num$ers This
is done $ecause he. num$ers can represent a %ong string o- $inary digits with Uust a
-ew he.adecima% digits This makes it easier to remem$er and work with the num$ers
5ase 1" Num$er System
A num$er system consists o- sym$o%s and ru%es -or using those sym$o%s ?any num$er
systems e.ist The num$er system used most -re0uent%y is the decima%, or 5ase1",
num$er system It is ca%%ed 5ase1" $ecause it uses ten sym$o%s These ten sym$o%s are
the digits ", 1, 2, #, (, 1, ), 2, 3, and * Com$inations o- these digits can represent a%%
possi$%e numeric ,a%ues, as documented in Ta$%e 1/#
NETE
PC processors are get/
ting -aster a%% the time
The microprocessors
used in PCs in the
1*3"s typica%%y ran at
%ess than 1" ?D8 Hthe
origina% I5? PC was
(22 ?D8I Current%y,
PC processors are
pushing speeds up to
# GD8, with -aster
processors $eing de,e%/
oped -or the -uture
11"2$ook Page 21 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
22 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
The decima% num$er system is $ased on powers o- 1" The ,a%ue o- each co%umn posi/
tion -rom right to %e-t is mu%tip%ied $y the num$er 1" Hthe $ase num$erI raised to a
power He.ponentI The power that 1" is raised to depends on its position to the %e-t
o- the decima% point 'hen a decima% num$er is read -rom right to %e-t, the -irst Hright/
mostI position represents 1" " H1I, and the second position represents 1" 1 H1" 1 W 1"I
The third position represents 1" 2 H1" 1" W 1""I The se,enth position to the %e-t rep/
resents 1" ) H1" Z 1" 1" 1" 1" 1" W 1,""","""I This is true no matter how
many co%umns the num$er has
6or e.amp%e&
21#( W H2 1" # I T H1 1" 2 I T H# 1" 1 I T H( 1" " I
There is a ( in the ones position, a # in the tens position, a 1 in the hundreds position,
and a 2 in the thousands position This e.amp%e seems o$,ious when the decima% num/
$er system is used Seeing e.act%y how the decima% system works is important, $ecause
it is needed -or you to understand two other num$er systems, $inary H5ase2I and he.a/
decima% H5ase1)I These systems use the same methods as the decima% system Duman/
reada$%e IP addresses are e.pressed in 5ase1" Hdecima%I The IP address 1221)1(133
is made up o- -our decima% num$ers separated $y dots or periods
5ase 2 Num$er System
Computers recogni8e and process data using the $inary, or 5ase2, num$er system The
$inary num$er system uses on%y two sym$o%s H" and 1I instead o- the ten sym$o%s used
in the decima%, or 5ase1", num$er system The position, or p%ace, o- each digit repre/
sents the num$er 2 Hthe $ase num$erI raised to a power He.ponentI $ased on its posi/
tion H2 " , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 # , 2 ( , and so onI, as documented in Ta$%e 1/(
Ta$%e 1/# 5ase 1" Num$er System
Num$er o- Sym$o%s Ten
Sym$o%s ", 1, 2, #, (, 1, ), 2, 3, *
5ase E.ponent 1" # 1" 2 1" 1 1" "
P%ace Fa%ue 1""" 1"" 1" 1
E.amp%e& 2,1#( 2 1" # 1 1" 2 # 1" 1 ( 1" "
11"2$ook Page 22 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 2#
E.amp%e&
1"11" W H1 2 ( W 1)I T H" 2 # W "I T H1 2 2 W (I T H1 2 1 W 2I T H" 2 " W "I
W H1) T " T ( T 2 T "I W 22
I- the $inary num$er H1"11"I is read -rom %e-t to right, there is a 1 in the 1)s position,
a " in the 3s position, a 1 in the (s position, a 1 in the 2s position, and a " in the 1s
position, which adds up to decima% num$er 22 ?achine/reada$%e IP addresses are
e.pressed as a string o- #2 $its H$inaryI
5ase 1) Num$er System
The 5ase1), or he.adecima% Hhe.I, num$er system is used -re0uent%y when working
with computers $ecause it can represent $inary num$ers in a more reada$%e -orm The
computer per-orms computations in $inary, $ut there are se,era% instances in which a
computer@s $inary output is e.pressed in he.adecima% -orm to make it easier to read
The he.adecima% num$er system uses 1) sym$o%s Com$inations o- these sym$o%s can
represent a%% possi$%e num$ers 5ecause on%y ten sym$o%s represent digits H", 1, 2, #, (,
1, ), 2, 3, and *I and $ecause 5ase1) re0uires si. more sym$o%s, the e.tra sym$o%s are
the %etters A, 5, C, 9, E, and 6 The A represents the decima% num$er 1", 5 represents
11, C represents 12, 9 represents 1#, E represents 1(, and 6 represents 11, as shown in
Ta$%e 1/1
The position o- each sym$o% HdigitI in a he. num$er represents the $ase num$er 1)
raised to a power He.ponentI $ased on its position ?o,ing -rom right to %e-t, the -irst
position represents 1) " Hor 1I, the second position represents 1) 1 Hor 1)I, the third
position represents 1) 2 Hor 21)I, and so on Network adapter or NIC addresses are
e.pressed as a string o- 12 he.adecima% characters
Ta$%e 1/( 5ase 2 Num$er System
Num$er o- Sym$o%s Two
Sym$o%s ", 1
5ase E.ponent 2 2 2 ) 2 1 2 ( 2 # 2 2 2 1 2 "
P%ace Fa%ue 123 )( #2 1) 3 ( 2 1
E.amp%e& 1"11" " " " 1 " 1 1 "
11"2$ook Page 2# Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
2( Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
E.amp%e&
1A2C W H1 1) # W )11#)I T H1"HAI 1) 2 W 21)"I T H2 1) 1 W #2I T H12HCI 1) "
W 12I W H)11#) T 21)" T #2 T 12I W )31((
9ecima%/to/5inary Con,ersion
Gou can con,ert decima% num$ers to $inary num$ers in many di--erent ways The
-%owchart shown in 6igure 1/1" descri$es one method This process in,o%,es trying to
-igure out which ,a%ues o- the power o- 2 are added together to get the decima% num/
$er $eing con,erted This method is one o- se,era% that can $e used It is $est to se%ect
one method and practice with it unti% it a%ways produces the correct answer
Dere@s an e.amp%e&
These steps con,ert the decima% num$er 1)3 to $inary&
Step 1 123 -its into 1)3, so the %e-tmost $it in the $inary num$er is a 1
1)3 [ 123 W ("
Step 2 )( does not -it into (", so the second $it -rom the %e-t is a "
Step # #2 -its into (", so the third $it -rom the %e-t is a 1
(" [ #2 W 3
Step ( 1) does not -it into 3, so the -ourth $it -rom the %e-t is a "
Step 1 3 -its into 3, so the -i-th $it -rom the %e-t is a 1
3 [ 3 W ", so the remaining $its to the right are a%% "s
Step ) As a resu%t, the $inary e0ui,a%ent o- the decima% ,a%ue 1)3 is 1"1"1"""
6or more practice, try con,erting decima% 211 to $inary The answer shou%d $e
11111111
Ta$%e 1/1 5ase 1) Num$er System
Num$er o- Sym$o%s 1)
Sym$o%s ", 1, 2, #, (, 1, ), 2, 3, *, A, 5, C, 9, E, 6
5ase E.ponent 1) # 1) 2 1) 1 1) "
P%ace Fa%ue )11#) 21) 1) 1
E.amp%e& 1A2C 1 A 2 C
11"2$ook Page 2( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 21
6igure 1/1" 9ecima%/to/5inary Con,ersion Process
KKKKK KKKK
KKKKKKK
KKKKKK
KKK KKKK
KKKK KKKKKKK
KKKKKKK
KK KKK
K K
KK
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
KK
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
KK
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
K
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
K
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
K
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
K
KKKK KKKKK
KK KKK
K K
KKKKKKKKKK KKKK
KKKK
11"2$ook Page 21 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
2) Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
This -%owchart works -or decima% num$ers o- 211 or %ess It yie%ds an eight/digit $inary
num$er This is appropriate -or trans%ating decima% IP addresses 4arger num$ers can
$e con,erted $y starting with the highest power o- 2 that -its 6or e.amp%e, the num$er
)1" can $e con,erted $y -irst su$tracting 112 This yie%ds a ten/digit $inary num$er
5inary/to/9ecima% Con,ersion
As with decima%/to/$inary con,ersion, there is usua%%y more than one way to so%,e the
con,ersion The -%owchart in 6igure 1/11 shows one e.amp%e
5inary num$ers can a%so $e con,erted to decima% num$ers $y mu%tip%ying the $inary
digits $y the $ase num$er o- the system H5ase2I raised to the e.ponent o- its position
Dere@s an e.amp%e&
Con,ert the $inary num$er "111"""" to a decima% num$er
" 2 " W "
T
" 2 1 W "
T
" 2 2 W "
T
" 2 # W "
T
1 2 ( W 1)
T
1 2 1 W #2
T
1 2 ) W )(
T
" 2 2 W "
112
HThe sum o- the powers o- 2 that ha,e a 1 in their positionI
9ecima%/to/5inary Con,ersion
In this e.ercise, you practice con,erting decima% ,a%ues to $inary ,a%ues
NETE
'ork -rom right to
%e-t :emem$er that
anything raised to the
" power is 1X there/
-ore, 2 " W 1
11"2$ook Page 2) Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 22
6igure 1/11 5inary/to/9ecima% Con,ersion Process
Start with
5inary Num$er
9ecima%
Tota% W "
Tota% Now W 9ecima%
Stop
123 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T 123
)( 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T )(
#2 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T #2
1) 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T 1)
3 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T 3
( 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T (
2 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T 2
1 5it W 1K No Ges
Tota% W Tota% T " Tota% W Tota% T 1
123 )( #2 1) 3 ( 2 1
11"2$ook Page 22 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
23 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
As with the -%owchart shown in 6igure 1/1", the -%owchart shown in 6igure 1/11 a%so
works -or decima% num$ers o- 211 or %ess that start with an eight/digit $inary num$er
4arger $inary num$ers can $e con,erted $y increasing the power o- 2 -or each $it on
the right 6or e.amp%e, i- you ha,e a ten/digit $inary num$er, the tenth digit is worth
112, and the ninth is worth 21) i- they are turned on Hha,e a ,a%ue o- 1I
De.adecima% and 5inary Con,ersion
Con,erting a he.adecima% num$er to $inary -orm and ,ice ,ersa is a common task
when dea%ing with the con-iguration register in Cisco routers Cisco routers ha,e a
con-iguration register that is 1) $its %ong That 1)/$it $inary num$er can $e repre/
sented as a -our/digit he.adecima% num$er 6or e.amp%e, ""1""""1""""""1" in
$inary e0ua%s 21"2 in he.
4ayer 2 ?edia Access Contro% H?ACI addresses are typica%%y written in he. 6or
Ethernet and Token :ing, these addresses are (3 $its, or si. octets Hone octet is 1 $yteI
H;Ect< comes -rom the Greek word -or eightI 5ecause these addresses consist o- si.
distinct octets, they can $e e.pressed as 12 he. num$ers instead E,ery ( $its is a he.
digit H2 ( W 1)I, as you wi%% see in Ta$%e 1/) in a moment
Instead o- writing
1"1"1"1"1111""""11"""""1111"""1""111"111"1"1"""1
you can write the much/shorter he. e0ui,a%ent&
AA6"C1E22211
To make hand%ing he. ,ersions o- ?AC addresses e,en easier, the dots are p%aced on%y
a-ter e,ery -our he. digits, as in AA6"C1E22211
The most common way -or computers and so-tware to e.press he.adecima% output is
$y using ". in -ront o- the he.adecima% num$er Thus, whene,er you see "., you know
that the num$er that -o%%ows is a he.adecima% num$er 6or e.amp%e, ".12#( means
12#( in $ase 1)
4ike the $inary and decima% num$er systems, the he.adecima% system is $ased on the
use o- sym$o%s, powers, and positions The sym$o%s that he. uses are " through * and
A through 6 Ta$%e 1/) shows the $inary and decima% e0ui,a%ents o- he. digits
5inary/to/9ecima% Con,ersion
In this e.ercise, you practice con,erting $inary ,a%ues to decima% ,a%ues
11"2$ook Page 23 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms 2*
To con,ert -rom he.adecima% to $inary, con,ert e,ery he. digit into ( $its 6or e.amp%e,
to con,ert he. AC H".ACI to $inary, you -irst con,ert he. A, which is 1"1" $inary, and
then you con,ert he. C, which is 11"" $inary So he. AC is 1"1"11"" in $inary
Notice that a%% possi$%e com$inations o- -our $inary digits ha,e on%y one he.adecima%
sym$o%, whereas two sym$o%s are re0uired -or decima% The reason why he. is used is
that two he.adecima% digits can e--icient%y represent any com$ination o- eight $inary
digits Has opposed to decima%, which wou%d re0uire up to -our digitsI In a%%owing two
decima% digits to represent ( $its, using decima% cou%d a%so cause con-usion in reading
a ,a%ue 6or e.amp%e, the eight $it $inary num$er "111""11 wou%d $e 111 i- con/
,erted to decima% digits 9oes this represent 11/1 or 1/11K I- 11/1 is used, the $inary
num$er wou%d $e 1"11"1"1, which is not the num$er origina%%y con,erted +sing
he.adecima%, the con,ersion is 16, which a%ways con,erts $ack to """11111
Ta$%e 1/) 5inary and 9ecima% E0ui,a%ents o- De.adecima% 9igits
5inary De.adecima% 9ecima%
"""" " "
"""1 1 1
""1" 2 2
""11 # #
"1"" ( (
"1"1 1 1
"11" ) )
"111 2 2
1""" 3 3
1""1 * *
1"1" A 1"
1"11 5 11
11"" C 12
11"1 9 1#
111" E 1(
1111 6 11
11"2$ook Page 2* Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
#" Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
The $est way to think a$out he.adecima% is to think o- it as a shorthand way o- read/
ing $inary It reduces an 3/$it num$er to Uust two he. digits This reduces the con-u/
sion o- reading %ong strings o- $inary num$ers and the amount o- space it takes to
write them :emem$er that he.adecima% is sometimes a$$re,iated as "., so he. 19
might $e written as ".19
To con,ert -rom he. to $inary, simp%y e.pand each he. digit into its (/$it $inary
e0ui,a%ent
6our/Ectet 9otted/9ecima% :epresentation o- a #2/5it 5inary
Num$er
Current%y, addresses assigned to computers on the Internet HIP addressesI are #2/$it
$inary num$ers To make it easier to work with these addresses, the #2/$it $inary
num$er is $roken into a series o- decima% num$ers To do this, sp%it the $inary num$er
into -our groups o- eight $inary digits Then con,ert each group o- 3 $its Han octetI
into its decima% e0ui,a%ent 9o this con,ersion e.act%y as was shown in the section,
;5inary/to/9ecima% Con,ersion<
'hen written, the comp%ete decima% num$er is represented as -our groups o- decima%
digits separated $y periods, such as 1"1112*2"1 This is ca%%ed dotted/decima% nota/
tion and pro,ides a compact, easy/to/remem$er way o- re-erring to #2/$it addresses
This representation is used -re0uent%y %ater in this course, so $e sure to understand it
'hen con,erting to $inary -rom dotted decima%, remem$er that each group o- -rom
one to three decima% digits represents a group o- eight $inary digits I- the decima%
num$er you are con,erting is %ess than 123, you need to add "s to the %e-t o- the e0ui,/
a%ent $inary num$er unti% you ha,e a tota% o- 3 $its
6or e.amp%e, to con,ert the dotted/decima% ,a%ue 1"1112*2"1 to its $inary e0ui,a/
%ent, you shou%d write the num$er as """"1"1"""""11111""""""111""1""1
5oo%ean 4ogic
5oo%ean %ogic is $ased on digita% circuitry that accepts one or two incoming ,o%tages
and, $ased on these input ,o%tages, generates an output ,o%tage 6or the purpose o-
computers, the ,o%tage di--erence is associated with two states, on and o-- These two
states are in turn represented $y a 1 or a ", which are the two digits in the $inary num/
$er system
De.adecima% Con,ersion
In this e.ercise, you practice con,erting he.adecima% ,a%ues to decima% and
$inary ,a%ues
11"2$ook Page #" Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
5its, 5ytes, and ?easurement Terms #1
5oo%ean %ogic is a $inary %ogic that a%%ows two num$ers to $e compared, and then a
choice $ased on those two num$ers is generated These choices are the %ogica% AN9,
E:, and NET 'ith the e.ception o- the NET, 5oo%ean operations ha,e the same -unc/
tion They accept two num$ers H1 or "I and generate a resu%t $ased on the %ogic ru%e
This section presents the operations, starting with the NET operation The ne.t sec/
tion pro,ides an e.amp%e o- direct%y app%ying 5oo%ean %ogic in networkingRnetwork
masking This e.amp%e co,ers the AN9 operation
The NET operation, as shown in Ta$%e 1/2, simp%y takes whate,er ,a%ue is presented
H" or 1I and in,erts it A 1 $ecomes a ", and a " $ecomes a 1 :emem$er that the %ogic
gates are e%ectronic de,ices $ui%t speci-ica%%y -or this purpose This is the %ogic ru%e that
they -o%%owX whate,er is input, the opposite is output
The AN9 operation, as shown in Ta$%e 1/3, takes two input ,a%ues I- $oth ,a%ues are
1, the %ogic gate generates a 1 outputX otherwise, it outputs a " There are -our com$i/
nations o- input ,a%ues Three com$inations generate a ", and one com$ination gener/
ates a 1 The AN9 operation is used e.tensi,e%y with IP addressing and su$net masks
The E: operation, as shown in Ta$%e 1/*, a%so takes two input ,a%ues I- one ,a%ue is 1
or $oth ,a%ues are 1, the output is 1 7ust %ike the AN9 operation, there are -our com/
$inations o- input ,a%ues Dowe,er, in an E: operation, three o- the com$inations
generate a 1 output, and one com$ination generates a " output
The two networking operations that use 5oo%ean %ogic are su$network masking and
wi%dcard masking ?asking operations pro,ide a way to -i%ter addresses The addresses
identi-y the de,ices on the network ?asking a%%ows the addresses to $e grouped or
contro%%ed $y other network operations
Ta$%e 1/2 NET Eperation
Input Eutput
" 1
1 "
Ta$%e 1/3 AN9 Eperation
AN9 " 1
" " "
1 " 1
11"2$ook Page #1 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
#2 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
IP Addresses and Su$net ?asks
The #2/$it $inary addresses used on the Internet are ca%%ed Internet Protoco% HIPI
addresses This section co,ers the re%ationship $etween IP addresses and network
masks Gou %earn more a$out IP addresses in Chapter 2
'hen IP addresses are assigned to computers, some o- the $its on the %e-t side o- the
#2 $it IP num$er are used to represent a network The num$er o- $its designated depends
on the address c%ass The $its %e-t o,er in the #2/$it IP address identi-y a particu%ar
computer on the network A computer is ca%%ed a host So a computer@s IP address
usua%%y consists o- a network portion and a host portion that represents a particu%ar
computer on a particu%ar network
6or the computer to know how the #2/$it IP address has $een sp%it, a second #2/$it
num$er ca%%ed a su$network mask is used This mask is a guide that indicates how the
IP address shou%d $e interpreted $y identi-ying how many o- the $its identi-y the com/
puter@s network The network mask se0uentia%%y -i%%s in the 1s -rom the %e-t side o- the
mask A su$network mask is a%ways a%% 1s unti% the network address is identi-ied Then
it is a%% "s -rom there to the mask@s rightmost $it The $its in the IP address that are "
identi-y the computer HhostI on that network Some e.amp%es o- su$net masks -o%%ow
E.amp%e 1&
11111111"""""""""""""""""""""""" written in dotted decima% is 211"""
E.amp%e 2&
1111111111111111"""""""""""""""" written in dotted decima% is
211211""
In the -irst e.amp%e, the -irst 3 $its -rom the %e-t are the network address, and the %ast
2( $its are the host address In the second e.amp%e, the -irst 1) $its are the network
address, and the %ast 1) $its are the host address
Con,erting the IP address 1"#(2#1#( to $inary resu%ts in the -o%%owing&
""""1"1"""1"""1""""1"1111""""11"
Ta$%e 1/* E: Eperation
E: " 1
" " 1
1 1 1
11"2$ook Page #2 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Summary ##
To determine the network portion o- the IP address, compare the su$net mask $its
to a%% #2 $its o- the IP address 1 $it at a time, using the AN9 process, and record the
resu%t The com$ination o- a " IP address $it and a " mask $it is a " The com$ination
o- a " and a 1 is a " The com$ination o- a 1 and a 1 is a 1 To $etter demonstrate,
consider the -o%%owing e.amp%es&
E.amp%e 1& +sing the -irst mask H211"""I&
""""1"1"""1"""1""""1"1111""""11"& IP address
11111111""""""""""""""""""""""""& network mask
""""1"1""""""""""""""""""""""""" is the network part o- the address
In dotted/decima% -ormat, 1"""" is the network portion o- the IP address
E.amp%e 2& +sing the second mask H211211""I&
""""1"1"""1"""1""""1"1111""""11"& IP address
1111111111111111""""""""""""""""& network mask
""""1"1"""1"""1""""""""""""""""" is the network part o- the address
In dotted/decima% -ormat, 1"#("" is the network portion o- the IP address
The importance o- su$network masking wi%% $ecome much c%earer as you work more
with IP addresses 6or now, it is on%y important that you understand the concept o- the
network mask
Summary
In this chapter, you %earned the -o%%owing key points&
L Computers are ,ita% components o- e,ery network The more you know a$out
computers, the easier it is to understand networks
L Bnowing how a computer -unctions makes it easier to understand networks
L TCP=IP is the protoco% o- the Internet
L The ping command is a simp%e way o- testing connecti,ity
L So-tware a%%ows the user to inter-ace with the hardware In networking, we$
$rowsers and e/mai% are the most common%y used so-tware programs
L Trou$%eshooting PCs is a necessary ski%% when working on networks
L It is important to $e -ami%iar with the components o- a computer and to under/
stand the -unctions o- a NIC It is a%so important to $e a$%e to insta%% a NIC
L 5its are $inary digits 3 $its e0ua%s 1 $yte
11"2$ook Page ## Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
#( Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
L Computers can recogni8e and process data on%y $y using the $inary num$er sys/
tem The $inary num$er system is made up o- "s and 1s
L The he.adecima% num$er system is used -re0uent%y at higher %e,e%s o- computa/
tion The he.adecima% num$er system uses 1) sym$o%s& ", 1, 2, #, (, 1, ), 2, 3, *,
A, 5, C, 9, E, and 6
L 5oo%ean %ogic is a $inary %ogic that a%%ows two num$ers to $e compared An
operation is created $ased on the two num$ers Three common 5oo%ean %ogic
operators are NET, AN9, and E:
L IP addresses are the #2/$it $inary addresses used on the Internet
To supp%ement a%% you@,e %earned in this chapter, re-er to the chapter/speci-ic Fideos,
PhotoVooms, and e/4a$ Acti,ities on the C9/:E? accompanying this $ook
11"2$ook Page #( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Bey Terms #1
Bey Terms
American Standard Code -or In-ormation Interchange HASCIII The most common%y
used code -or representing a%phanumeric data in a computer +ses $inary digits H$itsI
to represent the sym$o%s typed on the key$oard
app%ication Interprets the data and disp%ays the in-ormation in a comprehensi$%e
-ormat as the %ast part o- an Internet connection App%ications work with protoco%s
to send and recei,e data across the Internet
$ackp%ane A %arge circuit $oard that contains sockets -or e.pansion cards
$inary A num$er system characteri8ed $y 1s and "s H1 W on, and " W o--I
$it The sma%%est unit o- data in a computer A $it e0ua%s 1 or " It is the $inary -or/
mat in which data is processed, stored, and transmitted $y computers In a computer,
$its are represented $y on=o-- switches or the presence or a$sence o- e%ectrica% charges,
%ight pu%ses, or radio wa,es
5oo%ean %ogic In computer operation with $inary ,a%ues, 5oo%ean %ogic can descri$e
e%ectromagnetica%%y charged memory %ocations or circuit states that are either charged
H1 or trueI or not charged H" or -a%seI The computer can use an AN9 gate or an E:
gate operation to o$tain a resu%t that can $e used -or -urther processing
$us A co%%ection o- circuits through which data is transmitted -rom one part o- a
computer to another
$yte A unit o- measure that descri$es the si8e o- a data -i%e, the amount o- space on
a disk or another storage medium, or the amount o- data $eing sent o,er a network
1 $yte e0ua%s 3 $its o- data
C9/:E? dri,e An optica% dri,e that can read in-ormation -rom a C9/:E?
centra% processing unit HCP+I The computer@s ;$rain,< where most o- the ca%cu%a/
tions take p%ace
dotted/decima% notation A syntactic representation -or a #2/$it integer that consists
o- -our 3/$it num$ers written in $ase 1" with periods HdotsI separating them +sed to
represent IP addresses on the Internet, as in 1*2)2)22"
e.pansion s%ot An opening in a computer, usua%%y on the mother$oard, where an
e.pansion card can $e inserted to add new capa$i%ities to the computer
6i%e Trans-er Protoco% H6TPI An app%ication protoco%, part o- the TCP=IP protoco%
suite, used to trans-er -i%es $etween network hosts
-%oppy disk dri,e :eads and writes to -%oppy disks
11"2$ook Page #1 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
#) Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
G5 Hgiga$yteI Appro.imate%y 1 $i%%ion $ytes Sometimes ca%%ed a ;gig< Dard dri,e
capacity on most PCs is typica%%y measured in G5
G$ps Hgiga$its per secondI Ene $i%%ion $its per second A standard measurement o-
the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection 1"G or 1" Giga$it Ethernet
operates at 1" G$ps
hard disk dri,e :eads and writes data on a hard disk The primary storage de,ice in
the computer
hyper%ink A computer program command that points to other DT?4 -i%es on a we$
ser,er or other p%aces on the same documents Pro,ides shortcuts to other we$ pages
and -i%es
Dyperte.t ?arkup 4anguage HDT?4I A simp%e hyperte.t document/-ormatting %an/
guage that uses tags to indicate how a gi,en part o- a document shou%d $e interpreted
$y a ,iewing app%ication, such as a we$ $rowser
Internet The %argest g%o$a% internetwork, connecting tens o- thousands o- networks
wor%dwide and ha,ing a cu%ture that -ocuses on research and standardi8ation $ased on
rea%/%i-e use
Internet Protoco% HIPI A network %ayer protoco% in the TCP=IP protoco% suite o--ering
a connection%ess internetwork ser,ice
B$ Hki%o$itI Appro.imate%y 1""" $its
B5 Hki%o$yteI Appro.imate%y 1""" $ytes H1"2( $ytes e.act%yI
k$ps Hki%o$its per secondI Ene thousand $its per second A standard measurement o-
the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
k5ps Hki%o$ytes per secondI Ene thousand $ytes per second A standard measurement
o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
key$oard port Connects a key$oard to a PC
%ogica% connection +ses standards ca%%ed protoco%s
?$ Hmega$itI Appro.imate%y 1 mi%%ion $its
?5 Hmega$yteI Appro.imate%y 1 mi%%ion $ytes H1,"(3,12) $ytes e.act%yI A mega$yte
is sometimes ca%%ed a ;meg< The amount o- :A? in most PCs is typica%%y measured
in ?5 4arge -i%es are typica%%y some num$er o- ?5 in si8e
?$ps Hmega$its per secondI Ene mi%%ion $its per second A standard measurement
o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection 5asic Ethernet operates
at 1" ?$ps
11"2$ook Page #) Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Bey Terms #2
?5ps Hmega$ytes per secondI Ene mi%%ion $ytes per second A standard measure/
ment o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection
?edia Access Contro% H?ACI address A standardi8ed data %ink %ayer address that is
re0uired -or e,ery port o- de,ices that connect to a 4AN Ether de,ices in the network
use these addresses to %ocate speci-ic ports in the network and to create and update
routing ta$%es and data structures ?AC addresses are ) $ytes %ong and are contro%%ed
$y the IEEE
memory chips :A? chips on memory cards p%ug into the mother$oard
microprocessor A si%icon chip that contains a CP+
modem A de,ice that con,erts digita% and ana%og signa%s At the source, a modem
con,erts digita% signa%s to a -orm suita$%e -or transmission o,er ana%og communication
-aci%ities At the destination, the ana%og signa%s are returned to their digita% -orm
mother$oard A computer@s main circuit $oard
mouse port Connects a mouse to a PC
network inter-ace card HNICI A printed circuit $oard that pro,ides network commu/
nication capa$i%ities to and -rom a PC
network inter-ace card HNICI A printed circuit $oard that pro,ides network commu/
nication capa$i%ities to and -rom a PC
octet Eight $its In networking, the term octet o-ten is used Hrather than $yteI
$ecause some machine architectures emp%oy $ytes that are not 3 $its %ong
para%%e% port An inter-ace that can trans-er more than 1 $it simu%taneous%y It con/
nects e.terna% de,ices, such as printers
Persona% Computer ?emory Card Internationa% Association HPC?CIAI An organi/
8ation that has de,e%oped a standard -or sma%% credit card/si8ed de,ices ca%%ed PC?/
CIA cards Hor PC cardsI Erigina%%y designed to add memory to porta$%e computers,
the PC?CIA standard has $een e.panded se,era% times and is now suita$%e -or many
types o- de,ices
physica% connection A connection to a network that is made $y connecting a specia%/
i8ed e.pansion card, such as a modem or NIC, -rom a PC with a ca$%e to a network
ping Stands -or Packet Internet Groper E-ten used in IP networks to test the reach/
a$i%ity o- a network de,ice
p%ug/in So-tware or a program that can easi%y $e insta%%ed and used as part o- a we$
$rowser
11"2$ook Page #2 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
#3 Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
power cord Connects an e%ectrica% de,ice to an e%ectrica% out%et to pro,ide power to
the de,ice
power supp%y Supp%ies power to a computer
printed circuit $oard HPC5I A thin p%ate on which chips Hintegrated circuitsI and
other e%ectronic components are p%aced
protoco% A -orma% description o- a set o- ru%es and con,entions that go,ern how
de,ices on a network e.change in-ormation
random/access memory H:A?I A%so known as read/write memory Can ha,e new
data written to it as we%% as stored data read -rom it
read/on%y memory H:E?I A type o- computer memory in which data has $een
prerecorded
seria% port Can $e used -or seria% communication in which on%y 1 $it is transmitted
at a time
sound card An e.pansion $oard that hand%es a%% sound -unctions
su$network In IP networks, a network that shares a particu%ar su$net address Su$/
networks are networks ar$itrari%y segmented $y a network administrator to pro,ide a
mu%ti%e,e%, hierarchica% routing structure whi%e shie%ding -rom the addressing comp%e./
ity o- attached networks Sometimes ca%%ed a su$net
su$network mask A #2/$it address mask used in IP to indicate the $its o- an IP
address that are $eing used -or the su$net address
system unit The main component o- a PC system
T5 Htera$yteI Appro.imate%y 1 tri%%ion $ytes Dard dri,e capacity on some high/end
computers is measured in T5
T$ps Htera$its per secondI Ene tri%%ion $its per second A standard measurement
o- the amount o- data trans-erred o,er a network connection Some high/speed core
Internet routers and switches operate at more than T$ps
Transmission Contro% Protoco%=Internet Protoco% HTCP=IPI A common name -or the
suite o- protoco%s de,e%oped $y the +S 9o9 in the 1*2"s to support the construction
o- wor%dwide internetworks TCP and IP are the two $est/known protoco%s in the suite
uni,ersa% seria% $us H+S5I port 4ets periphera% de,ices such as mice, modems,
key$oards, scanners, and printers $e p%ugged in and unp%ugged without resetting the
system
,ideo card A $oard that p%ugs into a PC to gi,e it disp%ay capa$i%ities
11"2$ook Page #3 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Check Gour +nderstanding #*
we$ $rowser A graphica% user inter-ace HG+II/$ased hyperte.t c%ient app%ication,
such as Internet E.p%orer or Netscape Na,igator, used to access hyperte.t documents
and other ser,ices %ocated on remote ser,ers throughout the ''' and the Internet
Check Gour +nderstanding
Comp%ete a%% the re,iew 0uestions to test your understanding o- the topics and concepts
in this chapter Answers are %isted in Appendi. C, ;Check Gour +nderstanding Answer
Bey<
1 The connection to the Internet can $e $roken down into which o- the -o%%owingK
A Physica% connection
5 4ogica% connection
C App%ications
9 A%% o- the a$o,e
2 'hat is the main circuit $oard o- a computerK
A PC su$system
5 ?other$oard
C 5ackp%ane
9 Computer memory
# 'hat are PC?CIA s%otsK
A S%ots used in %aptops
5 S%ots used as e.pansion s%ots in a%% computers
C E.pansion s%ots -or a NIC
9 S%ots -or certain specia%i8ed de,ices
( 'hat is a NICK
A A 'AN adapter
5 A printed circuit $oard that pro,ides network communication
C A card used on%y -or Ethernet networks
9 A standardi8ed data %ink %ayer address
11"2$ook Page #* Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
(" Chapter 1& Introduction to Networking
1 'hich o- the -o%%owing is=are the resourceHsI you need $e-ore you insta%% a NICK
A Bnow%edge o- how the network card is con-igured
5 Bnow%edge o- how to use the network card diagnostics
C Capa$i%ity to reso%,e hardware resource con-%icts
9 A%% o- the a$o,e
) 'hich num$er system is $ased on powers o- 2K
A Ecta%
5 De.adecima%
C 5inary
9 ASCII
2 ?atch the -o%%owing terms with their de-initions&
1 5it
2 5yte
# k$ps
( ?D8
a The sma%%est unit o- data in a computer
$ A standard measurement o- the rate at which data is trans-erred o,er a
network connection
c A unit o- -re0uencyX the rate o- change in the state or cyc%e in a sound
wa,e, a%ternating current, or another cyc%ica% wa,e-orm
d A unit o- measure that descri$es the si8e o- a data -i%e, the amount o-
space on a disk or another storage medium, or the amount o- data $eing
trans-erred o,er a network
3 'hat is the %argest decima% ,a%ue that can $e stored in 1 $yteK
A 21(
5 21)
C 211
9 212
11"2$ook Page (" Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Check Gour +nderstanding (1
* 'hat is the decima% num$er 111 in $inaryK
A 1"1""111
5 1""1"111
C 1"1"1"11
9 1""1""11
1" 'hat is the $inary num$er 11"11"1" in decima%K
A 13)
5 2"2
C 213
9 222
11 'hat is the $inary num$er ""1""""1"""""""" in he.adecima%K
A ".21""
5 ".21(2
C ".""32
9 ".""12
12 'hat is the he.adecima% num$er ".21"1 in $inaryK
A ""1" """1 """" """1
5 """1 """" """1 ""1"
C "1"" 1""" """" 1"""
9 1""" """" 1""" "1""
1# 'hich o- the -o%%owing statements is true o- pingK
A The ping command is used to test a de,ice@s network connecti,ity
5 Ping stands -or packet Internet groper
C The ping 122""1 command is used to ,eri-y the operation o- the TCP=IP
stack and the NIC transmit=recei,e -unction
9 A%% o- the a$o,e
11"2$ook Page (1 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
E$Uecti,es
+pon comp%etion o- this chapter, you wi%% $e a$%e to
L 9escri$e networking history
L 9e-ine and descri$e the -eatures o- a 4AN, 'AN, ?AN, SAN, and data center
techno%ogy
L 9e-ine and descri$e the -unctions, $ene-its, and techno%ogies o- FPNs
L 9e-ine physica% and %ogica% topo%ogies
L 9escri$e the $ene-its o- the ESI re-erence mode%
L 9iscuss the -unctions o- each o- the se,en %ayers o- the ESI re-erence mode%
L 9escri$e the $asic process o- communication among the %ayers o- the ESI
re-erence mode%
L Name the %ayers o- the TCP=IP protoco% mode%
L 9escri$e the -unction o- a repeater, hu$, NIC, $ridge, switch, and router
L 9escri$e the -unction o- a ,oice gateway, 9S4A?, C?TS, and optica% p%at-orm
L 9escri$e the -unction o- a -irewa%%, AAA ser,er, and FPN concentrator
L 9escri$e the -unction o- a wire%ess adapter, wire%ess access point, and wire%ess
$ridge
L 9e-ine the $us, star, e.tended/star, ring, hierarchy, mesh, and partia%/mesh
topo%ogies
11"2$ook Page (2 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Chapter 2
Networking 6undamenta%s
This chapter introduces some o- the termino%ogy used $y networking pro-essiona%s and
,arious types o- computer networks It e.p%ains how standards ensure greater compati/
$i%ity and interopera$i%ity among ,arious types o- network techno%ogies It a%so descri$es
how the ESI re-erence mode% networking scheme supports networking standards In
addition, this chapter descri$es the $asic -unctions that occur at each %ayer o- the ESI
mode% As you work through this chapter, you %earn a$out the $asic -unctions that take
p%ace at each %ayer o- the ESI mode%, which wi%% ser,e as a -oundation as you $egin to
design, $ui%d, and trou$%eshoot networks
6ina%%y, this chapter descri$es ,arious network de,ices as we%% as ca$%ing physica% and
%ogica% %ayouts
5e sure to %ook at this chapter@s associated e/4a$s, Fideos, and PhotoVooms, which you
wi%% -ind on the C9/:E? accompanying this $ook These C9 e%ements are designed to
supp%ement the materia% and rein-orce the concepts introduced in this chapter
Networking Termino%ogy
This section introduces the concept and history o- the data network It a%so discusses the
$asic -eatures o- the -o%%owing types o- networks&
L 4oca%/area networks H4ANsI
L 'ide/area networks H'ANsI
L ?etropo%itan/area networks H?ANsI
L Storage/area networks HSANsI
L 9ata centers
L Intranets
L E.tranets
L Firtua% pri,ate networks HFPNsI
11"2$ook Page (# Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
(( Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
9ata Networks
9ata networks de,e%oped as a resu%t o- $usinesses and go,ernment agencies needing to
e.change e%ectronic in-ormation across %ong distances At the time, microcomputers
were not connected as main-rame computer termina%s were, so there was no e--icient
way o- sharing data $etween mu%tip%e microcomputers 6igure 2/1 i%%ustrates a com/
pany with many microcomputers without a network connection
6igure 2/1 Company with ?any Standa%one Computers
6igure 2/2 Sneakernet
NETE
In the ear%y days, a
company in,ested in
computers as stand/
a%one de,ices that
sometimes had print/
ers attached 'hen
emp%oyees who didn@t
ha,e a printer wanted
to print documents,
they had to copy a -i%e
to a -%oppy disk, carry
it o,er and %oad it on
to a coworker@s PC
that was connected
to a printer, and print
it -rom there This
rather crude ,ersion
o- a network $ecame
known as sneakernet
Hsee 6igure 2/2I
11"2$ook Page (( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy (1
It $ecame apparent that sharing data through the use o- -%oppy disks was not an e--i/
cient or cost/e--ecti,e manner in which to conduct $usiness Each time a -i%e was mod/
i-ied, it had to $e shared again with a%% the other peop%e who needed it I- two peop%e
modi-ied the -i%e and then tried to share it, one o- the sets o- changes wou%d $e %ost
5usinesses needed a so%ution that wou%d address the -o%%owing concerns&
L Dow to a,oid dup%ication o- e0uipment and resources
L Dow to communicate e--icient%y
L Dow to set up and manage a network
5usinesses rea%i8ed that networking techno%ogy cou%d increase producti,ity whi%e
sa,ing money Networks were added and e.panded a%most as rapid%y as new network
techno%ogies and products were introduced In the ear%y 1*3"s, networking saw a
tremendous e.pansion, e,en though the ear%y de,e%opment o- networking was chaotic
The network techno%ogies that emerged in the mid/1*3"s were created with a ,ariety
o- hardware and so-tware Each company that created network hardware and so-t/
ware used its own company standards that were de,e%oped $ecause o- competition
with other companies Conse0uent%y, many new network techno%ogies were incompat/
i$%e with each other It $ecame increasing%y di--icu%t -or networks that used di--erent
speci-ications to communicate with each other This o-ten re0uired the o%d network
e0uipment to $e remo,ed to imp%ement the new e0uipment
Ene ear%y so%ution was the creation o- %oca%/area network H4ANI standards 5ecause
4AN standards pro,ided an open set o- guide%ines -or creating network hardware and
so-tware, the capa$i%ity to mi. and match di--erent e0uipment manu-actured $y di--erent
companies -aci%itated sta$i%ity in 4AN imp%ementation 6igure 2/# shows a simp%e 4AN
As the use o- computers in $usinesses grew, it soon $ecame o$,ious that e,en 4ANs
were insu--icient In a 4AN system, each department or company is a kind o- e%ec/
tronic is%and, as shown in 6igure 2/(
5e-ore 4ANs were created, there was a need -or in-ormation to mo,e e--icient%y and
0uick%yRnot on%y within a company, $ut a%so -rom one $usiness to another The so%u/
tion was the creation o- metropo%itan/area networks H?ANsI and wide/area networks
H'ANsI 5ecause 'ANs cou%d connect user networks o,er %arge geographic areas,
they made it possi$%e -or $usinesses to communicate with each other across great dis/
tances, as shown in 6igure 2/1
11"2$ook Page (1 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
() Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
6igure 2/# A Simp%e 4AN
6igure 2/( 4AN
G
1
Internet
?ain
Ser,er
?ain
Switch
'orkgroup
Switch
:epeater
5ridge
Du$
E"
6"
E1
T"
9 E 6
2
A 5 C
4
B
N
?
P
E
D
7 I
699I
Token
:ing
1
11"2$ook Page () Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy (2
6igure 2/1 'AN
Computer Networking Distory
The history o- computer networking is comp%e., in,o%,ing many peop%e -rom a%% o,er
the wor%d o,er the past #1 years Ta$%e 2/1 presents a simp%i-ied ,iew o- how the Internet
e,o%,ed The processes o- in,ention and commercia%i8ation are -ar more comp%icated, $ut
it is he%p-u% to %ook at the -undamenta% de,e%opment
Ta$%e 2/1 ?icrocomputer 9e,e%opment Time%ine
Time Period 9e,e%opment
Ear%y 1*("s 4arge e%ectromechanica% de,ices that were prone to -ai%ure
1*(2 The in,ention o- the semiconductor transistor opened up
many possi$i%ities -or making sma%%er, more re%ia$%e
computers
1*1"s The integrated circuit was in,ented It com$ined se,era%R
and then many, and now mi%%ionsRo- transistors on one
sma%% piece o- semiconductor
1*)"s ?ain-rames with termina%s were commonp%ace, and inte/
grated circuits were wide%y used
continues
Network
?gt
Network
?gt
Network
?gt
Network
?gt
Network
?gt
Network
?gt
11"2$ook Page (2 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
(3 Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
In the 1*("s, computers were %arge e%ectromechanica% de,ices that were prone to -ai%ure
In 1*(2, the in,ention o- a semiconductor transistor opened up many possi$i%ities -or
making sma%%er, more/re%ia$%e computers In the 1*1"s, main-rame computers, run $y
punched/card programs, $egan to $e used $y %arge institutions In the %ate 1*1"s, the
integrated circuit was in,ented It com$ined se,era%Rand then many, and now mi%%ionsR
o- transistors on one sma%% piece o- semiconductor Through the 1*)"s, main-rames
with termina%s were commonp%ace, and integrated circuits were wide%y used
In the %ate 1*)"s and 1*2"s, sma%%er computers ca%%ed minicomputers He,en though
they were sti%% ,ery %arge $y today@s standardsI came into e.istence In 1*22, App%e
Computer introduced the microcomputer, a%so known as the persona% computer HPCI
In 1*31, I5? introduced its -irst PC The user/-riend%y App%e ?acintosh, the open/
architecture I5? PC, and the -urther microminiaturi8ation o- integrated circuits %ed
to widespread use o- PCs in homes and $usinesses
In the mid/1*3"s, computer users using standa%one computers started sharing data
H-i%esI through the use o- a modem connected to another computer This was ca%%ed
point/to/point or dia%up communication This concept was e.panded $y the use o-
computers that were the centra% point o- communication in a dia%up connection These
computers were ca%%ed $u%%etin $oards +sers wou%d connect to the $u%%etin $oard,
%ea,e and pick up messages, and up%oad and down%oad -i%es The draw$ack o- this type
o- system was that there was ,ery %itt%e, i- any, direct communication, and then on%y
with those who knew a$out the $u%%etin $oard Another %imitation was that the $u%%e/
tin $oard computer re0uired one modem per connection I- -i,e peop%e connected
simu%taneous%y, -i,e modems connected to -i,e separate phone %ines were re0uired
Imagine i- 1"" peop%e wanted to connect at the same time\
4ate 1*)"s and 1*2"s Sma%%er computers ca%%ed minicomputers came into
e.istence
1*22 App%e Computer introduced the microcomputer, a%so
ca%%ed the persona% computer HPCI
1*31 I5? introduced its -irst PC
?id/1*3"s Computer users using standa%one computers started shar/
ing data H-i%esI through the use o- modems connected to
another computer This was ca%%ed point/to/point or dia%up
communication
Ta$%e 2/1 ?icrocomputer 9e,e%opment Time%ine HContinuedI
Time Period 9e,e%opment
11"2$ook Page (3 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy (*
Starting in the 1*)"s and continuing through the 1**"s, the +S 9epartment o-
9e-ense H9o9I de,e%oped %arge, re%ia$%e 'ANs -or mi%itary and scienti-ic reasons
This techno%ogy was di--erent -rom the point/to/point communication used in $u%%etin
$oards It a%%owed mu%tip%e computers to $e connected using many di--erent paths The
network itse%- determined how to mo,e data -rom one computer to another Instead o-
$eing a$%e to communicate with on%y one other computer at a time, many computers
cou%d $e reached using the same connection The 9o9@s 'AN e,entua%%y $ecame the
Internet
Network Protoco%s
Protoco% suites are co%%ections o- protoco%s that ena$%e network communication -rom
one host through the network to another host A protoco% is a -orma% description o- a
set o- ru%es and con,entions that go,ern a particu%ar aspect o- how de,ices on a net/
work communicate Protoco%s determine the -ormat, timing, se0uencing, and error
contro% in data communication 'ithout protoco%s, the computer cannot create or
re$ui%d the stream o- incoming $its -rom another computer into the origina% data
Protoco%s contro% a%% aspects o- data communication They determine how the physica%
network is $ui%t, how computers connect to the network, how the data is -ormatted
-or transmission, and how that data is sent These network ru%es are created and main/
tained $y many di--erent organi8ations and committees&
L Institute o- E%ectrica% and E%ectronic Engineers HIEEEI
L American Nationa% Standards Institute HANSII
L Te%ecommunications Industry Association HTIAI
L E%ectronic Industries A%%iance HEIAI
L Internationa% Te%ecommunications +nion HIT+I, -ormer%y known as the CCITT
HComit] Consu%tati- Internationa% T]%]phoni0ue et T]%]graphi0ueI
4oca%/Area Networks H4ANsI
4ANs consist o- computers, network inter-ace cards, periphera% de,ices, networking
media, and network de,ices 6igure 2/) i%%ustrates a 4AN
4ANs make it possi$%e -or $usinesses that use computer techno%ogy to %oca%%y share
-i%es and printers e--icient%y and make interna% communications possi$%e, such as e/mai%
4ANs tie together data, %oca% communications, and computing e0uipment
11"2$ook Page (* Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
1" Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
6igure 2/) 4AN
4ANs are designed to do the -o%%owing&
L Eperate within a %imited geographic area
L A%%ow many users to access high/$andwidth media
L Pro,ide -u%%/time connecti,ity to %oca% ser,ices
L Connect physica%%y adUacent de,ices
Some common 4AN techno%ogies are
L Ethernet
L Token :ing
L 699I
'ide/Area Networks H'ANsI
'ANs interconnect 4ANs, which then pro,ide access to computers or -i%e ser,ers in
other %ocations 5ecause 'ANs connect user networks o,er a %arge geographic area, as
shown in 6igure 2/2, they make it possi$%e -or $usinesses to communicate across great
distances
11"2$ook Page 1" Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy 11
6igure 2/2 'AN
+sing 'ANs a%%ows computers, printers, and other de,ices on a 4AN to share and $e
shared with distant %ocations 'ANs pro,ide instant communications across %arge geo/
graphic areas The a$i%ity to send an instant message HI?I to someone anywhere in the
wor%d pro,ides the same communication capa$i%ities that used to $e possi$%e on%y i-
peop%e were in the same physica% o--ice Co%%a$oration so-tware pro,ides access to
rea%/time in-ormation and resources that a%%ow meetings to $e he%d remote%y instead o-
in person 'ide/area networking has a%so created a new c%ass o- workers ca%%ed te%e/
commutersRpeop%e who ne,er ha,e to %ea,e home to go to work
'ANs are designed to do the -o%%owing&
L Eperate o,er %arge, geographica%%y separated areas
L A%%ow users to engage in rea%/time communication with other users
L Pro,ide -u%%/time remote resources connected to %oca% ser,ices
L Pro,ide e/mai%, 'or%d 'ide 'e$, -i%e trans-er, and e/commerce ser,ices
Dere are some common 'AN techno%ogies&
L ?odems
L Integrated Ser,ices 9igita% Network HIS9NI
L 9igita% Su$scri$er 4ine H9S4I
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11"2$ook Page 11 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
12 Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
L 6rame :e%ay
L T H+SI and E HEuropeI carrier seriesRT1, E1, T#, E#, and so on
L Synchronous Eptica% Network HSENETIRSynchronous Transport Signa% %e,e% 1
HSTS/1I HEptica% Carrier NECO/1I, STS/# HEC/#I, and so on
?etropo%itan/Area Networks H?ANsI
A ?AN is a network that spans a metropo%itan area, such as a city or a su$ur$an area
?ANs are networks that connect 4ANs separated $y distance and that are %ocated
within a common geographic area, as shown in 6igure 2/3 6or e.amp%e, a $ank with
mu%tip%e $ranches might use a ?AN Typica%%y, a ser,ice pro,ider connects two or
more 4AN sites using pri,ate communication %ines or optica% ser,ices A ?AN a%so
can $e created using wire%ess $ridge techno%ogy $y $eaming signa%s across pu$%ic areas
The higher optica% $andwidths that are current%y a,ai%a$%e make ?ANs a more -unc/
tiona% and economica%%y -easi$%e option than in the past
The -o%%owing -eatures di--erentiate ?ANs -rom 4ANs and 'ANs&
L ?ANs interconnect users in a geographic area or region %arger than that co,ered
$y a 4AN $ut sma%%er than the area co,ered $y a 'AN
L ?ANs connect networks in a city into a sing%e %arger network Hwhich can then
a%so o--er e--icient connection to a 'ANI
L ?ANs a%so are used to interconnect se,era% 4ANs $y $ridging them with $ack/
$one %ines
?ore In-ormation& Emerging Dome Networking App%ications
Peop%e now design and $ui%d their homes to $e Internet homes, wiring them -or Ethernet
con/
necti,ity Peop%e integrate their computerHsI with their phone system, security system,
home
theater system, heating and air conditioning, %ighting, and other e%ectronic components to
$e
a$%e to contro% them a%% with the c%ick o- a mouse or e,en ,ia a ,oice command
Ser,ice pro,iders ha,e $ui%t ce%%u%ar/ and sate%%ite/$ased carrier networks that o--er
sophisticated
ser,ices, such as wire%ess Internet access 4oca% e.change carriers H4ECsI Hcommon%y
known as
%oca% te%ephone companiesI are imp%ementing high/speed ser,ices -or data trans-er, such
as 9S4
ser,ices, at a cost %ow enough to market to home users ?any ca$%e operators, in addition
to
ca$%e TF, now pro,ide high/speed Internet access that can $e shared among networked
home
computers Cisco products support the %atest wire%ess, 9S4, and ca$%e techno%ogies
Peop%e a%so are integrating PC, te%ephone, and -a. capa$i%ities, a%%owing -or automatic
answer/
ing and message storage and retrie,a% ,ia computer In addition, the Internet phone,
which
uses IP te%ephony techno%ogy and Foice o,er IP HFoIPI, a%%ows peop%e to $ypass
te%ephone %ines
entire%y with an Internet connection through ca$%e, wire%ess, or some other medium to
make
%ong distance ca%%s without paying %ong distance charges
11"2$ook Page 12 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy 1#
6igure 2/3 ?AN
Specia%i8ed Networks 4ocated 'ithin the 4AN
There are times when sma%%er and more specia%i8ed networks might reside within the
4AN ?ost nota$%y, these specia%i8ed networks are used -or access to storage systems,
data center techno%ogy systems and de,ices, intranets or e.tranets, and FPNs These
,arious specia%i8ed networks are co,ered in this section
Storage/Area Networks HSANsI
A storage/area network HSANI is a dedicated, high/per-ormance network that mo,es
data $etween ser,ers and storage resources 5ecause it is a separate dedicated network,
it a,oids any tra--ic con-%ict $etween c%ients and ser,ers, as shown in 6igure 2/*
SAN techno%ogy a%%ows high/speed ser,er/to/storage, storage/to/storage, or ser,er/to/
ser,er connecti,ity This method uses a separate network in-rastructure that re%ie,es
any pro$%ems associated with e.isting network connecti,ity
SANs o--er the -o%%owing -eatures&
L Per-ormanceRSANs ena$%e concurrent access to disk or tape arrays $y two or
more ser,ers at high speeds, pro,iding enhanced system per-ormance
L A,ai%a$i%ityRSANs ha,e disaster to%erance $ui%t in, $ecause data can $e mirrored
using a SAN up to 1" ki%ometers HkmI H)2 mi%esI away
L Sca%a$i%ityR4ike a 4AN='AN, a SAN can use a ,ariety o- techno%ogies This
a%%ows easy re%ocation o- $ackup data operations, -i%e migration, and data rep%i/
cation $etween systems
4ong/Dau%
Network
PEP 1
Customer
Premises
PEP 2
Customer
Premises
Access
Network
?etropo%itan/Area
Network
SAN Site
Co%ocation
Site
11"2$ook Page 1# Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
1( Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
6igure 2/* SAN
9ata Center Techno%ogy
A data center, as shown in 6igure 2/1", is a g%o$a%%y coordinated network o- de,ices
designed to acce%erate the de%i,ery o- in-ormation o,er the Internet in-rastructure 5y
taking ad,antage o- ser,ices in the core IP network, enterprises and ser,ice pro,iders
can acce%erate and impro,e the use o- rich content such as $road$and streaming media
9ata center techno%ogy impro,es network per-ormance and e%iminates the need to
stream media on the in-rastructure
A data center $ypasses potentia% sources o- congestion $y distri$uting the %oad across a
co%%ection o- content engines that are %ocated c%ose to the ,iewing audience :ich we$
and mu%timedia content is copied to the content engines, and users are routed to an
optima%%y %ocated content engine
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11"2$ook Page 1( Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy 11
6igure 2/1" 9ata Center
6or e.amp%e, when down%oading a mo,ie -rom an Internet ser,ice pro,ider HISPI,
instead o- waiting -or hours -or the $ig mo,ie -i%e to down%oad, the same mo,ie might
take on%y minutes to down%oad i- the ISP is using data center techno%ogy, $ecause a
data center can acce%erate the de%i,ery o- in-ormation
Intranets and E.tranets
Ene common con-iguration o- a 4AN is an intranet Intranet we$ ser,ers di--er -rom
pu$%ic we$ ser,ers in that the pu$%ic does not ha,e access to an organi8ation@s intranet
without the proper permissions and passwords Intranets are designed to $e accessed
$y users who ha,e access pri,i%eges to an organi8ation@s interna% 4AN 'ithin an
intranet, we$ ser,ers are insta%%ed in the network, and $rowser techno%ogy is used as
the common -ront end to access in-ormation such as -inancia% data or graphica%, te.t/
$ased data stored on those ser,ers
An e.tranet is an intranet that is partia%%y accessi$%e to authori8ed outsiders 'hereas
an intranet resides $ehind a -irewa%% and is accessi$%e on%y to peop%e who are mem$ers
o- the same company or organi8ation, an e.tranet pro,ides ,arious %e,e%s o- accessi$i%/
ity to outsiders Gou can access an e.tranet on%y i- you ha,e a ,a%id username and
password, and your identity determines which parts o- the e.tranet you can ,iew
E.tranets he%p e.tend the reach o- app%ications and ser,ices that are intranet/$ased $ut
that emp%oy e.tended, secure access to e.terna% users or enterprises This access is usu/
a%%y accomp%ished through passwords, user I9s, and other app%ication/%e,e% security
There-ore, an e.tranet is the e.tension o- two or more intranet strategies with a secure
interaction $etween participant enterprises and their respecti,e intranets The e.tranet
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11"2$ook Page 11 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
1) Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
maintains contro% o- access to the intranets within each enterprise in the dep%oyment
E.tranets %ink customers, supp%iers, partners, or communities o- interest to a corporate
intranet o,er a shared in-rastructure using dedicated connections
6igure 2/11 i%%ustrates an intranet and an e.tranet
6igure 2/11 Intranet and E.tranet
Firtua% Pri,ate Networks
A ,irtua% pri,ate network HFPNI is a pri,ate network that is constructed within a
pu$%ic network in-rastructure such as the g%o$a% Internet 6or e.amp%e, using a FPN,
a te%ecommuter can access the company head0uarters@ network through the Internet
$y $ui%ding a secure tunne% $etween the te%ecommuter@s PC and a FPN router in the
head0uarters
Cisco products support the %atest in FPN techno%ogy A FPN is a ser,ice that o--ers
secure, re%ia$%e connecti,ity o,er a shared pu$%ic network in-rastructure such as the
Internet FPNs maintain the same security and management po%icies as a pri,ate net/
work They are the most cost/e--ecti,e method o- esta$%ishing a point/to/point connec/
tion $etween remote users and an enterprise customer@s network
Three main types o- FPNs e.ist, as shown in 6igure 2/12&
L Access FPNs pro,ide remote access -or a mo$i%e worker and sma%% o--ice=home
o--ice HSEDEI to the head0uarters@ intranet or e.tranet o,er a shared in-rastruc/
ture Access FPNs use ana%og dia%up, IS9N, 9S4, mo$i%e IP, and ca$%e techno%o/
gies to secure%y connect mo$i%e users, te%ecommuters, and $ranch o--ices
Company A
:emote Site
Company 5
E.tranet
Intranet
Company A
Core Site
11"2$ook Page 1) Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Networking Termino%ogy 12
L Intranet FPNs %ink regiona% and remote o--ices to the head0uarters@ interna% net/
work o,er a shared in-rastructure using dedicated connections Intranet FPNs
di--er -rom e.tranet FPNs in that they a%%ow access on%y to the enterprise cus/
tomer@s emp%oyees
L E.tranet FPNs %ink $usiness partners to the head0uarters@ network o,er a shared
in-rastructure using dedicated connections E.tranet FPNs di--er -rom intranet
FPNs in that they a%%ow access to users outside the enterprise
6igure 2/12 FPN Techno%ogies
FPNs ha,e the -o%%owing ad,antages&
L A sing%e FPN techno%ogy can pro,ide pri,acy -or mu%tip%e TCP=IP app%ications
Pro,iding pri,acy -or mu%tip%e TCP=IP app%ications is especia%%y important
in en,ironments in which you want to pro,ide secure access -or partners or
te%ecommuters
L Encryption ser,ices can $e pro,ided -or a%% TCP=IP communications $etween the
trusted c%ient and the FPN ser,er This scenario has the ad,antage o- $eing trans/
parent to the end user 5ecause encryption is turned on, the ser,er can en-orce it
L FPN pro,ides mo$i%ity to emp%oyees and a%%ows emp%oyees to access the corpo/
rate network secure%y
:emote E--ice
with Cisco :outer
:egiona% E--ice
with Cisco PIJ
6irewa%%
PEP
Corporate
5usiness Partner
with Cisco :outer
SEDE with Cisco IS9N=9S4 :outer
?o$i%e 'orker
with Cisco Secure FPN
C%ient on 4aptop computer
Cisco PIJ
6irewa%%
FPN
Concentrator
Perimeter
:outer
?ain Site
FPN
Intranet FPN
E.tranet FPN
Intranet FPN
Access FPN
11"2$ook Page 12 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
13 Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
9igita% 5andwidth
4ANs and 'ANs ha,e a%ways had one thing in common& the use o- the term $and/
width to descri$e their capa$i%ities This term is essentia% to understanding networks,
$ut it can $e con-using at -irst The -o%%owing sections take a detai%ed %ook at this con/
cept $e-ore de%,ing too -ar into networking
The Importance o- 5andwidth
5andwidth is de-ined as the amount o- in-ormation that can -%ow through a network
connection in a gi,en period o- time This de-inition might seem simp%e, $ut you must
understand the concept o- $andwidth when studying networking 'hy is it so impor/
tant to understand $andwidthK
L 5andwidth is -initeR:egard%ess o- the medium used to $ui%d the network, there
are %imits on that network@s capacity to carry in-ormation 5andwidth is %imited
$oth $y the %aws o- physics and $y the techno%ogies emp%oyed to p%ace in-orma/
tion on the medium 6or e.amp%e, a con,entiona% modem@s $andwidth is %imited
to a$out 1) ki%o$its per second Hk$psI $y $oth the physica% properties o- twisted/
pair phone wires and $y ,oice modem techno%ogy The techno%ogies emp%oyed $y
9S4 a%so use the same twisted/pair phone wires, yet 9S4 pro,ides much greater
$andwidth than is a,ai%a$%e with con,entiona% modems The -re0uency range
H$andwidthI that 9S4 uses is much wider than the -re0uency range used -or
,oice Hand used $y the PETS modemI That is why you can send more $its per
second H$psI o,er 9S4 Eptica% -i$er has the physica% potentia% to pro,ide ,irtu/
a%%y %imit%ess $andwidth E,en so, the $andwidth o- optica% -i$er cannot $e -u%%y
rea%i8ed unti% techno%ogies are de,e%oped to take -u%% ad,antage o- its potentia%
L 5andwidth is not -reeRIt is possi$%e to $uy e0uipment -or a 4AN that wi%% pro/
,ide near%y un%imited $andwidth o,er a %ong period o- time 6or 'AN connec/
tions, it is a%most a%ways necessary to $uy $andwidth -rom a ser,ice pro,ider In
either case, an understanding o- $andwidth, and changes in demand -or $and/
width o,er a gi,en time, can sa,e an indi,idua% or $usiness a signi-icant amount
o- money A network manager needs to make the right decisions a$out the kinds
o- e0uipment and ser,ices to $uy
L 5andwidth is a key -actor in ana%y8ing network per-ormance, designing new
networks, and understanding the InternetRA networking pro-essiona% must
understand the tremendous impact o- $andwidth and throughput on network
per-ormance and design In-ormation -%ows as a string o- $its -rom computer to
computer throughout the wor%d The Internet is tri%%ions upon tri%%ions o- $its,
11"2$ook Page 13 Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
Ana%ogies That 9escri$e 9igita% 5andwidth 1*
representing massi,e amounts o- in-ormation -%owing $ack and -orth across the
g%o$e in seconds or %ess In a sense, it might $e appropriate to say that the Inter/
net is $andwidth
L The demand -or $andwidth is e,er/increasingRAs soon as new network techno%/
ogies and in-rastructures are $ui%t to pro,ide greater $andwidth, new app%ications
are created to take ad,antage o- the greater capacity The de%i,ery o,er the network
o- rich media content, inc%uding streaming ,ideo and audio, re0uires tremendous
amounts o- $andwidth IP te%ephony systems are now common%y insta%%ed in
p%ace o- traditiona% ,oice systems, adding -urther to the need -or $andwidth The
success-u% networking pro-essiona% must anticipate the need -or increased $and/
width and p%an according%y
Ana%ogies That 9escri$e 9igita% 5andwidth
The idea that in-ormation -%ows suggests two ana%ogies that might make it easier to
,isua%i8e $andwidth in a network 5ecause $oth water and tra--ic are said to -%ow,
consider the -o%%owing&
L 5andwidth is %ike the width o- a pipe, as shown in 6igure 2/1#RA network o-
pipes $rings -resh water to homes and $usinesses and carries wastewater away
This water network is made up o- pipes with di--erent diameters A city@s main
water pipe might $e 2 meters in diameter, whereas a kitchen -aucet might ha,e
a diameter o- on%y 2 centimeters The width o- the pipe determines the pipe@s
water/carrying capacity Thus, the water is ana%ogous to data, and pipe width is
ana%ogous to $andwidth ?any networking e.perts say they need to ;put in $ig/
ger pipes< when they want to add more in-ormation/carrying capacity
L 5andwidth is %ike the num$er o- %anes on a highway, as shown in 6igure 2/1(R
A network o- roads ser,es e,ery city or town 4arge highways with many tra--ic
%anes are Uoined $y sma%%er roads with -ewer tra--ic %anes These roads %ead to
e,en sma%%er, narrower roads, and e,entua%%y to the dri,eways o- homes and
$usinesses 'hen ,ery -ew automo$i%es use the highway system, each ,ehic%e can
mo,e -ree%y 'hen more tra--ic is added, each ,ehic%e mo,es more s%ow%y, espe/
cia%%y on roads with -ewer %anes -or the cars to occupy E,entua%%y, as e,en more
tra--ic enters the highway system, e,en mu%ti%ane highways $ecome congested
and s%ow A data network is much %ike the highway system, with data packets
ana%ogous to automo$i%es, and $andwidth ana%ogous to the num$er o- %anes on
the highway 'hen a data network is ,iewed as a system o- highways, it is easy
to see how %ow/$andwidth connections can cause tra--ic to $ecome congested a%%
o,er the network
11"2$ook Page 1* Tuesday, ?ay 2", 2""# 2&1# P?
)" Chapter 2& Networking 6undamenta%s
6igure 2/1# Pipe Ana%ogy -or 5andwidth
6igure 2/1( Dighway Ana%ogy -or 5andwidth
Network de,ices are %ike pumps, ,a%,es, -ittings and taps
Packets are %ike water
5andwidth is %ike pipe width
1 4ane
+npa,ed :oad
2 4ane :oad
2 4ane
9i,ided Dighway
3 4ane
Superhighway
Networking 9e,ices Are 4ike En :amps, Tra--ic Signa%s, Signs, ?aps, and Po%ice
Packets Are 4ike Fehic%es